Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

Historical Revisionism in Marcos Burial Case

First, the Supreme Court ruled that President Duterte had the power to order the burial. The
Supreme Court did not itself order the burial.
Mixing this up is disastrous.

why is no one arguing that deeper principles of our Constitution and international law should
prohibit the burial even if there is no explicit law?

The overthrow of the Marcos dictatorship is the backdrop to the drafting of the 1987

more than 40 years after the declaration of Martial Law, the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos remains as "the
subject of the most rabid of debates and divergent views in the country today."

Ombudsman Conchita Carpio Morales expressed alarm over people's attitude to ignore
"As it turns out nowadays, those who could not remember history have the tendency to
write new ones," Morales said in allusion to British historian Lord Acton. "Much worse,
there are a lot of people who simple do not want to read their history. Period."

According to Morales, this attitude leaves the society vulnerable to revisionism.

"People should be bothered when the leaders themselves equally could not figure out what is right or wrong,"
she said adding that people should merely go back to basics: "Thou shall not steal. Thou shall not kill."

"that those who could not remember history are condemned to repeat it."

Morales said: "Indeed, the country does not need great leaders, because, more often than
not, they become great after having enmeshed in muddy rivalries and acquired a network
of compromises. It is enough that leaders remain good in the purest sense of the word."

President Duterte's decision to have the former dictator buried in the national heroes
cemetery is tantamount to negating the atrocities of the martial law regime.

"The National Historical Commission of the Philippines, a body tasked to inculcate awareness
and appreciation of noble deeds and ideals of our heroes through lessons in history have
already concluded that Marcos was never a hero. Yet we still want him buried in the Libingan
ng mga Bayani?," the Akbayan solon added.

The NHCP came out recently with a 17-page report titled "Why Ferdinand Marcos should not
be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani" where it detailed Mr. Marcos's military records as
"fraught with myths, factual inconsistencies, and lies." Marcos as a soldier who fought
heroically in World War 2 never happened thus the NHCP said it opposes the planned burial of
Marcos in the national heroes cemetery.
"Historical revisionism should never be allowed to happen. This will set a dangerous
precedent of denying our people the true lessons of history where crimes against humanity
were committed by the Marcos dictatorship but glossed over by the present dispensation,"
Villarin added.

Former Presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel V. Ramos had opposed moves to bury Marcos at the Heroes'
Cemetery during their respective terms, while Former President Joseph Estrada attempted to bury Marcos at the
Heroes' Cemetery but later cancelled the burial. Rodrigo Duterte, during the campaign period and debates and as
well having won the presidential elections, repeatedly asserted his plans for the burial of the remains claiming the
act is in accordance with the existing laws of the Philippines, as well as an insisting the burial will be an instrument
for the beginning of "nation-wide healing" but the plan was met with criticism due to others criticizing histroical
revisionism or negationism. The burial of Marcos, with military honors, was conducted in a private ceremony on
November 18, 2016.[9] It resulted in widespread expressions of indignation and nationwide protests. [10]

Burial of Ferdinand Marcos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Burial of Ferdinand Marcos, the 10th President of the Philippines (19651986) and dictator[1][2][3][4] was originally
scheduled on September 13, 2016 and later on October 18, 2016 at the Heroes' Cemetery in Taguig, Metro Manila,
Philippines. On November 8 of the same year, the Supreme Court eventually decided that Marcos be buried at
Heroes' Cemetery on an unspecified date.[5]The burial of Marcos took place on November 18, 2016.[6]
The burial of Ferdinand Marcos, particularly at the Heroes' Cemetery has been a controversial issue as critics,
particularly victims of human rights violations during the Martial Law era, and participants of the People Power
Revolution have opposed attempts to bury Marcos, who they deem as unfit to be buried at the particular cemetery
due to his authoritarian rule, and allege that the Marcos family has yet to return money illegally removed from the
country's treasury.[7] Opinion on his burial remains split: 50 percent of the 1,800 respondents of a survey conducted
by SWS in February 2016 said Marcos was worthy to be buried at the Libingan ng Mga Bayani while the other half
rejected a heros burial.[8]
There were conflicting claims on where the deceased Marcos wished to be buried. Former Interior Secretary Rafael
Alunan III, one of the signatories of an agreement to move Marcos' body from Hawaiito the Philippines during the
term of then President Fidel V. Ramos, said that Marcos wished to be buried beside his mother in his hometown
in Batac, Ilocos Norte, while his wife Imelda Marcos said that his wish was to be buried in Manila insisting that he
should be buried at the Heroes' Cemetery.
Former Presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel V. Ramos had opposed moves to bury Marcos at the Heroes'
Cemetery during their respective terms, while Former President Joseph Estrada attempted to bury Marcos at the
Heroes' Cemetery but later cancelled the burial. Rodrigo Duterte, during the campaign period and debates and as
well having won the presidential elections, repeatedly asserted his plans for the burial of the remains claiming the
act is in accordance with the existing laws of the Philippines, as well as an insisting the burial will be an instrument
for the beginning of "nation-wide healing" but the plan was met with criticism due to others criticizing histroical
revisionism or negationism. The burial of Marcos, with military honors, was conducted in a private ceremony on
November 18, 2016.[9] It resulted in widespread expressions of indignation and nationwide protests. [10]

