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NEW

APPROACHES
o LEARNING
CHINESE

lUiCIi
S lN OLlN GUA

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This set of courses is pecially ~esig~ed. with


brand.new approaches for freign students beginning
to learn Chinese. Independt from one another yet
integrated into ! whole , t!tere are t!tree cours~s in this
set: . Intensive Spoken Chinese , The Most Common
Chinese RadicaJs, and Rapid Literacy in Chinese.
Beginning with pinyin only, instead of dealing with
both pronunciation anq character recognition ,
students will find the Spoken Chinese course easy to
master, and will be able to communicate in Chinese n
no time.
The concentrated training in character learning will
enable the student to enter nto the reading stage in
an unprecedentedly short time and taste the
satisfaction. and enjoyment of fluent comprehenson.
In the Radicals book , the students will be attracted by
the rich content of culture and art embodied in
Chinese characters , which , instead of being the
"stumbling blocks" they have often been considered ,
become "magnets" drawng them step by step to the
nnermost charm of the Chinese language.

ISBN 7-80052-695-X

iSBN 7-80052-695-X/H . 1021 ()


24.00

9 CE-3418P
;iIJjyij;

New Approaches to Learning Chinese


Rapid Literacy in Chinese



ijiji

SINOLINGUA

Robert H.Gassmann
Brigitte Klla


.u

dMmd a--n 124


JM 'h

AUQUAU
0UOUAU
.-A


CAM

nunu

inu

ISBN7 80052- 695 - X


Copyright 2001 by Sino1ingua
Pu b1ished by Sino1ingua
24 Baiwanzhuang Road, Beijing 100037, China
Tel: (86) 10-68995871/68326333
F:(86) 10-68326333
E-mail: hyjx@263.net
Printed by Beijing Foreign Languages Printing House
Distributed by China International
Book Trading Corporation
35 Chegongzhuang Xilu , P.O. Box 399
Beijing 100044 , China

Printed in the People Republic of China



............. ....................... . "6

750
........ .............. .. 1
............. ....... ..................... .... ........................... 2

.................. 8

... ... ...... ... M

......... .. 20


..........".... .............................. ............................... ....... 28
........................ ........ ..............................................32
............. ....... ................. ....... . ...............................36
.............. ......................... .......................................... ... 40
......... 4
-
............. .

......... .......


..... ........................................ . .................67
.......

............ .......................... ................................................. 72

76
..................................... .. ............ ..................... ......... 80

g
M

.............................................................................................94

......... ...... ... ... ......... .....


......... 107
.............. ....... ....... ...... --........................................ 110

..................,......................." . ..........................114
................ ....... .... ...... 116

................. . 136
CONTENTS

Introduction ............ ................."."" "..............."""""""""""""""""""""""" " ..........3


To the User """"". "",, """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""......................................... 7

750 Frequently Used Chinese Characters .........


le 25 Constructed Sentences . 2

Lesson One ........................................."""""""""".."""""""""""".."""""".".""""""""".......... 4


Lesson Two """"""""" "".".."""."..""""""."""""""""."""" """"."""""""."""""""""" """,,",,""" ............ 8
Lesson Three ............................................................................................. 12
Lesson Four ................................"."" """""....... .................................16
Lesson Five ..,"""""""""""",,,,",,""""",," "..""""" ",,""",,",,",,",,"",,",,"",,",,"",,"" """"""""""""""""" .......20

Lesson Six ............... 24

Lesson Seven """""" """""""""""""""" ""..""""""""""""""" ..""""""" " .........................28


1sson Eight ....................................................."""".."""""""""""""""""""""""""""". 32

Lesson Nine """"""""""""""""""" """.."""".. """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ".. 36


Lesson Ten """""""""""""".."""""""""" """"..""""".."""..""""""""""""""""""""" . .........................40
Article Four Generations Under One Roof .......................................... 45
Lesson Eleven .................. ......... .................. .... ................ . .46
Lesson Twelve ............................................................. ................. .. 50

Lesson Thirteen ........................... ........................................................ 54


Lesson Fourteen ....... ............................................................................. 58
Lesson Fifteen ....... .................. ........................................................ 62
Article News Report on China ............... ........................... .. 67
Lesson Sixteen ........ .................................................................... 68
1sson Seventeen ...................... ............................ ............................. 72
Lesson Eighteen ......................... .................. .................................... 76
Lesson Nineteen ............................................ ....... ................ ........... 80
Lesson Twenty ....................................................................................... 84
Lesson Twenty-One .............. 1 1 . . . . 1 1 11 11 11 11 1 1 . . . 1 1 11 11.11 11 11 11 11 11" 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 ...................88
Article Interviewing Bing Xin
Lesson Twenty -Two 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 .............................................. 94

Lesson Twenty - Three ...................................... 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 .................98


Lesson Twenty - Four 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11.. 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 . 102

Article The Death of Lao She ......................................................107


Lesson Twenty- Five 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 .......... 110

English Translation of the 25 Constructed Sentences ........................... 114


Vocabulary .
.
.. .
.... .
....

.
.... .........
.. ....
..
..
..
.. .
.... ..
.. ...........
.... .
.... .
.. ...
.. .......
.... .
.. .
.... .
.. ............
.. .
..
..
.. ...
.... 116

Key to the Exercises .



..
..
...
....
..
..
...
.... .................
.. .
.. .
..
.
.....
..
..
..
...
.... .
.. ...........
.. .
.. .
.. .
.... ........
.. ..
.. 136
6

""""""
"
"


""
""

""""

""""
""""
""""""
""
""
""
"""" "China" ""
""""
""


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""""

:
""

""""

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()
()
()
A

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t
() ()

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2
h.oduction

The Chinese language has for too long been perceived as being beyond the grasp of the foreign
leamer. This misconception has been caused , unfortunately , for the most part by an improper
teaching approach.
For several decades the spoken and written form of Chinese have been taught simultaneously to
beginners. There is nothing wrong this approach in teaching Westem languages like French or
English that employ a phonetic system or alphabet as an aid to leaming pronunciation , but it is cer-
tainly not the best method for teaching the Chinese spoken language and Chinese characters. The
reasons for this are threefold:
1. Chinese characters cannot be read phonetically. Chinese characters developed from pic

tographs into ideographs. This means that there is no drect relationship between the form and struc-
ture of Chinese characters and their pronunciation. So the hotchpotch teaching of both the spoken
language and Chinese characters at the beginning stage will not help foreign leamers master pronun-
ciation , and the characters will, if anything, only be a stumbling block to their acquisition of oral
fluency.
2. ach Chinese character is made up of components that follow a specific stroke order and rules
of fornation. So it is logical that the sjmple mponent be taught first , progressing to the more com-
plicated component and whole characters. But in the approach of teaching speaking and writing si-
multaneously, whatever is leamt in the poken language will be followed by a corresponding written
character. Obviously, in this approach the characters are not chosen systematically according to their
structural compositions , and so the rules that govem the writing of Chinese characters are not re-
flected , making the teaching and leaming of characters only more chaotic and difficult.
3. Chinese characters should form the basis of courses in reading texts. Single syllable characters
can be combined to make various disyllabic or multi-syllabic words. There are unlimited combinations
that can be made by adding characters to change or expand meanings. If you know how to pronounce
some characters, it follows that you will be able to read the word they form. Knowing the meaning of
certain characters will help you understand the meaning of the word they make. As you leam more
characters , your ability to recognize more words increases. Leaming words thus becomes easier.
Si:nce character recognition determines word

3
and does not give the characters the place they desee thus greatly reducing the efficiency of
teaching Chinese reading.
Our new approach may be summarized as follows:
ln the initial stages of learning, "spoken Chinese" and "character recognition and writing"
should be taught separately.
Teaching materials for oral class use mainly a system of romanization called H nyu pinyin.
The students are not required to deal with the characters. There are obvious reasons for this. Learning
to speak Chinese becomes a lot easier using a phonetic system of romanizat on.
When teaching spoken Chinese we start to introduce systematically the form of Chinese
characters: the strokes , radicals (radicals are the basic components of Chinese character and the
structural components. Th ese "stumbling blocks" become much more friendly in this way, and the
students are given a key the secret of Chinese characters which will help them greatly in their later
reading stage.
len proceed to the reading stage by learning to read chllracters. Only when the learner is
able to speak and has learned the form and structure of characters can we begin to teach him how to
read. Texts should be specially designed, focusing on character recognition and word formations , with
the aim of quickly enlarging vocabulary and acquiring rding ability.
In the reading stage character leaIling should be combined with continuous spoken language
training and reading aptitude training. The texts should be put in the form of dialogues and narrative
prose pieces written with the characters learned in each lesson, so they are very short , and easy to
read and remember. Th e exercises should include comprehensive forms of listening, speaking, reading
and writing that are closely linked and complementary to each other.
What is discussed above can be illustrated as below:

lnitial stage Second stage

Oral Course Comprehensive Course


Character leaming: intensive
Learn to use pinyin
trammg
Oral training: application of
Writing Course
characters
Leam the basic structuralmponents Reading: prose , etc.
of characters Writing: characters and sentences

ased on the above design and consideration, New Approaches to Le arning Chinese has been
devised , which includes three textbooks:
Inte.i;ve Spoken Chinese (oral course )
Includes 40 conversational lessons, about 1, 000 commonly used words and numerous grammat-
ical notes.
4
TheMt Common Chinese Radicals (writing course )
Contains about 100 Chinese' radicals and the basic structure of Chinese character
Rapid Literacy in Chine. (comprehensive course )
Uses 750 commonly used Chinese characters and 1300 words formed from them to make 25 short
sentences, 25 conversational dialogues and four narrative prose pieces.
Beginners who have completed lntensive Spoken Chinese and The Most Common Chinese Radicals
can proceed to Rrpid Literacy in Chinese. 50 by going step by step they will feel that leaming Chinese
is not difficult at all. Furthermore, there s much that can be leamed about Chinese culture from
Chinese character besides their a1luring charm and fascination.

Zhang Pengpeng



30 25 750 :


30 30


:()






30

30

6
To the User

The aim of this comprehensive course is to quickly enlarge students' vocabulaI. It is designed
for students who have learned pinyin and the basic structural components of characters , preferably
having completed Intensive Spoken Chinese and The Most Common Chinese Rqdicals. ls textbook
consists of five parts: character learning , word formation , oral training , character writing and
reading.
1. Character learning
The texts start with concentrated character learning: The student is expected to learn 30 new
charcters in each lesson, for a command of 750 characters after finishing the 25 lessons of this book.
The character learning part has been designed in accordance with the following five principles:
Combining the characters into a sentence
As it is rather difficult to remember 30 isolated characters, in each lesson they are combined into
one sentence which forms the major text. By memorizing just one sentence, the student thus learns all
the new characters in the lesson.
Short sentences, containing as many new characters as possible.
As the Chinese characters are hard to read and pronounce and one can remember the sound only
after repeated reading, short sentences help to make this task easier. The texts are designed by using
as few "old" characters as possible , keeping the repetition of characters to a minimum, so that the
students can read and recite the texts repeatedly in the shortest possible time.
The sentences are closely related to daily life.
It has been shown that after a character or a word has been spoken in an oral class , it is easier
for one to perceive and pronounce at this stage. H the content of the sentence is similar to that of
everyday speech, it will be even easier to remember the sound of it.
The pronunciation and meaning of both the characters and the words they form should be
introduced at the same time.
Only commonly used characters are chosen.
All of the characters chosen here are the ones most frequently used in forming common words and
phrases.
2. Word formation
After introducing the 30 new characters , each text proceeds provide 30 commonly used words
formed by them 9n the left side of the second page in each lesson.
3. Oral training
This section can be found on the right side of the second page in each lesson. The oral texts are
closely related to daily communication and are compiled by incorporating newly learned characters.
This part is prepared for reading aloud, and can also be employed for

7
4. Character writing
Since the student has acquired the basic knowledge of how to write characters in the radicals and
components course in the first stage, in this book the new characters are clearly shown at the bottom
of the second page in each lesson, enlarged, for students to copy and practice.
5. Reading
Starting at Lesson 10, there is an atricle after a few lessons. This is for the student to review the
characters already leamed and also provide a transition from ch"aracter leaming to reading, which is
the ultimate aim of character leaming.

To make study more convenient, the 30 newly introduced character the single-sentence text,
the word formation and oral training pa in each lesson are all accompanied by aural cassettes. Also
provided in the book are the unsimplified character versions and the English translations of the sin-
gle-sentence texts, as well as the grammatical notes in both Chinese and English. They can be used at
the teacher' s or the student' s discretion.

'

-t

:.: 'i3

AU
'

02

03
"? "

04 : "

!""?" "?"

05

06

""
07

08

09
O
10
O
11

12

2
13

14 :
"! "
15

16 O
"
17

18 :

19

20

21

22
"7!! "
23

24 :

25

3
1 yl one

2 -

r two

3
sn three
4 sl four

5 w fve wlil May

6 7 li SlX

7 q seven

8 / b eight rshb twenty eight

9 ji nlne

10 sh ten snshs1 thty four

11 w l, me
12 n woman, daughter; female n pngyou girlfriend

13 png 'iiend

14 yu friend pngyou 'iiend

15 sh1 he
16 ni1 year yjiini1 in 1967
17 l month, the m'11

18 i ] ho numher, a mark

19 ch go out
20 shng give hiJth t. grow; h; raw chshng hehom
21 de (a stnIctural pazie)
22
h jn today, now jnnin this year
23 [] su1 year (of age)
24 [] zh this
25 [] g (a measure word)
26 xng star
27 q a period of tim. phase xngq week
28 tIn d sky heaven xngqtin Sunday
29 t she tde her
30 rl day, sun shngrl hiJthday

Wnpngyu shl yjiiq ni1 wliyu rshb ho chshng de , jnnin sIshs1 s zh g xngqtin sh1
t de shngrl.

O
4
r

:; J

fo.
()
y
SL

seventy O
- eighty

ninety
January
O
ary O
March
O
April
May

June O
August

5'temher
O
Octoher
Noveer O
Decemher
tI1day

esday

Wedne.y O
Thursday
iday

Saturday
Sunday O
te

today
()
e'lJ'day

every month
eve. year O
my; mine
O
emon

three years O O

- -- i ||

--
--
.-

|||.| ||
||||| ||
5
:
le order of the date is written as follows: the year, month , date and day , e. g.

""
"":

When used attributivelyshow possession, a noun or pronoun usually takes the structural particle after it.
When placed between a personal pronoun and a noun indicating personal relations may be omitted, e. g.

N N

"":

A sentence in which the main element of the predicate is a noun, a nominal constructon or a numeral measure
word is called a sentence with a nominal predicate. The verb is a rule , not used in a sentence of this kind ,
e. g.

S N


"... .. ."""(

"") "":
is used in a sentence to emphasize the time , place or manner of an action which took place in the pL

is placed before the word group that is emphasized ( may sometimes be omitted) and comes after the verb
or at the end of the sentence, e. g.

S T V


"":
When the demonstrative pronoun functions as an attributive , the noun it qualifies also takes a measure word
before it, e. g.

6
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C Do

3. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.-

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

D.

