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KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC.

DrillWorks/PREDICT
version 8.0

Reference Manual
Corporate Offices

Knowledge Systems, Inc.


P. O. Box 1279
Stafford, Texas 77497-1279
USA
Phone: 281-879-1400
Fax: 281-879-1499
E-mail: sales@knowsys.com
Knowledge Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 274 Paradis
5856 Bergen
NORWAY
Phone: +47 55 92 45 62
Fax: +47 55 92 45 62
E-mail: sales @knowsys.com
Please visit the Knowledge Systems website at http://www.knowsys.com
Information in this document is subject to change without notice, and does
not represent a commitment on the part of Knowledge Systems. The software
described in this document is furnished under a license agreement or non-
disclosure agreement. It is against the law to copy the software on any
medium except as specifically allowed in the license or non-disclosure
agreement.
Copyright Knowledge Systems, 1989-2001. All rights reserved. DrillWorks
is a registered trademark of Knowledge Systems, Inc. PostScript is a
registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. Windows is a trademark of
Microsoft Corporation.

Document Information
Title: DrillWorks/PREDICT version 8.0 Reference Manual
Description: Reference Manual
Author(s): Myleen Sagrado Sjodin
Reviewer(s): Xiaomin Hu, Bob Dwiggins
Document Version: 1.0 Sources Used: MS Word file
Creation Date: 12/7/00 Last Date Modified: 1/18/01
Approved by: Jim Bridges Approval Date: 1/12/01
Will be sent to: all PREDICT customers
Project Number: 0004 Document Number: 2000-000008
Table of Contents

REFERENCE MANUAL

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction ............................................................. 1

Product Overview ............................................................................................ 1


Philosophy Behind the System ............................................................... 1
How the System Works ........................................................................... 2
What's New in this Version? .................................................................. 3

Packaging and Installation............................................................................... 4


Hardware and Software Requirements ................................................ 4
Basic Installation ....................................................................................... 5
Networking in DrillWorks/PREDICT .................................................. 6
Network Installation Options ............................................................. 6
How to Install a Network Version ..................................................... 6
User Licenses ......................................................................................... 6
Client Settings and Folders.................................................................. 7
Registering PREDICT .............................................................................. 7
Registering Using the License Manager ............................................ 7
Registering Using a Hardware Lock.................................................. 8

Software Support and Help.............................................................................. 9


By Phone .................................................................................................... 9
By Email ..................................................................................................... 9
By Fax ......................................................................................................... 9
Website ...................................................................................................... 9
Change Requests and Problem Reports ................................................ 9
Software Problem Report (SPR).......................................................... 10
Software Change Request (SCR) ........................................................ 10

PREDICT Components and Terminology ....................................................... 11


Components .............................................................................................. 11
Terminology .............................................................................................. 12

Chapter 2: Customizing Settings ........................................... 17

Changing Screen Settings................................................................................ 17


Changing Screen Colors .......................................................................... 17
Changing Screen Resolutions ................................................................. 18

General Settings ............................................................................................... 18

Defining Tracks and Views.............................................................................. 22

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Track ........................................................................................................... 22
Creating a Track .................................................................................... 22
Viewing Track Properties .................................................................... 24
Cursor Coordinates .............................................................................. 27
Locking Tracks for Scrolling ............................................................... 27
Zooming On the Track ......................................................................... 28
View ........................................................................................................... 28
Creating or Editing a View.................................................................. 29
Deleting a View..................................................................................... 31
Displaying a View................................................................................. 31
Showing View Properties .................................................................... 33
Saving Views as Defaults..................................................................... 33

Defining Datatypes and Units......................................................................... 34


Creating or Editing a Datatype .............................................................. 35
Deleting a Datatype ................................................................................. 36
Datatype Filter Button ............................................................................. 36
Creating or Editing a Unit Group .......................................................... 37
Assigning Units to a Dataset ............................................................... 38

Setting Lithology and Geological Age Display Attributes .............................. 39


Lithology Display Attributes .................................................................. 39
Geological Age Display Attributes ........................................................ 40

Chapter 3: Working with Projects and Wells ....................... 43

Setting and Modifying Projects ....................................................................... 43


Creating a Project ..................................................................................... 43
Creating Project Groups .......................................................................... 45
Opening a Project ..................................................................................... 48
Deleting a Project ..................................................................................... 48
Viewing Project Properties ..................................................................... 49

Setting Up and Modifying Wells..................................................................... 55


Creating a Well ......................................................................................... 55
Deleting a Well ......................................................................................... 58
Viewing Well Properties ......................................................................... 59
Setting Up Survey Tables for Wells ....................................................... 65
Top Table................................................................................................ 65
MD/TVD Table..................................................................................... 69
Importing Survey Data ........................................................................ 71
Viewing Survey Properties.................................................................. 72

Importing and Exporting Projects and Wells .................................................. 72


Importing a Project .................................................................................. 72
Exporting a Project ................................................................................... 73
Importing a Well ...................................................................................... 73

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Exporting a Well ....................................................................................... 73

Chapter 4: Working with Data ................................................ 75

Importing and Exporting Data ........................................................................ 75


Before Importing ...................................................................................... 75
Importing Data from Files ...................................................................... 75
Copying Data from a Spreadsheet ......................................................... 79
Exporting a Dataset .................................................................................. 81

Working with Datasets .................................................................................... 82