Transfer of Marcos' body from Hawaii[edit]
After Ferdinand Marcos died in 1989, his family attempted to bring in his remains from Hawaii to the Philippines but
the administration President Corazon Aquino imposed a ban against the entry of Marcos' remains into the country.
This was lifted on October 9, 1991 by Aquino on the condition that Marcos' burial would not be used for political
purposes and on the condition that the body of Marcos be flown directly to Laoag. Aquino's executive
secretary Franklin Drilon said that a "heroes burial" would be allowed if held in Marcos' home province instead of
Manila. Imelda Marcos, the wife of Ferdinand Marcos has opposed the move saying that the dying wish of her
husband was to be buried in Manila.[11] In January 1992, the Philippine government has stated that it may not oppose
the burial of Marcos anywhere in Metro Manila provided that Marcos' body was flown into the country after the 1992
Philippine election in May. The Marcos family opposed the condition and was waiting for a ruling of the Supreme
Court at that time regarding their petition to bury Ferdinand Marcos as soon as possible. [12]
The transfer of Marcos' body would not be done until the administration of President Fidel V. Ramos. It was during
Ramos' term that a memorandum of agreement was made between the government and the Marcos family in 1992.
There were four conditions agreed by both parties and these were:[13][14]

1. The remains of Ferdinand Marcos were to be flown directly from the US state of Hawaii to the province
of Ilocos Norte.

2. Military honors for someone with the rank of major were to be given to Marcos. The rank was the last rank to
be held by Marcos during his service with the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

3. No parade displaying Marcos' body was to be held in Metro Manila.

4. Marcos' body was not to be buried at the Heroes' Cemetery but in Ilocos Norte.

The body of Ferdinand Marcos was stored in a refrigerated crypt at the Ferdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center in Batac, Ilocos