7
wng {a sumame} , king
qh1MA

xlUn ellllier; frst; hefore xinsheng J gentleman


wi {a measure word}; place
WI01 {ahhr.
"U

i not; for Afiica}


chng often; ordinazy fichng vezy
yu have; ere 1S
OQJ

[ jing pass through


[.] yn eXBmlne jingyn e>enence

nn male
USA
4A

lo old; always


'A

[] shi teacher loshi teacher


"
EA

i he at, in
34567bi
3

:i!:. north



4Atiti--

Jlllg capital Bijing Be

d b eldest dxu umveIy

[] xu study; learning lixu study ahroad


gng WOI
1122
oonynu'1
zu do gngzu WOI; joh
t he
[] zhun pecial

jio teach
jio teaching, religion jioshi teacher
2222
3A

remain, keep, accep. leave lixushng student stu.ingahroad

[]f practJCe xux study


[] xin present; appear


J

di histoIical penod, generabon xindi modem times


22223
U

[] hn the 'n natJOna.iy


IOOOYAU

[] language Hny the 'inese language


h and
[] sh hook; nie

method, law sh caUigraphy


Wng xinsheng sh y wi fichng yu jingyn de nn 1os zi Bijing Dxu gngz t zhun jio
lixushng xux xindi H h shf


8
;\ \ /\

often
requen~
()
perennial
.Jd age

some O
iend

teacher
teaching
teachi method
student
O


academic d.

school year

semester

nozmal university

StIhheofHqm
EYDynasty l
l ()
now
his
teacher's
O O
student's
way (of action)
grammar
French
Japanese

French hook
Chinese hook

Japanese hook
one teacher
O


'

three friends



9
"":
When a noun is used to modi another noun, it usually doesn' t take after it, e. g.

N N

"":

An adjective construction, when used attributively , must take after it , e. g.

a.dj N

"":
le preposition together with its object , forms a prepositional construction, which is often placed before the

verb an adverbial a unct e. g.


nv-bu
p
S

:
lere is a kind of sentence with verbal predicate in whichthe object of the first verb is at the same time the suect
of the following b e. g.

S v (S) V 0

:
Some verbs can take two objects , an indirect object (usually referring to a person) and a direct object (usually
refe ng to a thing) , with the former preceding the latter, e. g.

S V

When an adverbial adjunct denotes the time of an action, it can be put before the su ect or verb , e. g.
T
s

T V 0

LU Avm

10
Choose a correct position:

1. A 8 C D O

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

_0
A. f

B.

C.

D.

11
1 r if, as; he as good as
resu1t, fmit rgu if
2 gu

3 nl you

4 b not, no

5 zh know; knowledge

6 do say; road, Taoim zhdo know

7 " ZE we or us {including hoth the >eaker and the listener}

8 [] men {suRx for plural numher} znmen we {including the listener}

9 1 schI xuxio schI

fof; eat
10 sh

11 tng a haU fora pecific purpose shtng canteen, mess h aU

12 cn mea/

13 [] tng haU Cltng dining haU

14 f clothes; ohey, serve

15 [] w air; he en/Jied in fw serve

16 [] yun a person eng.ed in some activity fwln w81ter, server

17 jio call, shout

18 shn

19 [] me {suBix } shnme wha which

20 mng name, title

21 zl word, character mngzi name

22 ji then, as s'l1 as, at once, only

23 k can, may, approve, hut

24 yl use, take; according to kyl can, may; passahle

25 [] wn ask

26 xi smaU

27 ji elder sister xioji Mis

28 nn you {repectful fonn}

29 [] gul expensive, va/uahle; your

30 xlng sumam familyname Nn gulxlng? May 1 ask your sumame?

: "? "
Rg u nl b zhdo znmen xuxio shtng h cntng fyun jio shnme m zi ji kyl wn tmen:
"Xioji nn gulxlng ?

: "?"

12
: J ": 3

henot
()
do not teach
do not leam
?
do not stu

do not ask
not as good as .?
do not work """" ""
we, us
""
you
.?
they
they (fema1e)
teachers
students
()
friends
.?
teacher
church ""0
Taoism .?
famous 0
celehrated
.?
full name
inese character

hut .?
va1uahle O
leaming

knowledgeahle
question mark

primary school .?
schoolchild
children
0
size
.
elder sster
eldest sster


||! |
|||
'2
i |
||| l !
13
:
A question with an interrogative pronoun has the same word order as that of a declarative sentence , e. g.

():

An affirmative-negative tion is another form of question, which is made by juxtaposing the affirmative and
negative forms of the main element of the predicate (the predicative verb or adjective) , e. g.

v
s

qF-nr

"":
When used attributively, a verb or a verbal construction must take after it the structural particle e. g.

VO N

"":
When an adjective or such a phrase is used for the predicate, the verb is not used, e. g.

fS

"":

The holping verb is used before verbs , e. g.

S V V

"":

A sentence is used as the object of the verb e. g.

S V (S V 0)

14
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.
A.

B.

C.

D.

2. --
A.

B.

C.

D.

3. ?

A.

B.

C.

D.

15
zhng centre, middle
2 [] gu6 country Zhnggu6 ~il1a

3 sh ripe, cooked, done, familiar


4 Xl know shxi know sth. or sh. well,
5 n man, persOl people he famiHar
6 [ jin see
7 min face, Dour, side jinmin meet
8 d make, hit d zhohu say hello, greet
9 zho heckon, recroit
10 h shout, hreathe out zhohu call
11 Jl street
12 shng higher; moun go to jishang on the street
13 y meet yjin meet
14 [] sh lime, moment
15 hu time, seasoni wait shhou moment
16 z~n how bz~nme not ve

17 {] i Hke, love
18 {] shu Speak talk
19 h g kind nI ho hello
ho toHke
20 zu most, -est
21 xI he fond o/, h.ppy

22 [] hun meny xIhun toHke


23 n which
24 [] r child, soni (a suDx) nr where
25 q go
26 G (a modal parlicle)
27 11f. chi eat
28 [] fn meal
29 le (a modal particle,' an a'ct PBI.Je)
lio nish, set i (used after a VeI ) to a nish
30 I [] ma (a modal PBI;cle)

: "
!": "?""? "
Zhnggu6 shxi de rn jinmin zhohu h zi ji shang yjin de shhou bz~nme i shu: "! "
zu xlhun wn : " NI shng nr q 0 ? Chi fn le ma ? " F

: "
! ": "? ""?"
16
inese meal

()
middle school
goahnd

France .?
40 60 (J9
?
the eldeJ

good person
.
hushand or w. O ?
acquaintance . O
worker
()
adult
/ p.G. .?
the noJthem side ?
written language
O ?
street -
ove" more than
hour .?
sometJmes

time>ch

4 novel ()
how, why
best .?
smallest O
like
O
lovahle
delicious .?
he easy to lem ;
last year
O
here

have asked
known

17
"......":

"" is a common construction denoting time , meaning "when" or "at the time of' . It is usually
preceded by a verb , a verba1 construction or suect - predicate construction, e. g.

S (V 0 ) T V 0

"! "

""" mi () " "":


When the moda1 particle is added at the end of a sentence , it indicates a change in circumstances. le
negative form is made by putting () before the verb and is omitted , e. g.

s () V 0

":

When the interrogative prticle is added at the end of a declarative sentence, it becomes a question, e. g.


v
S

:
Two or more verbs can share the same subject , e. g.

s V V O

"":
le adverb can modify an adjective or a verb , e. g.
u


v
S

a-

J


f
'

'rb

"":

e adverb may be used to confirm what has been stated previously or to emphasize a statment, e. g.

18
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D "! "

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1."? ": " "


A.

B.

C.

D.

2. ?

A. !

B. ?

C. ?

D. ?

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

19
[] c6ng 'lIl~ ever
2 mng hrigh c1ear mngtin tomoITOW
3 [] ki open, stazt
4 shI heginning; hh kishI hegin
5 mei eve" meitin every day
6 zo moming, 10 ago zoshang mommg
7 [] din c1ock point drop q din seven 0'c1ck
8 k a quazter; carve y k a quazter
9 du all
10 y!o want, ask for, need
11 [] q ne (an animal or hicycle)
12 z} se/f; ivm
13 4 xng wlk; all right
14 [] ch vehic1e zlxngch hicyc1e
15 d!o a177ve, go to
16 shl room ji!osh classroom
17 {] k course, c1ass, 1esson 19k go to c1ass
18 [] li!n practice
19 [] f utter, send out
[] hair
20 yn sound fyn pronunclation
21 ni!n read aloud
22 wn writing, aztic1e kwn text
23 [j] jl rememher, note
24 [] dn sing/e
25 [] c word dnc word
26 [] tng listen
27 [] xie wnte tngxi dictate; dictation
28 hu retum, answ time

29 d rep1y, answer hud answer


30 [] t proh1em, su;ect wnt question, proh1em

C6ng mngtin kishIitin zoshang q di y k w du y'o q zxngch d!o ji!oshl sh !ngk, li fyn
ni !n kw jl drngxi hud wnt,

20
/ P

J
Q...

next year
star ()
drive a car
sch/ >ens
?
>en
O
231

every month
JEE

hrea.M .?

lMSEF

alittle
.

a little, some
?
i n case
get on a hus
O
exercl5e
discover

"1

class n inese


.?
inese
French .?
Japanese

qomposllJon
literature
heard 0/
()
hear
pleasant hear .?
ask ahout 0
pronunciation
. O
umt
new word O O
noun O
pronoun

retum to homeland
go hack '? O

goup

21
:
There is a kind of sentence in which the first verb indicates the manner of the action expressed by the second
verb, e. g.

||||!
}
v
v
s


-A

"""" "":

Verb denoting action can be repeated. This device is usually employed when one wishes to indicate that the action
is of a very short duration, to soften the tone of a sentence or to make it sound relaxed or informal, e. g.

S v v

"" "":

le objects of the prepositions and J are usually wordsphrases denoting place or time, e. g.

N

"""":

A sentence is used as the object of the verb and e. g.

S V (S V 0 )

""""""

In the sentence below means the same as .- constructions of this kind, composed of
a subject and a verb plus are nominal constructions.

(S V ) V 0
()
()

22
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.?

A.

B.

C.

D.

2. ""?

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

23
{] hu hehind, after hutin day after tomolTO W

2 xi heloH down. next

3 w noon xiw aftemn

4 ch di1iT from; short o/, had wr

5 fn minute;divia; (8 measure woJ

6 [] zhng clock, heU fnzhng minute

7 y too, a/SO

8 [] zh:n aUoH grant; certainly

9 [] bi prepare zh:nbi intend, prepare

10 z 8gmn, once more

11 gn with; foUow

12 bn class bnshang in the class

13 [] jI 8 few; how many

14 t6ng together; same t6ngxu classmate

15 qI start, rise ylqI together

16 zu Slt

17 zu rent chz hire ouf; taxi

18 ql Vour steam qlch automohile

19 dl 18nd, soiJ, fell

de (8 structura/ particle) hoho de aU out, weU


20 [] lron dlti suhwa) metro

21 xn new

22 sh world

23 ji houndary shji world

24 shng commerce; discuss

25 din shop, store shngdin shop

26 [] m huy
27 xi some

28 hu6 live; movahle, quick shnghu6 life; live

29 yng use

30 pln article yngpln articles for use

""
Hutin xiw ch wu fnzhng 5 din, t yi'i zi gn bnshang de jI g t6ngxu yqI zu chzqlch
h dlti q "Xnshlji" shngdin mi xi shnghu6 yngpln.

""
24
J r

the year after nexl


al the hack, hehind ()
Qiier
lrom nowon .?
n 1as
nish c1ass
@?
gel oul 01 a car
go down 0
nexl week .?
once

fortmn
noon .?
1unch O
'c1ock
a quarter ()
on time
al the same lime .?
prepare 1essons
O
good
a lew minutes
give a name

can '1 afford 10 eal
New Year
""?
pass away O
husinessman
0
engage in de
.?
commodity
d81 81'c1es 0
usage .?
hole1
!
hookshop
.!

'

som certan

25
;'"

Ways of telling the time (hour) , e. g.

8: 05 8: 30 8: 45
8: 15 8: 40 - 8: 55

Ways of telling the duration of time , e. g.

A complement of duration placed after a verb shows the duration of an action or a state, e. g.

s V T

A verb can be repeated following its object. The repeated verb is followed by a complement of duration, e. g.

lS V 0 V T

"":

le prepositional construction and its object are often used in front of a verban adverbial adjuI
e. g.

S P 0 adv V 0

""

"":

is ud tok ut a number smaller than ten. JL can be also used to indicate an unspecified number, e. g.

26
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C Do

2. A B C: " D "

j~

3. A B C Do

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:


1.?

A.

B.

c.

D.

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

27
1 hn h

2 gng metric, public, male


3 Jn (a 'inese unit of weight:O. 5 kg) gng)in k I10gramme
4 shuI wa'er shulgu froit
5 [] shng pair, double
6 p skin, leather
7 xi shg pxi leather shoes
8 [] ling two
9 zh (a measure wo); prop l
10 [] gng steel
11 [] hI pen gnghI pen
12 hen (a measure word); lx ongin
13 [] z mixf

14 zhl records z11 m(fazme

15 [] tio (a measure wa); s


16 mi1 cotton
17 mo w>l (a unit ofmoney: 1 yuan) mok long woolen pants
18 [] trousers minmok tton (interlock) trousel
19 ji (a measure word)
20 [] yn motion; tran'JOrt

21 [] dng move, act yndng 'JOn

22 y clothes yndngyi onswear

23 [] zhn (a measure waJ; 'to n


24 [] do lead, guide
25 y6u swim, travel doy6u guide
26 [] t m~ p /Cture doy6ut unstmap

27 gng altogeer common


28 qi thousand
29 hi hundred
30 [] kui fe basic unif money = yuan) , piece

Bn gngjin shuIgu, yl shung pxi , ling zh gnghI, . sn hen zz s1 tio mimo w jin

yndngy , li zhng doy6ut , gng ylqin snhi kui.

28
)
r

haffada along tme


halfayear ()
three irty
halfan hour
.?
hus
O O
civil servant
centimelre ?
soda r O
.iledwa.r

shoestore
twoo'clock

twoyears
twomonths ()
wrtng hrosh
notehook
.?
penname
Japan ?
e'J8y .?
COIIllde
O
n.es

condition
clothing
()
woolcloth
upper outerg817Dent .?
overot
0
.rtsman
acty
.?
verh
mP
common

ina

together

29
:
A numeral alone cannot function as an attributive but must be combined with a measure word inserted between
the numeral and the noun it modifies, e. g.

"":
Every noun as a rule has its own specific measure word. of all the measure words is the most often used. It
can be placed before a noun denoting a personing or place , e. g.

"""" "2" """":

Both and mean two. Before a measure word is normally used instead of e. g.

"""" "":
is a measure word showing an indefinite quantity and is usually used after or to modify nouns, e. g.

., "":

Usage of for example:

(30 ) (90 )
(18 )
(45 )

30
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A -B C D D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.?

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

31
zu yesterday
2 wn eveni.. nl't; late
3 [] li two persons
4 yu agam yu.. .yu hoth... and..
5 {] huF

6 k thirsty
7 fn (a measuro word)
8 f ]y fish

9 Xlang 8lJIant ppetizing xing ish-smelling", hot


10 ru meat
11 [] s a a throad-ile ;ect rus shrodded meat
12 [] pn plate; (a measuro waj

13 s plain; vegetahle, element


14 cho stir-fry
15 kng emp( hoUow

kng leave empty or hlank kngr fee time


16 ,\.; xn heart, cenlre
17 ci vegetahle, course, dI: kngxnci ter pinach

18 lng cold lngpnr cold dIsh, hors d' oeuvn


19 w1 howl; (a measuro word)
20 mI nce, metro n (coo/ced) rice
21 h drin/c
22 hi cup; (a measuro waJ

23 [] hot, he.t

24 ch tea
25 png hottle, vase, jar
26 p
27 jil a/coholic wine pjil heer
28 hu '1";'I1d

29 sho fe little; lac/c


30 [] qin money, cash

Zuwn wmenli yu yu yole fn xins yl P s ch.o kngxnC,i , y g lngpr ling


wn mIfn, hle ling hi ch w png pji huwe bsho qin.