Working with Discrete Datasets ............................................................ 82
Creating a New Dataset By Data Entry, Other Dataset, or RLG.... 83
Editing Datasets .................................................................................... 85
Appending New Data to Datasets ..................................................... 86
Averaging Datasets .............................................................................. 88
Making a Composite Dataset .............................................................. 89
Filtering Datasets .................................................................................. 90
Displaying Datasets on the Track....................................................... 94
Working with Lithology Column Datasets .......................................... 96
Creating a Lithology Column ............................................................. 96
Editing a Lithology Column................................................................ 99
Working with Polygon Datasets ............................................................ 101
Creating Polygon Datasets .................................................................. 101
Editing Polygon Datasets .................................................................... 102
Deleting Polygon Datasets .................................................................. 103
Comparing Datasets (Cross Plots) ......................................................... 103
Creating a Cross Plot View.................................................................. 104
Displaying the Cross Plot View .......................................................... 105
Adding a Dataset for the X or Y Axes................................................ 106
Changing Horizontal Scale for the X or Y Axes ............................... 107
Switching Between Log and Linear ................................................... 107
Creating or Editing a New Depth Reference .................................... 108
Creating or Editing a New Dataset Reference.................................. 109
Creating Lines on the Cross Plot ........................................................ 111
Deleting Lines on the Cross Plot......................................................... 112
Zooming In/Out on the Cross Plot .................................................... 113
Editing Active Datasets ........................................................................... 114
Displaying Dataset Properties ................................................................ 115
Displaying and Modifying Dataset Attributes .................................... 116
Changing Linear or Log Scales for Datasets ........................................ 117
Displaying Dataset Parameters .............................................................. 118
Deleting Datasets ..................................................................................... 120
Using Library Datasets ............................................................................ 121
Creating a Library Dataset .................................................................. 121
Editing a Library Dataset..................................................................... 123
Deleting a Library Dataset................................................................... 124

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Using RLGs with Datasets ...................................................................... 124


Creating an RLG from scratch ........................................................ 125
Creating an RLG Based on the Active Dataset on the Track .......... 127
Editing an RLGs Data in the Data Grid............................................ 128
Editing an RLG Using a Mouse .......................................................... 129
Removing an RLG from Display ........................................................ 130
Deleting an RLG.................................................................................... 130
Displaying the RLG on the Track ....................................................... 131
Viewing RLG Properties ...................................................................... 132
Exporting RLGs..................................................................................... 133
Using Annotations with Datasets .......................................................... 134
Creating an Annotation ....................................................................... 134
Editing an Annotation.......................................................................... 136
Deleting an Annotation........................................................................ 137
Using Color and Shading with Datasets ............................................... 138

Converting Dataset Values .............................................................................. 140


Converting Datasets from MD to TVD or TVD to MD ...................... 141
Converting Dataset Depth Measurement and Reference ................... 142
Converting Units ...................................................................................... 143
Converting Pressure Gradient and Pressure ........................................ 144

Interactive Computing ..................................................................................... 145

Confidence Information.................................................................................... 147

Chapter 5: Analyzing Data ....................................................... 149

Sequence for Basic Pore Pressure Analysis...................................................... 149

Analyzing Overburden Gradient (OBG)......................................................... 150


Calculating OBG Using Bulk Density or Density Porosity Log ........ 150
Calculating OBG Using the Amoco Method ........................................ 153

Making the Shale Index.................................................................................... 154


Creating a Shale Index Using Assigned Values as Base Lines .......... 155
Creating a Shale Index Using RLGs as Base Lines .............................. 157
Creating a Shale Index Using Data Adaptive Values as Base Lines . 159

Analyzing Shale Volume ................................................................................. 161

Selecting Shale Points ...................................................................................... 164


Defining Shale Points using an RLG ..................................................... 164
Defining Shale Points Using Parameters .............................................. 166
Defining Shale Points Using Shale Index ............................................. 170

Analyzing Density ........................................................................................... 171

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Analyzing Porosity .......................................................................................... 173


Calculating Porosity Using Density Log .............................................. 174
Calculating Porosity Using the Sonic Log (Wyllie-Rose or Raymer
methods) ................................................................................................... 176
Calculating Porosity Using Porosity Estimation Zone Method ........ 178

Analyzing Compaction Trend.......................................................................... 180


Creating the Compaction Trend Using Bowers Sonic Equation ...... 180
Creating the Compaction Trend Using Bowers Velocity Equation . 183
Editing the Compaction Trend Dataset ................................................ 185

Analyzing Pore Pressure Gradient .................................................................. 185


Calculating Pore Pressure Using Eatons Methods ............................. 186
Calculating Pore Pressure Using Equivalent Depth ........................... 190
Calculating Pore Pressure Using Bowers Method ............................. 193

Analyzing Poisson Ratio.................................................................................. 196


Calculating the Poisson Ratio From Leak-off Tests ............................ 196
Calculating the Poisson Ratio in Deep Water ...................................... 199
Calculating the Poisson Ratio in the Gulf Coast .................................. 201

Analyzing Fracture Gradient........................................................................... 203


Calculating Fracture Gradient Using Eatons Method ....................... 204
Calculating Fracture Gradient Using Matthews and Kellys Method 206
Calculating Fracture Gradient Using Breckels and Van Eekelen ...... 209
Calculating Fracture Gradient Using Daines ....................................... 211

Overview of UDMs and UDPs ....................................................................... 213


User Defined Methods (UDMs) ............................................................. 213
Structure and Language of a UDM .................................................... 214
Creating a UDM .................................................................................... 214
Editing a UDM ...................................................................................... 215
Deleting a UDM .................................................................................... 216
Understanding UDM Expressions and Statements in Programming
Code ........................................................................................................ 217
Applying a UDM to Create a Dataset ................................................ 220
User Defined Programs (UDPs) ............................................................. 223
Structure and Language of a UDP ..................................................... 224
Creating a UDP ..................................................................................... 224
Editing a UDP........................................................................................ 225
Deleting a UDP...................................................................................... 226
Understanding UDP Expressions and Statements in Programming
Code ........................................................................................................ 227
UDP Subroutines .................................................................................. 236
Writing a UDM/UDP to File .................................................................. 241
Making UDM or UDP Groups ............................................................... 242

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Chapter 6: Report Generation .................................................. 243

Printer Setup.................................................................................................... 243

Printing ............................................................................................................ 244


Printing a Report ...................................................................................... 244
Printing a Screen Image .......................................................................... 247
Printing a Cross plot Report ................................................................... 248

Chapter 7: Real-time Analysis ................................................. 253

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 253


Well Information Transfer Specification (WITS) ................................. 253
DrillWorks/WITSLINK .......................................................................... 254
Real-time Operation ................................................................................. 254