According to Rafael Alunan III, former Interior Secretary and one of the signatories of the agreement, the third
clause was agreed upon due to "wounds were still fresh in the minds of many people" and to avoid potential
instability. He also says that the former President Marcos wanted to be buried beside his mother in Batac, Ilocos
Norte.[14] Also according to Alunan, after the signing of the agreement Imelda Marcos crossed out the burial clause
and wrote in that Marcos was to be "temporarily interred" instead of being buried in Ilocos Norte. Alunan said that
the terms of agreement could not be changed after it was signed but Imelda insisted and came up with a new
agreement paper with the changed clause. The revised paper was not signed by the government. [13]
It was on September 7, 1993 that the body of Ferdinand Marcos was flown into the Philippines. From Hawaii the
body was flown to Guam then to Laoag in Ilocos Norte. The body of Marcos was not buried but was instead
preserved in a refrigerated crypt hosted inside a museum and mausoleum.[14] In Honolulu, Hawaii, Marcos' body was
also stored in a refrigerated crypt.[12]
Cancelled 1998 Heroes' Cemetery burial[edit]
Ramos' successor Joseph Estrada attempted to organize a burial of Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery. Then
President-elect Estrada had negotiations with Marcos' wife Imelda who initially also demanded state honors for the
burial but later agreed to a burial without state honors. It was agreed that Marcos was to buried on July 11, 1998.
The planned burial of Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery still received opposition even after state honors were not to
be included in the planned burial. Former President Corazon Aquino was among those who opposed the move.
Estrada remained firm on his decision until[15] July 1998 when Estrada decided against the plan amidst public
opposition saying that it would be better if the Marcos family agreed that Ferdinand Marcos be buried in Batac to put
an end to "bitter differences" and give rest to "various emotions and sentiments that flared up". [16]
2011 Batac burial recommendation[edit]
In April 2011, then President Benigno Aquino III tasked then Vice President Jejomar Binay to study whether to bury
Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery or not. The Office of the Vice President received 3,000 responses from various
political parties, sectors, organizations, and members of the public on the issue. Binay recommended the burial of
Marcos in his hometown in Batac with full military honors. Aquino did not act on the recommendation. [17]
2016 Heroes' Cemetery burial[edit]
Rodrigo Duterte supported the burial of Ferdinand Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery, even before he assumed
presidency and expressed this stance at his presidential campaign in the 2016 elections. Duterte has expressed that
a burial of Marcos at the site would commence the "healing" of the Philippines and pointed out Marcos' idealism and
vision for the country through his projects which "stood the test of time" and that Marcos' dictatorship "remains to be
debated". Duterte has also previously stated that Marcos could have been the best president if not for the abuses
during the Martial law period under Marcos' watch.[18] At the Visayas leg of the PiliPinas Debates 2016, Duterte and
fellow candidate Jejomar Binay expressed their support for a Marcos burial at the heroes' cemetery.[19]
2016 burial[edit]
Announcement and rationale[edit]
On August 7, 2016, President Rodrigo Duterte gave the order to bury former President Ferdinand Marcos at the
Heroes' Cemetery saying that Marcos was qualified to be buried at the cemetery due to being a "former president
and a soldier". Duterte said he was open to demonstrations against the burial plan but insisted that the former
President was qualified to be buried at the cemetery. He also added that the burial date may be moved to
September 11 which was the birthday of the deceased president. [20]
Amidst criticism that Marcos does not deserve to be buried at the cemetery, Duterte says that burying Marcos at the
site does not equate to Marcos being a "hero in the true sense of the word". He points out that former soldiers and
presidents are allowed to be buried at the cemetery and that he would be violating the law if he did not push through
with the burial and added that the previous administrations should have passed a law to bar Marcos from being
buried at the Heroes' Cemetery. Duterte said he doesn't care about the dispute regarding the authenticity of Marcos'
war medals and the non-appearance of Marcos' alleged World War II service in United States records. [21]
Supreme Court decision[edit]
The schedule of burial of Marcos were originally scheduled on September 13 then October 18 after the oral
arguments on petitions to stop the burial.[22][23]Eventually, on 8 November, the Supreme Court of the Philippines
allowed Marcos to be buried of Heroes' Cemetery with the votes of 9-5, with one abstention [24][25] dismissing the
status quo ante imposed to block attempts to bury Marcos in the Heroes Cemetery.

[hide]Supreme Court decision regarding the burial of Ferdinand Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery [25]

In Favor (9) Opposed (5)

Arturo Brion

Presbitero Velasco Jr.

Diosdado Peralta Maria Lourdes Sereno(Chief Justice)

Lucas Bersamin Antonio Carpio (Senior Associate Justice)

