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Urban Design Report- Urban Infill Design- Vijayawada 1

School of Planning and Architecture-Vijayawada, August, 2017

RIYA MANDAL (1130100411)


ASHOK KUMAR (1130100391)
PREETI SONI (1130100399)
PANKAJ YADAV (1120100336)
TOM T.THOMAS (1120100347)
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CONTENTS:

DEFINITION
PLANNING AREAS UNDER DCR
MASTER PLAN

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL LAYOUTS

DEVELOPMENT REGULATING FACTORS

PURPOSE OF BUILDING REGULATIONS

PARAMETERS OF BUILDING RULES

LITERATURE STUDY

PREAMBLE OF MMC

FSI IN MUMBAI

FUNGIBLE FSI
AREAS IN &OUT OF FSI
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ACCESSES DETAILS LEADING TO PLOT


OPEN SPACES
REQUIREMENTS OF BUILDINGS

OTHER REQUIREMENTS OFBUILDINGS

FIRESAFETY

ADDITIONAL FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

PARKING ANALYSIS

INFERENCE

VIJAYAWADA DCR

SINGAPORE DCR

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES
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INTRODUCTION:
Development controls have been defined as the mechanism through which entire process of urban development is regulated to achieve the
objective of promoting overall benefit of the society and creating a distinct image of the city. It includes guiding the development and use of
land, curbing misuse of land and promoting rational and orderly development of built environment. Development controls are required to meet
situations and contexts which are generally static. In this context they tend to become too rigid and complex. Looking at the far reaching impact
and implications of the development controls on the growth and development, character, fabric and personality of a city, they need to be
framed with great care and abundant caution. Considering the larger public interest and general welfare of the community, formulation of the
development control should satisfy the basic requirements of the health, safety convenience, economy and amenity. Over the last few decade
so many initiatives were taken up in the country mainly by government agencies to build houses for the poor under various central and state
schemes as part of Five Year Plans. The sheer magnitude of the housing shortage at the low income level, aggravated by poverty and rapid
population growth has however made all past efforts appear grossly inadequate. Indian cities have an average figure(urban) of 25.70%
population below the official Poverty Line. A Government of India Report comments that this figure is an underestimation and that the degree of
underestimation may be higher for bigger cities. Building Bye-laws typically lay down details of buildings in terms of width of access roads
abutting housing plots, minimum plot sizes, minimum size of dwelling unit s and minimum all round open spaces, maximum ground coverage as
percentage of plot size, maximum height of buildings and other related controls. The basic principle behind byelaws is to ensure adequate
natural light and ventilation, privacy and ease of access for achieving minimum health and environmental standards within settlements. India
has had National Building Codes since 1970s (framed by the Bureau of Indian Standards) which were twice revised leading to the most recent
2005 NBC.
It includes:
GUIDING THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF LAND,
CURBING MISUSE OF LAND AND PROMOTING RATIONAL AND ORDERLY DEVELOPMENT OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT.
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PLANNING AREAS UNDER DCR:


1. URBAN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITYAREAS.
2. URBAN LOCALBODIES.
a. MUNICIPALCORPORATIONS.
b. MUNICIPALITIES.
c. NAGARPANCHAYATS.

3. RURAL LOCALBODIES.
a. MANDAL HEADQUARTERS.
b. GRAMPANCHAYATS.

NOTE:
1. TO AMMEND ANY EXISTING REGULATION REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PARTICULAR AREA, THEN THOSE
AMMENDMENTS CAN BE DONE BY THE LEGISLATURE.
2. AND SO FORMED ADMINISTRATIVE JURDICTIONS, CAN BE ENFORCED AS ACTS OR STRAIGHTLYREGULATIONS.

ROLE OF MASTER PLAN IN DEALING DCR:


1. MASTER PLAN HELPS IN PERCEIVING THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT.

2. SORT OF ROAD NETWORKS PLAN FOR PRESENT AND FUTURE NEEDS.

3. MASTER PLAN MAKES EASE IN REGULATING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH LAND USE CONTROL AND ZONING REGULATIONS.
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CONTENTS OF MASTERPLAN:
1. PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE REQUIREMENTS AND GROWTH DIRECTION OF THE TOWN.
2. PROPOSALS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF EXISTING ROADS AND FUTURE ROAD NETWORK.
3. GROUPING OF VARIOUS LAND USES.
4. PROPOSALS FOR AVAILABILITY AND ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES TO ALL CITIZENS.
5. PROPOSALS FOR PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE AREAS.
6. CONSERVATION OF HERITAGE BUILDINGS & PRECINCTS.
7. ZONING REGULATIONS & BUILDING REQUIREMENTS

LAND USE CATEGORIES OF A MASTER PLAN:


1. RESIDENTIAL USE.
2. COMMERCIAL USE.
3. PUBLIC SEMI PUBLIC USE GOVT OFFICES, INSTITUTIONS, SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS.

4. RECREATIONAL USE PARKS, PLAY GROUNDS.


5. TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION USE.

6. INDUSTRIAL USE.
7. CONSERVATION USE WATER BODY, HILLOCKS
8. AGRICULTURE USE.
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IMPLEMENTATION OF MASTER PLAN:


1. FORMATION OF MASTER PLAN ROADS & ROAD WIDENING.
2. JUNCTION IMPROVEMENTS.
3. SPECIAL SCHEMES HOUSING, RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENTETC.
4. LAND ACQUISITION PRIVATE NEGOTIATIONS.
5. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.
6. DEVELOPMENT CONTROL - LAYOUT & BUILDING PERMISSIONS.
7. ENFORCEMENT OF ZONING REGULATIONS

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL LAYOUTS:


LAYOUT IS AN IMPORTANT TOOL FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF MASTER PLAN.
APPROVED LAYOUTS:
1. REGULAR PATTERN WITH PUBLIC OPEN SPACES.
UNAUTHORISED LAYOUTS:
1. NARROW AND IRREGULAR PATTERN
2. NO OR LESS PUBLIC OPEN SPACES
3. NO FACILITIES SUCH AS PAVED ROADS,DRAINS
4. BURDEN ON THE LOCAL BODIES
5. RESULTS IN UNPLANNED DEVELOPMENT
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DEVELOPMENT REGULATED ON FOLLOWING TERMS:


LAYOUT STIPULATIONS: RELATED TO LAND DEVELOPMENT

1. LANDUSE.

2. LAND DISTRIBUTION RATIO BETWEEN PLOTTED AREA AND OPEN AREA I.E. ROADS, PARKS & PLAYGROUND, AMENITIES,
ETC.,

3. MINIMUM ROAD WIDTHS

4. MINIMUM PLOT AREA & FRONTAGE OF THEPLOT

5. MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM RAILWAY LINE, WATER BODIES, RIVERS, ELECTRIC LINES,ETC.,

6. OTHER FACILITIES LIKE SCHOOLS, SHOPS, COMMUNITY HALLS, ETC.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION STIPULATIONS:


RELATED TO MINIMUM & MAXIMUM REQUIREMENTS TO BE FOLLOWED AROUND AND WITHIN THE BUILDING:-
1. MAXIMUM COVERAGE.
2. MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE BUILT UP AREA (FAR).
3. MAXIMUM BUILDING HEIGHT PERMISSIBLE.
4. MINIMUM ACCESS ROAD TO THEPLOT.
5. MINIMUM ALL ROUND SETBACKS.
6. MINIMUM PARKING TO BEPROVIDED.
7. MINIMUM LIGHT & VENTILATION TO HABITABLE ROOMS.
8. OTHER SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.
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PERMISSIONS & SANCTIONS:

As per the provisions of the Act every development of land or construction of a building requires, prior permission from the respective Local Body.