WITS Data Structure....................................................................................... 255


WITS Levels .............................................................................................. 255
WITS Data Records .................................................................................. 255
WITS Data Items ....................................................................................... 256
WITS Transfer Specification Data Mapping ......................................... 257
Editing the WITS.SPC File ................................................................... 259

WITSLINK Connection ................................................................................... 261


Reading a WITS Datastream ................................................................... 261
Receiving Real-time Data in WITS Format ........................................... 262
Connecting WITS Sender and Receiver Via RS-232 Cable ................. 264
Connecting WITS Sender and Receiver Via TCP/IP Network ......... 265

Configuration and Transmission ..................................................................... 266


Configuring DrillWorks/WITSLINK to Receive WITS Data ............ 266
WITS Data Display ................................................................................... 270
Registering DrillWorks/WITSLINK ..................................................... 270
Configuring DrillWorks/PREDICT to Receive WITS Data ............... 271
Sending Data from DrillWorks/PREDICT ........................................... 273
Appending Datasets ................................................................................ 274
Editing a Real-Time Dataset ................................................................... 276
Transmitting Data in WITS Format ....................................................... 276
Configuring DrillWorks/PREDICT to Send Data in WITS Format . 277
Configuring DrillWorks/WITSLINK to Send Data in WITS Format 279
Drilling Simulation using DrillWorks/WITSLINK Overview ....... 283
Configuring the DrillWorks/WITSLINK Drilling Simulator ............ 284

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Table of Figures
A dialog box and its components ..................................................................... 11
PREDICTs main screen and its components ................................................. 12
Options dialog box showing screen color settings ........................................ 17
Options dialog box showing display options ................................................. 18
Options dialog box showing grid line options ............................................... 20
Options dialog box showing system options .................................................. 21
Options dialog box showing default file path locations ............................... 21
Track with Legend and display attributes ...................................................... 23
Track Properties dialog box .............................................................................. 24
Edit View dialog box .......................................................................................... 28
Create View dialog box ...................................................................................... 30
Open a View dialog box ..................................................................................... 30
Edit View dialog box .......................................................................................... 31
Delete Views dialog box .................................................................................... 31
Open a View dialog box ..................................................................................... 32
View drop-down list box ................................................................................... 32
View Properties dialog box ............................................................................... 33
Prompt for default views ................................................................................... 34
Datatype dialog box ........................................................................................... 36
Dialog box showing a Filter button .................................................................. 37
Unit Group dialog box ....................................................................................... 38
Lithology dialog box .......................................................................................... 39
Geological Age dialog box ................................................................................. 40
Project Information dialog box showing the General tab ............................. 43
Project Information dialog box showing the Boundaries tab ....................... 44
Project Information dialog box showing Notes tab ....................................... 45
Create a Project Group dialog box ................................................................... 46
Edit Project Groups dialog box ......................................................................... 47
Delete a Project Group dialog box .................................................................... 47
Open a Project dialog box .................................................................................. 48
Delete a Project dialog box ................................................................................ 49
Project Properties dialog box showing the General tab ................................ 50
Project Properties dialog box showing the Boundaries tab .......................... 50
Project Properties dialog box showing the Notes tab .................................... 51
Project Properties dialog box showing the Wells tab .................................... 51
Project Properties dialog box showing the Views tab ................................... 52
Project Properties dialog box showing the Datasets tab ............................... 52
Project Properties dialog box showing the Polygons tab .............................. 53
Project Properties dialog box showing the Lithology Columns tab ............ 53
Project Properties dialog box showing the RLGs tab .................................... 54
Project Properties dialog box showing the Annotations tab ........................ 54
Add New Wells dialog box showing the General tab ................................... 55

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Add New Wells dialog box showing the Depth/Pressure tab .................... 56
Add New Wells dialog box showing the Location tab ................................. 57
Delete a Well dialog box .................................................................................... 59
Well Properties dialog box showing the General tab .................................... 59
Well Properties dialog box showing the Depth/Pressure tab ..................... 60
Well Properties dialog box showing the Location tab ................................... 61
Well Properties dialog box showing the Definitive Datasets tab ................ 61
Well Properties dialog box showing the Survey tab ..................................... 62
Well Properties dialog box showing the Temperature tab ........................... 62
Well Properties dialog box showing the Datasets tab ................................... 63
Well Properties dialog box showing the LithColumn tab ............................ 63
Well Properties dialog box showing the Polygon tab ................................... 64
Well Properties dialog box showing the Line Groups tab ............................ 64
Well Properties dialog box showing the Annotations tab ............................ 65
New Top Table dialog box ................................................................................ 67
Select Top Table to Edit dialog box .................................................................. 67
Edit Top Table dialog box ................................................................................. 68
Select the Top Table to Delete dialog box ....................................................... 69
MD/TVD Table window ................................................................................... 70
Select MD/TVD Table to Edit ........................................................................... 70
Import Survey Data dialog box ........................................................................ 71
Import Survey Data dialog box, second part .................................................. 72
Import Data dialog box ...................................................................................... 76
Import Datasets dialog box ............................................................................... 76
Select Datasets to Load window ....................................................................... 77
Create a Dataset dialog box ............................................................................... 78
Select a Dataset dialog box to edit .................................................................... 79
Edit Discrete Dataset dialog box ...................................................................... 80
Select Datasets for Export dialog box .............................................................. 81
Create a Dataset - Step 1 dialog box ................................................................. 84
Create a Dataset - Step 2 dialog box ................................................................. 84
Edit a Dataset dialog box ................................................................................... 85
Select a Dataset dialog box for editing ............................................................ 86
Append ASCII Data dialog box ........................................................................ 86
Select Datasets to Load dialog box (for appending) ...................................... 87
Select a Dataset dialog box (for appending) ................................................... 87
Average Datasets - Step 1 dialog box ............................................................... 88
Average Datasets - Step 2 dialog box ............................................................... 88
Create a Dataset from Multiple Datasets ........................................................ 89
Filter a Dataset - Step 1 ....................................................................................... 92
Filter a Dataset - Step 2 ....................................................................................... 92
Filter a Dataset - Step 3 ....................................................................................... 93
Filter a Dataset - Step 1 using Moving Weight Average ............................... 94
Add Datasets to Track dialog box .................................................................... 95
Create a New Lithology Column dialog box showing General Info. tab ... 97
Create a New Lithology Column dialog box, Lithology Column tab ......... 98
Lithology column on the track .......................................................................... 99
Select a Dataset dialog box ................................................................................ 100