Mariano del Castillo Marvic Leonen

Jose Perez Francis Jardeleza

Teresita Leonardo-de Castro Alfredo Benjamin Caguioa

Jose Mendoza

Estela Perlas-Bernabe
Abstained (1): Bienvenido Reyes

Opinion summary[edit]
The concurring judges said that the Supreme Court cannot decide on the matter since it is a political question which
was deemed not justiciable. They argue that President Duterte did not abuse his discretion when he allowed the
burial of Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery. It was noted that the petitioners failed to specify a specific law that was
allegedly violated by proceeding the burial.[26]
The majority of the judges disagreed with the dissenting opinion that Marcos is disqualified to be buried at the said
site due to Marcos' ouster following the People Power Revolution, which the dissenters considers as an act of
Marcos being dishonorably discharged. It was noted that while Marcos was also the commander of chief of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines, the position is not a military position and the particular clause in the 1987
Constitution which gave the designation to Marcos only enshrines the principle of supremacy of civilian authority
over the military. It was concluded that Marcos could not be prosecuted before the court martial therefore he could
not be "dishonorably discharged, reverted or separated" under the AFP Regulations G 161-1375. Marcos ouster
through the People Power Revolution is judged to be extra-constitutional and direct sovereign act of the people
which was concluded to be outside the scope of the court. Marcos was also found not to have convicted of crimes
involving moral turpitude and court cases cited by the petitioners abroad were decided to have no bearing due to the
cases being civil in nature.[26]
It was added that it's up to the people to decide on the matter. The concurring judges also clarified that the court is
exercising judicial restraint on an issue they say is "truly political in nature" and that the resulting stigma of
Ferdinand Marcos' Martial Law regime will "not be forgotten by the Filipino people" and Marcos' burial at the
cemetery "will not rewrite history".[26]
The dissenting judges said that the burial disregard both international and domestic laws in regards to give justice to
victims of human rights abuses during Marcos' term. The Philippine government was noted to have an obligation to
provide compensations to the victims, both monetary and non-monetary, the latter of which includes symbolic
reparation. The burial of Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery was deemed by the dissenters as contrary to symbolic
reparation entitled to the victims. By allowing the burial, the dissenting judges says that President Duterte was
"encouraging impunity". Marcos was described by the dissenting judges as "a dictator forced out of office and into
exile after causing twenty years of political, economic, and social havoc in the country". [26]
They argue that Marcos' ouster following the People Power Revolution disqualified him from being buried at the
Heroes Cemetery even if the claim of him being awarded the Medal of Valor is indisputable since he was deposed
by the "sovereign action of the people" which was described as "the strongest form of dishonorable discharge from
Chief Justice Maria Lourdes P. A. Sereno, in her dissent, affirmed that the Court must take cognizance of the issues
presented in order to preserve the Constitution as well as the judiciarys own prerogatives under the Constitution.
She maintained that the President acted with grave abuse of discretion in ordering the interment at LNMB because
it violated domestic law and international law in relation to the obligations to do justice for human rights victims. After
a review of the applicable international agreements and protocols, the Chief Justice pointed out that the Philippines
is bound to affirmatively protect the rights of the human rights victims under martial law by providing effective
reparations, which would include monetary compensation as well as non-monetary remedies (such as symbolic
reparation). The Chief Justice pointed out that the interment of the Marcos remains at LNMB would be the antithesis
of symbolic reparation. She also pointed out that the interment would run counter to the duty to combat impunity as
well as to preserve memoryall of which are international commitments that the Philippines is bound to observe.
[citation needed]

Following the Supreme Court decision, preparations for the burial were commenced. Ilocos Norte Governor and
daughter of Ferdinand Marcos, Imee Marcos says that the burial will done in "simple rites like an ordinary soldier",
and insists that the event will not be a state funeral but a "funeral for a soldier" which she says her father wished for.
She also added that the family is willing to airlift the former President's remains from Batac to Fort Bonifacio.[27]
Santa Monica Church in Sarrat, the Immaculate Conception Church in Batac, and the Saint Agustine Church
in Paoay were earlier prepared for the wake for former President Marcos before the burial at the Heroes' Cemetery.

The Philippine National Police were informed on the night of November 17, 2016 that the burial will take place the
day after.[28] The police confirmed the scheduled burial in the morning of November 18. [29] The November 18 burial
was scheduled to take place at noon.[28]
The remains of Ferdinand Marcos was airlifted from Ilocos Norte at 9:00 a.m. (UTC+8) and was brought to the
Heroes' Cemetery in Fort Bonifacio in Taguig.[29] Marcos was then buried in his grave at the Heroes' Cemetery in a
burial ceremony closed to the public. Marcos' wife Imelda Marcos and his children were in attendance, as well as
the late president's only living sibling at the time, Fortuna Marcos-Barba. [30] About a hundred were in attendance
including personnel from the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and reportedly PNP Chief Ronald dela Rosa. Military
honors were done including a 21-gun salute during the rites.[31]
There was no public announcement of the burial plan, and the public only became aware of the plan shortly before
the burial. The Marcos family requested the government to conduct the burial in private, and confidentially. A budget
was allocated by the government on the burial and the exceeding budget reportedly will be shouldered by the
Marcoses. No exact figures regarding the budget allocated for the burial rites were disclosed. [31]
Ferdinand Marcos was buried in a marble finished tomb which has a cauldron that has a flame burning inside. [31]
Opinion poll[edit]

Opinion on Former President Ferdinand Marcos' burial at the Opinion on Former President Ferdinand Marcos' burial at the
Heroes Cemetery (March 2011; Filipinos ages 18 and above) Heroes Cemetery (February 2016; Validated voters)
Social Weather Stations (SWS)[32] Social Weather Stations (SWS)[8]

No, not worthy of the Heroes Cemetery (49%) Yes, worthy to be buried at the Libingan ng Mga Bayani
Yes, with official honors (30%) (50%)
Yes, a private burial only (20%) No (50%)
Don't Know/Refused to answer (1%)


Burial of Ferdinand Marcos protests

Students of the Ateneo de Manila

University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the

burial of Marcos insisting that the former President is not a

hero and a dictator.