VARIATION & MODIFICATIONS:

Any variation or modification arises during the construction or development the same has to be intimated to the Local Body and obtain revised
approval.

VALIDITY OF BUILDING PERMISSION:

1. WITHIN ONE YEAR, THE CONSTRUCTION SHALL BE COMMENCED.


2. WITHIN 3 YEARS, THE CONSTRUCTION SHALL BE COMPLETED
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PURPOSE OF BUILDING REGULATIONS:


1. BASIC INSTRUMENT FOR REGULATING ALL BUILDING ACTIVITIES
2. FOR FACILITATING PLANNED DEVELOPMENT
3. FOR MAINTAINING PUBLIC HEALTH, PUBLIC SAFETY AND PUBLIC CONVENIENCE

PARAMETERS OF BUILDING RULES:


1. BUILDING PERMISSION
2. ZONING

3. SUB-DIVISION OFLAND
4. LAND USE, OPEN SPACE, BUILT-UP AREA AND HEIGHT LIMITATION.
5. FLOOR SPACE INDEX
6. LIGHTING AND VENTILATION
7. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
8. MATERIAL AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION ETC.

DEFINATION OF PARAMETERS AND COMPONENTS:


1. "ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)" MEANS A STATEMENT INDICATING PROBABLE CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT, SUCH AS,
CHANGES IN THE AIR QUALITY, WATER QUALITY, SOIL QUALITY, NOISE LEVELS, VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE, LANDSCAPE QUALITY, LAND USE,
VEHICULAR TRAFFIC, INFRASTRUCTURE, POPULATION, ECONOMIC ACTIVITY,ETC.
2. "FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI)" MEANS THE RATIO OF THE COMBINED GROSS FLOOR AREA OF ALL FLOORS TO THE GROSS AREA OF THE
PLOT, VIZ:-

FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI) = TOTAL COVERED AREA ON ALL FLOORS/GROSS PLOT AREA
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3. FLOOR AREA RATIO (FA R) MEANS THE QUOTIENT OF THE RATIO OF THE COMBINED GROSS AREAS OF ALL FLOORS, EXCEPT THE AREAS
SPECIFICALLY EXEMPTED UNDER THESE REGULATIONS, TO THE TOTAL AREA OF THE PLOT,VIZ.

FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI) = TOTAL COVERED AREA ON ALL FLOORS


GROSS PLOT AREA

METHODOLOGY
The aim of this literature study was to identify various development control rules, in different Parts
of India with different socio-economic and cultural factors. This study was done on Mumbai
concerning:
1. BYLAWS
2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DCR 1991&2034
3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DCRS OF MUMBAI &PUNE

BYLAWS: Mumbai
1. THE PRESENT DEVELOPMENT CONTROL REGULATIONS OF MUMBAI HAVE COME INTO FORCE FROM 25TH MARCH1991.
2. THE REGULATIONS ARE FRAMED TO REGULATE THEDEVELOPMENT
/REDEVELOPMENT IN THE MUMBAI REGION.
3. THE VARIOUS REGULATIONS AT AGLANCE:

REG 2: speaks about definitions of the various terms used in the regulations.
REG 3 to 8: documents & procedure for submission of proposal, obtaining development permissions and procedure to be adopted
during construction.

REG 9: speaks about development of lands which are reserved for certain purposes in the development plan.
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REG 17: Public Street and means of access.


REG 21: layout of land and land subdivision in various zones. Various appendices Performa of fsi.
REG 22: internal means of access.
REG 23: recreational spaces.

REG 26: electric substation.


REG 29: open space requirements.
REG 30: features permitted in open spaces.

REG 31: height of building in relation to roads. REG 32: floor space index and tenement density.

REG 33: additional fsi.

REG 34: TDR (Transfer of development rights)

REG 35: computation of fsi. REG 36: parking requirements. REG 37: occupant load

REG 38: requirements of part of the buildings such as basement, loft, canopy, etc.
REG 42: lighting and ventilation. REG 43: fire protection requirements. REG 51 TO 57:
land uses permitted.
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FSI IN MUMBAI:
1. FSI IN MUMBAI CITY IS 1.33 & FSI IN THE SUBURBS IS 1.0.
2. IN SUBURBS TDR POTENTIAL IS PERMISSIBLE WITH TOTAL CAP OF 2.0.
3. A REGULATION UNDER 33 OF MUMBAI DCR HAS ADDITIONAL FSI FOR VARIOUS CATEGORIES.
SOME ARE ENLISTED BELOW.
4. FSI HAS TO BE USED IN COMBINATION WITH LOT COVERAGE. COMMERCIAL AND
RESIDENTIAL AREAS WOULD HAVE A DIFFERENT LOT COVERAGE FOR THE SAME FSI.

FUNGIBLE FSI: DCR 35(4)


FOR PURELY RESIDENTIAL USER: 35 % @ 60% OF READY RECKONORRATE.
FOR INDUSTRIAL USER: 20 % @ 80% OF READY RECKONORRATE.
FOR COMMERCIAL USER: 20 % @ 100% OF READY RECKONORRATE.
SCHOOLS/HOTELS/LODGING HOUSE USER: 20 % @ 100% OF READY RECKONOR RATE.
NOTE: COMMISIONER BY SPECIAL PERMISSION MAY PERMIT FUNGIBLE FSI.
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AREAS FREE OF FSI: REG 35(2):


1. FEATURES PERMISSIBLE IN R.G I.E. CLUBHOUSE, SUBSTATION, UG TANKS, PUMP ROOM
2. FITNESS CENTRE, LOFTS, PORCHES, CANOPY.
3. BASEMENT EXCLUSIVELY FOR PARKING AND OTHER AXILLARY USERS LIKE AC PLANT ROOM, AHU ROOMS, METER ROOM, DG SET ROOM, STP, UG
TANK IN BASEMENT
4. CHAJJA UP TO 1.2 M FROM BUILDING LINE AT LINTEL LEVEL ONLY AND 0.75M FROM BALCONY AT MINIMUM 0.30M LEVEL DIFFERENCE WITH
REFERENCE TO THE FLOOR LEVEL AND THICKNESS OF CHAJJA TO BE RESTRICTED TO 0.15M.
5. SUBSTATIONS AND PUMPROOMS
6. PARKING SPACES UP TO EXTENT OF 25% ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FOR RESIDENTIAL AND 10% FOR COMMERCIAL.
7. OPEN TO SKY SWIMMING POOLS AT TERRACE ABOVE TOP MOST STOREY OR ON TOP OF TOP MOST PODIUM AND GROUND

AREAS TO BE CONTINUED IN FSI: REG 35(2):


1. ORNAMENTAL PROJECTION INCLUDING THE VOIDS, FLOWER BED, PROJECTING FROM THE FACE OF THE BUILDING EXCEPT TERRACELEVEL.
2. FIRE ESCAPE BALCONY PROVIDED IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
3. PART/POCKET/COVERED TERRACES EXCEPT OPEN TERRACE ABOVE TOP MOST STOREY OR PART TERRACE AT TOP MOST STOREY DUE TO
PLANNING CONSTRAINTS BUT ACCESSIBLE FROM COMMON STAIRCASE
4. FIRE ESCAPE BALCONY PROVIDED IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS, FIRE CHECK FLOOR/SERVICE FLOOR OF HEIGHT EXCEEDING 1.80M
5. COVERED SWIMMING POOL
6. AC PLANT ROOM, AHU ROOMS, METER ROOM, DG SET ROOM OTHER THAN PROVIDED IN BASEMENT
7. AREA OF 1 PUBLIC BOOTH
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MUNICIPAL ACCESS TO THE PLOT:


1. MINIMUM 6.0M FOR BUILDINGS UPTO 24.0M HEIGHT.
2. MINIMUM 9.0M FOR BUILDINGS ABOVE 24M HEIGHT, ONE END OF WHICH SHALL JOIN ANOTHER STREET OF EQUAL OR GREATER WIDTH.
3. NO DIRECT ACCESS WILL BE PERMITTED FROM HIGHWAYS AND ROADS MORE THAN 52 M WIDTHS.

