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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

CM3110
Transport I
Part II: Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer with Phase


Change
Evaporators and Condensers

ProfessorFaithMorrison

DepartmentofChemicalEngineering
MichiganTechnologicalUniversity
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Heat Transfer with Phase Change

So far we have discussed heat transfer at a boundary due to


a temperature difference between bulk temperatures

qx
h Tb Tw 1. forced convection
laminar
A
turbulent
Newtons law of 2. natural convection
cooling

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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

1
Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Heat Transfer with Phase Change

So far we have discussed heat transfer at a boundary due to


a temperature difference between bulk temperatures

qx
h Tb Tw 1. forced convection
laminar
A
turbulent
Newtons law of 2. natural convection
cooling 3. phase change

When a phase change takes place, the temperature on one


side is CONSTANT, but the presence of boiling/condensing
fluids produces heat transfer.
Important in evaporation, distillation
LARGE h
Its important to know in which regime you operate
Each regime has different correlations
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

resistance to heat transfer


Boiling
Tsat

At low DT, few bubbles


T Tsat form, and heat transfer
is by natural
convection.
heat As DT increases, more
liquid phase bubbles form,
increasing convection
(flow) in the liquid
phase, increasing h.

vapor phase
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

resistance to heat transfer

Tsat Film Boiling

T Tsat As increases further,


a film appears and
grows, increasing
resistance to heat
transfer
liquid phase
heat

vapor phase
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
transition boiling
nucleate boiling

Regimes of Heat
Transfer during
convection

film boiling

Boiling
radiation
natural

becomes
important

There are
correlations T 0.25
for h for each
regime.
Geankoplis 4th ed, p284
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Regimes of Heat There are correlations for h for each regime.


Transfer during
Boiling

For example: Equations


Nucleate boiling, horizontal surfaces good for
these units:

16
1043 T

5.56 T 16 240

Geankoplis 4th ed, p284


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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Regimes of Heat There are correlations for h for each regime.


Transfer during
Boiling

For example: Equations


Nucleate boiling, vertical surfaces good for
these units:

3
537 T

7.95 T 3 63

Geankoplis 4th ed, p285


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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Regimes of Heat There are correlations for h for each regime.


Transfer during
Boiling

For example: Equations


Nucleate boiling, forced convection inside tubes good for
these units:

2.55

Geankoplis 4th ed, p285


9
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Regimes of Heat There are correlations for h for each regime.


Transfer during
Boiling
For example:
Geankoplis 4th ed, p285
Film boiling, horizontal tubes

0.4 ,
0.62

Equations good for these units:


/
,
2

(All material properties at
the film temperature)
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Condensation

heat At low , few droplets


T Tsat form,
Tsat As increases, more
droplets form,
vapor phase increasing convection
(flow).
Vertical plates;
horizontal tubes
important

condensed phase

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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Dropwise Condensation high h


hard to maintain
not used in practice

heat
T Tsat
Tsat
vapor phase

condensed phase

There are correlations for h for each regime. 12


Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Film Condensation film reduces h


very stable
often used

heat
T Tsat Tsat

vapor phase

heat

condensed phase

There are correlations for h for each regime. 13


Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Regimes of Heat There are correlations for h for each regime.


Transfer during
Condensation Geankoplis 4th ed, p289

For example:
Film condensation, vertical surfaces, laminar flow

Re
4
1800
1.13

Equations good for these units:


/
,
2

(All material properties
at the film temperature)
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Regimes of Heat There are correlations for h for each regime.


Transfer during
Condensation Geankoplis 4th ed, p289

For example:
Film condensation, vertical surfaces, turbulent flow

L . Re
4
1800
0.0077 Re

Equations good for these units:

2
(All material properties
at the film temperature)
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Regimes of Heat There are correlations for h for each regime.


Transfer during
Condensation Geankoplis 4th ed, p285

For example:
Film condensation, outside horizontal cylinders, laminar flow

Re
4
1800
0.725

Equations good for these units:


/
,
2

(All material properties
at the film temperature)
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Evaporators

Issues:
hot fluid boiling viscosity, m
(steam) liquor scale formation
liquor velocity
heat time in evaporator

Tsat, steam hs
large heat-transfer
hl resistance on liquor-
side
negligible heat-transfer Tsat,liquor
resistance due to wall
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

steam in tubes liquor in tubes


liquor on outside steam steam on steam
inexpensive, but outside
poor liquid liquid circulates
circulation by natural
good for non- convection
depositing, low
fluids

downcomer

steam

hydrostatic
head in
tubes
horizontal-tube vertical-tube prevents
evaporator evaporator boiling in
tubes

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Geankoplis, p492
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

liquor in tubes liquor in tubes


steam on outside steam on outside
liquid circulates by liquid circulates by forced
natural convection convection
single pass good for high fluids
high liquid velocities

steam
condensate

long-tube vertical forced-circulation


evaporator evaporator
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Geankoplis, p492
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Long-tube vertical
evaporators
boiling, 2-phase zone

Decreasing
Increasing
non-boiling zone
g

For discussion of how to


estimate , see Geankoplis 4th
edition, p533
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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Greater efficiency may be obtained by


operating several evaporators in series:

Multiple-Effect Evaporation

T1 T2 T3

Tf P3
P1 P2

Ts

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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Norbert Rillieux: Inventor of Multiple-Effect Evaporation

Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Single-Effect Evaporators
Tb
vapor

Tf Tb
feed
steam steam
Ts Tb condensate

concentrated liquor
Tb

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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Multiple-Effect Evaporators
P1 P2 P3
For each effect the vapor product becomes the
source of heat for the subsequent effect T1 T2 T3

T1 T2 T3

Tf P3
P1 P2

Ts

pressure, temperature decrease

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(made white sugar possible)
Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Compare Single- and Multiple-Effect Evaporators


T3

Q UATs T3
Tf T3

Ts

T3 T3
T1 T2

q1 UATs T1
Tf P3
P1 P2

Ts q2 UAT1 T2
q3 UAT2 T3
Q qi UATs T3

same capacity = same amount of heat transferred


(but we did not have to pay for it all = more efficient)
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(used in sugar production, for example) Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Summary
Boiling/Evaporation
Industrially we operate either in nucleate boiling or film boiling regimes
There are different correlations for each regime and for different
geometries
Nucleate boiling, horizontal surfaces
Nucleate boiling, vertical surfaces
Nucleate boiling, forced convection
Film boiling, horizontal tube
Condensation
Industrially we operate in film condensation
There are different correlations for different geometries
Vertical surfaces, laminar or turbulent
Outside stack of horizontal cylinders
Evaporators designed with the boiling regimes in mind

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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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Heat Lecture 9 CM3110 12/7/2015

Next:
Heat transfer with phase change
Evaporators
Radiation
DONE

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Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

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