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By Mrs.

Adetoun Tijani
Head, Quality Control Laboratory,
Portland Paints & Products Nig. Plc
Quality control is a procedure/set of
procedures carried out to ensure that a
manufactured product/performed service
adheres to a defined set of criteria/standard
values, before, during and after
manufacturing, to ensure customer
satisfaction and conformance with statutory
The raw materials, manufacturing process
and finished products undergo stringent QC
Paints can be defined as a liquid, paste, or powder
products which when applied on a substrate, dries to
form a thin layer and serves for informative, decorative
and protective purposes.
Paints is a mixture (not a compound).
Paint is different from DYE.
The term colorant is often used for both Dyes and
Pigments. i.e. substances that impart color.
Dyes are chemicals /organic compounds, that are
dissolved in a medium, to impart color and are
absorbed into the material to which they are applied.
Coating is a general term denoting a material that is
applied to a surface (e.g. Paint, Varnish)
Paint is pigmented, while varnish refers to clear
lacquer/pigment-free coating.
Paints is made up of numerous components
which are PEARS. i.e.
Pigments are
responsible for color,
covering power and
properties. The most widely used
Pigments are finely pigment is TiO2, due
ground crystalline to its excellent hiding
solids that are property. Other e.g.
dispersed/ suspended are carbon black,
in the paint. They may FeO, CdS for red,
be organic, in-organic metallic salts for
and metallic. yellow and orange.
Extenders, also known as Fillers are largely finely
ground crystalline solids that are dispersed in the
paint, added to reduce cost of production, by
replacing expensive pigments in paint.
Fillers give the paint body / make the paint bulky
and improves flow ( i.e. less sagging on
They are used as matting agents (control gloss
level), to provide matt or semi-gloss finishes e.g.
are CaCO3, kaolin, talc, clay (Al silicates), sand,
marble dust etc.
Additives are added to modify certain properties of
paint. Examples are:
Driers accelerate drying of paints. They are
basically metals, which catalyses the oxidation
and polymerization of film in solvent-based
paints. E.g. Pb, Ca, Co, Mn driers. However, Pb is
no longer in use due to high toxicity; but
zirconium is now used instead.
Anti-settling Agent - to prevent pigment settling.
Anti-Skinning Agent- control skinning (ensures
paint do not skin). i.e. oximes
Defoamers - reduce formation of bubbles
during manufacturing, and breaks bubbles as
they are formed in the paint
Biocides / Preservatives (IN-CAN/DFP) -
prevents smelling of paint while in the
container and growth of moulds /algae/fungi
on paint after it has been applied.
Wetting & Dispersing Agent - are surfactants,
that assists in moistening (wetting) the
pigment, hence, easier to grind & disperse.
They prevent flocculation of the pigment
particles {ensuring uniformity}
Thickeners- makes the paint easy to
Neutralizing Agents- are used in
waterborne paints to neutralize and
stabilize paints. E.g Ammonia
Co-Solvent- increases the hardness of
the film, enhances flow. E.g in water-
based paints, the co-solvent is
texanol; Butyl Glycol- gloss paints.
Binder is a polymeric substance, mostly
gummy in nature. They bind components
together & make it stay on the substrate.
Binder is the actual film-forming component
of a paint.
Binders improve the paints resistance to
moisture permeability, sunlight exposure,
staining, cracking, damage from abrasion &
adhesion to the surface.
Binder/Resin may be natural or synthetic.
Examples of natural resins are: linseed oil,
soya beans oil, coconut oil.
Examples of popular synthetic resins are:
Alkyds, Acrylics, Epoxies, Polyurethane etc.
Alkyd resins: most commonly used in
solvent-based paints, e.g. gloss paints, heat
cured stoving enamel paints.
Poly Vinyl Acetate & Acrylic binders: are
water-based binders.
Epoxy resins: Epoxy resins are applied as
base coats, which prevents corrosion (tanks
(fuel)and prevents friction (factory floor).
Epoxy resins are also useful in marine
Polyurethanes: Polyurethane - based paints are tough,
with durable films that retain their gloss & are easy to
clean. Polyurethane paints are applied as topcoats and
are often used for painting aircraft.
Silicon resin: are used for chiming machine (generates
lots of heat)
Polyester resin: used for roofing sheet.