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Edit a Formation Column dialog box .............................................................. 100


New Polygon Dataset dialog box ..................................................................... 101
Create Polygon Dataset dialog box .................................................................. 102
Edit Polygon Dataset dialog box ...................................................................... 103
Cross Plot View mode ........................................................................................ 104
Create Cross Plot dialog box ............................................................................. 104
Select a Cross Plot dialog box ........................................................................... 105
Blank Cross Plot .................................................................................................. 105
Add Dataset to X AXIS dialog box ................................................................... 106
Cross plot of two datasets .................................................................................. 106
Log Scale dialog box for cross plots ................................................................. 107
Cross Plot Depth Range Legend dialog box ................................................... 108
Add Cross Plot Legend dialog box .................................................................. 108
Cross Plot Legend dialog box ........................................................................... 109
Add Cross Plot Legend dialog box .................................................................. 110
Legend window in Cross Plot view ................................................................. 110
Create a New Curve Fit Line dialog box ......................................................... 111
Create a Curve Fit dialog box ........................................................................... 111
Select a Curve Fit to Remove dialog box ......................................................... 112
Select a Curve Fit to Delete dialog box ............................................................ 113
Select a Curve Fit to Add dialog box ............................................................... 113
Zoom In dialog box ............................................................................................ 114
Edit a Dataset dialog box ................................................................................... 115
Dataset Properties dialog box ........................................................................... 116
Dataset Attributes dialog box ........................................................................... 117
Linear Scale dialog box ...................................................................................... 117
Linear Scale dialog box ...................................................................................... 118
Parameters dialog box ........................................................................................ 119
Select Datasets to Delete dialog box ................................................................. 120
Create a Dataset - Step 1 dialog box (Library) ................................................ 121
Create a Dataset - Step 2 dialog box (Library) ................................................ 122
Edit a Dataset dialog box (creating a Library dataset) .................................. 123
Edit Library Curve dialog box .......................................................................... 123
Edit Library Curve dialog box .......................................................................... 124
New RLG Source dialog box ............................................................................. 125
Create an RLG dialog box (RLG based on data entry) .................................. 126
Edit an RLG dialog box (RLG based on data entry) ...................................... 126
Create an RLG dialog box .................................................................................. 127
Create Line Group dialog box ........................................................................... 128
Edit an RLG dialog box. ..................................................................................... 129
Delete Line Group .............................................................................................. 130
Delete an RLG dialog box .................................................................................. 131
Add RLG to Track dialog box ........................................................................... 132
Attributes list box showing the RLGs properties .......................................... 132
Export an RLG dialog box ................................................................................. 133
Saving the exported file ..................................................................................... 133
Create New Annotation dialog box ................................................................. 135
Create Annotation dialog box for editing ....................................................... 135

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Sample annotation .............................................................................................. 136


Annotations displayed on the track ................................................................. 136
Edit Annotation Space dialog box .................................................................... 137
Delete an Annotation dialog box ...................................................................... 138
Dataset Shading dialog box ............................................................................... 139
Shading between two pore pressure datasets ................................................ 140
Convert TVD to MD or Convert MD to TVD dialog box ............................. 141
Change Dataset Depth dialog box .................................................................... 142
Convert Dataset Unit dialog box ...................................................................... 143
Conversion Between Pressure and Pressure Gradient dialog box .............. 145
Interactive Computing Information dialog box ............................................. 146
Dataset Confidence Information dialog box ................................................... 147
Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 1 .......................................................... 151
Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 2 .......................................................... 151
Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 3 .......................................................... 152
Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 1 Amoco method .............................. 153
Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 2 Amoco method .............................. 153
Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 3 Amoco method .............................. 154
Shale Index Analysis - Step 1 (Using Assigned Values) ............................... 155
Shale Index Analysis - Step 2 (Using Assigned Values) ............................... 156
Shale Index Analysis - Step 3 (Using Assigned Values) ............................... 156
Shale Index Analysis - Step 1 (Using RLGs) ................................................... 157
Shale Index Analysis - Step 2 (Using RLGs) ................................................... 158
Shale Index Analysis - Step 3 (Using RLGs) ................................................... 158
Shale Index Analysis - Step 1 ............................................................................ 159
Shale Index Analysis - Step 2 ............................................................................ 160
Shale Index Analysis - Step 3 ............................................................................ 160
Shale Volume Analysis - Step 1 ........................................................................ 162
Shale Volume Analysis - Step 2 ........................................................................ 163
Shale Volume Analysis - Step 3 ........................................................................ 163
Shale Point Analysis - Step 1 (Using an RLG) ................................................ 165
Shale Point Analysis - Step 2 (Using an RLG) ................................................ 165
Shale Point Analysis - Step 3 (Using an RLG) ................................................ 166
Shale Point Analysis - Step 1 (Using parameters) .......................................... 167
Shale Point Analysis - Step 2 (Using parameters) .......................................... 167
Shale Point Analysis - Step 3 (Using parameters) .......................................... 168
Add Depth Interval dialog box ......................................................................... 168
Shale Point Analysis - Add Parameters dialog box ....................................... 169
Shale Point Analysis - Step 1 (Using a shale index) ....................................... 170
Shale Point Analysis - Step 2 (Using a shale index) ....................................... 170
Shale Point Analysis - Step 3 (Using a shale index) ....................................... 171
Density Analysis - Step 1 ................................................................................... 172
Density Analysis - Step 2 ................................................................................... 172
Density Analysis - Step 3 ................................................................................... 173
Porosity Analysis - Step 1 (Using Density Log) ............................................. 174
Porosity Analysis - Step 2 (Using Density Log) ............................................. 175
Porosity Analysis - Step 3 (Using Density Log) ............................................. 175
Porosity Analysis - Step 1 (Using Wyllie-Rose or Ramer method) ............. 176