ACCESS TO THE PLOT WHICH DO NOT ABUT ON A STREET:


THE WIDTH OF THE ACCESS DEPENDS UPON THE LENGTH OF ACCESS AND THE AREA TO BE SERVED AS UNDER.

OPEN SPACEs (DCR 29):


SIDE /REAR OPEN SPACES: (NOT ABUTTING ANY PUBLIC ROAD)

WHERE LIGHT & VENTILATION IS DERIVED BY ROOMS IT IS HT. OF BLDG/3.

RESIDENTIAL USER 3.6 m


COMMERCIAL USER 4.5 m
WHERE A ROOM DOES NOT REQUIRE LIGHT & FROM AN EXTERIOR SPACE (DEAD WALL) i.e. TOILETS, STAIRCASE, STORE ROOM ( MAX AREA
3.00 SQ.MTS ) THE OPEN SPACE CAN BE:
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RESIDENTIAL 3.6 m
COMMERCIAL 4.5m UPTO A HT OF 24 M.
FOR A HEIGHT OF BLDG MORE THAN 24 M THE OPEN SPACE SHALL BE MINIMUM OF 6M OR MORE SUBJECT TO CFO REQUIREMENTS.
LONG LENGTH FACTOR: FOR BUILDINGS HAVE LENGTH OR DEPTH OF MORE THAN 40M ADDITIONAL 10%

FRONT OPEN SPACES FROM PUBLIC ROAD - CRITERIA 1:

FOR HIGHWAY OR ROAD MORE THAN 7.5 M FOR BOTH (R ) AND (C )


52M THE SETBACK

FOR ROAD WIDER THAN 21M 3.0 M FOR (R) AND 4.5 M FOR (C) IN CITY
6.0 M FOR (R) AND 6.0 M FOR (C )IN SUBURBS

FOR LESSER ROADS 3.0 M FOR (R ) AND 4.5 M FOR (C )IN CITY
4.5 M FOR (R) AND 4.5 M FOR (C )IN SUBURBS

TFROMROADS (FOR RESIDENTIAL (R) /COMMERCIAL (C) BLDGS)

FOR SOME SPECIFIC ROADS LIKE PEDDER ROAD, CARMICHEAL, ALTAMOUNT, NEAPEANSEA, HUGHES ROAD THE SETBACK IS 4.5 M FOR BOTH (R) AND
(C)
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FRONT OPEN SPACE & HEIGHT OF BLDNG - CRITERIA 2:


1. THE HEIGHT OF BUILDING SHALL NOT EXCEED 1.5 TIMES THE SUM OF THE PRESCRIBED WIDTH OF THE ROAD AND THE REQUIRED FRONT
OPENSPACE.
2. ON ROADS WIDER THAN 18.0 M IF FRONT OPEN SPACE PROVIDED IS MORE THAN
12.0 M THERE IS NO RESTRICTION TO THE HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING. HOWEVER THE OPEN SPACE ON THE SIDE AND REAR IF NOT ABUTTING
ROAD SHALL BE AS PER H/3 RULE OR THE DEAD WALLRULE.

3. IF A BUILDING ABUTS TWO OR MORE ROADS OF DIFFERENT WIDTHS, THE HEIGHT OF THE BLDG SHALL BE REGULATED BY THE WIDER WIDTH
OF THE ROAD AND MAY BE CONTINUED TO A DEPTH OF 24 M ALONG THE NARROWERSTREET.

REQUIREMENTS OF BUILDINGS - DCR 38:


PLINTH HEIGHT: MINIMUM 30 CM ABOVE GROUNDLEVEL.
STILT: MINIMUM 15 CM ABOVE GROUND LEVEL.

Room Min Area Min Width

Habitable Rooms 9.5 m2 2.4m

Toilets 2.2 m2

Toilets (separate) 1.1 m2 (WC) 1.5 m2 (area of bath)

Kitchens (1 BHK Flats) 5.5 m2 1.8m

Kitchens (2 BHK Flats) 7.5 m2 2.1m


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MINIMUM SIZE OF ROOMS

MINIMUM HEIGHT OF HABITABLE ROOMS:


HABITABLE ROOM: MINIMUM HEIGHT OF2.75M.
THE MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF ROOM ALLOWED IS3.90M.
FOR OTHER USER OTHER THAN RESIDENTIAL MINIMUM 3.6M AND MAXIMUM 4.2M.
IF THE HEIGHT OF HABITABLE ROOM IS MORE THAN 3.9 M THE AREA TO BE COMPUTED 1.5 TIMES IN TOFSI.

OTHER REQUIREMENT OF BUILDINGS

SR. USER LENGTH(M)


NO

01 RESIDENTIAL, EDUCATIONAL 22.50

02 BUSINESS, INDUSTRIAL, ASSEMBLY 30.00

DISTANCE: TRAVEL

Note: TRAVEL DISTANCE FROM DEAD END SHALL NOT EXCEED HALF THE DISTANCE MENTIONEDABOVE.
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STAIRCASES: (SAME AS DCR 1991):


ADDITIONAL STAIRCASE FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WITH HEIGHT ABOVE 30.00 M AND UP TO 70.00M, TWO STAIRCASES (OF MIN.
WIDTH 1.50 M) REQUIRED,IF:
TRAVEL DISTANCE EXCEEDS SPECIFIEDLIMITS.

IF FLOOR AREA ON A FLOOR EXCEEDS 500.00 SQ.MT.


BUILDINGS HAVING HEIGHT ABOVE 70.00 M, SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH TWO ENCLOSED TYPE STAIRCASES, EACH HAVING MIN. WIDTH
OF 2.00M.
FIRE LIFT:
ONEFIRELIFTPER1, 200SQ.M.OFFLOORAREASHALLBEPROVIDED.

SPEED REQUIREMENT FOR THE FIRELIFT:

REACH THE TOP FLOOR FROM GROUND LEVEL WITHIN 1MINUTE.


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FIRE CHECK FLOOR (SAME AS DCR 1991):


REQUIRED AT EVERY 70.00 M LEVEL.

HEIGHT SHALL NOT BE MORE THAN 1.80 M

FIRE DRENCHER SHALL BE PROVIDED AT THE PERIPHERY.

FIRE ESCAPE CHUTE:


HIGH RISE BLDG HAVING HEIGHT MORE THAN 70 M SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH FIRE ESCAPE CHUTE
FOR EVERY WING ADJACENT TO STAIRCASE.
ONE SIDE OF SHAFT SHALL BE EXTERNAL FACE OF THE BLDG
THE DIMENSION OF THE SHAFT NOT LESS THAN 2.5 M X 1.50 M
THE ACCESS SHALL BE DONE AT ALTERNATE FLOOR LVL FROM STAIRCASE MID-LANDING WITH SELF
CLOSING DOOR HAVING FIRE RESISTANCE OF AT LEAST 1 HR

IT SHALL BE STAGGERED TYPE WITH LANDING OF EACH SECTION AT THE VERTICAL HEIGHT OF NOT MORE THAN21M.
(OR)
CONTROLLED LOWERING DEVICE FOR EVACUATION. AS APPROVED BY CFO

CFO REQUIREMENT
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REFUGE AREA (PROVISIONS SAME AS DCR 1991):


Refuge Area required above 30 m, instead of 24 m earlier.