32
;

: 'C
( J /
2(

r J J
J
/

yesteroay
()
r11t
dinner .?
old ge
?
month
the Oesh of fish .
me ?
have time .""""
'etahle dish

fried dish
'T dishes
vegetahle shop .?
menu
Chinese meal
.?
French meal
?
centre .
m 'e heart



rice
nice to dniJk
()
tea c
cup ?
wine hottle

large restaurant
.
Oower
Oowershop ?
Oower vase !
scented tea
.
!I1d
one yuan

two mao

|||||||||
|| i ||||||
|||||||||
33
..""":

meaning" a bit ", is often used adverbially before certain adjectives and verbs to indicate a slight
degree of something. is often used after certain aectives and verbs , e. g.


v-

n-
P
FU-
adj (V)

"":

As an pect icle comes after a verb, indicating that the action expressed by the verb has already been
done, e. g.

S V



..":

Examples of the usage of :

adj (V) adj (V)



..""":

is a poter1 complement. It is formed with the structural particle inserted between a verb and
The negative is formed by replacing with e. g.

V )V

"" "" .." .." "":

Uge of the measure words and e. g.


34
Elt~is

Choose a correct position:

A B " C Do "

2. A B: " C D? "

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

1.:
Choose a co'ect answer:

""

A.

B.

C.

D.

2. i'll: ""
A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

35
1 ln fres {a sumame}

2 sh uncle shshu unc1e, chI1d' s fnn ofaddress for any

3 Jl fami home pelist young man one generation its senior}

4 ku mouth rnku p1u1ation

5 zhen rea} rea.

6 du many, much

7 b da d, father b dad

8 [] m mum, mother mma mum

9 ge elderhroer gege elder hrother

10 so e~T hrother's wif


11 zl chi1d, {suJlix } sozi elder hrother's wife

12 d you"lJer hrother ddi younger hrother

13 mi younger sister mimei younger sister

14 lng another

15 wi outside llngwi hesl moreover

16 z ancestor, grandfther

17 f Ier

18 mi mother zmi granmther and grandmother

19 ne {a modal rie}
20 qi1 frward, hefre i hefre frmel

21 [] jn anny
22 [] du team jndu anned frces, troops

23 [] gn do
{] gn empty gnbei dnnk a toast

24 b pa. unit mInistry gnb cadre


25 yl alrea yljng d

26 tu retreat, retum
27 X lU res st.~ cease tuxi retire

28 hn vey

29 [] chng long; length


zhng chief; grow; older bzhng mlnister
301 {] jin time or Ulce shjin lime


Ln shshu ji rnku zhen du , yu bba, mma, gege , sozi ddi h mimei. L ngwi , t zifmi ne,
ylqin sh jndul gnbu, ying tuxi hn chng shjin le.

O
36
f

country
()
r

man ollcttcrs .?
veyho

houschold dutics

cn languagc .?
VOl acccnt

how many (much)
how .
howlong ?
nC81 similar

son
norek
()
u
c'. glass @?
hottlc
platc ?
hcight, sizc .?
fonn, list
O
ahroad
101'/1 country .?
() loreign languagc ?
ou
nicknamc
O 0
onc 's country .?
grand1thcr
O
grandmothcr
day hcfore ycstcrday .?
thcycarhe.relast
O 0
[b.njpart
among; middlc .
timc, pcriod

|| i
i

|| j
|||
37
,

"":

ltl modal particle is used after a noun or pronoun to indicate an alternative interrogation, e. g.

?
?

"":

The modal particle can also he used to mark a pause, e. g.

"""":
To show at an action is in progress, either place the adverb before the verb or put at the end of the
sentence. is very often used together with to express the progressivepect e. g.

S V

"""" "":

le adverb often goes hefore monosyllabic adjectives such ask about degree or extent, e. g.

"".."

as an approximate indicator of numher cannot stand alone , but must be used after an integer to show the re-

mainder of the figure. may he used hetween a measure word and a noun, or after a noun which functions as a
measure word, to express the remainder of a rolmd figure , e. g.

(over one month)

(a little over an hour)

(over one ye)

(a little more than one day)

38
/

JJ
/

J(
f

Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D?

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.

A.

B.

D.

2. ?

A.

B.

C.

D.

3. ?

A.

C.

D.

39
'i

hi child h6izi child


FM

trng ve Sjght; eIt

bo hug, chersh
UA

[] f hear, rely on yu bofu have high a.pirations


J

[] sht he hom in the year o/, helong to


U

yng sheep
''

[] hi still, f81 also

hun give hack


89012345678901234567890
5t. mi not, not have
[] bl nish, accomplish
111111111122222222223
y []
course of study h bly graduate
[] sh mathematics, numher
lr physics, reason
hu chemistry; changtm

klo take an examination; test


[] shl test koshl exammatlon, test
g eve each

{} mn (a measure word); door


g

ndbE

qdcapeunFLH
mert, result, work gngk schoolwoI

hlIU

hecome; result
[] achievemen. meni chngjl result, achievement
[] fault; wrong hcu COITeCt, rght

[] will, take, he ahout to



I

[] come jingli future


xi19 want to, think
glo get

r1 so, rght zlr1 nature


k a hranch of academic study kxu sClence
--

Juvd-P
GU
[] he; just at
m-

grnd, stu y6nji research


investigate ynjiYll research JUow


Zh hizi trng yu bo sh y19 dxuhimi bly, shlrhu loshl g mn gngk chng jl du bcu,
jing li xilng glo zlr kx dngy~in.

O
40

child
.?
hoy
still
O O
not had .

in'stIy
!?
commerce
0
forestIy
homework .?
Jeciality
O
age
.?
maematcs

chemisl
culture
ral test
.?
wntten test
entrance O
department .?

mlSS

ideal
reason O
man-er O
haircut
.?
scnce
liheral arts
surgery 0

undergraduate
.?
come up
at all limes
!
afterwards .?
then, after that

of course


~duate student

||
||
||
41
"":

An altemativelestion is one fO mIed of two statements joined by suggesting two altematives for e person
addressed to choose from , e. g.

?
?

"":

is used connect two actions that follow closely one another, e. g.

S-vo v



... ...":

indicates that an action will soon take place, e. g.

S v 0 !

" (lio) ":

The verb (lio) is often used as a potential complement indicating the possibility of an action, e. g.

() ?
()
'()

"":

The modal particle can be used at the end of a question with an interrogative pronoun, e. g.

"""":

le modal particle r can be used at the end of a rhetorical question, e. g.

()
? ()
"......":

le construction'" is used in a clause of concsion e. g.

42
Exerises

Choose a correct position :

1. A B C D ?

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer :

1."! "

A.

B.

C.

D.

2. "! "

A.

B.

c.

D.

3. ""
A.

B.

C.

D.

43

44


O
O


""

O
:
"?""!"
"
"

" "O
O

45
l tng open; not connect
2 [] gu pass; fault tnggu hy; pass through
3 []n hear, smeU; news xnwn news
4 zh {a s uRx} jlzh reporter
5 ji he situated hetween
6 [] sho C81 on contlnue jisho induce

7 4[] r recognizt admit

8 [] sh know; knowledge 4 rnshi knm understand

9 n that
10 pio
11 ling hright; shine pioliong heautiful
12 jlng stiU, quiet wlng gentle and quiet
13 shnn hill, moun in

14 [] dng east Shndng 'andong {Pro vince}


15 gu aun father's s1.rter

16 ning a young woman, mother giimong girl


17 1 travel Hxng travel
18 sh agen society lxngs vel service
19 fn translate, tum over, cn

20 [} translate fnyl translata transla

21 nng can; energy, ahlZ

22 [] d read
23 ' dng understand, know
24 j sentence jl j a1 word some sentences
25 g ancient
26 [] sh poem glsh classica1 poem
27 ymg Britain, hero 4 Yngy English
28 de {a structura1 particle}
d get ddo get, ohtain, receive
d~i must, have to
Dow, dnlting

li
30 11 sh81p; henefit lill Duent

Tnggu xnw jlzM jisho, w rnshi le n wi pioliong wnjlng de Shndng giiniong, t shl Hxngsh
fnyl , nng ddng jl j gls Yngyl shu de hn lili.

O
46
J P
:;

J
J

no L'nn .?
n orof e past
0
pass; through
went, have heen .?
att have eaten 0
hut
.?
nfonnaton
au'or 0
mr .?
scholar

poet
rememher
senous

.?
penence

knowledge
nteUectual 0
there .?
like tha then
O
I'er' s sster
mayhe, possihle O
sentence .?
annt tImes
O
anclent
Brin ?
English O
advant~feous
.??
use
can understand O
can 't understand
can hear
.?
cannot say
look heautiful

|| i ||||| l
||||||||
||||| i |||
47
f: ..Gta

"""() .
"
le pect particle occurring immediately after a verb denotes that some action took place in the p. It is
often used to emphasize an experience. le negative form of is ().

S () V

:
le affirmative-negative lestion wit is :
VVV
QO QU

O ? ?
V O? ?
V O? ?
"""
e resultative complement, expressed either by a ver such as or an adjective such as indicates the result
of action e. g.

S V v (adj)

""""""
:
A potential complement is formed with the structural particle inserted between a verb and a resultative com-
plement. Th e negative form is made by replacing with .le affirmative legative interrogative form is made
by juxtaposing the affirmative and negative forms of the potential complement, e. g.

VVV
S V
S V
S V V V O ? ?

""
"":
Complements that indicate the degr of an action are calIed complements of degree. Simple complement of de
usualIY made of adjectives and the structural pticle which is used to connect the rb and its complement of
de. The negative form is made by adding be.e the complement. le interrogative form is made by j
taposing the affirmative and negative forms , e. g.

S O V adj


?

48
/)
/
J
}/

: Eeiiss..
J)
J
/

Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a coect answer:

1.?
A.

B.

C.

D.

2.
A.

/ B.
pu

D.

3. ?

A.

B.
PU

D.

49
1234
hli sea Shnghi anai

[] din e1ectncity
[] shl 100k at, regard dilshl te1evision
[] ti stand, platfonn, station 4 dilshlti te1erion station
5 [] ji festivll/, Joint, node, item
6 m eye, item, cataJ.ve jim progrlllTImt item

7 zhi host, owne. master

8 ch ho1d, sporl zhichrn anchor person, host{ess}


9 [] slender, caref

10 go high, tall ggr a tal1 person


11 shu Ihi emaciat.~ 1ean
12 t uI 1eg

13 gu me10n, gourd guzI me10n seea


A" M
titi'i

[] lin face
vm

D{. vdhHdn ye
' -h
U

yehal1 ynjng ye
onynu'i
i'i'144

heauiWj Amenca

[] II heautiful mill heautifu1


m enchan he 10st mrn channing, fas~ating

[] shu w

gu
B

quitej enough
2222222
"3A

jng refned, smartj essence


shn pirit deiry god jngshen liv''nt

[] jin

simp1e
4J

zh 8t jinzh at alJ, simply




U

an--0

he likej POI1Jit
dd.mr-Fm
'00

gnn

shadow

ylngpinr f1m

a Dat Ihin piece, slice mngpin visiting card


29 mode1, standardj copy

30 t 'cial mtr mI


Shnghi dinshlti jim zhichrn xgo gr, shuchng tuI, guzI li1 Y1jng mill mrn, shu du
shu gu jngshn de , jinzh xing ylngpin zhng de mtr.

50
J J
u

navy
.?
/estiyaJ
at present

main 0
master
.?
sustain, s
care/ul !
senior school !
N
?
taJl and hig
thin and sma1l

lean meat .?
A.
0
aess
aesete .?
gourmet 0

.?
at the moment
ophthaJmoJ.
eld 0/ Ysion 0
c he ahle .?
simple

simplified fonn
m .?
s aJways
tram, troJJ.s

radio station
lm O
lm/an .?
yisiting card
O
picture
sliced meat .!

charactenstic



51
"""":
Sometimes interrogative pronouns are used not to form questions, but refer to anybody, anything, or whatever
way, and are normally followed by or e. g.

()
()
()
()

.""""""":
The verbs and are often used resultative complements , e. g.

S Vv



()

"""''''""":
Helping verbs such as and are more often than not to ~ppear before verbs to express ability,
possibility, intention, or wishes. They are made negative by adding before them, e. g.

S V V O

52
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D ?

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.
A.

B.

C.

D.

2.
A.

B.

C.

D.

3. ""
A.

C.

D.

53
cho su.rpas.r; ser

2 [] j level, degree, grade choj Sl'er

3 shl marke. city

4 [] chng a place where poople gather shlchng m81'et m81etplac'e

5 {] m s'eU, hetr.Y
6 [] f woman, marri'ed woman fn /1 woman
7 zhung clothng; pretend fzhu19 costun?

8 [] h6ng red
9 bi. whie

10 hi hlack
11 [] 1 8~n

12 j taI{fenn'e

13 hung yellow jung orange colour


14 shn dar~ d'eep

15 [] 1 hlue shnln dark hlue


16 [] qin shaUow, h'gh8")(;!rfcal

17 hu greJ ash dust qinhu lSt grey


18 s colour
19 [] xun select
20 [} ch.se unz select
21 chuiin "1M cross
22 [] yn colour, f yns colour
23 shl typ>e, style, fonn ttem

24 [] yng pp>earance sh sampl'e shlyng style, tYJ model


25 n in reverse; counter
26 ylng reDect, mrror nylng reDect
27 ng nature, sex
28 g pattem, style xlngg nature, dIston
29 x nd; necessar'es
30 qi request, demand xqi requremen. demand

Choj shichng shung mide fn fzhuiing yu h6ng de , bi de , hi de , 1 jhung, shnln h


qiusde xunz chu1 shnme yls h shlyng de fnylngle r de xlngg h xqi.

54

grade
City 01 Beijing

market, hazaar
ground
.?
husiness
gynecology
O ?
women 's clothes
men 's clothes
.?
fashionahle dJ'8S ??
lipstick
. o
hlack tea
O ?
green tea
tangerine .?
understand
0
daytime
white pirit
?
cucumher O
d .?
hlack
0
yeUow
hlue .
green
select, choose
0
same
how .
what type
reverse side
O
the lemale sex
.t:e male sex ?
human nature ?
need

demand

55
"":

() can be used to compare two things whether or not they are identical, e. g.

A lltl B ()

..":

may be used before an ecti ve, e. g.

A E B () adj

"......-":

can be used an adjective modifier, e. g.

"":

can be used as a complement, e. g.


A 0 V () adj

"......":

means "thing5 like that, and 50 on, and what not, and etc. " It is used after a series of items, e. g.

56
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

57
bio sho. w; sunace, fo.n n, metre
2 t shl sho. w bih sho.Jt express

3 [] 11 ceremo.n) co.urtesy

4 mo appU1lJ1ce lImo poJiteness


5 fng way, S1 rt"fo.n fngsh way
6 {] y and
7 xl west fngr Westemer
8 [ q cJassi area :ct

9 }]IJ bi 6ctio.n; o.ther; do.n' t qbi d"erence

10 [] qu real; realJy
11 [] sh so.Jid Le; reality qush realJy; reJiahJe
12 J:~ bl co.mpare
13 [] jio fairJy b io fm'; co.mpare
14 [] Xill he pparent sho. w mngxin clt ohvio.us evl'nt

15 l example, instance, case lr fo.rexampJe


16 [ gun cJose, co.ncem
17 [] systen depa1ent; reJate to. gunxi reJatio.n
18 m dense, clo.se, thick; Sec1t

19 qi co.JTe.70nd to.; anxio.us qi cJose, intimate


20 hu o.r
21 [] qn ntJmate; parent
22 jn near; approaching nj1n he c1.'e to.
23 1 (a scTai particJe) , o.f zhjin reen amo.ng
24 h each 0.er

25 Xlng each o.ther hxing mutual. each o.ther


xing f appe ce

26 []ng 10. help

27 zh to. heh oongzh to. he.

