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Statistics 155 Midterm Formula Sheet Summer 2017

I. Descriptive Statistics

relative frequency of the class


density =
class width

( x)2
x (x - x)2 x 2
-
n
x= s= =
n n-1 n-1

IQR = Q3 - Q1 LF = Q1 1.5(IQR) UF = Q3 + 1.5(IQR)

II. Probability

Complement Rule: P(A) = 1 P(A)

General Addition Rule: P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A B)

Special Addition Rule: P(A B) = P(A) + P(B)

n! n n!
Pk, n = Ck, n = =
(n - k)! k k!(n - k)!

________________________________________________
P(A B)
Conditional Probability Formula: P A | B
P(B)

General Multiplication Rule: P(A B) = P(A) * P(B | A)

Special Multiplication Rule: P(A B) = P(A) * P(B)

Total-Probability Rule: P B P A i *P B | A i

P A * P B | A
Bayes' Rule: P A | B
P A * P B | A P A ' * P B | A '

III. Probability Distributions

Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable:


E(X) = = xP(x) V(X) = 2 = x 2 P(x) - 2

Probability Distribution of X~B(n, p):


n
P(x) = p x q n-x , x = 0, 1, 2, ..., n
x
E(X) = np V(X) = npq
Probability Distribution of X~H(n, M, N):
M N-M
x n-x
P(x) = , for max(0, n - (N - M)) x min(n, M)
N
n

M N-n M M
E(X) = n V(X) = n 1-

N N-1 N N

Probability Distribution of X~NB(r, p):


x + r - 1 r x
P(x) = p q , x = 0, 1, 2, ...
r-1
r(1 - p) r(1 - p)
E(X) = V(X) =
p p2

Probability Distribution of X~Poisson():


e- x
P(x) = , x = 0, 1, 2, ..., E(X) = V(X) =
x!
If X~B(n, p) with n 100 and p .01, then X ~ Poisson(np)