In case of multi storied & high rise buildings up to 30.00 m height, the terrace floor shall be treated as the refuge area.

PODIUM (SAME AS DCR 1991):


Max. 3.0 m beyond building line on Fire engine access side.

On Other Sides, upto1.50 m distance from plot boundary.

Not permitted in required Front Open Space.

ACCESS FOR FIRE ENGINE AROUND HIGH RISE BUILDING:


6 m wide Access, on at least on one side other than road side.

Not required for building fronting more than one public road.

Ramp width Min. 4.50 m and Gradient not steeper than 1 in10.
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ADDITIONAL FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS &


SPECIAL BUILDINGS:

BASEMENTS:
Vents with minimum aggregate area of 2.5 percent of the floorarea.

Ifthetraveldistanceexceeds18.50m,additionalstaircasesarerequired.

Kitchensworkingorgasfuel,departmentstoresandshopsnotpermittedinbasements.

FLOOR SPACE DIVISION (FIRE SECTIONS):


Max. Compartment size of 750 sq.m.

Separatedusingfirewallsofmin.twohoursfireresistance.

Forfloorswithsprinklers, the area may be increased by 50 percent.


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PARKING REQUIREMENTS: DCR 36:


RESIDENTIAL:
MALABAR HILL, CUMBALLA HILL & COLABA AREAS IN SOUTH MUMBAI, PALI HILL, BANDRA, JUHU, VILE PARLE DEV. SCHEME, SASOON DOCK & JAGMOHANDAS
MARG(NEPEANSEA RD)

ONE PARKING SPACE:


FOR TENEMENT WITH CARPET AREA UPTO 22.5SQ.M.

2/3RD TEN WITH CARPET AREA OVER 22.5 BUT NOT ABOVE 45SQ.M
1/3RD TEN WITH CARPET AREA OVER 45 SQ.M AND NOT ABOVE 100SQ.M.
1/4TH TEN WITH CARPET AREA EXCEEDING 100SQ.M.
VISITOR PARKING TO BE 25% OF ABOVE SUBJECT TO MINIMUM OFONE.
FOR REDEVELOPMENT UNDER 33(5), 33(7), 33(9), and 33(10), 33(14) ONE PARKING FOR:

TENEMENT WITH CARPET AREA UPTO 45SQ.M.


2/3 TEN WITH CARPET AREA ABOVE 45 & NOT ABOVE 100SQ.M.

TEN WITH CARPET AREA ABOVE 100SQ.M.


VISITOR PARKING IS AT 25% OFABOVE.
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COMMERCIAL:
GOVT, SEMI GOVT, PRIVATE OFFICE BLDGS:
one parking space for every 37.50 sq.mts of office space up to 1500 sq.mts and for every 75 sq.mts of additional space for areas exceeding
1500sq.mts
MERCANTILE (MARKETS, DEPARTMENTAL STORES, SHOPS)
one parking space for every 40 sq.mts of office space up to 800 sq.mts and for every 80 sq.mts of additional space for areas exceeding 800sq.mts
CONVENIENCE SHOPPING
One parking space for every 150 sq.mts of total floor area in case of shops up to 20 sq.mts in area and one parking for 50 sq.mts of floor area for
shops over 20sq.mts.
In addition to the parking spaces provided for mercantile& commercial office buildings, parking space for transport vehicles of size 3.75 x 7.5 m shall
be provided at the rate of one space for each 2000 sq.mts subject to maximum 6 nos.
The size of the parking space to be 2.5m x5.5m.
50% of the parking spaces can be of smaller size of2.3 x4.5m.
Parking can be provided underneath the buildings or on upper floors, podium, in basements and in open spaces beyond the compulsory open
spaces.
Additionalparkingfloorsinresidentialbldg.inexcessofoverandabove25%
of the required parking including visitors parking shall be counted in fsi.
in non-residential bldg. only where entire parking is proposed by mechanical/ automatic means additional 10% of the required parking
shall be permitted free of fsi
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DCR 1991 & 2034:

Source: https://mmrda.maharashtra.gov.in
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INFERENCES OF VIJAYAWADA DCR:


All open spaces need to be on the ground. If on one hand, the DCR mandates rain water harvesting for certain buildings, Why not
make open spaces on the ground mandatory.
The podiums are a misuse of the open space and should not be included in the same category. Open spaces on the ground should
be mandatory, since children cannot be expected to play on podiums in the same fashion.
Increasing the use of motorized vehicles leads to environmental pollution, both air quality and noise. Do-2034/DCR not only did not
consider this but goes on to provide for coastal road, which in the present form is not tenable under environment protection act
1986 and however there are methods which can be adopted so that it becomes a win win situation. This needs to be taken up
separately.
There is a paradigm shift in fsi regimen. While there are other salient features related to FSI that can be commented upon, the
important one definitely needs mention here. FSI is not seen as instrument of limiting growth and density but as an outer
envelope of built space that responds to consumed FSI and location and accessibility attributes of sites.
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES OF JAIPUR AND PUNE:


SUBJECT: Impact of Building Byelaws on Housing

Housing is the prime necessity of human beings. Government has made many policies to encourage the housing activity.
Building Byelaws affect housing activities very significantly in terms of its utilization and cost. Building Byelaws control the
numbers of dwelling units, in some cases, that can be accommodated in a given parcel of land by implementing the
essential clauses such as Built up Area, FSI/FAR, Maximum Building Height, Margins to be kept open in front and around
the buildings, etc. The impact of all these clauses varies to the extent of 200 percent in case of Jaipur and Pune city.
Attempt has been made in this case to reveal the impact of Byelaws on housing. Comparative study has been done for
Jaipur and Pune cities for five building forms and impact has been revealed.
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OVERVIEW OF THE BYELAWS AND HOUSING:


Government has made policies to provide houses to all. It has encouraged this policy in Five Year Plans and through other policies regarding finance
and land use. After 62 years of Independence, still government is not in a position to provide shelter to all. Hence, it is high time to think about the
ways by which maximum dwelling units can be provided in the available parcel of land for controlling land cost factor and minimizing conversion of
land under agriculture use to non- agricultural use. Otherwise, it will create scarcity of other two prime necessity of human needs i.e. food and
cloth. At the same time, quality of life should not be affected anyway. One of the best tools to achieve this goal is to make modifications in
development control regulations and building byelaws.
In India, building byelaws are framed taking into account the National Building Code as the base and state government acts. However, it is not
mandatory for the states to follow the NBC strictly. Each state makes modifications as per their local requirements and traditions. National Building
Code has been revised in 2005 but there has been stated nothing about restricting the states by making building byelaws which have adverse
effects on housing availability and indirectly affecting land cost and land use conversion.

Building byelaws are the tools in hand of policy makers to control the various parameters affecting the quality of life. It is also helpful for
implementing authority to control and carry out systematic development as per policies. These byelaws affect the availability of housing. This is due
to the impact of DCR on the planning, which controls the numbers of dwelling units that can be accommodated in a given parcel of land.