Date July 17, 2016 February 25, 2017

(7 months and 8 days)

Location Philippines

(mainly Metro Manila)

Caused by
Planned burial of Ferdinand

Marcos at the Libingan ng mga


Supreme Court decision of

allowing Marcos to be buried

Marcos buried in a private


Goals Main:

Prevent the burial of Ferdinand

Marcos at the Libingan ng mga

Bayani (until November 18)

Exhumation of Ferdinand Marcos

remains from the Libingan ng mga

Bayani (since November 18)


Resignation or Removal of

President Rodrigo Duterte from office

(since December)

Methods Demonstrations

protest marches

internet activism



Parties to the civil conflict

Government and militant parties:


Liberal Party

Akbayan Youth[33]





San Beda College


UP Diliman

UP Cebu


A poll conducted by the Social Weather Stations(SWS) in March 2011 showed that opinion is split.[32][36] The same
trend appears in a follow up poll by SWS in February 2016. However validated voters instead of just anyone who is
18 years and above as done in the 2011 poll, where queried for the 2016 poll. [8]
An initiative called Bawat Bato (lit.For each stone) was launched, urging those who oppose the plan to dump stones
with names of victims of abuses during the Martial Law era of Ferdinand Marcos or a personal message at the
proposed site of the burial of Marcos within the Heroes' Cemetery. [37]
On July 17, 2016, a group of people participated in a protest run around the Quezon Memorial Circle in Quezon City
led by Fr. Robert Reyes.[38]Reyes said, whom, in the minds of martial law victims, is a traitor and dictator, is a terrible
insult to history and the country itself.[38]
About 2,000 people held protest against the burial plans, saying that Marcos was not a hero; organizers have
clarified that the protests were not against the Duterte administration itself, but are targeted towards the burial plan.

It was reported that Rafael Alunan said that those who oppose the burial plans of Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery
could invoke the 1992 agreement with the Marcos family and the Philippine government under then President Fidel
V. Ramos[14] but he clarified on August 17, 2016 that the agreement was a memorandum of understanding which is
not binding compared to a formal agreement or deal. [13]
On September 30, Ateneo de Manila University wrote a memorandum, stating that the students should wear black
T-shirt on UAAP Season 79 to protest the Marcos burial at the Libingan ng mga Bayani". [40][41]
On November 6, Former President Benigno Aquino III described the burial as a desecration of the Libingan ng
mga Bayani. The next day, Aquino briefly joined the crowd at the Luneta for the Pray for 8 event, a prayer rally
calling at least eight justices of the Supreme Court to vote against the internment of Marcos. [42] Former DILG
secretary Mar Roxas and senator Francis Pangilinan later joined the group.[42]
Following the 8 November decision of Supreme Court allowing the burial of Marcos, government officials and
politicians of the country expressed their disappointment and frustration; among them is Senator Pangilinan called
the decision as "shameful and deplorable."[43] Pangilinan also describes the Supreme Court's decision This is a
horrible day for democracy.[44] Incumbent Vice President Leni Robredo was saddened with the decision;
Senator Bam Aquino said that "my heart goes out to the thousands of victims during the darkest years in Philippine
Then-Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) president Lingayen-Dagupan Archbishop Socrates
Villegas, a proteg of late Manila Archbishop Jamie Sin during EDSA 1986, said through text to Rappler, on the
same day, that he is saddened with the decision and "the burial is an insult to the EDSA spirit". [45] Villegas also stated
that his blessing goes out the people who join the protests,[46] making him much hated by many Filipinos for his
actions, with people claiming that the church should not interfere with state issues. Unlike Villegas, then-Lipa
Archbishop Ramon Arguellescalled on Filipinos for prayers and forgiveness for the Marcos family. [47][48] Manila
Archbishop Cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle remained silent on the burial and instead chose to offer prayers for the
Marcos family and the Filipinos.[49]
On 11 November, the Martial Law victims filed a temporary injunction against the burial before the Supreme Court.[50]
Various groups and sectors also joined the rally, protesting the burial. On 12 November, hundreds of people,
protesting the burial, participated in the run at the University of the Philippines Diliman.[51]Lawyers and law students
wore black T-shirts 13 November and rallied in front of the University of Santo Tomas where the bar exams held.[52][53]
The Bagong Alyansang Makabayan (BAYAN) called on 14 November for widespread demonstrations across the