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Porosity Analysis - Step 2 (Using Wyllie-Rose or Ramer method) ............. 177


Porosity Analysis - Step 3 (Using Wyllie-Rose or Ramer method) ............. 177
Porosity Analysis - Step 1 (Using Porosity Estimation Zone) ...................... 178
Porosity Analysis - Step 2 (Using Porosity Estimation Zone) ...................... 179
Porosity Analysis - Step 3 (Using Porosity Estimation Zone) ...................... 179
Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 1 (Using Bowers Sonic) ........................ 181
Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 2 (Using Bowers Sonic) ........................ 181
Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 3 (Using Bowers Sonic) ........................ 182
Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 1 (Using Bowers Velocity) ................... 183
Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 2 (Using Bowers Velocity) ................... 184
Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 3 (Using Bowers Velocity) ................... 184
Interactive Compaction Trend dialog box ...................................................... 185
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Eaton method) ........................... 188
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Eaton method) ........................... 188
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Eaton method) ........................... 189
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Equivalent Depth) ..................... 191
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Equivalent Depth) ..................... 191
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Equivalent Depth) ..................... 192
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Bowers method) ........................ 194
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Bowers method) ........................ 195
Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Bowers method) ........................ 195
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 1 (From LOT) ................................................... 197
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 2 (From LOT) ................................................... 198
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 3 (From LOT) ................................................... 198
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 1 (Deep Water) ................................................ 200
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 2 (Deep Water) ................................................ 200
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 3 (Deep Water) ................................................ 201
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 1 (Gulf Coast) .................................................. 202
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 2 (Gulf Coast) .................................................. 202
Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 3 (Gulf Coast) .................................................. 203
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Eaton) ................................................... 204
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Eaton) ................................................... 205
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Eaton) ................................................... 205
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Matthews & Kelly) ............................. 207
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Matthews & Kelly) ............................. 207
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Matthews & Kelly) ............................. 208
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Breckels and Van Eekelen) ................ 209
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Breckels and Van Eekelen) ................ 210
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Breckels and Van Eekelen) ................ 210
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Daines) ................................................. 212
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Daines) ................................................. 212
Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Daines) ................................................. 213
Create a User Defined Method dialog box showing an example ................ 215
Edit a User Defined Method dialog box .......................................................... 216
Delete a User Defined Method dialog box ...................................................... 217
User Defined Method Analysis - Step 1 .......................................................... 220
User Defined Method Analysis - Step 2 .......................................................... 221
User Defined Method Analysis - Step 3 .......................................................... 222

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User Defined Method Analysis - Step 4 .......................................................... 223


Create a User Defined Program dialog box .................................................... 225
Edit a User Defined Program dialog box ........................................................ 226
Delete User Defined Program dialog box ....................................................... 227
Edit a User Defined Program dialog box ........................................................ 241
Save As dialog box .............................................................................................. 241
Create a UDP Group .......................................................................................... 242
Print Setup dialog box ........................................................................................ 243
Print Report dialog box - Report tab ................................................................ 244
Print Report dialog box - Header tab ............................................................... 245
Print Report dialog box - Footer tab ................................................................. 246
Print Report dialog box - Logo tab ................................................................... 246
Print Report dialog box - Font tab .................................................................... 247
Print Crossplot dialog box - Cross Plot tab ..................................................... 248
Print Crossplot dialog box - Header tab .......................................................... 249
Print Crossplot dialog box - Logo tab .............................................................. 250
Print Crossplot dialog box - Font tab ............................................................... 250
Edit WITS Channel Mapping Information dialog box .................................. 260
DrillWorks/WITSLINK screen showing the receiving end ......................... 263
WITSLINK Receive Wizard dialog box - Step 1 ............................................. 266
WITSLINK Receive Wizard dialog box - Step 2 ............................................. 267
WITSLINK Receive Wizard dialog box - Step 3 ............................................. 268
Import Datasets dialog box (for Real-time) .................................................... 272
Select Datasets to Load dialog box (for Real-time) ........................................ 272
Create a Dataset dialog box (for Real-time) .................................................... 273
Append ASCII Data dialog box (Real-time datasets) .................................... 274
Select Datasets to Load dialog box (Real-time datasets) ............................... 275
Select a Dataset dialog box (Real-time datasets) ............................................ 275
Map Datasets to WITS Items for Real-time Sending dialog box .................. 278
Medium dialog box (Send Wizard) .................................................................. 279
WITS Level dialog box (Send Wizard) ............................................................ 280
Send Option dialog box (Send Wizard) ........................................................... 281
Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 1 ............................................................ 284
Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 2 ............................................................ 285
Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 3 ............................................................ 286
Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 4 ............................................................ 287
Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 5 ............................................................ 288
The Simulation window .................................................................................... 289
DrillWorks/WITSLINK Displaying a Data Transfer .................................... 290

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Product Overview

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Welcome to the DrillWorks/PREDICT system, developed by Knowledge
Systems, Inc. DrillWorks/PREDICT is the software system that has
revolutionized the prediction of pore pressures and fracture gradients for
well planning. Since its introduction in 1991, the system has been used by
leading industry companies throughout the world.