Source: jda.urban.rajasthan.gov.in/content/raj/udh/jda
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NOTE:
PERMISSIBLE FSI IN JAIPUR IS 1.2 FOR DETACHED BUNGALOWS, DUPLEX BUNGALOWS AND ROW HOUSES, 1.67 FOR LOW RISE
BUILDINGS AND 1.8 FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS WHEREAS IN PUNE, IT IS 1.0 FOR ALL BUILDING FORMS.
COMMON OPEN PLOT: NOT REQUIRED IN JAIPUR CITY WHEREAS 10% IN PUNE CITY.
MARGIN BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT BUILDINGS WITHIN SAME BUILDING UNIT:
JAIPUR CITY: NOT SPECIFIED
PUNE CITY: (H/2 3.0) X 2 FOR BOTH LOW RISE BUILDINGS AS WELL AS HIGH RISE BUILDINGS,
WHERE, H IS HEIGHT OF TALLER BUILDING.
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The layout plans are prepared in a hypothetical plot of an extent of one hectare
i.e. 100 m X 100 m for all five building forms. Layout plans for high rise buildings are shown in Fig. 2 consuming full permissible FSI available as per
building byelaws in force for both the cities. Number of dwelling units that can be accommodated in layout for each building form by applying the
byelaws of both the cities separately have been obtained. It is noted as shown in Table 2.

Main effects of byelaws are maximum permissible ground coverage i.e. built up area, maximum permissible FSI or FAR, maximum permissible height
of the building, the width of the road on which the building unit i.e. plot abutting, minimum margins to be kept open on all sides of the building, etc.
All these byelaws ultimately used for controlling the population density and to create comfortable environment for achieving best possible quality
of life. It also takes care of the safety of occupants. In DCR of Pune city, one more parameter is used to control the population density, is tenement
density i.e. permissible numbers of tenements per hectare of land. This rule controls the numbers of dwelling units that can be permitted in a given
parcel of land. It also controls the size of dwelling unit indirectly.
In DCR of Jaipur City, required size of plot for various building form varies from 45 Sq. m for row
housing to 1,000 sq. m for high rise buildings. Similarly, permissible built up area, FSI, margins,
maximum permissible building height and requirement of width of road on which plot shall abut gets
changed. Thus, when the building form is changed, and the entire requirement is changed. For
Jaipur City, only one byelaw remains same for all building forms under consideration, which is requirement of COP not required to be provided.
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Ground coverage varies from 35 percent for high rise buildings to 60 percent for row houses. Height varies from 12 m for
detached bungalows, duplex bungalows, row houses and low rise buildings to 30 m for high rise buildings. Minimum width of road on which plot
shall be abutting for high rise buildings is 24 m in Jaipur city for getting full height of 30m whereas it is only 9 m in Pune city. In Pune city DCR,
required size of Plot for various building forms varies from 50 sq. m. for Row House to 1,000 sq. m. for high rise buildings. Byelaws remain same for
all building forms considered in study are requirement of COP and permissible FSI, which are 10 percent of plot area. Ground Coverage is 50
percent for detached bungalow, duplex bungalow and row houses whereas for low rise buildings and high rise buildings, it is 25percent.
Maximum permissible height varies from 10 m for row houses to 36 m for high rise buildings. Requirement for margins is correlated
with extent of plot and width of road on which the plot abuts for all type of building forms. Distance between two buildings on a single plot is {(
H 3) x 2} meter for both low rise buildings as well as for high rise buildings.

MAJOR FINDINGS:
From the study, it is found that by applying the DCR of Jaipur city and Pune city, there is not much impact of DCR on detached bungalows, duplex
bungalows and row houses type development. By applying DCR of Pune city, 31.25 percent more dwelling units can be accommodated in case of
detached bungalows type development and 25 percent in case of duplex bungalows and row houses type development than by applying DCR of
Jaipur city. In case of low rise buildings and high rise buildings, by applying DCR of Jaipur city, 128 and 160 dwelling units can be accommodated
respectively instead of 80 dwelling units for both type of development in the same parcel of land in Pune city i.e. 60 percent and 100 percent
respectively more as shown in Fig. 2. Hence, the DCR of Jaipur city allows
1.60 Times the dwelling units in low rise buildings and 2 times in high rise buildings than that in Pune city. Thus, DCR affect availability of numbers
of housing units that can be accommodated in a available parcel of land. The development can be categorized in four categories considering
different philosophy:
High Rise with High Density;
High Rise with Low Density;
Low Rise with High Density; and
Low Rise with Low Density.
The study supports the first notion that high rise with high density particularly for high land cost with sound infrastructure available.
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VIJAYAWADA DCR (DEVELOPMENT CONTROL LAYOUTS):


Layout Stipulations: Related to Land Development

a) Land Use.
b) Land distribution ratio between plotted area and open area I.e. Roads, Parks & Playground, Amenities, etc.,
c) Minimum Road widths 12Mts
category Types/ use of building plot minimum abutting existing
permissible road width required ( in meter)
(1) (2) (3)

A SITES IN OLD /EXISTING


BUILTUP AREA /CONGESTED
AREAS/SETTLEMENT
/GRAMAKHANTAM /ADABI
(see annexure)
All residential (other than group 9
housing ) &commercial building
with maximum permissible
height of 10m.
Except in the plot abutting to
existing 60 and above wide
road
For other categories the
minimum road shall be as given
in B1 category.
B SITES IN NEW AREAS / 9
APPROVED LAYOUT AREAS
Basic level social amenities like
nursery ,school ,primary school
Dispensary /diagnostic
laboratories/ poly clinic
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category Types/ use of building plot permissible minimum abutting existing road width required ( in meter)
(1) (2) (3)

SITES IN OLD /EXISTING BUILTUP AREA /CONGESTED


AREAS/SETTLEMENT /GRAMAKHANTAM /ADABI
(see annexure)
All residential (other than group housing ) &commercial 9
building with maximum permissible height of 10m.
A Except in the plot abutting to existing 60 and above
wide road
For other categories the minimum road shall be as given
in B1 category.
B SITES IN NEW AREAS / APPROVED LAYOUT AREAS 9
Basic level social amenities like nursery ,school ,primary
school
Dispensary /diagnostic laboratories/ poly clinic

B1 Non high rise building (residential ) Building including


group housing (cellar and )silt as permissible +maximum
up to 5 floors),
Religious place
Commercial complex
Computer units /office buildings ,ITES complex
B2 Assembly hall /cinema hall / community centre/
functional hall /marriage hall 12
General industry /Godwon
Group development scheme

Source:jda.urban.rajasthan.gov.in/content/raj/u
dh/jda
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Provision of exterior open spaces and height limitation around the building

Exterior open spaces Up to 25% of the total setback area can be sunk for light, ventilation and access to basement, provided fire tender
movement is not hindered.
Height Limit Height Exemptions
(1) Rooftanksandtheirsupportsnotexceeding1.5minheight.

(2) Stair covered with Mumty not exceeding 3.00m in height.


Restrictions on Projections in Mandatory Open Spaces
(a) Every interior or exterior open space shall be kept free from any erection
There on and shall be open to the sky. Nothing except Cornice, Chajjas/weather shades only of width not exceeding 75cm shall be allowed
in the mandatory setbacks. Such projections shall not be allowed at a height less than 2.20m from the corresponding finished floor level.

