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5/18/2016 PowerMOSFETs

PrinciplesofSemiconductorDevices
TitlePageTableofContentsHelp B.VanZeghbroeck,2011

Chapter7:MOSFieldEffectTransistors

7.8.PowerMOSFETs
7.8.1.LDMOS
7.8.2.VMOSTransistorsandUMOS
7.8.3.InsulatedGateBipolarTransistors(IGBTs)

7.8.1.LDMOS

TheLaterallyDiffusedMOSFET(LDMOS)isanasymmetricpowerMOSFETdesignedforlowonresistance
andhighblockingvoltage.Thesefeaturesareobtainedbycreatingadiffusedptypechannelregioninalow
dopedntypedrainregion.Thelowdopingonthedrainsideresultsinalargedepletionlayerwithhigh
blockingvoltage.Thechannelregiondiffusioncanbedefinedwiththesamemaskasthesourceregion,
resultinginashortchannelwithhighcurrenthandlingcapability.Therelativelydeepptypediffusioncausesa
largeradiusofcurvatureattheedges,whicheliminatestheedgeeffectsdiscussedinsection4.5.2.Whilethe
devicesnameimpliesthatthefabricationrequireadiffusion,thedopantscanjustaswellbeimplantedand
annealed.Diffusioncanbeusedinadditiontofurtherincreasethejunctiondepthandradiusofcurvature.
AtypicalstructureispresentedinFigure7.8.1.Thedevicecanbefabricatedbydiffusionaswellasion
implantation.Theptyperegionisformedfirst,followedbyshallowp+andn+regions.Then+regionsprovide
bothsourceanddraincontactregions.Thep+regioncontactstheptypebody,whichistypicallyshortedto
thesource,therebyeliminatingthebodyeffect.

Figure7.8.1: CrosssectionofaLaterallyDiffusedMOSFET(LDMOS)structure.
TheLDMOSstructurecombinesashortchannellengthwithhighbreakdownvoltageasdesiredforhigh
powerRFamplifiersinnumerousapplications.ThisdeviceiscurrentlythedeviceofchoiceforRFpower
amplifiersinbasestationsofwirelesscommunicationssystemsaswellasnumerousUHFandLbandpower
amplifiersinbroadcast,communicationandradarsystems.

7.8.2.VMOSTransistorsandUMOS

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TheVMOStransistor,namedaftertheVshapedgroove,isaverticalMOSFETwithhighcurrenthandling
capabilityaswellashighblockingvoltage.Itconsistsofadoublediffusedn+/player,whichiscutbyaV
shapedgrooveasshowninFigure7.8.2.a.TheVgrooveiseasilyfabricatedbyanisotropicallyetchinga
(100)siliconsurfaceusingaconcentratedKOHsolution.TheVgrooveisthencoatedwithagateoxide,
followedbythegateelectrode.AstheVgroovecutsthroughthedoublediffusedlayer,itcreatestwovertical
MOSFETs,oneoneachsideofthegroove.ThecombinationoftheVgroovewiththedoublediffusedlayers
resultsinashortgatelength,whichisdeterminedbythethicknessoftheptypelayer.Theverticalstructure
allowstheuseofalowdopeddrainregion,whichresultsinahighblockingvoltage.

Figure7.8.2: CrosssectionoftwoverticalMOSFETstructures:a)VMOSandb)UMOS.
AnotheralternatestructureistheUMOSstructure.Averticaltrenchisetchedthoughthedoublediffused
layer,againresultingintwoverticalMOSFETs.
EitheroneoftheseverticalstructurescanfurtherbecombinedwiththeHEXFETlayout.Thislayout
resemblesahoneycombstructureinwhichthehexagonalareasaresourceareas,whilethegatemetalis
locatedontheperimeters.

7.8.3.InsulatedGateBipolarTransistors(IGBTs)

TheInsulatedGateBipolarTransistororIGBTforshortcombinesthehighdccurrentgainofaMOSFETwith
thehighcurrenthandlingcapabilityandhighblockingvoltageofaBJTinasurprisinglysimplestructuresuch
astheoneshowninFigure7.8.3.Atfirstglance,theverticalstructurelookslikethatofaregularbipolar
transistorstructure.Howeveracloserlookrevealsap+substrateratherthanann+substrate.Tofurther
analyzethisstructureweusetheequivalentcircuit,whichcontainsthepnpBJTasformedbythebottom
threelayersaswellasthenMOSFETunderneaththegateelectrode.Oneshouldnotethattheptype
collectorofthepnpBJTandthentypesourceofthenMOSFETsharethesamemetalcontact.Also,thatthe
drainregionofthenMOSFETistheburiedntypelayer,whichisthentypebaseofthepnpBJT.The
electronsoriginatingfromthen+sourceflowlaterallyunderneaththegateandthenflowdownintheburiedn
typeregion,therebysupplyingthegatecurrentofthepnpBJT.Sincethegatecurrentisprovidedlocally,the
emittercurrentwillbeconcentratedaroundthesamearea.Notethatundertypicaloperationthecollector
wouldbegroundedwhilethepositivevoltageisappliedtotheemitter.Thereforethisdevicecanbe
connectedinaswitchingcircuitjustlikeannpnBJTwiththeimportantdistinctionthatnogatecurrentis
requiredtomaintaintheonstatecurrent.

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Figure7.8.3: InsulatedGateBipolarTransistor(IGBT):a)equivalentcircuitandb)devicecrosssection.
Boulder,December2004

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