28 b1 certainly
29 [] zng alw.ys lal

30 [] xi thank ixie thank you

:"!"
Zhngu6rn biosh1 lImo de fngsh1 yi xfngrn qbi qush bIjio mngxin, 11r: Gunxi m1qi hu qnjn
de rn zhin hxing bngzh de shrhou, bl1 b zng shu: "Xixie!"

:
: "! "
58

\

.nnance
.?
dufJ represent
puhlsh
O
place .?
md
0
apect
gl
.?
[dngxi] thing


Westem style
Westem1eclothes

Westem-st)d .?
watennelon
O :
[chbi] diTence
pecI. epecially
O
other ' 0
don'tg.
.?
realize
example

fOrexample
relateto
.
d
r
O ?
father O
mother
O
intima.
dear
.?
among
[xi.ngpi]photo

[xingfan] contr.
recent1


always
t' 4
AA

| ! i
| | i
| i i
.59

A () B

b
.

i
.

"""""":
m.y he phefore the adjective in the sentence of comparison with or e. g.

A B

ghgnm
""

"""" ""
:
The numeral- measure wordr can he placed after the adjective to expre the difference, e. g.

A t t. B
ubububU

LUVLb'LL'LL'



"":
may also be used to express compison in some sentences with a verbal predicate, e. g.

| A tt. B V V 0
t t.
>

"":
can he used in the sentence with a complement of degree , e. g.

A V t t. B

60
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A ~t. B C D

4. A B C D

. Choose a correct answer:

1.?

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

61
1 gn root (ol a p1ant), cause

2 [] occupy; accordng gnj accordng

3 [ gun watch, vew

4 ch 100k nto gunch ohserve

5 cun vllage cnzi vllage

6 [] 11 nsde cnzi li n the vJ.fje

7 JU resi live

8 zh live jz live, resde

9 [] n6ng Tcultuz lanner

10 mn the peop1e n6ngmn peasant, lanner


11 [] zhng knd, 801 seed
zhng gro w, p1ant zhng hu grow Oowers
12 [] chun pass

13 [] tng unte; al1 chuntng tram!on

14 [] gun hen e haht 01 xgun hahit, custom

15 shu rece1ve shudo rece. ve

16 {] fng visJt

17 k guest krn guest

18 sng glve

19 w thng, matter lIw gft

20 bn 80rt ylb1 genera.

21 kn see, 100k, read

22 fu negate, deny

23 [] z standard, role fuz otherwse

24 [] hul can, m e.et; meeting, association

25 []Ig 1et, give w.y; assve lonn)


26 xio 1at sm1e

27 [] hu word, talk xiua jeera 1augh at; joke

28 bi qu1t; ssve fonn}

29 [] d'cuss

30 [] ln d'cuss; 'eoy yl! n Ikaho dscuss

Gnj w de gunch, zi cnzi li jzh de n6ngmn yu zhng chutng xgun, shudo li fng krn sng
de lIw yIhu ylbn b dki k fuz hul ng rn xiohua h bi rn ylln.

62

;)

at all; hase .?
is sai
0
point of view
coun'Sia .?
iculture
}
insi
.?
the people
van"ety
facsimile
} 0
visit
E
wingroom
give sh. a present
personage

animal
.??

physics
see 0 9"
read a hook
.
see a 'lm
can understand ?
society
can speak
conversation
"
meet with
meeting-place ? "
hold a meeting
:
talk
Beijing dialect
telephone
J
.
theory

-

thesis

63
"":
Usage of the helping verb e. g.

v
S

-"


TU


qr
J"" "" """""""":
le passive sentences are fonned with the prepositions d p4 . is used mostly in written Chinese; in
colloial speech : and are used more often, e. g.

s v
()


D



""":
is usually used when king someone to do someing. is followed immediately by the person being asked to
do something, e. g.

S V 0 V

"":
When repeated, an adjective often functions adverb modifying the verb. As an adverbial modifier, a repeated
aective may be followed by e. g.

S adj adj () V 0

o

64
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.-

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.
A.

B.

C.

D. i

3. ""

A.

B.

C.

D. .

65

66
O
""" "O
O

"
? "
O :
"?"
O

"! "
"? O ,,

O
"?""
!!"
O


"
""?? "
"!!"

67
1 gn /eel, sense, move, he affected



2 mo gi off nsk gnmo catch cold
tJA

[] sho run a ve hum fsho have a ver


d ahdomen dzi ahdomen


ZJ

sh leisul1"; stretch shfu com/O ltahle


U

[] t6u head, hair, chie/


onynu

tng ache, love a'arly


d die; to death sne extreme"; dead
shng provJllce; econOInlze
4A
. II /oun d, stand, set up
12345678medica1 science
'EA

[] y
A

yun y ard, institute, hospital yyun ho.pita1


'A

f ma. hushand difu doctor


EA--A

[] 9i ive; /or
[] jin eX8mlne, In'1tIct
'A

ch checA look into jinch examlne, In'1tIct


'A

[] jirig sa) explain


'A

zho touch, he 'cted hy

dm
dh
zhe (a verha1 SUfTIX) zuzhe
122
nynugA c,,e JuZLY cozadd,
ling c1 cold zholing
hi evi1,' harm; hannful
.t p dread; he afraid 0/ hip he afraid
222222223
"3a

blng il1 {isease

ti extremely, too

[] severe, s tight
TZJrO

yn
lng weilJt; heavy ynzhng grave, senous
7 l fix on; notes
Ioonynu

yl idea, meaning zhyl pay attention to


xl hreath, interest xixi have a rest
[] yo medicine
bo (a moda1 p 8Iticle)

""
W gnmo le, fsho , dzi b shfu, t6u tngsI le. Shengll yyun difu 9i w jinch hu jing : "Shl
zholig bi hip, blng b ti ynzhng, zhyl xixi , ch xi yo bo. "

; O

" "
68

thank
impressions
sensed
hair .?
anxi 1vyince
0
immedia
.!
'ctor
medical science
Westem medicine ??

. O

pharmacy ??
prescnption . O
college

courtyard
Lady , Mrs.
O ?

h us
handa
nd
. O
gi
O


p'eak.
~ talk
L

teach 1ecture

O O
Sysmi .!
patient
O
fal1 ill
ill
O
see a doctor
madam, wife

stnct
import.
antt

OVi
'8r1
'oad
d

IgIe
a

idea, opinion, yiew



69
:
A sentence in which a suhject-pdicate nstruction rves as its predicate is known as a sennce with asub-
ject-predicate construction. In sentence of this kind, the person or thing indicated by the suhject in the sub-
ject predicate construction is closely relatedor ms a part of the person or thing indicated bthe subject of the
whole sentence, e. g

s



"jU" :
Usage of g.

"""() ..
:
A verb with the aspect particle may function as an adverbial adjunct indicating manner in which the action
expressed by the following verb is performed. le negative form is () e. g.

|s v o V 0


"":
Usage of e preposition e. g.

s O V 0


""::
When used at the end of a sentence expressing request , command, consultation or agreement, the modal particle

soften the tone of the sentence. Another usage of is to express an interrogative tone of a guess, e. g.

!
!
?

70
Choose a correct position:

1. A " B C D o "

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B: " C D "

Choose a correct answer :

1."? "

A.

B.

C.

D. Il

2. "! "

A.

B. Il

C.

D.

3. " ? "
A.

B.

C.

D.

71
ym hecause of; reason
wi for ynwi hecause
wi he, do, act, heome rnwi consider
3 [ j store up; long-standing
4 [] jf extreme; pole jjf actlVt posive

5 [] jom
6 JlO add, increase cnJl jom
7 [ ] hody

8 y educatt rear tly orts

9 [] du forge
10 [] lin smelt, refine dunlin havepysical training
11 ~ dng wlnter dngtin Wnter
12 hu slide

13 J} bng lCe hubng skating


14 i summer xitin summer
15 h nver hli in the Ii ver
16 yng sWlm y6uyng sWlm
17 chn pnng

18 ql autumn
19 jl season
20 kick, play
21 z IOt

22 qi halJ, glohe zqi food

23 pi m anpge piqi vou.yhalJ

24 [] jln enter, advance jm:fng go on, he in progress


25 []i match, game blsi match, competition
26 su place suyl so, therefore
27 shn hody shntl

28 yu get ove overstep yuliyu more and more


29 jin healthy; strengthen
30 kng health jinkng healthy; health

Ynwi t jf cnji tly dunlin dngtin hub xitin q h li y6uyng, chnqi ling j t zqi

d piqi , jm:ng blsi, sulyl shntl yuliyu ji kng.

72
\

for
?
y
[rnwi] cons"r
[ylwi] helieve ?


area

excellent
a great many iJJ<.. o
very heautifu1 .?

0
visit
education
Ministry of Education
.?
skating hoots
skating rink
?
a "tIr
e Yellow River

Hehei Pro vince
season
.?
pring
O O
summer
autumn .""?
'nter o ""
pnog
.?
autumn
advance
ente. go into .?
ente. come 10
O
import
footha11 match O
footha11 ground
(ha11 game)
0
research instte
.


a11
-J

-p
AhAU
LbI

73
"":
Usage of e. g.

S adj



S O V a

"":
Usage of e. g.

S adj

S v 4 adj

"":
Usage of the conjunctions e. g.

sentence sentence




T


J

U

ii

V S V

74
':rois;

Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A: "B C Do "

3. A B C D

4. A B C .D

Choose a correct answer:

1."? "

A.

B.

C.

D.

2. ""

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

75

123456
gng JUt

ci just, only gngci just now


gung vas: wide; expand
b hroam.1St sow gungb hroadcast
lhbM
qEybhvd

mr, gas
g
aA'araDce e1ephant m
q1xing meteoro10gy

7 in advance

8 report; nePper ybo lorecast



QJOU

co1d hnli co1d current


-BA-aAB-AaE
kui last, quick, rapid
3

chn momIng mngchn tomorrow momng


AUvm

rmn

snow
h

4567890123
1111112222
hHZpn
iJd
M

nE
direction
1eaning, slanting
south pinnn to the south
d 10w
wn temperature; W8J7l1

d degree wnd temperature


lng zero lngxi he10w zero
y nt yjin at night
overcast
2222223
A

transfer, change
J

qlfg c1ear, 5ne


U

yn c10ud
Ioonynu

gu h10w gufng it ' s h10wing


11 powel force fngl1 windpower
bin hecome diren change

yu ahout; make an appointment


Gngci gungb q1xi19ybo: Hlli kui do le, mngchnyuyljixu fngxingpinnn , zul dwnd
lngxi wl d. Yjin yn zhun qng, du yn, gu Mifng, fngl1 bin xio yuslj.

I} :


76

weather
.?
get angIY
O
clima.

phenomenon .?
preparelsons
S71 up .?

:
repoIt (news)
daily paper
.?
evemng p.Jer
read a nePper O
hroadcaster .
nice and cool
momlllg
.?
r81n
snow

ski
direction .?
(hody) temperature

zero
.
ahove zero
night O
at night
altitude O O
clou. day
.?
ne day

south
style
demeanor .?
vlew scene
O
physical streng.
.?
ahy

change O
O

appollltment

77
"":
Usage of e. g.

T S T V

.... ...":

indicate that an action will soon take place, e. g.

S V 0

:
Two successive numerals are often used give an approximate number, e. g.

.......":

Usage of e. g.

adj adj

"":
Sometimes means "dy" e. g.

"""":
Sometimes means "only ", e. g.

78
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2. ""

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

79
1 mlu ceztaln

2 {] j coun compute; metre

3 sun calcu1att compute

4 [ j machine, crucial point, occasion jsunj compuler

5 SI take chll1lJe of; attend to gongsl company

6 [] l off, a w. from; 1eave

7 shlu head shud capital {of a counfIy}

8 zhn open up; exhihition

9 [] ln 100k a. see zhnln ex'iion

10 [] gun accommodation for guests zhnlngun fJihition H

11 [] yun far, distanl

12 [] yun circu1ar; circle

13 [] a p1ace for puhlic recreation Yunmngyun Yuanminlan Park

14 f he near; attach i fn nearhy

15 zhu circuit, week; thoughtfu1

16 []i around zhuwi around

17 [] mayhe xdu many

18 k {a measure waj

19 [] sh tree

20 zhng straigh.nght

21 [] du opposite, right; treat dumin opposJ/e

22 zu sea!; {a measure word}

23 [] 16u a storied hUJding

24 fng house, room 16ufng hui1ding

25 png side

26 [] bin side, ee horder pngbi1 sit

27 hul fjre huch tram

28 zhn stand; station hulchzhn r81w.y station

29 cn 1eave exis. he in stock

30 [] ch p1ace, offjce paztment cnchch hit"Cie parking 10t

Mu jlj 9ngs l sh/ud zhnlngun hn yun, zi Yunmngyun fjn , zhuwi yu xidu k sh

zhng dumin ylu y zu 16ufng, pngbin sh hulchzhn h cnchch.

80
' \;;

plan
.?
driver
opportumty O ?
first .0
develop
0
to 'our

lihrary
?
restaurant O 0
leave
.?
park
0
per:rps

n process of ?
nOI711a1
just nght
.?
fOI711a1, oRid a1
COJTect, right 0
hoy or grl friend .?
seat, place
O O 0
house
room .?
the east 0
the west
?
the south
the north 0
nsl .?
outsde

n front
hehnd .?
ahove, over o
helow, under

hus stop
suhway staton
O
O

everhere


81
:
Position words may serve as the su ect an object, and an attributive of a sentence , and be qualified by an
attributive , e. g.

"":
In a sentence with indicating existence , the su ect s usually a person or thing concemed and the 0ect is
usually a noun denoting position or place , e. g.
v
s

position words





bu
-

""i:
In a sentence with indicating existence , the subject is usually a noun denoting position or place and the 0ect
is the person or thing concemed, e. g.

Position words V

?
?

"""":
le verb can indicate existence well. le order of a -sentence is exacY esne as that of a
-sentence e. g.

Position words V

"":
Usage of the preposition e. g.

A B ()


kl

82
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C Do

3. A 1;f- B C D

4. A B C D

. Choose a correct answer:

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

3. ?

A.

B.

C.

D.

83
1 s lodge for the night

2 sh hous shed hut ssh donnitozy, hostel


3 ni insi

4 jlng clean gnjlng clean


5 w house, room WZl room
6 [] qing waU qingshang on the wa11
7 gu hang

8 [] mn full, pBcked

9 zh write; marked zhmfng famous, celehrated


10 yu oil

11 [ hu paintng; to paint yuhu oil painting


12 zhu tahle zhushang on the tahle
13 l[ ji old, used
14 yn 1eech word yu linguistics
15 din standard cfdin dictionazy
16 b (a measure WOl a preposition)
17 tng lie down
18 yI chair tgyI deck chair, lazy chair
19 [ bi 8lTange

20 zhng U whole

21 [] qf neat; together zhngqf neat


22 chung window
23 h door, household chunghu window
24 ji shelf, frame sh i hookshelf
25 fng puton

26 to (a measUIe word)

27 h (a sumame); recldes.

28 [] shl ft, suitahle H Shl (a ~on's name)


29 qun complete

30 jf coUect, IJ'er qunjf complete works

Ssh ni tIng 9 njlng, wzi qing shang 9 e zhmfng de y6. zhu shang yu hl! n ji yynxu
cfdin. Iing b tng yI bi de ht\ n zhngqf chunghu p9 de shji shang fngzhe yf H Shl Qunjf.

84
: 1 F

intema1 .?
inst interor
0
regisler
safied .?
writings, wOJ:
0
famou hook
.?
peanut oil
pejeum
picture 1
draw a picture
.?
pamter
pictonf
Chinese painting
l

used or old things
languge

dictionary

inese dictionary .?


ceremony
lying

ch.
tahle

whole, entire
in unson

he at ease
alley "
heard

all, everyone
overall O "

whole coun .?
encyclopedia

concentra

coUective

-



447
7

85
"":
A verb with thepect paicle may indicate the mode of existence, e. g.