Note: Epoxies/ Polyurethane paints are two-packed

coatings that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction
initiated by mixing the paint & curing agent/hardener at
the point of use and which cure by forming a hard
plastic structure.
Solvent is also known as CARRIER / DILUENT
Solvents are low viscosity, volatile liquids.
They dissolve the binder & hold it in suspension
with the paints pigment.
Ensures even-mixing of the paint components&
makes the paint easy to apply.
They are used to reduce the viscosity of paint for
better flow & application.
Examples of solvents are water, MEK- methyl-
ethyl-ketone, MIBK- methyl-iso-butyl-ketone,
Xylene, Toluene, Butyl-acetate, Butyl-glycol,
kerosene. e.t.c.
Paint manufacturing process is just like making
semo / amala at home.
The 1st thing should be ensuring that foodstuff
(raw materials) are available.
Then, work instruction/batch sheet is issued,
based on the quantity of raw materials available
& sales request.
Next thing is to ensure that the pot/container
and HSD/Grinding machine is very clean.
However, manufacturing instruction has to be
adhered to in order to achieve the desired
results. {For instance, if u want to make amala, u
dont pour your elubo in an empty pot on fire
and start adding water; rather u put little quantity
of water, allow to boil & then add your elubo}
Water based paints is processed in a HSD
(high-speed dispersion) tank, in which a
circular, toothed blade attached to a
rotating shaft agitates the mixture of
pigment, extenders, wetting & dispersing
agents, little quantity of water, and
defoamer; until the pigment particles are
fully dispersed.
Once the dispersion is certified okay, by the
Quality Control, the temperature of the
mixture is controlled to 300c, before adding
the binder & other raw materials remaining in
the Batch sheet.
The paint is then mixed and sampled to the
laboratory to check Quality Control
parameters (viscosity, S.G, Colour, Opacity,
drying, texture -consistency, gloss/sheen,
NVC etc) to ensure conformance with the set
Thinning & Tinting occurs.
Once the paint is certified okay by
QC, it is then PASSED & PACKED
as finished product. However, QC
ensures that packaging containers
are properly labelled, free from
dirt & that products are packed to
The first step in making oil-based paint involves
mixing the pigment/fillers with little resin, little
solvent, wetting and dispersing agent to form a
It is then routed into a sand mill/grinding machine
(a large cylinder that agitates/grinds the
pigment/filler particles, making them smaller and
dispersing them throughout the mixture).
After about 30minutes, the fineness of grind is
checked by the Quality Control Personnel. If okay,
the paint is discharged & made-up. At this stage,
the remaining raw materials yet to be added are
Thinning & Tinting then starts.
Quality Control parameters (viscosity, S.G,
Colour, Opacity, drying, gloss/sheen, NVC
etc.) are checked to ensure conformance with
the set standard.
Once the paint is certified okay by QC, it is
then PASSED & PACKED as finished product.
However, QC has to ensure that packaging
containers are properly labelled, free from
dirt and that products are packed to level.
Specific gravity
PH: 7.5 9.0
Dispersion/ Fineness of Grind
Viscosity determined by Ford Cup/B4
cup (seconds) for low viscous products
and Rotothinner (Poises) for highly
viscous products.
Bleed resistance/ flocculation
The Texture of the paint is determined by
applying it on the wall using a Texcote roller to
check for sagging.
Color using spectrophotometer
Opacity/ Hiding power is measured by painting it
over a black surface and a white surface. The
ratio of coverage on the black surface to
coverage on the white surface is then
Non-volatile matter
Gloss/Sheen is measured by determining the
amount of reflected light given off a painted
surface, using a Gloss meter.
Adhesion is tested by making a
crosshatch on a dried paint surface. A
piece of tape is applied to the
crosshatch, and then pulled off. A
good paint will remain on the surface.
Resistance to soapy water is tested by
a machine that rubs a soapy brush
over the paint's surface. Wet
Abrasion Scrub Tester
Weathering/ Resistance of the color to
fading is determined by exposing a
portion of a painted surface to
outdoor conditions i.e. sunlight,
water, extreme temperature, humidity,
and comparing the amount of fading
to a painted surface that was not
Stability Test
Coarse particle/ foreign matter stick, rope,
sack etc.
Flash Point is the temperature at which the
mixture of the paint vapour and air, can
ignite in the presence of a spark. The higher
the flash point, the safer a solvent-based
paint is considered for storage.
1. Settling Low dispersion
2. Paint Separation Incompatibility
3. Foaming Mixing at high speed,
insufficient defoamer.
4. Foul smell/ Micro-organisms
Mould growth
5. Sagging, no Too much water, sand omitted
texture/ pattern
6. Low viscosity Excess solvent
7. High Viscosity Insufficient solvent
8. High Specific Insufficient solvent
9. Low Specific Excess solvent, foaming
10. Foreign matter Adding foreign contaminants
without manufacturers
specification (lead to film defect)
11. Chalking (is the Polymer degradation of the paint
progressive matrix, due to exposure from UV
powdering of the radiation.
paint film on the
painted surface).
12. Erosion (Erosion due to external agents like
is a very quick rainfall
13. Peeling/Blisterin Improper surface treatment
g before application& dampness
present in the substrate.
14. Cracking When paint coatings are not
allowed to cure/dry completely
before the next coat is applied.
15. Pigment The pigment, after
Flocculation dispersion, reverts to a
greater or lesser degree,
when rubbed. (Colour
16. Tacking/ not Insufficient drier
17. Skinning Absence of anti-skinning
agent, excess drier
18. Low sheen Excess pigment/extender
Quality control is the process of finding out
the outcome of the product produced if it
conforms to the standard procedures or not
and if it will meet up with market demands.
It is the heart of every organization.
Note that a poor or adulterated raw material
and a wrong manufacturing process will
never produce a good product hence quality
checks on raw materials and finished
products are very essential in order to get
the desired benefits from such products.
checks says a lot about
the image of any organization.
Above all the quality of a
product should NEVER be