Product Overview
Pore pressure and fracture gradient profiles dictate the major cost
components of a well to include casing setting depths, hole sizes, number of
casing strings, mud programs, and hydraulics. The penalty for an inaccurate
prediction can be significant. It is estimated that abnormal pressure problems
cost the energy industry hundreds of millions of dollars each year.
DrillWorks/PREDICT has been used effectively by drilling engineers,
geologists, and petrophysicists to predict pressure and fracture gradient
profiles in many different areas of the world. The system uses a variety of
data, including well logs in virtually all formats - seismic and MWD data. The
system can be used in the well planning process and also during the drilling
operation with MWD/LWD data to determine geopressures while drilling
(GWD).
DrillWorks/PREDICT is a user-driven system that allows you to easily and
quickly determine the overburden stress gradient, pore pressure gradient,
and fracture gradient for both existing and proposed wells. You can view,
manipulate, and analyze data for one or more proposed wells and any
number of offset wells. DrillWorks/PREDICT facilitates making and saving
multiple "what if" scenarios for quick reference during the drilling operation.
With the User Defined Method and User Defined Program facilities, the
system use can be expanded indefinitely to encompass such important items
as wellbore stability and rock mechanics. These factors become increasingly
important with deviated and extended reach wells.
DrillWorks/PREDICT is available in wellsite, MWD/LWD (for real-time
data), and PREDICT ECOM versions. The PREDICT ECOM version makes it
convenient to authorize your license through the Internet.

Philosophy Behind the System


DrillWorks/PREDICT is designed to support the user in a variety of
approaches and methods for enhanced pore pressure and fracture gradient
estimation prior to drilling a well. A large variety of relevant data, methods,

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and models can be used. Since some work better than others in different parts
of the world, PREDICT is designed to support the user with the premise that
the perfect set of data is not yet available in the real world so new methods
must constantly be developed.
Whenever a new and better method for pore pressure prediction is
developed, it can be incorporated into the system using either the User
Defined Method for fairly simple equations or the User Defined Program for
more complex methods. Both of these facilities take full advantage of the
powerful graphic and data manipulation capabilities of the system.
The power of PREDICT enables you to
import a variety of data in different formats.
maintain the data in a database.
display, edit, and manipulate data in many different ways..
enable the user to apply virtually any kind of analysis method using the
data.
perform interactive computation.
perform real-time analysis, with online receipt of input data and
transmission of results to the customer.
produce high quality graphic reports from the analysis.
The objective of the system is to enable the user to predict parameters, such as
pore pressures and fracture gradients, during well planning with more
accuracy than what has been possible in the past. The same parameters can
also be used to analyze the well while drilling using MWD/LWD data. Better
prediction of these important parameters will result in industry savings in the
hundreds of millions of dollars each year!

How the System Works


You begin by collecting all of the relevant data for the well to be planned. This
is done by either entering or importing (real-time or manually) the data into
the system database. Relevant data can include log and drilling data from
offset wells, RFT's, LOT's, MWD data, and interval travel times from seismic
data. Synthetic logs can also be generated using projected tops from seismic.
By using a point-and-click graphical user interface, you can easily place shale
base lines on lithology logs and compaction trend lines on derivative shale
data from porosity logs. DrillWorks/PREDICT computes pore pressure and
fracture gradient profiles based on the results of the shale analyses. The pore
pressures (PP's) and fracture gradients (FG's) can be calculated using one of
several industry standard methods, a User Defined Method, or User Defined
Program. These results can be graphically displayed on tracks for viewing.
The MWD/LWD Real-time Analysis Option for DrillWorks/PREDICT
allows you to evaluate pore pressures and fracture gradients in real-time at
the rig site using Measurement While Drilling (MWD) data and/or Logging
While Drilling (LWD) data. An innovative MWD/LWD drilling simulator is

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Product Overview

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available with this option. Its main advantages are that it is very useful for
testing, training, and simulating actual drilling conditions.
DrillWorks/PREDICT performs the above operations in a fraction of the time
required by manual methods and achieves greatly improved results. The
system allows you to set up "what if" scenarios that can be evaluated and
used to assess more cases.

What's New in this Version?


Knowledge Systems continuously strives to improve our products according
to our customers' needs and the fast-pace of technology. The following
features are either new or enhanced from the previous version.
Added features to the User Defined Program. We have added subroutines,
more built-in functions and keywords, and exception handling in order
for you to create more powerful User Defined Programs.
Added feature to the User Defined Method. The depth interval option is now
supported.
Grouping UDM/UDPs. You can now group related User Defined Methods
(UDMs) and User Defined Programs (UDPs) for ease of retrieval.
Creating a shale index. You can create a shale index that determines the
range from 100% sand to 100% shale on a lithology curve. This helps to
identify where shale intervals are and can be used to calculate shale
points.
Determining shale volume. You can utilize six new methods for
determining shale volume using Larionov, Stiebar, or Clavier, et. al.
New methods for analyzing density. You can now use the Gardner method
using velocity or the time-interval dataset.
Enhancements for analyzing porosity. You can now use Raymer (using sonic
log) and microsec/m or microsec/ft independent of the project unit.
New method for analyzing overburden gradient. The system now supports
the Amoco method.
New features for the compaction trend. The Bowers trend using velocity or
sonic log is now supported. When the compaction trend is displayed on
track, you can now interactively change input parameters.
New methods for the pore pressure gradient. You can now use Bowers
methods (using sonic or interval velocity log).
Determining the Poisson Ratio. Three methods have been added: Eaton
LOT (leak-off test), deep water, and Gulf coast.
Added methods for fracture gradient. You can now use Breckels and Van
Eekelen and Daines methods.
Interactive computing. Support is provided for all of the hardwired
methods, UDMs, and UDPs.
Enhancements for LWD/MWD for real-time analysis. Witslink can now
handle all predefined WITS records (record 1 to 25) for level 1 and 2. It is
also much easier to map and unmap PREDICT datasets to and from the

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WITS channel. You are now able to edit the WITS mapping information
through Witslink instead of editing the WITS.SPC file. Interactive
computing is supported for all of the hardwired methods, UDMs, and
UDPs.
Ability to undo an operation. You can undo the last operation (i.e., cut/
copy/paste/fill constant and/or entire operation) when you are editing a
dataset on the track.
New RLG features. The Least square option is now available in edit mode
in addition to the New RLG feature. You can also create/edit an RLG
using a spreadsheet and create an RLG based on a dataset or another
RLG. It is also now possible to import/export an RLG.
Improvements in track features. You can easily change between log and
linear, configure the grid line and scale, specify the bottom display depth,
change symbol size, and see the Legend in interactive zoom. There are
also new menu options to reach the RLG, lithology column, and polygon
dialog boxes from the pop-up menu.
Enhanced conversions. You can convert pore pressure to pore pressure
gradient datasets, units, depth reference, and feet/meters.
Enhanced box car filter. You can now use the shrink boxcar filter function
which smooths the beginning and end data values more effectively.
New exporting features. You can now export a dataset in measured depth
and LAS format. You are also able to filter datasets for exporting.
New RLG abilities.
Filtering the dataset for each unit. You can specify a minimum and
maximum filter. When enabled, it will function as a real-time dataset and
append data.