S V O

"":
e verb may function as a compliment of result after a verb, e. g.

S Vv

:
Notional passive sentence, e. g.

""":
r e often used after certain s to show the direction of a movement, e. g.

S V /

(If the movement proceeds away from the speaker is used)

(If the movement proceeds toward the speaker is used)







D

86
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A .B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.m
A.

B.

C.

D.

2. -
A.

B.

C.

D.

3. -
A.

B.

C.

D.

87
1 [] yu post, mai1
2 JU oDice, situation yuj post oDice
3 [] yng erate yngyyun shop emp10yee
4 [] ju 'e1 jude fee1
jio sleep
5 hng hoa ship; navigate hngkng aviation
6 xn 1etter, laith, s.T
7 fng seal; enve1ope; (a measure word) xnfng enve10pe

8 dn hut bdn not on1y


9 q strange
10 ' gui strange qgui strange
11 r hut, and
12 qie just, even rqi and, also, too
13 shr make, use, emp1oy, send shr rn enah1e someone to

14 qng clear
15 ch c1ear qngchu c1tr

16 go te11, ac1are

17 [] s tell gos tell


18 yu the right
19 jio come 8/ (a unit 01money in 'ina: O. 1 yuan)
20 [ yng shou1d, answer
yng comp1y with
21 [] gi shou1d ynggl should
22 zhI only
23 j send, pos depend on jxnrn sender
24 111:. zhI address, 10cation dzhI address
25 zu the 1eft zubian the 1eft side
26 [] ju ahso1ute
27 L [] 1n at random, in disorder
28 [] ti sticlt. paste

29 [] j 'JOch record jnin commemorat. souvenlr

30 pio ticket yupio stamp

Yuj yngyyun jude t de hngkng xnfng xi de bdn qgl rqi shI rn kn b qngchu , gosu t ,
yuxi io ynggi zhr xi jxnrn dzhI , zubian ju b nng lun ti jnin yupio.

88
! C: /
/


J /


J </
//

E
db


c'at
I
C
'ommercial 91au
e
nge t
'rade I .?
sensepercep
:on;

kud
;:UVU' '~~'I O
sense 01hearing I .
civil aviation ?
zfJZZZ N
helievein
co.nce 1. ?
hut
stm1'1 0
4 m employ
a 1
en.'llSsy

h !
Dla |??
ronort
should I .?
[ylngyng] usel O
na1roaction
LJSMe |
the right side
le/t side
22tolview
on.ly, alone ;
ahsoll |
'n ticket
fiiJ:cket I
hus ticket

t || | i
||
L ?
89
"""":
le particle is used before a verb followed by to modify a noun , e. g.

S V N

"""":
le prticle can also be used before a rb followed a noun , e. g.

|S V |

""
The conjunction is used to link two progression statements, e. g.

"":
le verb is used the first verb in pivotal sentences. Th e pivotal sentence has the follong grammatical
structure:

S V 0 V

"":
Usage of the verb e. g.

S V 0 0

S V 0 (sentence )

90
Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

A D
c

RU
A

Choose a correct answer:

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2. -
A.

B.

C.

D.

3.
A.

B.

C.

D.

91


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L


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jjiijjjij::;;ijiiiiiijjijifiijgjiifjjg
iiFizjjgjjjiiiijj?!iiifFEjEjjji;ii;jjijiiiiiij
;;1jjj;iiii ii EiisjitiEiij?! !iiiizji;i i;51:;
1ii;iiiiii iiijjiiiiii

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~.~tfii tl;~ tziiEtEEEEEjEGEEi
?ijiiiiii EfjEiiEAjiijii;;?!
iiiiiiiiii ii iji!i :



O
1900
1914 O
O
1921 " "0 1923

o 1926
O o 1929
1933
1945 1949 1951
1951 o 1958
} 0
O
} 0

} 0






O O


O

"
? ""! O
O "
"? """"

O ,,
i "
"

93
Jn metal, money; golden
2 sh sand
3 ~ JIang nver J nshjing Jinsh.;ang River
4 []i to ; swiftly fijchng 81.ort

5 tu hold n the palm, 1St tuyn to check, cons.'11 for


6 7t wn 5nsh, he over, end shpment
7 11 (a sumame) xngli haggl luggage

8 [] j contnue

9 [] x contnue, add jx continue


10 cho fa cng; dynasty

11 zu walk, go, leave


12 h suddenly; neglect suddenly
13 tng stop tngzh stop
14 ji foot

15 b step jiloh pace


16 d (pre5x)

17 c tme, order, second d y c the 5rst tme


18 w hold, gra. wzhe hold n h.d

19 shu hand

20 [] qng softly, lght

21 ["*] shng vOlce qngshng n a soft voie

22 x hope

23 W19 hop look over xwng hope


24 t yng rorever yngyun rorever
25 xng gd fortune

26 f happness xngf hJpness

27 zh Wsh

28 l IOa d, joumey yl all the way


29 png peaceful, Oa common

30 ~ n peaceful, sa. png'n sa. and sound

: "!!"
Zi Jnshjing fijchlng tlnwn xngli , jx cho qin wu n t tngzh ji.b d y c wzhe w
de shu qngshng shu: "Xwng n1 yngyuln xngf! Zh n1 yl png' n ! "

: "!! "
94
Amercan doDar
meta1
the Yangtze River

aJane
air ticket
ke 0 6"
O
nish wrig
O !
nish pea1dng
can nish reading .!
dynasty
?
wa1k
parking lot
. O ?
progress ?
one ne
.
forma1ities
wrist wa.
young p O
sound
?
misfortune
hppy lot O
on the way O ?
road, way

highway
lose one' s way
horzonta1 1evel
caJ tranquil
O
ordinmy
at ordinmy times O ?!!
safe
?
iet
llITllnge
. o
Xi'an City O !

95
""":

The verbs and may serve resultative complement indicating the result of an action, e. g.

S V V

""""""

-sentences are generaily used to emphasize how a person does something to an object or to another person. In a
-sentencee preposition and its 0ect are always put after the suect and before the verb , e. g.

s p Vv 0
?

""""
:" z
The verbal measure word en goes with a numeral and is used after the verb to show the frequency of an
action. When the object is expressed by a noun should be placed before the object. When it is expressed by
a pronoun often comes after the object, e. g.


IV
s

"""":

a pre can be used before a cardinal number to form an ordinal number. A measure word , however, should
be inserted between the ordinal number and the noun, e. g.

96
Exercises:

Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D
b
7

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

97
1 h (a sumame}j what

2 f teacher shfu master worker


3 zu do
4 shl thing, a. matter

5 {] horse

6 h tIger mhu careless


7 di los mislay m c8st

8 '
2 wng forget

9 [ }ng asJ. inJlte please, IUt

10 t Ca.Iy in one ' s ha.nd, lift, raise

11 ho hag, WI shutho ha.ndh8g


12 [] protect

13 zho shine, iUumin8te hzho pas.wr(

14 ji honvw, lend

15 [] zhng demonstrate, provej card jishzhng lihra.ycard

16 [] di h.rin g
17 [] ji ti. kni congea.1; knot jigu result
18 l hut, yet

19 q his (h j thei he (she they)

20 t it qt other

21 n hold, ta.ke

22 10 (8 moda.1 particle)

23 dng ua.1; w8I; class

24 y In, 8t dngy equa.1 to


25 do t'5i down inverse

26 /j;:: mng husy hng domng he more of8 hindra.nce tha.n


27 zng incre8 8dd gain 8 he.
28 tI n 8dd, increase Zngtn 8dd, increase
29 m ax; rough, pocked; tingle
30 [] fn he vexed, trouhle mfon trouhlesome; trouhle

H shfu zu shl mu di zh wng n q1ng t h shutooo 11 de hzho h jishzhng dli ji!1l.


t qu h qt dngxi n1ai 10, dengy shl hng domng, zngtin mfon.

98
i

how
.?
thin ak
O ?
career
at once .?
fIger
O
have 10st
fo.t
.?
excuse me O
ask, request
?
pul qutlOn to
mo up (a date)

raise, heighten
salche1

wallet
hread O
.
10 photogr.ph
O
camera
photo .
horrow a thing
student ' s card
O ??
I'ntity card
lesl prove
?
. certificate O
hring a thing
O ?!
conclusion
among .
adep good at O IJ !
wait for sh.
.! O
and so on, etc.
equality IJ

lncrease
'

99
; Grammar

"":

is often used as the first verb in a pivotal sentence, e. g.

S V 0 V (0)


"""":

and can be used after some verbs to show the direction of a movement of a person or a thing, e. g.

S P 0 V v 0




"":

Usage of the verb e. g.

"":

The adverb is often used before the verb to show a transition, e. g.

"""""":

le modal particle is a fusion of the modal particles and e. g.

?
!
!
!

100
Exr(ses

Choose a correct position:

1. A B .C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D

Choose a correct answer:

1._!

A. P

B.

C.

D.

2.

A. '

B.

C.

D.

3. O

A.

B.

C. /\

D.

101
1 [] lin even; link j~ connect

2 [l] xin county

3 chng town xinchng county town

4 [] clIg fctoIJ' gngchIg fctoIJ'

5 [] lng age, yem


dlng ahove the nOl711al age for

6 wi have not mamage

7 hn many; wedding

8 qng young, green qngnin youth, young people

9 ' mn slow mImn slowly


10 ji Slarat. solve understand liojit understand

11 ju decide, determine

Jt. decide; surely decide; d.1ion


12 dlng judlng

13 zho look for

14 jl since, alrea

15 s think yuylsi mterestmg

16 li tired, flued; toil

17 [] zh joh, post, duty zhy profession

18 bng (used for emphasis) , and

19 "
F r6 ng looks; pel711it

20 y easy Engyl easy


(of a woman) mm
21 ji

22 ci timhe. mate1 ahility shnci stature, fgure

23 i short. low

24 [] xng mood or desire to do sth.


xmg pm rise start

25 q mterest xlngq mterest


26 zhl send, incur yzh showing no dirence

27 ' qng feeling yuqngrn lover


28 gng moI't still more

29 kn he stranded

30 [] nn ducult had; hm7 knnan diffcu

Li n xinchng gngchng de dlng wihn qngnin mnmn yt lioji le: Judlng zho g j yuylsi yu
b li de zhy bng b r6ngy , ji g shnci b i , xngq yzh de yuqngr1 gng knnan.

102

ty
.
the Great Wall
age
?
future O
many
divorce
O
wedding ceremony

youth O 0
young; youthfulness . O
ve.vslow

liherate
solve ?
ce.inly surely O
have seeked
.?
thought ideology

think deJly O
meamng, opll1JOn 0
oHice worker
. O ?
staff and workers
and O
content
short and small

glad, hppy

interested
.?
thing, ak O ?
emolion
.""
frame of mind

?
taste had
Upleasant to hear O
71easant to drink
?
dlfJ jcult to learn
it ' s h anJ to say O

|||||||||
|||||||||
|||||| i ||
103
Gramm:ar

"... ...()""":

le construction () means "even" and can be used for emphasis , e. g.

"":

is used to link two coordinate verbs or adjectives , indicating the simultaneous existence of two
clrcumstances, e. g.

.":
Usage of the adverb e. g.

"":
Usage of e. g.

S P 0

"":
Usage of e. g.

"":
Usage of e. g.

104
J Exercses

Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B .C D

Choose a correct answer:

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.

C.

D.

3.

A. ~~

B.

C.

D.

105
106


O
O
1899

""

1913
O 1917
""
1924

"!! "
""
~
~ 0

1930 O
O ~ {
1937
~ 0

107

1946
{
1949

1949 1966
~ {~ {~ {

1898 1949
:
""

""
"" 1966
:
"1966

O
67 O "

:!
?

?

"? ""!
? "" 100 !
O ":
!
!

108
Uio Sh {name of a wnter} guangwi extensve, hroad
yuumng on"gin al name chunb pread

Sh Qlngchn {name of a TSon} wnshl he puhJished


tqI mentopeak of kng Rl resstance aganst Japan
z natonalty zhnzhng war
shlmn cty resdents Chngqlng {a ty's name}
dldldodo typcal gngchOndang the Communst Party
:xs cus'om lIngdao lead; leader
wir taste, Davour Zhu Enli {a statesman}
shz sheer lof tci suhject matter
bji soon jingxu gve lectures
yang S'[JOI raJse chungzu create, write
shur lncome, revenue baiw1 mllon
qing poor cngmn fill
jishu accept wxin nfinte
1 jishl old type jb~n script
r enter t huj modem drama
shfn nonnal school yIngxing tfluence

xiozhng headmaster mnin last years of a 'I1asty

tinjn {a 's name} chngll fOund


bihu vemacular jngl1 expenence; unde

xizu wnfIng 11shI hstory


Lndn London :xngshl fonn
zuk sOJoum qingk poveJty-stricken
jdng excted l00bOixl. ng common people
fqIrn inifIator chng call
fbiao puhJish zish commt suci

zhxu phlosophy jish finsh, end


J'fnn {a cty's name} bogui valuahle
Qngdao {a cty's name} shngming Jife

mo cat dun paragraph


dibiu representatve work fOn gmlng counter-revolutonary
lutuo camel qnshu wth one's own hands
xingzi {name of a person} li tear
nindi timt ye8J tu putm
rnll manpower h lake
chf caJter, nckshaw puller CI ths
biaod express k cry
lodng lahour ji6 final result
nqi cordi1 knd biaoqng expresslon
gnrn touchng, movL shtou stone, rock

109
11 ji ho{ay leave of ahsence Jlt holiday
ji false, fake, sham jide fake
2 ch remove; hesides chle except, hesides
3 shul sleep shuljio sleep
4 [ ] ln laz) indolent shul lnjio get up late
5 po mn pob mn, ml/I at the douhle
6 [] skiD

7 [] sh skiD, tec/u art ysh art


8 co grasp, hold, operate tIco gymnastlrohics

9 y1 peIfonn
10 chng smg ynchng sing a peIfonnance)
11 g song
12 q melo tune geql song
13 .&~ tio jump, hounce
14 Jlo associate wi" hand over
15 [] jl among; hon

16 w dance jiwl haDrlJTl danci

17 wn play, en}y

18 [ p throw oneself on
19 k overcome; gram
20 pi Cl/I" plate r pkpi poker
21 q chess or any hoard game xingq 'inese chess
22 [] lin umte, jOln
23 A
h join, ce linh unite
24 [] hu partnership
25 bn companJOn; accompany hubn companJOn
26 [ hold act; whole
27 [] bn do, handle Jbn hold, conduct
28 m end zhum weekend
29 tng 'Ont y ard, law court jitng family
30 [] yu muslC ynyuhul concert
l hppy; enj laugh kuil bPPJ joyful


Jir t chle shullnjio , hi chngq pob zu ysh tlco , ynchng geq tijiojlw wnr pkpi , xi
xingq, huzh linh xiohubljhn zhum jitng ynyuhu.


110
}

winter vacation
.?
vacation
fake
O 0
long-distance race ?
literature & art
O
art

playground
pe.orm

a ctOIr

a CtI
res.

ss
S


sin.

h<g(.
a SOLj
@?
one song
tune, melody
dance
make friends
.??
pay
international
play
crack ajoke

sunnount
S1;" pla O
famous hrand ??
. {agame}

contactj relation
clfJera
.
suitahle ?
quadrangle
O ?
ga.er assemhle
lad young fellow
.
hold {a meeting. . . } o ?
Hice
.
music
!
joyful
!

Coca Cola

111
Grammar.

.( "")"":
( may be omitted) means "in addition to" or "besides". It is often followed by adverbs such
or e. g.