(b) Pergola shall be permitted in a residential building if constructed in the exterior open spaces within setback or terrace. Such pergola shall not
exceed10% of ground coverage. Such pergolas shall have a minimum clear height of 2.2m.
(c) IncaseofIndividualResidentialBuildinginplotsmorethan300sq.m:
The height of these accessory buildings shall not be morethan2.5m and shall not occupy more than 1/4th of the plot width.
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Parking Spaces
The parking spaces may be provided in Basements or cellars (one or more) / multi- level (allowed for plots 750sq.m and above only).
In respect of Apartment Complexes / Building / Block of residential nature, in sites up to 750sq.m the Parking requirement shall be deemed
to be met if the entire stilt floor is left for parking.
Parking Area to be provided in All Building.
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SPECIAL REQUIREMENT FOR OCCUPANCY / LAND DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER

Category of the Building and Minimum Size of Plot


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*In case of Sites in Category-A, if a Site is abutting to a road which is less than 9m in width, a building may be permitted with a maximum height of
10m in such site, after leaving 4.5m from the Centre Line of such road for widening and the same shall be handed over to the Local Body and shall
leave the prescribed setback as per Table-17 after the said road widening portion. No relaxations are permissible in such cases. Buildings more than
10 Mts. height may be permitted in the sites abutting the existing 18 Mts. (60-0) wide roads subject to complying other rules. This will transform
the slum character.
Restrictions of Building Activity
(1) Airport
(i) Irrespective of their distance from the aerodrome, even beyond
22km limit from the Aerodrome Reference Point, no radio masts or similar installation exceeding 152m in height shall be erected except with the
prior clearance from Civil Aviation Authorities.
(ii) In respect of any land located within 1000m from the boundary of
Military Airport no building is allowed except with prior clearance from the concerned airport authority with regard to building height permissible
and safe distance to be maintained between the building and boundary of the aerodrome.
(2) Defense Establishments
In case of Sites within 500m distance from the boundary of Defense Areas/Military Establishments prior clearance of Defense Authority shall be
obtained.

Landscaping and greenery:

A minimum 2 m wide green planting strip in the periphery on all sides within the setbacks are required to be developed and maintained.
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Provisions for construction and regulation of High-rise hospital buildings (above 30m height)

HEIGHT AND OPEN SPACES

(a) In order to facilitate firefighting operations and also to prevent fire exposure to adjacent buildings, it is essential to have adequate open spaces
around the building.

(b) Open spaces around the building shall be as per section 8.2.3.1 Table 2, NBC Part III.

(c) Minimum 7 meters wide hard leveled motor able open to sky drive-way shall be provided around the building for the movement and
operation of specialized fire vehicles e.g. Hydraulic Platform, Turn Table Ladder,etc.

(d) The Maximum permissible height of Hospital Buildings shall be 60meters.

(e) The height of each floor shall be not less than 4met

GREEN BUILDINGS AND SUSTAINABILITY PROVISIONS


Green Buildings
(1) Modern buildings consume about 25 to 30 percent of total energy, and up to 30 percent of fresh potable water and generate approximately 40
percent of total waste.
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(2) Construction costs: On average, estimates show a gold certified building in India costs between 3 to 7 percent more to build, while platinum costs 12
to 18 percent more and silver only about 2 percent more.

(3) User savings: In terms of running costs savings, green buildings save 25-35 percent on energy use on average and 30 to 85 percent on water
consumption annually.
The provisions for green buildings indicated in the table below are applicable on all plots more than 300sq. m in size:
Plot category Sub Category Applicable Plot area Provisions for residential Provisions for non-
(sq.m.) residential
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
I Below 300 Nil Nil
a 300 to 500 (1)Water Conservation & (1)Water Conservation &
Management Management
(A)Rain water harvesting (A)Rain water harvesting
(by recharge) (by recharge)
(2) Solar energy utilization (2) Solar energy utilization
(B)Installation of Solare (B)Installation of Solare
assisted water heating assisted water heating
systems (optional) systems
(4) Waste Management (4) Waste Management
b 500 to 1000 (1)Water Conservation & (1)Water Conservation &
Management Management
(A)Rain water harvesting (A)Rain water harvesting
II (by recharge) (by recharge)
(B) Reduction of (B) Reduction of
headspace headspace
(2) Solar energy utilization (2) Solar energy utilization
(A)Installation of Solar (A)Installation of Solar
assisted water heating assisted water heating
systems systems
(3) Energy efficiency (B) Installation of solar
(C) Lighting of common photovoltaic panels
lights by solar energy (3) Energy efficiency
(4) Waste Management (C) Lighting of common
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(D) Segregation of waste lights by solar energy

Plot category Sub Category Applicable Plot area (sq.m.) Provisions for residential Provisions for non-residential

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)


II c 1000 to 3000 (1)Water Conservation & Management (1)Water Conservation & Management
(A)Rain water harvesting (by recharge) (A)Rain water harvesting (by recharge)
(B) Reduction of headspace (B) Reduction of headspace
(C) Waste water recycle & reuse (C) Waste water recycle & reuse
(2) Solar energy utilization (2) Solar energy utilization
(A)Installation of Solar assisted water (A)Installation of Solar assisted water
heating systems heating systems
(B) Installation of solar photovoltaic (B) Installation of solar photovoltaic
panels panels
(3) Energy efficiency (3) Energy efficiency
(C) Lighting of common lights by solar (C) Lighting of common lights by solar
energy energy
(D) Energy efficiency in HVAC Systems (D) Energy efficiency in HVAC Systems

III a Above 3000 (1)Water Conservation & Management (1)Water Conservation & Management
(A)Rain water harvesting (by recharge) (A)Rain water harvesting (by recharge)
(B) Reduction of headspace (B) Reduction of headspace
(C) Waste water recycle & reuse (C) Waste water recycle & reuse
(D) Low water consumption plumbing (D) Low water consumption plumbing
features features
(2) Solar energy utilization (2) Solar energy utilization
(A)Installation of Solar assisted water (A)Installation of Solar assisted water
heating systems heating systems
(B) Installation of solar photovoltaic (B) Installation of solar photovoltaic
panels panels
(3) Energy efficiency (3) Energy efficiency
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(C) Lighting of common lights by solar (C) Lighting of common lights by solar
energy energy
(D) Energy efficiency in HVAC Systems (D) Energy efficiency in HVAC
Systems

Provisions for City and Site level greening:


(1) Greening
In alignment with National Sustainable Habitat Mission, the Authority shall encourage augmentation of green cover in the city/plot, by following: The
Urban Greening Guidelines, 2014 and other provisions are as given below:-

(a) Provision of minimum 1 tree/every 80sqmt of plot area for plot sizes>100sqmt and planted within the setback of the plot.

(b) Compensatory Plantation for felled/transplanted tress in the ratio 1:3 within the premises under consideration.

(2) Water Re-use and Recycling

All building having a minimum discharge of 15,000 liters and above per day or premises consisting of 25 dwelling units and above shall incorporate waste
water recycling system.

RAIN WATER HARVESTING STRUCTURES (1)URBAN AREAS


(a) ROOF TOP RAIN WATER HARVESTING THROUGH RECHARGEPIT
(i) The technique is suitable for buildings having a roof area of 100 sq. m and is constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers.
(ii) Recharge Pits may be of any shape and size and are generally constructed 1 to 2m wide and 2 to 3m deep which are back filled with boulders (5-20 cm),
gravels (5-10mm) and coarse sand (1.5-2mm) in graded form.
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RAIN-WATER HARVESTING
STRUCTURES
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Procedure for Obtaining Building Permission for all commercial, public buildings and new buildings on plots of
300sq.m and above:

(1) In all commercial, public buildings and new buildings on plots of 300sq.m and above.
(2) On plots of 300sq.m and above.

(3) The indicative provisions for rainwater harvesting by building types shall be as given in the Tablebelow.
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SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS

(1) In case of new buildings proposed for construction with plot area more than 1000sq.m and all public buildings, the Solar Roof Top Systems shall be
installed.

