S.Williamson
M.A. Mueller
Eqn. 1 is derived from the consideration of rotor joule replaced, using the method of images. It is assumed that
loss. It is a relatively straightforward matter [2] to show the motor frame and rotor shaft are sufficiently distant
that the loss that occurs in a cage of bar resistance Rh from the end ring to have a negligible effect, and these
and zero end-ring resistance, which carries a 2 p pole surfaces are ignored. The resulting model then consists of
current distribution, is the same as that in the same cage the end ring and its image, as shown in Fig. 2.
with the same current distribution if the bar resistance is
R, and the end-ring resistance R e . The end-ring resist-
ance used in eqn. 1 is calculated simply from the resis-
tivity and dimensions of the end rings, although a
correction may be needed if the radial width of the end
rings is comparable with the pole pitch, as discussed in
the preceding Section.
An entirely analagous approach may now be adopted
with respect to the rotor end-ring leakage reactance. The
effective rotor leakage reactance per bar may be calcu- ring image centrelot shaft end ring
lated using the expression
x;= x,+
$1
xe
2 N , sin2[
in which
stator core
I I / I
I p--y j j
culate the self-inductance of the ith ring, eqn. 4 becomes
infinite. This anomaly arises from the well known singu-
larity in the field at the surface of a filamentary conduc-
tor. The problem may be overcome using Grover's 191
formula for the self-inductance of a circular loop, radius
stator
werhong a, of a conductor of square cross-section of side length c.
stator care
L ~~ I I
led. In essence, the ends of the stator and rotor cores are
regarded as an infinitely permeable surface and then Z,, = R , + jw[L, + p,, ri F(2z,)] (7)
52 / L E P R O C E E D I N G S - B , Vol. 140. N o . I , J A N U A R Y l Y Y 3
R , is the D C resistance of the ith loop, and the second These procedures are relatively straightforward and can
term in the brackets accounts for the influence of its be programmed to run on a basic PC.
image.
If we imagine that a voltage q IS needed to drive 2.2 Finite-element model
r,
current round the ith subring, we may write a voltage An alternative approach to the calculation of end-ring
balance equation for that subring in the form impedance is to make use of an advanced field calcu-
N
lation technique. The main advantage of this type of
q = ,=1 Z', r, (8) approach is that the presence of the iron surfaces that
bound the end region can be represented more realistic-
1
'-
1
in which a total of N subrings is assumed. Similar equa- ally. Fig. 3 shows a typical solution domain AB and C D
tions may be written for all N subrings. In matrix form l
frame
end
coreofpack
stator cover
reciprocal of this admittance, i.e. A, is the average value of A over the conductor cross-
section, i.e.
1
=7
Re, +.ix,, (16)
shaft) is beyond the scope of this paper, but we may gain 3.1 Effect of frequency
some insight as to their possible influence by considering Figs. 5u and 56 show the calculated end-ring resistance
the two extremes. These correspond to an ideal conduct- and reactance for the 4 kW motor, as a function of fre-
ing surface (in which case EFGHIJ becomes a flux line) quency in the range 0-50 Hz. Both figures include results
or an ideal magnetic surface (in which case the flux is obtained using the circuit method and the finite-element
normal to EFGHIJ). method using the two alternative boundary conditions.
Eqn. 17 may be solved by any convenient numerical Fig. 5a shows that the resistance of this end ring is little
technique. We used an axisymmetric formulation of the affected by frequency variations a result that is hardly
~
finite-element method [lo]. surprising in view of the fact that its radial depth is less
The end-ring impedance is determined from the field than one skin depth at 50 Hz. Fig. 5b shows that the end-
solution by equating the power and reactive volt-amps ring inductance is also substantially independent of fre-
calculated from the field solution to that given by the quency, and again this is a result that might he expected
usual lumped circuit expressions because the majority of the leakage flux does not pass
through the conductor itself, but links through the hole
(21) in the middle of the ring. Skin effect can therefore be
expected to play only a small role.