Packaging and Installation


DrillWorks/PREDICT is distributed on a single CD-ROM which includes
user documentation and Help system.

Hardware and Software Requirements


DrillWorks/PREDICT's minimum requirements are
A computer using an Intel Pentium processor or better.
At least 32 MB of RAM, 48-64 MB recommended for optimum
performance.
Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT. 4.0, or Windows 2000
operating system installed.

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Basic Installation
This section describes the installation for standalone and network options.
To install DrillWorks/PREDICT from CD-ROM:
1 Insert the distribution CD into the CD-ROM drive.
2 In Windows, click the Start button.
3 Select Run and type D:\setup (replace D with the actual drive letter
designation of your CD-ROM Drive) in the Open field.
4 Click OK to begin the installation process.
5 If there are previous installations of the same version of DrillWorks/
PREDICT, the first window that appears prompts you to modify, repair,
or remove the installation.
6 Note the copyright notice on the first installation program screen. Click
Next.
7 Read the License Agreement and then click Yes to proceed.
8 Enter your name and company in the Customer Information dialog box.
9 Type the serial number. The DrillWorks/PREDICT serial number is
shown on the jacket of your CD-ROM. Click Next.
10 The next screen prompts you for a directory where you will install
DrillWorks/PREDICT. You may select the default installation directory
displayed or choose another by navigating through Windows.
11 The next screen prompts you for one of four DrillWorks/PREDICT setup
options. Choose the setup option that fits your company's license type.
The setup choices are as follows:
Standalone Office Version Installation
Standalone Wellsite Version Installation
Network Office Version Server Installation (only installs the License
Manager on the server).
Network Office Version Client Installation (installs all other program
files and a link to the License Manager on the server).
12 If you chose Network Office Version Client Installation, enter or browse
for the server's file path (skip this step for other installations). Note: Both
Drive-mapping and UNC (Universal Naming Convention) are
supported.
13 Click Next. At this point, you can choose the components that you want
to install. Note: The appropriate components for the type of installation
you chose are already checked by default.
14 If you intend to use a dongle hardware device to register your license,
make sure that the Dongle component is checked (also see Registering
Using a Hardware Lock on page 8). This option is already checked by
default for standalone installations. Note: In order to run certain
components on your system, make sure that you have the correct license
type to support the installation. Otherwise, you will not be able to run

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those components when you start the program. If you suspect that you
don't have the correct license, contact Support.
15 Choose the Program Folder in which the program will reside. Note: This
step is not available for the Network Version Server Installation.
16 Click Next. Wait one moment while it installs the software.
To begin using the program, the license needs to be verified and registered to
gain access. To register the program, see Registering PREDICT on page 7.

Networking in DrillWorks/PREDICT
DrillWorks/PREDICT can be installed on a client-server network where the
application files reside in the client machine and the License Manager resides
in the server machine. Please note that the application should be run on a
network client PC, not on the server itself.

Network Installation Options


There are two network installation options to choose from during setup:
The Network Office Version Server Installation installs the License
Manager on the computer that is designated as the server of the network.
The Network Office Version Client Installation installs all other program
files, including the applications and their executable files, DrillWorks/
PREDICT data, and client settings on the clients machine.

How to Install a Network Version


A step by step guide explains how to install a network version of DrillWorks/
PREDICT. See Basic Installation on page 5.

User Licenses
DrillWorks/PREDICT can be run in a multi-user network environment. The
number of network client floating licenses that run simultaneously is
controlled by the software access code you obtained when you register your
software (also see Registering Using the License Manager on page 7). The
number of client licenses varies according to the terms of your license
agreement. To obtain more licenses, please contact Support.

NOTE: Run the License Manager program from a CLIENT machine to


enable the network floating license.

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Packaging and Installation

REFERENCE MANUAL

Client Settings and Folders


Each client will need appropriate write permissions to the folder located on
the network server where the DrillWorks/License Manager Program is
installed.

Registering PREDICT
To begin using the program, the license needs to be verified and registered to
gain access. To register the program, there are two different situations:
When you start the program for the first time and you are not using the
dongle hardware device, you will receive a message saying that the
license is invalid. Click Yes to open the License Manager and proceed
with obtaining the software access code. Also see Registering Using the
License Manager on page 7.
If you are using a hardware device called a "dongle", you are not required
to run the License Manager to obtain a software access code unless the
license is invalid. The code(s) is contained in the dongle so that you
simply plug it in your computer and start the program. If you've never
run a dongle on this machine before, see Registering Using a Hardware
Lock on page 8.

Registering Using the License Manager


You need to run the DrillWorks/License Manager program if you:
Run the software for the first time and you need a software access code.
Have exceeded the maximum number of users on your network floating
license (network installation).
The License Manager is where you obtain the license and software access
code(s) in order to enable the program.
If you are using a hardware device called a dongle, see Registering Using a
Hardware Lock on page 8.
To use the License Manager:
1 Start the License Manager by selecting Start > Programs > DrillWorks x.x
> License Manager from the Windows taskbar.
2 Select the product or feature that needs a software access code, e.g.,
PREDICT. Click Next. Note: The Predict.Ecom and Witslink.ecom are for
companies that signed on an ecom option with KSI. For more
information, contact Support.
3 The window now displays the computer code and ID generated by your
computer system. With this information in hand, call (281)879-1400

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between 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. U.S. Central time, fax (281)879-1499 or send
e-mail to support@knowsys.com to obtain the access code(s).
4 Enter the access code(s) in the fields.
5 Click OK. You may now open the program. Note: You will need to re-
register DrillWorks/PREDICT each time it is moved onto a different
computer and/or whenever your license terms are changed.