(2) It is compulsory to install Solar Photo Voltaic Panels for the required lighting in the common areas in the following categories.
(a) Hostels of Schools, Colleges and Training Centers with more than 100Students.
(b) Hotels, Lodges, and Guest Houses, Group Housing with the plot area of 3000 sq.m.
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(3) The recommended minimum capacity shall not be less than 25litres per day for each bathroom and kitchen subject to the condition that maximum of
50% of the total roof area is provided with the system.
(4) The roof loading adopted in the design of such building should be at least 50 kg per sq. m. for the installation of solar water heating system.

INFERENCE OF VIJAYAWADA DCR:

Residential Buildings have exceeded the fungible FSI at One town areas.
Most of the hillock areas of Vijayawada have no buffer space beside road adjacent houses, as there is no provision for
pedestrian pathways in by laws.
DCR have not been incorporated density wise like foreign cities.
Though, there is scarcity of residential areas available in Vijayawada, the number of floors has been bound up to 4floors.
Open space is left to 2.3% (according to NBC, it should be 10% at any city
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SINGAPORE DCR

Land Management is Critical to City Development


Urban Planning uses greater granularity in zoning.
Fine Grained approach promoting mixed land use.
Using land value to guide infrastructure investments.

Mumbai Metropolitan city 603 Singapore 710 sq.km.


sq.km.

For planning purposes and as a general guide, the various housing density in terms of GPR are as follows:
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HEIGHT CONTROLS FOR FLATS AND CONDOMINIUMS


The revised storey heights for standard typologies shown in the Master Plan are as follows (subject to compliance with technical height controls):

OVERALL HEIGHT AND FLOOR-TO-FLOOR HEIGHT


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a- As the building height is regulated in terms of number of storeys, the absolute floor-to-floor height control (maximum) has to be complied with. This
helps to ensure that the overall height of buildings of the same number of storeys buildings incomparable.

b. A floor height is measured from the floor level of one storey to the floor level of the next storey (i.e. from the top of one floor to the top
of another floor). For a building with a pitched roof, the top most storey height is measured from the top floor level to the springing line
(i.e. the line joining to the points where the roof rest). See Figure3a.

The floor-to-floor height control for residential building is as follows:

FLOOR TO FLOOR HEIGHT CONTROL FOR


RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPEMENT
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For developments with sky terrace floors1, the overall height control will be relaxed, based on the proposed storey height of the development. The
additional allowable height over and above the overall aggregate height for the development is tabulated:

This additional height can only be distributed to sky terrace floors within the development. Spaces for M&E services located directly beneath the sky
terrace floor can also be included under the additional height. Drop-panels are not allowed at the soffit along the perimeter of sky terrace floors, as the
intention is to encourage the provision of high volume open communal spaces.
To illustrate the relaxation of the guideline, a typical 12-storey commercial development that has an overall aggregate height of 60.0m under the current
guideline based on 5.0m maximum floor-to-floor height for each floor, can enjoy an additional height of 10m, if the development includes at least one sky
terrace floor.

RESIDENTIAL LANDSCAPE REPLACEMENT REQUIREMENTS


(a) Beyond strategic areas3[1], all non-landed Residential developments will be required to meet minimum greening standards.

(b) The new Landscape Replacement Area requirements (LRA) for non-landed residential developments specifically target the provision of
communal greenery and the levels of greenery provision will be tiered according to the developments intensity as shown in Figure21.
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(a) The scheme consists of the following:

(i) Predominant Covered Communal Ground Garden: Additional covered spaces at the first storey can be considered for GFA exemption
if these spaces provide substantial ground greenery with good spatial quality; or
(ii) Secondary Covered Communal Ground Garden: The existing GFA exemption for Communal Landscaped Area under the 45 degree
line at the first storey will continue to apply. This scheme will now be re-termed as Secondary Covered Communal Ground Garden.
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Landscaping on deck
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ROAD BUFFERS
1(a) All developments are required to provide a buffer between the road reserve line and the building. The exception is when there are urban
design requirements allowing the buildings to abut the road reserve line/site boundaries such as residential developments in the Central Area.
See Figure 5a

i) For residential developments within the River Valley Planning Area, Newton Planning Area and Orchard Planning Area, the standard
minimum road buffer is
7.5m (of which 3m is for the green buffer), regardless of the category of the road that the developments face.

ii) For residential developments in the Central Area other than those in the River Valley, Newton and Orchard Planning Area, the buffer
standards will be determined by urban design considerations.

1(b) Setback controls of buildings from public roads are determined by the road buffer only. The minimum buffer width or setback of
building depends on the hierarchy of the category of the road the site fronts, the type and height of development. See Figure 5 for details.
For roads that are not categorized, the minimum road buffer (i.e. 7.5m for residential developments) applies.
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OPEN SPACE PROVISION


1-The standard provision of open space as required by the National Parks Board (N'Parks) for a landed (land title) housing development is
4.05m to every 56m2 of gross floor area. This is subject to the following:
(a) a minimum plot area for open space of 1000m; (If the computed open space requirement is < 1000m, a plot smaller than 1000m based
on the same rate may apply subject to confirmation from (N'Parks.)
(b) it should be suitably located within the proposed development and be conveniently accessible to the public;
(c) it should not be fragmented. In each development, it should preferably be single plot and of regular shape. It should not be separated by
road, drain or other reserves;
(d) the terrain of the open space plot should generally be flat. It should not be low lying nor subject to flooding; and
(e) the open space plot is to be vested in the State before the issue of CSC. It
should be free from encumbrances at the subdivision stage.
2-Where a landed housing proposal abuts an expressway or major arterial roads, part of the open space provision can be allowed to fall
within the buffer zone subject to the following conditions:
(a) the depth of the open space plot is 3m (minimum);and
(b) the configuration or the open space plot is reasonably regular.

BASEMENT SETBACKS
1- The setbacks for basements, as illustrated in Figure 7b, are;

From Road Reserve Line


(a) Basement protruding above ground can be built right up to the green buffer/planting strip.
(b) Submerged basement structure can be built up to the road reserve line provided the portion underneath the green buffer/planting strip
is submerged at least 2m or more below the ground level.
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BASEMENT OPENINGS
1-Basement protruding up to 1.0 m with vertical openings on the side walls can be allowed for all types of development. However, to allow
greater flexibility to incorporate natural ventilation to basements in the building designs, higher vertical openings and horizontal openings
within the setback distance can be allowed for the types of developments as indicated below:

Site Coverage
1- Site coverage control is only applicable to detached house or bungalow development. The intention is to safeguard the ambience and
character of bungalow development. It also helps to ensure that there are sufficient open areas around the compound of each bungalow
which, together with other similar units, contribute to the total environmental quality of a bungalow area.
2- There is no site coverage control for semi-detached and terrace houses.
3- The site coverage controls vary with the plot size as follows:
(a) Good Class Bungalows (1400m):35%
(b) Other Bungalows (>800m):40%
(c) Other Bungalows (<= 800m):40%
(d) Other Bungalows (<= 800m) in 2-storey mixed landed and 2-storeysemi- detached housing areas:45%

Plot Size
The minimum plot dimensions and plot sizes for all types of landed (Iand title) housing development are as follows:
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Open Space Provision


1- For landed housing (land title) development, at least 4.05m green open space shall be provided for every 56m of gross floor area.
Generally, an open space plot area of 1000m or more will have to be provided. If the computed open space requirement is <1000m, a plot
smaller than 1000m based on the same rate will apply.

OVERALL BUILDING HEIGHT AND FLOOR-TO-FLOOR HEIGHT

For the developments with sky terrace floors1, the overall height control will be relaxed, based on the proposed storey height of the
development.
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GREENERY
LANDSCAPE REPLACEMENT AREA POLICY IN STRATEGIC AREAS

(a) The Landscape Replacement Areas guidelines are set out to achieve the following objectives:

i) Enhance the quality of life in our urban areas by providing spaces of relief and greenery which are close to users;

ii) Create a distinctive image of the city in the tropical climate through extensive greenery at the ground and sky-rise levels.

