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368 Chapter 9

of specific gear geometry, the results are labor-intensive in terms of setting up the model, and
uncertainty often remains concerning the validity of boundary conditions and material
properties. An alternative to finite element analysis is the use of procedural approaches such
as those outlined in standards developed by the American Gear Manufacturers Association
(AGMA), the British Standards Institution (BSI), and the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO).
This chapter concentrates on analyzing whether failure due to bending and contact
stresses in a gear set is likely. In Section 9.2 a relatively simple relationship for contact
stresses is outlined prior to the introduction of the current AGMA equations for bending
and contact stresses in Section 9.3. The AGMA equations rely on the evaluation of a
significant number of factors and geometrical parameters, which depend on the specific
geometry and materials concerned. In this chapter, the basic approach is outlined for 20!
pressure angle, full depth teeth spur and helical gears only. Many of the detailed charts
and equations given in the source standards have been omitted and the reader is
encouraged to view the most recent standards as necessary. A general strategy for gear
design is outlined in Section 9.4.

9.2 Wear Failure

In addition to failure due to bending stresses in gears, failure due to wear on the
surface of gear teeth should also be considered. Possible surface failures include pitting,
which is a surface fatigue failure due to many repetitions of high contact stresses,
scoring due to failure of lubrication, and abrasion due to the presence of foreign
The surface compressive, Hertzian, or contact stress for a gear can be modeled by
! " #$
Kv0 Wt 1 1 0:5
sc #Cp (9.1)
F cos f r1 r2

Cp is an elastic coefficient,
r1 and r2 are radii of curvature,
Kv0 is the velocity factor,
Wt is the transmitted load (N),
F is the face width (m)
f is the pressure angle (! ).
If the units of Cp are in MPa, Wt is in N, and r1,r2 are in meters, then Eqn (9.1) gives the
contact stress sc in kPa.
Spur and Helical Gear Stressing 369

The radii of curvature are given by

dP sin f
r1 (9.2)
dG sin f
r2 (9.3)
where dP and dG are the pitch diameters of the pinion and gear, respectively.

The velocity factor Kv0 for cut or milled profile gears is given by
6:1 V
Kv0 (9.4)
where V is the pitch line velocity (m/s).

Note that this definition for the velocity factor, now used in the latest AGMA standards, is the
reciprocal of that previously defined. For this reason, following the notation suggested by
Mischke in Shigley and Mischke (2001), a superscript prime has been added to distinguish it
from previous definitions.
The elastic coefficient Cp can be calculated from Eqn (9.5) or obtained from Table 9.1.
2 30:5
6 1 7
Cp 6 7
4 &1 # n2 1 # n2 '5 (9.5)

vP is Poissons ratio for the pinion,

vG is Poissons ratio for the gear,
EP is Youngs modulus for the pinion,
EG is Youngs modulus for the gear.
Table 9.1: Values of the elastic coefficient (Cp ; Ze MPa).
Gear material
Epinion Malleable Nodular Cast Aluminum Tin
Pinion material (GPa) Steel iron iron iron bronze bronze
Steel 200 191 181 179 174 162 158
Malleable iron 170 181 174 172 168 158 154
Nodular iron 170 179 172 170 166 156 152
Cast iron 150 174 168 166 163 154 149
Aluminum bronze 120 162 158 156 154 145 141
Tin bronze 110 158 154 152 149 141 137
Source: AGMA 218.01
370 Chapter 9

Example 9.1
A speed reducer has a 22-tooth spur pinion made of steel, driving a 60-tooth gear made of cast
iron. The transmitted power is 10 kW. The pinion speed is 1200 rpm, module 4, and face
width 50 mm. Determine the contact stress.
NP 22; steel pinion, NG 60; cast iron gear. n 1200 rpm, m 4, F 50 mm, H 10 kW.

dP mNP 4 % 22 88 mm; dG 4 % 60 240 mm:

0:088 2p
V % 1200 % 5:529 m=s:
2 60
6:1 5:529
Kv0 1:906:
Wt 1809 N:
From Table 9.1 for a steel pinion and cast iron gear, Cp 174 MPa:
From Eqns 9.2 and 9.3,
88 % 10#3 sin 20 240 % 10#3 sin 20
r1 0:01505 m; r2 0:04104 m:
2 2

From Eqn (9.1):

! $0:5
1:906 % 1809
sc #174 90:81 #174 % 2581 kPa #449;200 kPa y # 449 MPa:
0:05 cos 20

9.3 AGMA Equations for Bending and Contact Stress

The calculation of bending and contact stresses in spur and helical gears can be determined
using standardized methods presented by the BSI, the ISO, the Deutsches Institut fur
Normung, and the AGMA. The AGMA standards have recently been reaffirmed (ANSI/
AGMA 2101-D04) and are widely used and have therefore been selected for presentation
here. The procedures make extensive use of a series of geometry and design factors, which
can be determined from design charts and tables.
The AGMA formula for bending stress for spur gears is given in SI units by
s Wt KO KV0 Ks (9.6)