Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

SETS

SetAwelldefinedcollectionofobjects
EmptysetAnysetwhichdoesnotcontainanyelementiscalledtheemptyset
FinitesetAsetcontainingfinitenumberofelements
InfinitesetAsetcontaininginfinitenumberofelements
Equalsetsiftwosetscontainingthesamenoofelementswhichareidentical,theyare
saidtobeequal
Equivalentsetssetscontainingsamenumberofelements
SubsetasetAinwhichallelementsofthesetarepresentinanothersetB.Sowecansay
thegivensetisasubsetofthatset.SoAisasubsetofBandBisthesupersetofA.Subsets
whicharethesetitselfandtheemptysetareimpropersubsets.Remainingarecalledproper
subsets
Powersetthesetofallsubsetsofaset
UnionUnionisanoperationwhichcombinestwoormoresetssayA,BandC.Theresult
setcontainsallelementsofAorBorC.
IntersectionAnoperationwhichgivesthecommonelementsofthegivensets.Soif
therearesetsAandB,theirintersectionwilldisplaytheelementspresentinAandB
DifferenceAnoperationwhichremovesallelementsofthesetbeingsubtractedfromthe
mainset
Complementofasetthismeansthecomplementofasetcontainsallelementsexcept
thatofthegivenset

RELATIONSANDFUNCTIONS

Orderedpairapairofelementsgroupedtogetherinaparticularorder
CartesianproductIftherearetwosetsAandB,theirCartesianproductAxBis{(a,b):
abelongstoA,bbelongstoB}
RelationArelationisasubsetoftheCartesianproductoftwosetswhichpossesssome
somerelationshipbetweentheircorrespondingelements
ImageThesecondelementinanorderedpair
DomainThesetofallthefirstelementsoftheorderedpair
RangeThesetofallthesecondelementsoftheorderedpair
CodomainThesetofwhichtherangeisasubsetof
FunctionAfunctionisaspecificrelationwhichisexplicit.Itisasystemofmath
operationswhichacceptaninputandgiveoutitscorrespondingoutput.Accordingtoset
notationwithrespecttoorderedpairs,everyelementofadomainshouldbeassociatedwith
oneandonlyoneimage.Multipleinputsmaygivethesameoutputbuttheviceversaisnot
true

Typesoffunctions
Note:allfunctionsdiscussedherearerealfunctions.Complexnumbersarenot
consideredhere.

Identityfunctionafunctionf(x)=x

Constantfunctionafunctionf(x)=cwherecisaconstant

Polynomialfunctionafunctionf(x)=a+bx+cx^2+dx^3...

Rationalfunctionafunctionf(x)/g(x)

Modulusfunctionafunctionf(x)=|x|

Signumfunctionafunctionf(x)=|x|/x

Greatestintegerfunctionafunctionf(x)=[x]

TRIGONOMETRY
AngleThemeasureofrotationofaraywithrespecttoahorizontal.Thereare3known
unitstodescribeangles
DegreeThemostwidelyusednotationforangles.Indegreenotation,acomplete
revolutionis360o.Astraightangleis180oandarightangleis90o.Underthe
Sexagesimalmeasuringsystem,1degreeis60minutes(1o=60)and1minuteis
60seconds(1=60).

RadianTheSIunitofanangle.1radianor1radisdefinedastheanglemeasuredin
acirclewherethelengthoftheradiusequalsthelengthofthearcsubtended.Halfa
revolutionismeasuredasradianswhichis180o.Acompleterevolutionis2
radiansor360o.90ois/2rad.ThissystemfallsundertheCircularmeasuresystem.
1radian=(180/)oand1degree=(/180)rad

GradThegradistheCentesimalmeasureofanangle.100grads=90o.1gradis
(9/10)o.However,thissystemisnotusedasextensivelywhencomparedtotheother
two

Inarightangledtriangle,whereanangleexceptthatof90owhichis,thefollowing
trigratiosare:
Sine(sin)Oppositeside/hypotenuse
Cosine(cos)Adjacentside/hypotenuse
Tangent(tan)Oppositeside/adjacentside
Cotangent(cot)Adjacentdie/oppositeside[Reciprocaloftan]
Secant(sec)Hypotenuse/adjacentside[Reciprocalofcos]
Cosecant(cosecorcsc)Hypotenuse/oppositeside[Reciprocalof
sin]
Otherratiosincludeversin,vercos,coversin,covercos,haversin,
havercos,cohaversin,cohavercos,exsec,excosec.

Deg 0 30 45 60 90 180 270 360

sin 0 1/2 1/2 3/2 1 0 1 0

cos 1 3/2 1/2 1/2 0 1 0 1

tan 0 1/3 1 3 0 0

cot 3 1 1/3 0

sec 1 2/3 2 2 1 1

csc 2 2 2/3 1 1

Rad 0 /6 /4 /3 /2 3/2 2

Someimportanttrigrelationsincircularmeasure(periodicfunctions)
Inthe1stquadrant,allratiosare+ve
Inthe2ndquadrant,onlysinandcscare+ve
Inthe3rdquadrant,onlytanandcotare+ve
Inthe4thquadrant,onlysecandcosare+ve
sin()=sin
cos()=cos
sin(2n+x)=sinx
cos(2n+x)=cosx
sin(/2x)=cosx
cos(/2x)=sinx
sin(/2+x)=cosx
cos(/2+x)=sinx
sin(+x)=sinx
cos(+x)=cosx
sin(x)=sinx
cos(x)=cosx
sin(2x)=sinx
cos(2x)=cosx
sin(x+y)=sinxcosy+cosxsiny
sin(xy)=sinxcosycosxsiny
cos(x+y)=cosxcosysinxsiny
cos(xy)=cosxcosy+sinxsiny
tan(x+y)=tanx+tany/1tanxtany
tan(xy)=tanxtany/1+tanxtany
cot(x+y)=cotxcoty1/cotx+coty
cot(xy)=cotxcoty+1/cotxcoty
sin2x=2sinxcosx
cos2x=2cos2x1=12sin2x=1tan2x/1+tan2x
tan2x=2tanx/1tan2x
sin3x=3sinx4sin3x
cos3x=4cos3x3cosx
tan3x=3tanxtan3x/13tan2x
cosx+cosy=2cos(x+y/2)cos(xy/2)
cosxcosy=2sin(x+y/2)sin(xy/2)
sinx+siny=2sin(x+y/2)cos(xy/2)
sinxsiny=2cos(x+y/2)sin(xy/2)
2cosxcosy=cos(x+y)+cos(xy)
2sinxsiny=cos(x+y)cos(xy)
2sinxcosy=sin(x+y)+sin(xy)
2cosxsiny=sin(x+y)sin(xy)

COMPLEXNUMBERS

ImaginarynumberAnumberoftheformx.Sincesquarerootsofnegativenumbers
arenotpossibleinrealnumbers,suchnumericsaredefinedasimaginarynumbersandare
giventhesymboli.
ComplexnumberAnexpressionoftheforma+ibwhereaandbarerealnumbersandi
isanimaginarynumber.
Realpart(Re)Inacomplexnumbera+ib,aistherealpart
Imaginarypart(Im)Fromtheaboveexample,bistheimaginarypartasitismultiplied
byi