Figs. 5c and 5d show the calculated end-ring resistance
and reactance for the 100 kW motor, over the same fre-
quency range. At 40mm, the depth of the end rings is
now more than four times the skin depth at 50 Hz, and
3 Calculation of end-ring impedance
so skin effect might be expected to play a more important
role. This proves to be the case, as is shown in Fig. 5c,
The circuit method and the finite-element method have which indicates an increase in end-ring resistance of
both been implemented and used to calculate the imped- approximately 50%)at 50 Hz, when compared to the DC
ance of two motors of different size and pole number. value. Fig. 5d confirms that end-ring leakage inductance
The first is a four-pole machine rated at 4 kW, and the is sensibly frequency-independent.
second is a two-pole machine rates at 100 kW. The rele- Figs. 5a-5d show that the frequency trends predicted
vant dimensions of these two machines are given in Table by both the finite-element and the circuit methods are
1, which refers to the diagram shown in Fig. 4. similar, but that the numerical values obtained can differ
appreciably. It is interesting to note, however, that the
Table 1 : Dimensions for end-ring model (see Fig. 4). All circuit method, in which the rotor shaft and case are
values in mm
completely ignored, gives values which lie in between
4 kW motor 100 kW motoi those obtained using the finite-element method for the
I 80 220 two limiting boundary conditions. The only exception to
2, 1 35 this is the resistance of the 4 kW motor, for which the
22 6 20 difference between the maximum and the minimum
24 69 165 resistance at 50 Hz is less than 1%. In fact, for all four
r 100 301.5
r1 64 161 figures the answers given by the circuit method differ by
r3 13 40 less than 4% from the mean of the two answers given by
'4 42 110 the finite-element method.
15 21 5 41.85
re 36 100
9, 10 20
9 0.4 0.8 3.2 Effect of proximity to the shaft surface
Cage-type Cast Fabricated The effect that proximity to the shaft surface has on end-
material aluminium copper ring impedance can be investigated by varying the inner
ring radius (r4 in Fig. 4) while keeping all other dimen-
sions constant. Figs. 6 a and 6b show the results of this
exercise for the 4 kW motor, and 6c and 6d for the
100 kW motor. For all of these figures a constant fre-
quency of 50 Hz has been assumed.
The resistance of the end rings of the 4 kW motor
(Fig. 6a) is seen to be insensitive to the proximity of the
shaft, as witnessed by the closeness of the results calcu-
lated using all three models. The main effect, therefore, is
a linear variation in resistance due to the corresponding
linear variation in mean diameter as r, is varied. Fig. 6c
shows that the proximity of the shaft surface is a signifi-
cant factor for the 100 kW motor only when r4 is reduced
from its design value of 110 mm to approximately half of
that value. This corresponds to a clearance between the
shaft and the end ring of about 15mm, a value that
would not normally be adopted in any practical design.
Two results emerge from Figs 66 and 6d. The first is
that end-ring reactance varies linearly with end-ring
radius, and the second is that the circuit model (which
ignores the presence of the shaft) again gives results that
1 centre of shaft are closely equal to the average of the two finite-element
Fig. 4 The dimensions used to define the fe model calculations using the alternative boundary conditions.
54 I b E PROCEEDINGS-B, Vol. 140, N o . I , J A N U A R Y IY93
I
LO 0 -
39 8 - 160-
53 9 6 - c,
"U
$ 392-
svi
ILO-
vi
P
386-
38 4 4 I I
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 IO 20 30 40 50
020
frequency,Hr frequency,Hz
b d
Fig. 5 The variation ofend-ring resistance and inductance with frequenryfor the 4 kW motor and IO0 kW motor
a Reststance, 4 kW motor h Inductance, 4 k W motor c Resistance, 100 kW motor d Inductance, 100 kW motor
..... Circuit model ~~ fe model (iron boundary) ~ le model (flux line boundary)
This last result is seen to hold even when the end ring-to- moved far enough from the core, their inductance can
shaft clearance is reduced to unrealistically small values. start to increase again as the influence of the case and
bearing housing begins to be felt. It is thought, however,
3.3 Effect of proximity to the core-pack ends that this will only happen at unrealistically large dis-
The effect that proximity to the core ends has on end- tances from the core pack, so that this phenomenon has
ring impedance can be investigated by varying the clear- no practical importance. These figures also show once
ance (zl in Fig. 4) while keeping all other dimensions again that the circuit method gives values for end-ring
constant. Figs. 7 a and 7 b show the results of this exercise inductance that are closely equal to the average of the
for the 4 k W motor, and 7c and 7d for the 100kW values obtained using the more detailed finite-element
motor. For all of these figures a constant frequency of method with the two alternative models for the shaft,
