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SEMESTER 1 2008 / 2009

PROGRAMME : Bachelor of Electrical & Electronics Engineering (Honours)

: Bachelor of Electrical Power Engineering (Honours)


SUBJECT : Communication System

DATE : October 2008

TIME : 3 hours


1. This paper contains FIVE (5) questions in SIX (6) pages.

2. Answer all questions.

3. Write all answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Write answer to each question on a new page.

5. Do not bring in unwarranted materials except those that are allowed.



EEEB453 & EECB353, Sem 1 2008/2009

QUESTION 1 [30 marks]

a) The Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) has been transmitting digitally encoded audio
signals around Malaysia for many years. Assume you have been asked to design this
system with the following constraints:

Message bandwidth 20 kHz

Maximum signal amplitude 1V
Allowable error in sample amplitudes 0.4% of the peak amplitude

i) Draw the block diagram to represent an overall communication system proposed.

[4 marks]
ii) What sampling frequency would you use? Give reasons.
[2 marks]
iii) Specify the number of uniform quantization steps needed to encode the audio signal.
[2 marks]
iv) What is the resolution achieved?
[1 marks]
v) Determine the quantization error for the system.
[1 marks]
vi) What is the PCM code for the analog sample voltage of -1V?
[2 marks]
vii) Determine the minimum transmission bandwidth needed.
[2 marks]
viii) Calculate the transmission bit rate.
[2 marks]
ix) List four techniques to improve the performance of the PCM transmitter system.
[4 marks]

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EEEB453 & EECB353, Sem 1 2008/2009

b) A leased telephone of bandwidth 3 kHz is used to transmit binary data.

i) Calculate the data rate that can be transmitted if we use polar signal with rectangular
half-width pulses.
[1 mark]
ii) Name the line coding technique above.
[1 mark]

iii) What is the advantage and disadvantage of using a half-width pulses rather than full
width pulses in the above scenario.
[2 marks]
iv) For the following bit sequence, draw the timing diagram for Differential Manchester
Bit stream: 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
[2 marks]
v) Which coding format is considered to be self-clocking? Justify your answer.
[4 marks]

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EEEB453 & EECB353, Sem 1 2008/2009

QUESTION 2 [25 marks]

a) Explain how SuperGroup in FDM is derived (show all necessary multiplexing stages).
How many numbers of voice channels and total bandwidth in SuperGroup?
[5 marks]

b) In a certain telemetry system, there are four analog signals u(t), v(t), w(t) and x(t)
have bandwidth of x Hz, x Hz, 2x Hz and 4x Hz, respectively. These signals will be
time division multiplexed before they are transmitted. Before multiplexing, these
signals are sampled at their Nyquist rates, quantised and then binary coded using 256
levels. They are multiplexed using two commutators producing a total output of
76,800 bits/sec.

i) Determine the bandwidth of each signal.

[4 marks]
ii) Determine the individual bit rate.
[2 marks]
iii) Design this multiplexing circuit. Label your diagram fully.
[6 marks]
iv) What are the commutators frequencies in rotations per second?
[2 marks]

c) Suppose that binary chip sequence A, B, and C are simultaneously transmitting 0 bits, using a
CDMA system with the bipolar chip sequence:

A:00011011 A : ( -1 1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 +1 )
B:00101110 B : ( -1 1 +1 1 +1 +1 +1 1 )
C:01011100 C : ( -1 +1 1 +1 +1 +1 1 1 )
D:01000010 D : ( -1 +1 1 1 1 1 +1 1 )

i) Prove that bipolar chip sequence A and B are orthogonal.

[2 marks]
ii) What is the resulting chip sequence?
[4 marks]

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EEEB453 & EECB353, Sem 1 2008/2009

QUESTION 3 [15 marks]

a) A broadcast television channel has a bandwidth of 6MHz.

i) Calculate the maximum data rate that could be carried in a TV channel using a 16-
level code. Ignore noise.
[2 marks]
ii) What would be the minimum permissible signal-to-noise ratio, in dB, for the data rate
calculated above?
[2 marks]

b) For a Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) modulator system, with the following bit
input sequence, S = {1011010011011000}, given a mark frequency of 99kHz and a space
frequency of 101kHz and a bit rate of 10kbps.

i) Determine the minimum bandwidth and baud rate.

[4 marks]
ii) Draw the BFSK modulated waveform.
[2 marks]
iii) If the Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator is used to replace the BFSK
modulator, draw the modulated waveform (state assumption used), and calculate the
minimum bandwidth required.
[5 marks]

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EEEB453 & EECB353, Sem 1 2008/2009

QUESTION 4 [20 marks]

a) A Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) system uses a total bandwidth of 400
MHz and an individual channel bandwidth of 100Hz. What is the processing gain?
[2 marks]
b) A FHSS system hops to each of 100 frequencies every 10 seconds. How long does it
spend for each hopping?
[1 mark]
c) Consider a FHSS system with binary FSK that transmits two symbols per frequency hop
and has a PN generator with k = 3 outputs. Given a binary message sequence of: {011011
011000} and it is being transmitted using the following PN sequence: {001, 111, 011,
001, 110, 101}.

i) How many different frequency the system can hop?

[1 mark]
ii) Plot the output frequencies for the input message. (Label chip rate and symbol rate)
[5 marks]
iii) Identify type of frequency hopping spread spectrum used for the system and justify
your answer.
[3 marks]
d) The Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) is commonly used with digital modulating
schemes. It is called DSSS because the PN sequence, c(t) is modulated directly onto the
baseband data signal instead of via the carrier as in FHSS. Figure 1 shows the input data,
s(t) and PN code sequence, c(t) to generate DSSS signal.

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
signal, s(t)

code, c(t)

Figure 1

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EEEB453 & EECB353, Sem 1 2008/2009

i) Draw the binary DSSS code. Specify how you encode the data.
[3 marks]
ii) Calculate the bit rate, chip rate and the processing gain.
[3 marks]
iii) The encoded signal is then modulated by a Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
modulator. Draw the output waveform of this modulator.
[2 marks]

QUESTION 5 [10 marks]

a) Given the observed probabilities of occurrence of symbols P=0.15, R=0.1, B=0.2,

I=0.05, T=0.4, A=0.08 and D=0.02. The Huffman encoded message is given as below,


i) What text is encoded? (Note that when this was encoded, the Huffman tree
consistently label left edges with 0)
[7 marks]
ii) Its average word length.
[1 mark]
iii) Huffman code length.
[1 mark]
iv) Code efficiency and redundancy.
[1 mark]


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