.":
is placed after verbs to indicate that two actions are happening at the same time, e. g.


'

"":

meaning "or" , is mostly used in statements , such :

"""":
Summary of the structural particles and :
is generally placed between an attributive modifier and the word (mostly noun) it modifies , e. g.

+ N

4

'":
is generally placed between a complement of degree (or a potential complement) and the predicate verb, e. g.


v +

"":
is generally placed between an adverbial modifier and the predicate verb, e. g.


+ v
"! "
"? "

112
Exercss

Choose a correct position:

1. A B C D

2. A B C D

3. A B C D

4. A B C D ?

Choose a correct answer:

1. ?

A.

B.

C.

D.

2. ""
A.

B.

C.

D. .

3. -
A.

B.

C.

D.

113

English Translation of the 25 Constructed Sentences

1 My girlfriend was bom in 1967 on May 28th. This year she is 34 years old. This
Sunday is her birthday.
2 Mr. Wang is a very experienced teacher, working at Beijing University. He spe-
cializes in teaching foreign students modem Chinese language and calligraphy.
3 If you don' t know our school canteen and dining hall servers' names, you can ask them:
Miss, may 1 ask your sumame? "
4 When Chinese people meet an acquaintance on the street, they do not usually say
Hello! " Th ey would rather ask: "Where are you going? " " Have you eaten yet?
5 Beginning tomorrow , every moming at seven fifteen 1 will ride my bicycle to class ,
practice pronunciation , read text, memorize words , dictate Chinese characters , and
answer questlOns.
6 The day after tomorrow at 5 minutes to 4 in the aftemoon , she wants to go together
with her classmates to the "New World " shop again to buy some daily articles by taxi
and subway.
7 Half a kilogramme of fruits , one pair of leather shoes , two pens, three magazines ,
four pairs of cotton interlock trousers , five pieces of sposwear and six tourist maps
cost 1300 RMB yuan in all.
8 Yesterday evening both of us were hungry and thirsty. We had a dish of "fish-
smelling" spicy shredded meat, a vegetarian plate of stir-fried water spinach, a cold
dish, and two bowls of rice. We drank two cups of hot tea and five bottles of beer. We
spent a lot of money.
9 Uncle Lin' s family is very large. His family includes his father, mother, an elder
brother, sister-in-low, younger brother, and a sister. His grandfather and grand-
mother, who have retired from the my a long time ago , also live with him.
10 This child, who was bom in the ye of the sheep, has ve high aspirations. He has not
yet graduated from university. His test results in math , physics and chemistrare all
very good. In the future , he wants to work in the field of natural science and be a
researcher.
11 A news reporter introduced me to a beautiful and gentle girl from Shandong Province.
She is an interpreter for a travel service. She can read and understand classical po-
ems. She speaks English ve fluently.
12 le anchorwoman of Shanghai television station programme is tall , has slender legs ,
melon seed -shaped face , and beautiful charming eyes. Everyone says she is lively
and smart. She looks like a model in the film.
13 The woman' s clothing section at the supermarket sells red , white , black , green ,
orange , dark blue and light grey coloured clothing. The colour an

114
14 The way that Chinese express politeness as compared to Westemers is really ve
different. For example , when family members or good friends are helping each other,
they don' t always have to say "Thank you!" .
15 According to my observation , farmers who live in village have a traditional custom.
After receiving a gift from a guest , they generally do not open the gift; otherwise,
people would find it rude and talk about them behind their backs.
16 1 have a cold, a fever , stomach pains, and a terrible headache. The doctor at the
provincial hospital gave me a physical examination and said , "you' ve caught cold,
don' t be afraid. It is not ve serious. Rest and take some medicine. "
17 Because he is actively taking physical exercise he skates during winter, swims in the
river during summer, and joins football and volleyball matches during the spring and
autumn - he is becoming more and more healthy.
18 Justnowtheweatherforecastsaysthatacoldcurrentwillsoonarrive. Tomorrowmomingitwill
rainandsnow. ThewindisblowingupfromtheSouth. Thelowesttemperatureisexpectedtobe
around -5. Duringtheeveningitwillclearup, andwindwillblowdownfromtheNorth. The
wind powerwill get smallerto about 4 degrees.
19 The distancefrom acertain computercompanyto the Capital Exhibition Hall is veryfar. The
companyisnear YuanmingyuanPark. Therearealotoftreesaroundthecompany, andacross
fromitthereisabuilding. Besidethecora thereisarailwaystationandabicycleparking
10t.
20 ledomitory is ve clean. Oil paintings hang from the walls. There is an old linguistic
dictionary on the table. The two deck chairs are arranged very neatly. Beside the window
stands a bookshelfwith a collection ofbooks written by Hu Shi.
21 The post office worker thought that his air-mail envelope was not only set-up strangely,
but the writing was also difficult to read. The post office worker told him that the lower
right hand comer should be for the sender' s address , and the upper left hand comer
can' t have the commemoration stamp randomly pasted on it.
22 Mter checki-in the luggage at Jinshajiang Airport, she continued to walk forward ,
and suddenly, she stopped to hold my hand for the first time. She said softly, "Wish
you happiness forever! Have a safe tri! "
23 Mr. He does things carelessly. He loses and forgets things all the time. Once 1 asked
him to please get my passport and library card from my bag. Instead, he ended up
bring

115

........

Vocabulary
new.'J8per oHce
A bosh
bo hug, cherish

' {a modal PBI{e} bi C; {a measure word}

bizi C g1ass
i short, 10w
ixio short and small bi north

i li1, 10ve Mibin the north


Bt!i D Beijing University
iho 1i~e; hohhy

iren hushand or JI Bt!ijng Beijing


At.f an peaceful, safe Bt!ijnghu Beijing dilect
Bijng Sh the City of Beij ng
njng qmet
b imiE the northem side
npi ll1TI1nge

nqun sa bi prepare
bik prepare 1essons

B l bi qUl1t; hy {passive form}


bizi quilt

. b eight bn {a measure word}; hook


byu AugtIst bnkshng undeTaduate
' bu {a modal partic1e} bnzi notehook
b {a measure WOl preposition} F bI compare
compare
b dad, fther bljio
bba dad blr forexamp1e
bi white brsi match, col11Jetition

bijil white pint bI pen


bitin bljMn note.ok
daytime
penname
bi hundJf blnng
bikqunshencycJ.dia bIsh wntten test
bi 8lTange b certainly

i
b nish, accomplish
oon c1ass
bnshang in the c1ass by graduate
bn sort bin side, edge, horder
diwnt char.
bn handle bin hecome
bngngsh oHce binhu change
hn half bi show; surJce form, metre
bnnin halfa J'Iu biosh ShOf express

bioxin pellrnJance
bntin halfa day, a 10.g- time
bn companlOn; accompany bioyn peorm
lJ distinction; other; don' t

bng tohe b
b19zh tohe bide other
bo hag; wr.P ;7]<. hng lce
hozi steamed stuffed hun hngchng skating rink
ho report; nerpaper hngxi skating hoots
hodo report {news} hng {used for emphasis} , and
hogo report hngqi and
homng SlgtI up hng ilJ, disease

116

bngrn patIent
chozhng overload
b hroadcas sow cho facing. dynasty
b not, no
chodi dynasty
bcu COJTeCj right ch 8y
bdE not on1y choci stir'00 dish
bgu hut ch vehicle
bxng misfortune chn mommg
bznme not veF chng hecome
bzenmeyng not much chngj result, achievement
b s. chng Clty, town


b p~ unit, ministry chngsh City
bzhng mmlster ch eat
bfen part chbuqI can ' t afford eat
bmn department ch hold, soport
ch go out

C chgu go ahroad
chshng hehom
ci just, only; ahility chz hire out; taxi
ci timher, materia1, ahiy ch remove; hesides

ci vegetahlt cours. dish chle exclpt hesis


chU clear
cidn menu
ch place, ofce, department

cidin vegetahle shop


cn ]om chun wear, cross
chu
CIgUn VlSlt pass
chuntng tradition
cnji ]Oln
chunzhn facsimile
can mea1
' chung window
cntng dining ha1l
chunghu window
co grasp, hold 1erate
chn pnng
cochng playground
chnj pnng
ch brence dissimilarity
chntin spn.
chbi rence
c word
ch check, 1.k into
...
tea cdin dictionary
ch
c tim OIY.r second
chbi tea cup
A cng from; ever
ch look into
cngb never
ch drer from, short of; had
cngli at a1l times
chbudu ne81 similar
cun village
chng long; length
cnzi village
Chngchng the Creat Wa11
Chngjing the Yangtze River cn leave with, exist, he in stock
cnchch hicycle parking lot
chIgpQ long-distance race
chng ofen; ordinary cu fault; wrong

chngchngften
chngnin perennial D
ch factory
'A
chng a place where people gather d repl) answer

chng smg d make, hit


chngg Slj~ (a song) ki open
cho su'llSS; super dsun plan
choj Ser dting ask ahout

117
dzhohu say hello, greet dengrI wat Ior someone
d bj ell>st dengy ela1 to
ddush great maJonty d low
dji evel)'h dl land, soi~ elds
di eldest sster dlfang place
dlng ahove the nOl711al age for mam dti suhwa) metro

dmI nce dtiezhn suhway staton


dren adult dlt map
dshI amhassador dlzhI address
dshIgun emhassy d younger hrother
dxio slze ddi younger hrother
dxu umversIty dl (aprex)
dxushng college student d y cl rst
dy overcoat din standard
dinlI ceremony
di
din cJ.F~t drop
difu doctor
di historca1 perod, generation dinci order dies
dinzhng o'clock
dibio depu( represent

dic pronoun din eJ.:cfy


di hri
dinch tram 2wus
dilhu telephone
di dngxi hri a thng
teleron

dinsh
d1 sngle
dinshlti tele vson staton
dnc word
dinti rado staton
dnwi unit
dinylng lm
dnzi fonn, l st
dinylng m lm fan
dn hut
dinylng piofh tcket
dnsh hut
din sh store
dng he; just at
t. dng fi decde; surely
dngron .[ course
di lose, mslay, throw, cast
do lead, gUde
dile havelost
doy6u gut
dng east
doy6ut tounst mP
dngbian the east
do upsi down nverse
dngxi thng
do 8ITl ve , go to ~ dng winter
doch evel)' where
dn1 winter
do say; nd Taosm dngtin winter
dojio Taosm
' dng understand, know
doII reason dng move, act
dol road, way dngc vel
de (a stmctura1 p artcle) dngw anma1
dehu f du all
de (a stmctural partcle)
d read
de (a stmctura1 partcle) dzh readr

4 d get d ahdomen
dbng fa11 ll dzi ahdomen

ddo get, ohtain, receve d degree
dei must, have to du1 10
dng equa1; w.; class duiE have physcal traning
dengdng and so on, etc. du team

118


u---m
du righ~ treat fngjin


dulmin oppos. fngzi

m-m
-et
duxing hoy or girl fnend ng
,,,.
many much fngwn

duch shjin how 10(! {tme} fng puton



dume how fngxn he at ease
dushao fi to r; switly


how many (much)


fij alp1ane


E fijch1ng al1].rt

fijpio air tcket


bphy

.?
h hungY fi not; wrong; hhr. fr Africa}


h
chi1d, son; {a s uDix }

A
r


fichng ve

rzi son fn minutt divide


r hut, and (a measure word)
rqi and,. also, tao
fnzhng mmute
r two fn {a measure word}
ryu Fehroary fng wind
fngd demeanor
fngg sty1e
F
fngll wind por
f utter, send out fngmo vlew, scene
fiibilo puh1ish fng seal; enveJ.

fasho have a fever {a measure word}


fxin discover fu negatt deny

fyn pronunclaon fuz otherwise


fzh deveJ. f man, hushand
meod 1aw fi hushand and Jt

Fgu6 France frn La


flgu 6ci French meal f t1 clothes; serve, ohey


Fwn French tUw serve

Fy 'ench ft1wyun wmter, server


f hair ft1zhung costume
fn nsJate tum ove. cro ft1 hppiness

f1y 'nsJa'1"; trans1ate ft1qi hppy 101

fE he vCXeGuh1e f father
fln 1n reverse; counter fqin father
nmin reverse side f womai, mand woman
nylng reactlon fk gynae.10gy

nyng reDect f wonm

fn
meal f hear, re1y on
fndin hole1 f he near, attach

f19u1n IIaurant
i fjn nearhy
f1w1n howJ f teacher, inslIUctor

f19 waJ sid. region


G

n method
fngmin a'Jt!ct gl should
fngshi way gan empty
fngxing directon gnhi drink a toast
f19 house, room gnjng c1ean

119
gn do gngs compaY

gnb cadro gngwyun civi1 servant


gn !eel, sen~ move, he afjcted gngyun park
gndo sensro gng ment, reu1t
gnju sense perceptlOn gngk schoo1work
gnmo catch co1d gng altogether, common
gnqng emo/Jon gngtng common
ging JmpreSSlOns gu lite enough
gnxi thank
g aunt, j'er' s sister
gnxlngq he interestro ggu father' s sister
gang just gmng gir1
gngci justnow gi ancient
gug stee1 gdi anC1ent tlmes
g19bI pen
gilo ancient
go h11 taU
gish c1assical poem
god taU andhig
gu me1on, gourd
god aA de
guzI me10n seeds
gogr a taU person
gu h10w
goxing glad, h.ppy
gufng it ' s h10wing
gozhng the senior c1ass
gu hang
g do, get
gu rt7ster
t
k go tell, dec1are
gu1oxln registered 1etter
gobi hid farewell to
gui s /range
gos tell
, gu1 c108e, concem
g e1der hrother
gunx relation
gge e1derhroer
gu watch, view
g song
gunch ohserve
gq song
1 guldin point of view
g pattem, slJ
gun accommlation for guests
g (a measure word)
gzi heigt size ' gun he in the hahit of
g everyr, each gung vast, wj-;expand

gi give, for gungb hroadcast


gungbyu
gn root (ofa p1an cause hroadcaster

gnben atal1; hase gunggo advertisement

gnj according gul e1ensive valuah1e; your

Z gn : follow gu coun

guhu jnese
gng more, slill more painting
gong WOJ gujl intemational

gngchng factory gu i country


gngrn WOJ'er guni intmal
gngshugj Commercial Bureau guwi ahroad
gngy industry gu resul fru.

gngzu to WOI; joh gu to pas8; fau1t


gng me puhlic male guq in orof e past
gngfn centimetre
gnggngqlch hus
H
gngjn k t10gramme hi chi1d
gngl highway hizi chi1d

120




hi sti1J, 1m also hutin the day after tomonvw



hikl;yl not had hu tim season; wat
hishl or; stiU h shout, hreathe out
hi sea h suddenly; neglect

hijn navy hr sudd


F44v

hi evil; harm; hannful h {a sumame}; rec/dess1y

hip he afraid H S {name 01 a person}


EJ'U
hn co1d htngr 18013, a.lt.Y


hnji wIDter vacaon hzi heard
hnli co1d cwrent h ger

h1 13 H80 nationality h each other


Hndi the Han 1'l1asty hxi19 mutua1, each other
Hnxu sino1ogy h doo househo1d
h protect