50 Hz has been assumed. bearing housing and case.
The insensitivity of the resistance of the end rings of
the 4 kW motor to the proximity of the core-pack ends,
which is displayed in Fig. 7a, is to be expected in view of 3.4 Effect of stator end windings
their relatively small dimensions compared to the skin The reactance calculated using the model and methods
depth. By contrast, the variation of resistance for the discussed in Section 2 is the total reactance of the end
100 kW motor is dramatic (Fig. 7c). As the end rings are ring. Our work on stator end-winding leakage reactance
moved closer to the core pack, the skin effect produces a [ l l ] has shown that the stator windings and rotor cage
rapid change in resistance. The curves indicate that if the are coupled through their end-region fluxes, so that the
designer had placed the end rings flush against the core above end-ring reactance must be regarded as consisting
pack (as in the cast rotor of the 4 kW motor) the end-ring of the sum of 'mutual' and 'leakage' components. This
resistance would have been as much as 25% higher at mutual reactance should properly form part of the mag-
starting on a 50 Hz supply. In fact, the designer placed netising reactance in the equivalent circuit. For any prac-
the ring at a distance equivalent to just over three skin tical machine, it will be small compared to the reactance
depths from the core pack, at which its presence is seen due to the main airgap flux. The residue is the end-ring
to have little effect on resistance. leakage reactance.
Figs. 76 and 7d show the effect on the end-ring induct- In order to calculate the true end-ring leakage react-
ance of the two motors of varying zI. As would be ance, this end-winding mutual should be subtracted. The
expected, the inductance increases as the rings are moved procedure we recommend is as follows:
closer to the core for all practical values of end-ring (i) Calculate X, using the methods described here and
clearance. The results also show that, if the rings are determine the effective reactance per bar via eqn. 2
I E E PROCEEDINGS-B, Y d . 140, N o . / , J A N U A R Y l Y Y 3 55
I
I
I
201 1 61 I I
20 30 LO 50 40 60 80 I00 120
rA , m m rL mm
C
4
Fig. 6 The oariafion ofend-ring resisfunce and inductance with radius from the shalt centrefor the 4 kW motor and 100 kW muto?
UResistance, 4 k W motor h Inductance. 4 k W motar c Resistance, 100 kW motor d Inductance, 100 k W motor
Circuit model -~ le model (iron boundary) ~ - fe model (flux line boundary)
(ii) Refer Xi to the stator, in the normal manner, to cages, whereas separate end rings are employed with fab-
obtain the referred rotor leakage reactance X2 ricated cages. The model developed in Section 2 may be
(iii) Calculate the stator end-winding leakage reactance used without modification for calculating the impedance
per phase, both with and without the presence of rotor of a shared end ring, but further consideration must be
currents taken into account (see [l 11). The difference given to separate end rings.
between these two values is the mutual inductance per
phase due to end-winding coupling, X,, 4.1 Circuit model
(iv) Subtract X,, from X 2 to obtain a better approx- Fig. 8 shows the arrangement of the rings and their
imation for the rotor leakage reactance. image in the core-pack end used in the circuit model. The
general procedure closely follows that described in
4 Double-cage machines Section 2.1, except that now the outer ring may be dis-
1 cretised into N subrings, and the inner ring into M sub-
The two cages in a double-cage machine may share a rings. The resulting impedances, which a r e calculated in
common end ring or have two separate end rings. accordance with eqns. 3-7 may be used to set up the
Common end rings are usually found in rotors with cast following matrix
(23)
!
5 LO-c,
.I_---
S !
$
: 3 5 -1i
E !
!
30-! actual position
1 of the end ring
of theendring !
25 i I I I I lL I ! , I I I
0 20 LO 60 80 I00
z1,mm
C
0 4 1 0
1 @ 3[
RC
001 I I I I 021 I I 1 I I I
0 10 20 30 LO 0 20 LO 60 80 100
z , rnm z,.mrn
b d
Following the procedure in Section 2.1, we now recognise ,mposing eqns, 25-28 on matrix eqn, 23 produces
that the voltages acting around the subrings in the outer
ring must be equal (to, say E.,). Similarly, the voltages in
(29)
the inner ring must also be equal to each other, i.e.