The total size of the landscape areas must be at least equivalent in size to the development site area. However, it is recognized that in areas
where there is a technical height control, there could be design constraints to the provision of 100% landscape replacement. For
developments outside of Central Area that are subjected to a technical height constraint of 80m Above Mean Sea Level (AMSL) and below,
the required landscape replacement areas will be lowered to 70% of the development site area.

NON RESIDENTIAL LANDSCAPE REPLACEMENT REQUIREMENTS

(a) The new Landscape Replacement Area requirements (LRA) for Commercial/Mixed-use/Hotel developments specifically target the
provision of communal greenery and the levels of greenery provision will be tiered according to the developments intensity as shown in
Figure3.30.

(b) The landscaped areas should either be open-to-sky, or if covered, to qualify for GFA exemption under the existing LUSH guidelines
(e.g. Sky Terraces, Covered Communal Ground Gardens, and Communal Planter Boxes).
buildings, party wall developments, developments subject to specific urban design requirements, and developments with storey height
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SKY TERRACES
Sky terraces play a key role in contributing towards to our vision to make Singapore a City in Garden.

Perimeter Opening for sky terraces:-


i) At least 40% of the perimeter of the sky terrace is to remain open and unenclosed.
ii) At least 60% of the perimeter of the sky terrace is to remain open and unenclosed, if the applicant were to apply for additional GFA
exemption for areas located outside the 45 degree line or for the barrier-free and fire escape corridors.

Quality Communal usage* on sky terraces:

i) The sky terrace should be of a meaningful size and configuration to facilitate communal usage. As a guide, the proposed depth of the
sky terrace should be at least5m.

ii) For sky terraces in residential developments that occupy less than 60% of the floor plates, the sky terraces should serve a minimum of
2 strata units to ensure that they remain as communal space.
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ROAD BUFFERS AND BUILDING SETBACK

Setback controls of building from public roads are determined by the road buffer only. The minimum buffer width depends on the hierarchy
of the category of the road the site fronts, the type and height of development. See Figure 3.4
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PLANTING STRIP

To preserve the green and garden city image, 2.0m (minimum) wide planting strip is to be provided for all developments along all sides of
the development site boundary except where it fronts a public road. In such a situation, the width of the green buffer shall be provided in
accordance with the category of the road. The planting strip shall be continuous except where an access road is required.

PROVISION OF OPEN AND COVERED PUBLIC WALKWAYS

In Singapores tropical climate, covered walkways enhance the environment for pedestrian traffic. The list of requirements for the design of
walkways should take into account the following:

(c) Soffit height for covered walkway should be 3.6m. Where higher ceiling height is desired, glass or other cladding can be provided at the
edge of the covered walkway to achieve the 3.6m height measured from the covered walkway to the base of the cladding.
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Land Area
The minimum land area of an entire Business Park is 5 hectares. This is to ensure the land is large enough to landscape and create a park-
like environment. Within the Business Park, individual plots are demarcated to be developed.
Intensity
The maximum allowable GPR is stipulated in the Master Plan 2008. The intensity will vary depending on the planning intention and
surrounding developments.
Building Height
The maximum allowable building height is expressed in terms of number of storeys stipulated in the Master Plan. However, the resultant
building height must also comply with the technical height controls imposed by other authorities such as aviation path restrictions,
telecommunication and military installation.
Building Setback & Road Buffer Requirements
The building setback and road buffer requirements for BP developments are set out in Table A and Table B below:
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(d) Floor-to-floor height


No Control. Developments are subject to the relevant technical height controls. For areas with storey height control, the floor-to-floor height
control is 6.0 m (maximum).
(e) Landscaping
To allow flexibility in providing attractive landscaping within developments on Business Park and Business Park-White zones, there is no
minimum provision requirement for green areas. A 2.0m (minimum) wide planting strip is to be developed along all sides of the
development site boundary. For the boundary fronting a public road, the width of the green buffer shall be provided in
accordance with the category of the road. The planting strip shall be continuous except where an access road is required.

(f) Amenity Centre


There is no requirement for a separate amenity center within the business park.

ROAD BUFFER REQUIREMENTS


1- All developments are required to provide a buffer between the road reserve line and the building unless there are urban design
requirements allowing the buildings to abut the road reserve line/site boundaries like buildings in the Central area.
2- The minimum road buffer width which determines the setback of the building depends on the hierarchy of the category of the road the
site fronts, the type and height of development. See Figure 4.2 for details on the road buffer requirements for place of worship and
institutional buildings.
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PARAMETERS
The parameters1 for golf course developments are:
(a) Intensity

The allowable GPR for golf courses is subject to evaluation.


(b) Quantum Control Chalet/Guest House Facilities

The GFA for chalet/guest house facilities should not exceed 30% of the total GFA or 10,000sqm, whichever is the lower.
These facilities shall be subject to payment of development charge or differential premium, where applicable.
(c) Zoning

The chalet/guest house facilities are intended to be ancillary to the golf course development and should remain under the
same zoning, Sports & Recreation, as the golf course development. The lease for these facilities shall be tied to the
lease of the golf course.
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(c) Commercial Use


The GFA for commercial uses should not exceed 30% of the total GFA or 4,000 m, whichever is the lower. Allowable commercial uses
include:
Restaurant
Bar &lounge
Refreshment area
Canteen
Kitchen
Dining area
Saloon
Golf equipment/Pro shop
Commercial uses not listed above may be considered on a case-by-case basis.
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INFERENCE OF SINGAPORE DCR

The site coverage should not exceed50%.


The maximum allowable quantum for ancillary facilities such as office, store and compressor room will be 10% of total approved gross floor area.
(Building Height) Petrol station should be single-storey.
The setbacks for developments may sometimes be guided by urban design requirements instead of the standard setbacks.
The building height is to be evaluated on the merits of each case, taking into consideration its
compatibility with the surrounding developments.

Conclusion:
The rules, regulations and bye-laws are made by the councils or development authorities taking in view the larger public interest of the
society and it is the bounden duty of the citizens to obey and follow such rules which are made for their own benefits. If possible, the
citizen of the town should self-participate in the process of development of town.
Since planning authority is adequately empowered to enforce the act, the rules and bye-laws, need is to strengthen the municipal council
with the technical man power and adequate machinery to run the mechanism. Provision of land through town planning scheme
should be carried out to augment the supply of land resources for a balanced development.
A comprehensive three tier real time information and control system and violation reducing mechanism as suggested will strengthen the
municipal council in detecting the deviation in the construction in advance of their occurrence and may be avoided by appropriate and timely
action. It will also enhance the public participation for controlling building violation.
The present development control rules should also be made dynamic by changing as per the urban development requirement and its validity
must be verified periodically. This will inspire new initiatives & stimulate debate in the often neglected area of urban development control
rules & regulation for sustainable development.
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REFERENCES
www.urbanindia.nic.in/what'snew/tkc.htm
National building code. 2005 published by Bureau of Indian Standards www.bis.org.in
http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/urban/overview/me05_...
Maharashtra Municipalities Act. Of1965.
Maharashtra regional and Town Planning Act.1966
Standardized Building Bye-laws and Development Control Rules for B and C Class Municipal Councils of Maharashtra
Government of Gujarat (1976) Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act
1976,
Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar.
Government of Gujarat. Revised Development Plan with Development Control Rules Surat
Urban Development Authority, Surat.
Government of Maharashtra. Development Control Regulations for Pune Municipal Corporation, Pune