Hny the C'inese 180lfle
hzho paswrt
hny k class in '1lese
hu flower; 'l1d
hnzl inese character
huch scented tea
hng hoat, ship; navigate'
hudin flower shop
hngbn scheduled flight
hupng flower vase
hngkng afliation
huqin 1end
ho g ood, kind

hur flower

hoc delicious

hushngy6u pe80ut 011


hohode aU out
hu slide

hoh nice /0 dnlk


huhng skati.
hojle exceUent

huxu skIng
horn good person
hu chemistry,' change
hotng p1eas8Ot to hear
huxu chemistry
hoxu he easy to study
hu paind~; paint

hoxing seem, he lil


4

hubo pictorial
ho 1i~e
hur picture
ho numher, date, mark

hui painter
h to dnlk
hu word, talk
h j" c.e
hun merry

hshl suib1e
hunsng see 08"
hzu cooper.9te hu give hack
h {a sumame}; what hu19 yeUow

h 80d hu199u cucumher


h river Hungh the Ye110w River

HMi Sh\ng Hehei Pro vince hu19s yeUow


hi h1ack hu grey, ash, dust
his h1ack hu retum, 8Oswer; time

h\n ve.Y hud 80swer


h6ng red hugu6 retw tohome18Od
h6ngch h1ack tea huqu go hack
A

h6ngs red ~ hul c8o, meet; meed


hu hehind, after assoclatlon

hubian hehind hulch19 meeting-p1ace


huli afterwards hulhu conversaton
at the hac hehind

humitm huljin meet with


"

hunin the year after next hn mm wedding

121
L hl wedding eeremony ji ho1ida) 1eave of ahsenee
hu6 1ive, movah1e, quiek jiq vaeation
hu6dng aetivity jirl ho1iy

hu fre ji (of a woman) m81


huch train Jln time or mee

huchpi.o train tieket jin examme, mspeet


huchzhn rai11y station jinch examJne, Jn.JeCt

hu partnersh jin simp1e


hubn eompamon jindn simp1e
hu or jinhu simp

huzh or jinx simp1ifed fonn


jih at all, simp1y
jin see
jinmin meet
maehint eroeia1 point
jinshi penenee

jhul opportum't) ehanee


jinw infonnation
j store up; 10.g-standing
jin (a measure wlrl)
i aetiv. positive
jin hea1thy, stre1hen
j 1evel, degI grade jinkng hea1thy
j extreme; po1e jng nver
j eo11eet, If8ther

jng wi11, take, he ahout to


jh ga.er assemh1e jingli Iture
j tI eoUeetive
jing 88) exp'1
jzhng eoneentrate jinghu peak lk
jI afe howmany teaeh, to 1eeture
ji19k
jI fnzhng a few mi(lutes Jl.o assoeiate with, hand over

L
eoun. eompute; metre jiw hallroom daneing
eomputer ji.o pngy.ou make friends
4 jl rememher, note
ji.oqin topay
L jlde rememr ji.o teaeh
jzM reporter
ji eome a~ (a unI't of
qICh;
jl reeoro money in ina: O. J yuan)
jlni eommemorate; souvenir jilod angle, point of view
jl among; honr
Jii.o IOt

17J.1
j season ji.ob paee
jlji season ji eall shout
jl ho... and ji.o sleP

jl eontinue ji.o fair1y


jlx eontinue
ji.o teaehing, re1igion
jl send, post, depend on ji.osh teaeher
jlxnrn sender ji.osh e1assroom
jl aehievement, meri ji.otOOg ehurch
Jl add, inerease ji.oxu teaehing
jishng add jioxu teaehing method

...... Jl fami~ home eeia1i ji.oy edueation


jitng family J.oy' Ministry of Edueation
jiw househo1d duties Ji.oyj Edueation Bureau
ji fa1se, fakt sham ji.oyun teaeher

jilde fake Jl stllf1t

ji shelf, fime jid stll1t

122
jishang on e street j ii1bi wmecup

ji fstiva/, joint, node ji.di restaurant

jim programme, item jilpng winehottle


jirl festival l ji old, used
ji knit congeal; knot 1 ji dngxi sth. seconG.hand

jigu result ji then. as soon a atonc~ on1y


jihn many J reside, li

jiln conclusion jzh live, reside


ji elder sister j oRce, situation
E jiie elder sister j tangenne
ji sepaz solve Undeltand jhung orange colour
jifng 'herate jzi langerfne
jiu solve j hold, lifi; whole
ji he siluated hetwoon jlbn hold
jisho introduce jxfng hold (a meeting. . )
ji houndazy j sentence
ji holTOJI lend jzi senlence
jishzhng mrcard j occ.'Y; according to
7 Jln today, now jshu it is said
jnhu >l11 now on ju deci~ deterrni.

jnni this year judlng decidt decision

Jntin day
ju ahsolute
(a 'inese unt ofweight:O. 5 kg)
Jln
judul ahsolute
metal, golden, money
Jln ju feel
Jnshjing Jinsh1mg River jude feel
jnshl metal Jn anny
jln near pproaching jndul anned force~IOps
enter, advance
jln
jl progress
K
jlnku 1mpoIt
jlnlai enter, come 1n ki 10 open, staIt

jlnqu enter, go mto kich dri acar

go on, he in progrt. kihul hold a mooting


J jlnxng
capital kishI 1!!JD
Jng
-- Jng pas throl kishuI hoiled ter

jngch6ng 'ently kiwnxio crack a joke


jnggu pass, through
kixu school Iens

jnglI man.l5'er k1 see, looJ. read

jngshng engage in trade knbo readanempaper

jngyn expenence
knblng seea doctor
jngyng engage 1D trade k19 health
Jng eyehall k/lo take an examina~ tesl
refined, smaIt; essence examination,
koshl
Jng tt~t

jngshen lively; spirit k a hranch of academic stu


jlng clean section


jlng stiU, quiet kxu sC1ence
1[. ji investigate k measure J

ji n1ne k can, mappro~ hut


jiyu Septemher k i lovahle

jii1 alcoholic d wine kgul valuahle

123
K1 Coca Cola 1 hPPJ enjoy
knng maJ possihle 1i tired, fatigue d; toil
ksh hut
lng cold
kyr can, may; passahle 1engpnr cold dish, hors d' oeuvres
k thirsty 1 off, awa'm; leave
k overcome; gramme 1hn divorce
kf surmount lki leave
k a quarter; carve 1r ceremon) courtY

k guest 1rmo politeness


krn guest 11p1n gl

ktng drawing room 11w ~


k course, class, lesson 1r {a sumame}
kwn text 1r ins

kng empf) holJow 11bin inside


kngzhng air hostess 11min ins.

xi.j i 1r physics, reason


kngxinc water pinach 1If haircut
kng leave empty or hlank 11k science department
kngr -ee time 111n theo.Y

ku mouth
11xing iaal

kuh6 ng lipstck l powe force

kush 0ra1 test 1 pysical stre


kuyn vOlCe, accent 1 foun d, stand, set up
kuy poken lang.e 1k immediately

k 'users b heautful
k zi trouseI" J.nts 1 sharp; henefit
kui {the hasic unit of money = 1yng use
yuan} , piece 1 example, instance, case
' kui fast, quick, rapid 1r forexample

11
kuil happ) j/ 1zi example
kn he stranded 1i two persons
knnun di1 lculty lin even; lin join connect
1in unit. jom

1ilh unite
L
1inx contact; relation
1u {a modal particle} lin face
li come 1in practlCe
ln hlue lilX exercJse
lns hlue li1 smelt, refne
1n look at, see I~ liIg co]. cold
' 1n lazy, indolent lingkuui nice and cool
1o old; alp 1ing two
lh /Jger
/ liIg h.righ. shine

1onin old age 1io fnish, settle; {used after a


1orn the eI.rly verh } to a fnish
1osh teacher lioji understand
1osh men teacheI 1n fores. {a sumame}
1e {a modal particle, an
- 1ny forestry
aspect particle} 1ng zero

124
lngd zero F mo give 09, risk
1ngshng ahove zero mo appearance

lngxi be10w zero me SufTlX}


1ng ag. years mi not, not have
11ng e another
fo- mi every
llngwi besides, moreover mt\ i g yu eve month

1i Dow, dnliJng miti1 everyday


1i1l Duent mt\ i beautifu1; Amen"ca
Mt\ igu6 U.S.
1i stay, remain, keep, 1eave
lixu stu abroad mijn Amen"can doUar
lixushng student stu ahroad mt\ ill beautlr1
-
.
/ li SlX mt\ ishji gourmet
liyu June mt\ish art

16u a ston"ed b U11ding mt\ixu aesthetics

16ufng bui1ding mixuji aesthete

1 road, joumey mi younger slster

1shang on the w.Y mimei younger sister


111 trave1 mn (a measure word); door
mnku entrance
ll1xng to travel
lll.xngsh trave1 service
men (a suDx)

l green m enchant, be 10st


m1 10se one' s way
Hch green tea
mrn channing
l s green
mI nce, metre
L 1un at random, l disorder
1n discuss; theory
. mlfn (cooked) rce
ml dens CJ.e 'icJ. secret
1nwn thesis
|
mlqi close, intimate
M min cotton
minmok cotton 'leril.Jc} trousers
m mum, mother
ml1 fce, DOU1 sia
mma mum
minbo bread
m Dax; rough, pocked; ting1e
minj area
mfan troub1esome
mntio nd
m horse
mn the peop1e
mhu care1ess
mnhng civi1 aviation
m. shng at once mng name, title
ma (a modal particle) mngc noun
m.i buy mngprur famous brand
m.ima business mngpn visiting card
mi se11; hetray mngrn famous person
m. n fu11, packed mngzh fmous hook
m.nyl satisfied mngzi name
' man slow mng briJ.t clar
-1-t mnmn sloly mngbai understand
'f mng busy mngchn tomoITOw moming
mo wool, (a unit of money: mngnin next year
1 yuan) mngtin tomoITOw
mobI writing brush mngxi.n clear, obvious, evident
mok 10ng woo1en pants mngxng star
moy wooUen sweater m6 model, standard

125
mtr m o.de1 nngcn co.untryside
m end nngmn peasant, fanner
mu certmn nngy Tcu1ture

m m o.ther n wo.man, daughter; male


mqn m o.ther nl1 pngyou girlfnend
m y item catalo.g ue nxlng the male sex
mqi1 at present nl1zhung wo.m en's c10es

N P
t ar, drea d, he afraid o.f
n h 0.1d, take p

nhu adtt g.dat pi row; 8JTa~e

piqi
nl which
pi
vo.u.yha1l
cards, p1ate
nr where

ni inside pizi s" p1ate

nib insi inteno.r p1 p1ate; (a measure W o.rd)

nirng c o.n tent p1 fra) p1ate

n that png side

nr there pugbin side

nme like 'at then Z plo ron

nE male plob ron, march at e do.uh1e

nnhir hoy png mend

nn pgyou iend pngyou mend

nnxlng the male sex p skin, 1eather

nnzhung men 's c10.thes pxi 1eather sho.es

nn S o.uth p

nnbian the S o.uth pji heer


pin
nnfng uth

nn difficu1t, had; hmY pin 1eaning, slanting

nuch taste had pinnn to. the so.u.

n
pin a Dat, thin piece
unp1easant to. drink
nnkn 1y pio
pioliang heautiful
nnshu it ' s hard to. say
nntng unp1easant to. hear pio ticket
t1 pln article
nnxu difficult 1t
plnzhng vanety
ne (a modal partic1e)
png peacefu1, Dat, commo.n
nng can; ene abzhIy
can, he ah1e t o. png' n sa and so.und
nnggu
ahjJity pngcIg o.rdinary
nngll
pngdng ewity; elal
d y o.u
calm,
y o.u pngjlng fIni1
nImen
pngsh at o.rdinary times
nin year
png hottlt jar
ninj grade
pngzi ttle
ninlng age
i p throw o.nese1f o.n
ninnin every J'IIU'
pkpi poker
niuqng y o.ung
niE read alo.ud
Q

niIg ayo.u~ wo.m an, m o.ther


nn y o.u (respec1 fonn) q seven

nng ag.dcuJ." fanner ql lu1y

126

g
q a penod of time, phase c1e8I fine

ggg1Imi--

-u.
Id--iu
qJin time, penod fine day


q neat; together as1l. invite p1ease, retest

aw--i6EgH
q his {her, it as1l. roquest

ni
he {sh they}

excuse me

qt other autumn

qzhng among autumn


q strange autumn
qgui strange Juest demand
q nde (n anima1 or hicyc1e) h all, glohe


v

q chess or any hoard game {hall game} fan

-
qI start, nse c1ass

m
qlfi t a.ke off

di'rence


qlmngzi glve a name me1o tune
ql 8Il gas

tune, me10dy
k

v
qlhu climate
go

m

qlxing meteoro10gy
L

1ast year
S

hmnnnmk
A
ql vpo steam
die, pass away

V
qlch au.mohi1e
llltel'St

W
qlchpio hus ticket
h comp1ete


.;J:..
qlchzhn hussp


the who1e country
qlshuI soda ter
comp1ete works
qly6u petro1eum

b
n
overalJ, comprehensive
qln thousand
ll everyone
qin forw8I~htre
p hut, yet
ribian in front
qinjln 'e roa1; rea.
M

advance

reallY; reJ1e
Ennin the year he.re 1ast
qinti1 e day heforo yesterrlay
qin money, cash R
qinbo wallet
qin shallow, ligh superficia1 rn so, nght
nhu then; after that
qilU light grey
rng 1et, give way; y rive
qiIg wall

fonn}
qingshang on the wa11
qi just, even r hot; heat

qi COJTelOnd; anxious ER ma.'ISon peop1e


Rn D Nationa1 Peop1e's ConlflISS
qn llltJmate; parent

rnku popu1ation
qn' ide dear
rnmn the peop1e
qnjln he c10se to

qnml rnshng li
llltJma
rnw personage
qng you green

qngchn youF
rnxlng human naturo
qngnin youth, young peop1e rn recrnize admi

qngninrn youth Enshi knoJf understand

qng softly, 1ight Enwi consir

qngshng in a soft voice rnzhn senous


qng c1ear rl day, sun
qngchu c1ear rlbo da.i1y p.r
qng feeling Rlben Japan

127
rq date shenfnzhng dentity card
Rwn Japanese shenH hody
ryngpln dally artcles shen dark, deep
t R yu Japanese shenln daI hlue

r6 ng looks; pennt shn prt a god

r6ngyl easy shn

shnme whamch
ru meat
rupin slced met shnmeyng what model

rus shredded meat sheng gve hih t. gro h raw

shengblng falJ ll
r I as he as good as

shengcf new word


rgu f
shenghu6 lfe; lve
rh how
shengql get ang;Y

shengr hirthday
S | sheng vOlCe

si match, game shengyn sound

-
-- siin three
shng

sh
provlnce; economlze
teacher
siinl vh shd nonnal school
so ell'r hrother' s
shfu master worker
sozi elder hrorV
shsheng teacher and students
s colour
sh poem
. shii sand shrn poet
shiin hill, mountain shf ten
Shiindng Shandong (Pro vnce) sh' u Decemher
Shiinx SMng Shanxi Pro vnce shfyyu Novemher
shiing commeroe; dscuss shyu Octoher
shiingchng mm hazr shf !Jme, moment
shiingdin shop shfdi och

shiingpln commOly shhou moment


shiingrn husnessman shfjiiin tlme
shiingy commerce shfzhuiing fshonahle dress
1 shf knm knowledge
shng t high mount go

..,... shf sold e; reality
shngbian ahove, over
shngche get on a hus shfxin realize
sh food; eat
Shnghi angha


shftng canteen, mess hall
shngk go to class
sh food
shngli come up
shngq go up
shI make, us employ send
shI rn enahle someone to
shngwl forenoon

shngy upper outer gannent A shlyng use, employ


shI hegnnng
shiio mn a fver, hum
shl world
sh w lttle; he short
shlji world
sho cany on, con!Jnue Shljibei World Cup
sh houst shed hut
shl mm Cl~

sh agency, socJety shlchling market, marketplace


shhul society t shl show
shen hody shl typ style form, pattem
shenci stature, fgure 3 shlyng style, type, model