IEE PROCEEDINGS-B, Vol. 140, N o . I , J A N U A R Y 1993 57
I
/
i
image of
f
image of
inner ring
i
inner
end ring
outer
end ring
only P,,, and W,,,, from
P,", = L:"cL"tc'ri"T
- dvo'
outer ring ~
centre; of shaft
+ g1
m j inner ring
JJ* d V d ] (39)
Z,, is the self-impedance of the cuter rjng, and Z,, is the 4.3 Numerical results
self-impedance of the inner ring. Z,, = Zi, is the coupling The resistances and inductances of the end rings of two
impedance between the two end rings. These impedances industrially manufactured double-cage motors have been
may be written in the form computed using both circuit and finite-element tech-
niques. Scaled end-region outlines for the two machines
z,,= R , , + jwL,, (34) are shown in Figs. 9a and 9b. The end region shown in
Fig. 9u is part of a 3.3 kV, four-pole motor, rated at
zi,= Rii + j u L i i (35) 373 kW, and that shown in Fig. 9h is part of a 1050 V.
Z,, = Z,, = Rio + jwLi, (36) 4/8 change-pole motor rated at 112/56 kW.
Table 2 gives the values computed for the 373 kW
The fact that the 'self' impedances of the outer and inner motor, and Table 3 gives those for the 112/56 kW motor.
end rings have resistance as well as reactance will come Both sets of results relate to a frequency of 50 Hz, that is,
as no surprise. The 'mutual resistance' term Rio is less to locked rotor with a 50 Hz supply. The results obtained
common. It is a manifestation of the proximity effect, by using the finite-element method are given for the same
which the current flow in one end ring influences the two extremes of boundary condition that were used in
current distribution and loss in the other. The procedure Section 3.
for calculating these impedances is therefore
(i) Notationally divide the end rings into a number of Table 2 : End-ring resistances and inductances for 373 kW
subrings ; double-cage motor
(ii) Calculate the elements of the impedance matrix;
(iii) Invert the impedance matrix to obtain the admit-
tance matrix;
~
6 Conclusions
03
A physical model for the determination of end-ring
impedance has been described, and two techniques for
performing the relevant calculations outlined. The first of
these, which employs the concept of modal currents and
the method of images, is relatively simple to implement.
The second makes use of the finite-element method and is
inherently capable of modelling the complex boundary
shapes that are found in the end regions of machines. The
0 difficulty arises when consideration is given to the bound-
ary conditions, and we have therefore explored the influ-
01 ence of the proximity of the various physical boundaries
using two alternative extremes of boundary conditions to
represent them for a single-cage motor.
0 05 The results obtained suggest that, for practical sizes of
rings, neglecting the presence of the boundaries alto-
gether will give a value of impedance that is closely equal
oooj , , , , , , , , , , , , to the average obtained using these two extremes. We are
00 005 01 015 02 025 03 therefore led to conclude that, in the absence of other
b data, the pragmatic approach is to ignore the presence of
Fig. 9 Scaled diagram of motor end-region. For key t o boundaries see the shaft, bearing housing, end cover and case when cal-
Fig. 3. Dimensions are in mefres culating end-ring impedance for a single-cage rotor.
a 373 kW double-cage motor The results obtained for the two double-cage rotors
h 112156 kW change-pole double-cage rnolor
with separate end rings indicate that the boundaries to
Tables 2 and 3 indicate a close correlation between the the end ring have little effect on resistance and induct-
resistance and inductance values computed using the ance. The circuit method appears to have a clear advant-
alternative models, suggesting that each is equally valid. age in this instance, because the various end-ring
The greatest percentage discrepancy arises in the calcu- resistances and inductances are obtained from a single
lation of ROi but, as this resistance is a relatively small solution.
component, the error involved in, say, total power loss
calculation will be small.
7 References
5 Computational aspects 1 TRICKEY, P.H.: Induction motor resistance ring width, Trans.
Am. Inst. Elect Eng., 1936, 55, pp. 144-150
Either of the two methods discussed in Sections 2 and 4 2 WILLIAMSON, S., and BEGG, M.C.. Calculation of the resistance
may be implemented using a relatively inexpensive com- of induction motor end rings, Proc. IEE. 1986, 133, B, (2), pp. 54-60
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