country, hoping to discourage President Rodrigo Duterte from proceeding the burial. [55] On 16 November, the
Sangguniang Laiko ng Pilipinas (Council of the Laity of the Philippines) calls the planned hero's burial of Marcos
"barefaced disrespect".[56]
In Cebu City, a day before the burial, an effigy of Marcos, the same look as he kept in a refrigerated mausoleum,
was displayed in a garbage cart, deserving to put as a garbage said by at least 500 members of militant groups.
Retired Judge Mienrado Paredes, who is among the person jailed during the martial law, said that "the real
heroes are the people. Marcos was garbage in history. He is not a hero."[58]
Presidential Communications Secretary Martin Andanar apologized for using the term "temperamental brats" to the
protests against it.[59] Andanar clarified on his Facebook post that he used the term "to express my frustration against
those who seek to further divide the country for reasons that have nothing to do with genuine patriotism and civic
November 18 burial[edit]

On 18 November, the day of Marcos burial, various groups gathered in some places. Among those who gathered to
opposed the burial was a group of youth. The League of Filipino Students described the transfer of Marcos remains
for the eventually successful burial the former president as being done like "a thief in the night." They also criticized
the government's involvement in the burial of the former president which they describe as a "fascist dictator".
The Kabataancondemn the burial labeling it as a "grave travesty" and as "galawang Hokage"
(lit. Hokage move; Hokage is a high-ranked ninja in the Naruto anime franchise).[34]
Vice President Robredo expressed disappointment stating that like a thief in the night, the Marcos family
deliberately hid the information of burying former President Marcos today from the Filipino people. [60] Students from
various universities and other groups joined the protest held across the country including Metro Manila, Cebu
City, Davao City, etc.[33] Senator Franklin Drilon gave a statement about the burial, like what Marcos did for 21
years, he caught us off-guard like a thief in the night. His burial is anything but noble. Even in death, he is a
thief.[61] Senator Risa Hontiveros, who opposed the burial, said that "no heros burial can erase the historical fact of
Marcos atrocities."[61]Senator Aquilino Pimentel III said the burial was a "sad development."[61] Former President Fidel
Ramos criticized the burial of the late president, describing it as "a step backward". [62][63]
On November 25, 2016, the day called by the protestors "National Day of Unity and Rage" and "Black Friday",
various groups in the country held mass demonstrations in the afternoon.[64] Left-leaning groups called on President
Duterte to end his alliance with Marcoses.[65] Anti-Marcos protestors and Marcos loyalists started a debate on the
issue after the two sides made an encounter.[66]
Maria Serena Diokno, chairperson of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) submitted her
resignation on November 29, 2016 in protest of the Marcos burial. She said that the burial "erases the memory of
the lives lost and destroyed" during the Ferdinand Marcos administration and that it " mocks the collective action the
Filipinos" took to remove Marcos from his post as President. She added that Duterte could have taken a "higher
ground" by disallowing the burial despite the Supreme Court decision not to stop the then burial plan. She also
praised the youth who expressed their opposition to the burial which she described as an act "in defense of History"
and said she would personally join mass demonstrations scheduled on November 30, 2016. Her resignation will be
effective on December 1, 2016.[67]
In the last week of November, several Facebook users who expressed their opinions against the burial of Marcos
were locked out of their accounts.[68] Some of the users involved suspected that other Facebook users might have
compromised their accounts.[68]
A student activist protesting against the Marcos burial received death and rape threats for her actions. [69] Senator
Risa Hontiveros later filed the "Tres Marias Bill" to prevent such action from repeating. [70]
Thousands of protesters gathered again on 30 November, Bonifacio Day, at the People Power
Monument in Quezon City.[71][72]
On December 10, about 11,000 protesters marched on the streets in Capiz, Iloilo, Bacolod, Aklan, and Cebu,
commemorating Human Rights Day.[73] On the night of December 15, about 150 members of a group called Coalition
against Marcos Burial gathered at the People Power Monument to attend the mass. [74]
Thousands of people celebrating the 31st anniversary 1986 People Power Revolution on February 25, 2017 with

Centres d'intérêt liés