128
sh1 'ing air matter shu1jio sleep
sh1r thing, a shuUnjio get up 1ate
sh1qing thing, air 4 shu saJeak1k
sh1y career shobshng clLl1not say
sh1 100k a regard shuhu pea ta/k

Z sh1ju visua/ sense s silk, a thread like ohject'
sh1

V test
s take ch81 attend to
sh room 8I driver
sh1 he Z
J Sl think
sh1 fit; suitah1e
sko 'ink de.fy
shu recelve
sxing though ideo1cY
shudo recelve
s1 die; to death
shu h lLl1 d
s1le extreme dead
shubio wnt watch
s1 rour
shutfbo hanQ
s1hyun a compound wit houses
shux ronna/ities
around a square courty.
shu head
quadrang1e
shud Cpita/ (of a country)
s1shlt6ngtng rour generations live
shuxin first
toge'er
shu thin, emaciated, 1elLl1
shuru 1elLl1 meat sng glve
snggi glve
shuxio thin lLI1 d sma/1

sh hook; write sngl1 give sh. a present

shbo $atche1 s teU


shdin hooksh. s vegetah1e, e1emen: pl"n
sh ca/ligraphy sci vegetah1e dish
shji hookshelf s 10dge for the n.l1t

shminy. written 1a.f!Uage ssh donnitory, hoste1


sh unc1e sun ca/cu1att compute



shshu unc1e, (a chi1d' s fonn of su year (of age)
addn's for any young man sush age
one generation its senior) su p1ace
sh 1eisure1y; stretch suyI so, therefore
shfu comfortah1e suyu de own, a/1
sh ripe, cooked, don familiar
shrn acl"ntance T
shxi know sth. or sh. we1J,
he familiar t he
t de his
sh. he hom in the year of, he10ng
to 4 tmen thY
sh ski1J, technique, art t she
sh tree t de her

sh maematic numher '


tmen thy (fema/e)
shxu mathematics t J/

shung p81. douhle


tm stlLl1d, p1atfonn, station

shu who ti extrem too

shu1 water titui mad81 wiJ


7J p3
shu1gu fruit tng a hall rora pecific p Ulpose

shu1png horizonta/ 1eve1 tng lie


shu sleep t19yI deck ch81I, 1azy Ch81I

129
tngzhe ng t6uf h ar
to (a measure word) t map, p lCture
t specif tpin pmre

tbi d1; e.C} shgn 'I8Y


tdin characteristc tuI 1.
tng ache hefondof
tul retreat, retum
ti kick, p1ay tulxi ret1re
carry in one's hand, lift, raise
"
tfgo rase 1Jten
tu
tuyn
h01d in
to che.ck ,
e palm,
cons.7
enst

for
tfqin move Up (a ate) shipment
twn put questJOn to W
t proh1em, suhject
tI ho wi outside

co gymnastics, aerohics wibian outside


tIwn (hody) t.mperature wigu6 foreign country
tIy orts wiho nickname
tin da) sk) heaven wike sU1eY

tinql weather wimin outsi(

tinti1 eve.rday wiwn foreign 1anguage


tin add, increase w~y foreign 1anguage
tio (a measure word); stn; ~ fnsh, he ove end

WI

tiojin condition to p1a) enjoy


wn
JJt tio jump, hounce wnr to p1ay
tiowl dance wn evening, night; late
ti stic paste
w'nbo evenmg p.ler
ti 1ron w'nfn dinner
ting hall
w'nnin 01d age
ting listen
w'nshang night
tingbdng can 't understand
wn hoJl measUI word}
tingdedng can understand
w19 (a sumame), king
tingdejin can hear
tingjin hear '
2 W19 forget
wngjl fo.t
sense of hearing
tingju
wng h 100k over
4 tingshu heard of
wi he, do, act, heCOn.
tingxi/'\ dictate; dictation
wi around
tfng front y ard, law court
wiq weiqi (a game)
tng stop
tfngchch'ngpazfing 10t wi for
wle for
tngzh stop
f wishnme why
tIng vezy; straight; stick out
tng open, no. connect wi have not

tnggu hy; pass rough wili Iture

tngzh notfy, i'l7l1 . wi (a measure word); p1ace

t6ng togethe. same JJ


11. wn temperature; W8I711

t6ngsh at 'e same time wnd temperature


t6ngxu C1lsmate wn wning, article
t6ngyl agree wnhu culture

t6ngzhl comrade w~lng gentle and quiet
tng unite; aIl wnk liheral arts
t6u head, h ar, chief wnu 'erature

130
w6ku63ia man of 1etters ijici a dish that goes with a1c

wnyl 1iterature & art holic drinks


wn hear, smell; news 4 xik finish c1ass
wn ask Xl go down
wnho question m81 xiw afiemoon

wnt ques!11 proh1em xi xngq next week


wwwww
xuxOXOXO

1, me xixu snow

dma
USLVMh

m) mme iy I8ln
ntwe, us
xi summer
h01d, grasp xiji summer

shakehands itin sumler

wii hous room xin ear1ier, first; bt.!ro

wiizi room xinsheng Mr. , gentleman


w five xi1 he ljJarent show
Wi1S1 'e May 4th Movement
xin county
Yndng of1 919 inchng coun" seat
yn-lis mu1tico10ured xin present; appar
May xindi m'l71 hmes
w noon ilXing phenomenon
Wn 1unch xinzi now
w dance
Xlng each other
w air heeng.f!ed xing conry
W 'ing . matter xingxin helieve in
wlI

physcs xing fragJ4 1petizing
xingshuI pelIme
X
want ink

xing

x west xingnin mss


xbian the west xingf idea op"on


xcn 'stem-sty1e food xing direction; face; towards
xf19rn Westemer 1. app/U8/1ce
xing
'stem-sty1e clothes xingpin photo
xgu waennelon xing ppearance e1ephant
zshi Westem sty1e
xingqinese chess
xyo Westem mtl('cine xing he like, pail
y (a doctor trained in) 'Stem medicine xio sma1l
x h xiohir chi1d

xwIg h iohuzi 1ad, young feUow


x hrea. interest i xi Miss

x know xiopngyou children, child


x prachce xiosh hour

xgu1 hahit, custom xioshu nove1


I he fond of; hppy xioxu primary schoo1
xIhu1 to like xioxulng schoo1chi1d
xl system, d.nent; 1}ateto xio schoo1
xi s1ende careful
xio 1at11 smi1e
xlxn C8111 iohua jeer a 1aug. at; joke
xi he10H down next ~ xi 80me
xihian he10 undr xi shoes
xich get offa car xidin shoe s!ro

131
xil wrlte xuwi academic degree
xi thank
xuwn systematic leaming
1 xixie thank you xux stu
xn hem centre
xuxio school
xnqng 1lll1e of mind
xuyun college
xnzhng in e heart
xuzh scholar
xn new
xu snow
xnni New Year
xnq strange
xnwn news
Y
letter, fai s.7
xln
yn severe, stric 1Jt

xlnfeng envelope
yng stnct
xlnxn confdence
y
\L
+ ynzhng grave, senous
Xlllg prosper, nse, start yn peech word
xng star
yn study
xngq week
ynji research
xngq' r Tuesday
ynjihul research association
xngqli Saturday
ynjisheng graduate student
xngq Sunday
ynjisu research institute
xngqsn Wednesday
ynjiyun research .JJow
xngqsl 2ursday
yn colour, face
IngqtIn Sunday
yns colour
xngqwi Friday
yn eye
xngqly Monday
ll yanji eld of vision
1"
, xng Wlk; all right
ylnjing eye
xngli haggage, luggage
ylnke ophthalmoJ.7
xlng mood or desire to do s.
ylnqin at the moment
xlngq mterest
j yln pezfonn
xlng sumamlmilyname
ylnchg sing (in a pel'nnance)
xlngmng l name

gd frtune ylnyun actor or actress


xlng
xlngf h1piness
yn examlne

xlng nature, sex yIg she

xlngg nature, diosition yng appearance, shape, sample

XlU res st. cease yo demancl asA force

XIXl have a rest yoqi demand



x need; necessan yo medicine
xqi ruirement; demand yodin phannacy

xyo need yofng prescnptlOn
myhe yo nt ask fr, need
xi
xdu many yoshi if, in case
contnut add ye '0 also
x
peIps
xuln select yexi

xulnyng select, choose y course of stu.de

xulnz select y n~1Jt


7A xu to stu leaming yjin at n.1Jt

xunin school year yli at night


xuq semester. ywln night
xusheng student y one
xushengzhng student 's card ylbn genera.

132
ydianr a little ynggl shou1d
ydlng certain1y, sure1y
.>-1- yng Britai hero

ygng in al1, total Ynggu6 Britain


yk a moment Ylngwn English
ykzhng a quarter of an hour Yngy the English 1angu.e




ykuir together yng 'Jerate

yl aU the way yngyyun shop emp10yee




ylq ln unlson ylng shadow
ylql t('ether ylngpinr f1m

yqi al1 ylng comp1y wi

yxi once ylngyng pp1y use

yxi some, certam ylng reDect, mror

yyng same t yng forever


yngyuan frever
yyu Januy
ylzh straigh always ~~ yng sWlm
yng use

yzhl sho'ng

c10the.
no diwnce
yngf usage

yngpln artic1es for use
yfu clothing
y medical science y6u post, mai1
y6uj post oflce
yshng doctor
y6upio stamp
yxu medicI'ne
y6u oi1
yyun hospital
y6uhu oi1 painting
yl alrea
yljng already
y6u swim, trave1
y6ul1 to tour
yl use, takt according to
ylhu afier y6uyng SWlm
yu riend
ylqin he.'re former1y
yIshng ove. more than
yu have, there is
yubofu havehh aspirations
ylwi helieve
yude some
yl chair
yudianr a little, some
ylzi chair
yugu1 re1ale to
yl art, skiJl yukngr have time
ylsh art yul advantageous
4 yl discuss yumng fmous
4~ ylln talk ahout fiscuss yuqngrn 10r
y trans1ate yushhou sometJmes
y easy yuxuwn 1eamed, knondgeah1e

yl idea, meanl'ng yuylsi mterestmg


yljin idea, opinion, view yu agam
ylsi meanlng, oplnlOn yu... yu ho... and
yn hecause 01; reason yu then'ght
ynwi hecause yubian the right side
yn overcast yumiun the right side
yntJ n overcast sky y II at
JL ym sound y fsh
ynyu muslC yru the Desh offsh

}~L ynyuhu concert yxing 2sb-smethhg':hot


ymg should, answer y and
yngdng shou1d y rmn

133
1 y 1anguage z choose


f grammar zn how
n Chinese (as a su;ect olstudy) znme ho why

yyn 1angue Znmeyng how


1Xu linguistics zng increase, add, gain
yn pronunclation zngjl lncrease
y educate, rear zngtin add, increase


y inadvance zhn open up; exihition

ybo lorecast zhnln ex'ihition

y pn'J8re 1essons zhnlngun exhihi(on h alJ


zh stand, station
y meet
ljin meet zhng (a measure word); to open
ln sh. in a e1d 01activity zhng chie/; grow; 01der
ln a p1ace ror puhlic recreation zho heckon, recroit
ln crcu1ar; circ1e zhohu calJ


Yuunngyu1 Yuanmingyuan P81 zho touch, he affected hy
llf. yun h distant zhHng he affected hy c01d
~, ln y ard, institude z 100k ror
yunzi courtyard zhodo havelound
l ahout; make ppointment zho shine, iUuminate
yuhu ppointment zhopin photo
l mon themoon zhoxing to photograph
yufn month zhoxingj camera
l getover, 0!J'Step zhe verhalp
yuliyu more and more zh (a suj
1 mus1C zh this
-p; y11n c10ud zhr here

:

yn
yndng
move,
port
11n'JOrt

zhn
zhng
real.'e;

tO'01e
realJy

yndngchng 'JOrtsground zhngg wh01e, entire


ynd 'JOrtswear zhngq neat
yndngyun 'JOrtsman zhng S upright

zhngchllg nonnal
zhngho just right
Z con't right
zhngqu

IJ, z mixro zhngsh ronnal, oDcial


zwn essay zhngzi in process 01
zzh mlJ'8Zme 4 zhng demonstrate, prove
zi lD once more zhngmng tes prove
zijin goo{-hye . zhngsh certicate
zi heat, in zh (a stroctllral p81(cle); 01
P zn weorus (jncludng thespeakerandlstener) zh jin hetween, among
zllmen cludng the speaker and lier} zh zhng among
z moming; 10.'0 ear1y z: y one of
zochn mommg zh (a measure word); prop up
zofn hreakfast zhch sust81n, sIfJOrt

zonin one's ear1y years zh knoJl know1edge

zhang mommg zhdo know


z standard, ro1e zhmng ce1ehrated

134
zhshi know1edge zhun transfr, change
zhshifnzI inteUectual zhung c1othing; pretend
zh slra. zhUn allow, gr'1; ceJt
zh joh, p'f duty zhnhi intend, prepare
zhgng staff and WOrkel zhinsh on time
zhy profession
zhu tah1e
zhyun oHice worker zhushang on the tah1e
/ zhI only zhuzi tah1e
zhyu only, alone zI chi1d,- {a j
zhI 10cation, address
J zl word; character
'
2 zhl recon zldin dictionary
zhl send; incur zl seJf; m

zhng cenlre; middle zlr1 nature


zhngcn inesemeal
I~ zlxngch hicyc1e
Zhnggu6 ina zng always; total
Zhng!Jl6 ci Chinese meal zngshl always
zhngjin hetween, amo. middle zu walk, go, 1eave
zhnlin midd1e ge zul walk
zhongshl Chinese sty1e zu rent
Zhngw Chinese z wt

zhngw noon Zqi foothall


zhngxn centre zqichng thall ground

zhngxu middle schf A


zd foothall match

zhngyo traditional 'inese medi.M


c1ock, heU
zi ancestor, grafllther
zhng zl grancther

zhng kind, SOI seed zigu6 one 's country

zhng gro p1ant zmi grandmother


zhnghu grow Dowers
zul most, -est
zhng we.'t; heavy zul d b'est

zhngdin focal point zul hu fjnal; 1as

zhngyo important zul jln recentl


zhu circuit, week; thoughtful zul xio smallest
zhum weekend zu6 yesterday
zhuwi around zu6tin yt'ferday

zhi hos owne. master zu the 1efi


zhichrn ancho1111an, hostess zubian the 1efi side
zhirn master zulmion the 1efi side
zhiyo mam zuyu ahout
zh }jve zu do
zhch residence zuf course of action
zh help zuji writ.r

7 zh fjx; notes zuwn composluon


zhy pay attention 10 zuy homework
zh wish zu: author
zh wnte; marked zu sJt
zhmng famous, ce1ehrated zuzhe sitting

zhzu nt work zu seat; {a measure word}


zhu1 ecial
; zuwi sea p1ace

zhuny 'ciality zu do

135

Key to the Exercises

D
B

A
D

A AB


D C

ABD C
B

C D D B
C CD C

C B C C
B C B
B B C A
B C BC
AB B C C
CD C AB
AB AB C A
C B D
C C B B
D BCD AC

C
AD

C
C

B
C

D
C

B
B

C
B

C
'
D B D D
C D BD
C B C C
D D D
B D D D
C D D
B C C D
D D D

C
A

B
C

C
B

AD


D

D
B

B
C

D
D D A C
CD C B
AB A D C
A D BCD

B D AB C
C D A
B C A B
C C BC

? B B B B
C D CD
D D B A
D BC C
B D C D
D BCD B

A D D D
C C B
A

136
C&D C B
B C ABC
i
:




*


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: 86-010-68326333
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( 35 )
399 1044

2001 (1 6 )
2004
()
ISBN 7-80052-695-X 1 H . 1021()
9-CE- 3418P
: 24.00
f: APPROA(
4RNINQCI

~ J