Registering Using a Hardware Lock


The hardware device, or "dongle", is a small device which plugs into a PC's
parallel port. It contains the codes required to access a particular software
product (e.g., PREDICT) or module (e.g., LWD/MWD). A dongle also allows
you the option of installing DrillWorks/PREDICT on multiple computers
with a single user license (if a software license is issued). The DrillWorks/
PREDICT functionality on any computer is enabled only when the dongle is
plugged into its parallel port. For example, this functionality may be handy
whenever you need to do work on two separate computers with only a single
license, as would be the case when using a laptop while traveling and a
desktop while in the office.
You can obtain the dongle upon request from Knowledge Systems, Inc. by
calling 281-879-1400 or e-mailing us at support@knowsys.com.
To register and use the dongle:
1 Make sure that you selected the Dongle component during installation.
See Basic Installation on page 5.
2 Go to the MS-DOS prompt by selecting Start > Programs > MS-DOS
Prompt or (Command Prompt if using Windows NT).
3 Change to the directory in which DrillWorks/PREDICT is installed. By
default, this is normally the C:\Program Files\Predict directory. For
example, if Predict was installed in C:\Program Files\Predict, you
would enter the following commands at the MS-DOS prompt to change
directories:
cd:\
cd Program Files (use cd Progra~1 or cd "Program Files" if
using Windows 95/98)
cd Predict
cd dongle
cd 95 (used for Windows 95/98 or enter "cd NT" if using
Windows NT)
4 If running Windows 95 or 98, type register and follow the instructions. If
running Windows NT, type register a and follow the instructions.
5 Restart your computer.
6 Plug the dongle into the parallel port before running DrillWorks/
PREDICT.

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Software Support and Help

REFERENCE MANUAL

Software Support and Help


There are several ways to reach us:

By Phone
In the U.S., you can call our Houston office between 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM (U.S.
Central time), Monday-Friday at:
+1(281) 879-1400
If it's after business hours and an emergency, you will be prompted to leave a
message and a Knowledge System's representative will be paged.
In Europe, you can also call our Norway office between 08.00-17.00 (Central
European Time), Monday-Friday at:
+47-55-92 45 62

By Email
U.S., Houston: support@knowsys.com
Norway: efdoyle@online.no
Our goal is to respond within 24 hours.

By Fax
You may fax your request for support to
+1 (281) 879-1499
Our goal is to respond within 24 hours.

Website
Please check our website for the latest events on training or new versions.
http://www.knowsys.com

Change Requests and Problem Reports


If you suspect a program problem, we ask that you submit a Software
Problem Report (SPR). See Software Problem Report (SPR) on page 10.

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If you would like to recommend a functionality change or new feature,


submit a Software Change Request (SCR). See Software Change Request
(SCR) on page 10.

Software Problem Report (SPR)


The Software Problem Report (SPR) is used to report any problems that you
encountered while installing or using the software. A copy of the SPR is
provided with the materials that accompany your software. Please make
photocopies of the SPR form and complete one as problems are encountered.
It is best to be as specific as possible in describing the problem. Please take the
time to try to reproduce the problem before reporting it since some problems
can be random and/or transient.
Mail or fax the SPRs to the address on the form so that the problems can be
resolved before the next release of the product. To contact Knowledge
Systems, Inc., see Software Support and Help on page 9.

Software Change Request (SCR)


The Software Change Request (SCR) form is used for suggestions regarding
enhancements or recommendations for new software features. For example,
this can include new functions or a redesign of a part of the software in order
to improve its efficiency or logic.
A copy of the SCR form is provided with the materials that accompany your
software. Make photocopies of the SCR form and feel free to fill one out and
send it in when needed. Please be specific in stating the need for the change
including how the change will benefit the user of the program.
Mail or fax the SCRs to the address on the form so that the changes can be
planned and possibly included in the next release of the product. To contact
Knowledge Systems, Inc., see Software Support and Help on page 9.
We, at Knowledge Systems, warmly welcome both suggestions and
constructive criticism about our products. We know from experience that this
is the best way to keep DrillWorks/PREDICT ahead of the rest.

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
PREDICT Components and Terminology

REFERENCE MANUAL

PREDICT Components and Terminology


This section explains the general layout, components and terms used in the
system so that you can become familiar with DrillWorks/PREDICT's
environment. Terms mentioned here are also used throughout the manual, so
it is important that you go through this section thoroughly.

Components
The following pictures illustrate names used for the programs component.
.

field

dialog box

list box

button

Figure 1: A dialog box and its components

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menu bar

tool bar

drop-down list box

track
curve

pop-up menu
RLG

scale

legend

display attributes active dataset status bar

Figure 2: PREDICTs main screen and its components

Terminology
This list briefly describes terms used in PREDICT.

Term Description

active dataset The dataset that is either currently enabled


on the track or the dataset you are editing.
This is very important when you create a
new RLG or want to edit a dataset on the
track since the active dataset is what the
RLG will be based on.

annotation A text box field that can be placed on the


track for the purpose of adding a comment
or note.

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Term Description

cross plot A plot that depicts the comparison of two


datasets using depth as the common
dominator. This allows you to ascertain
relationships between datasets.

curve The line shown on the track that depicts


values at their given depths (also known
as an RLG).

dataset A collection of data that is either imported


into the system, created through analysis,
or created manually by the user. There are
three types of datasets in PREDICT:
discrete, lithology column, and polygon.
The most commonly used and imported is
the discrete dataset. See also discrete
dataset, lithology column dataset, and
polygon dataset.

dataset attribute Describes how the dataset appears


regarding the type of line, symbol, or color.
This can be displayed from either the
tracks pop-up menu (when you right-click
and select Attributes) or in the Legend
area. See also display attributes.

datatype Helps to identify what kind of data is in the


dataset and assigns the default setting,
display attributes, unit and physical
properties for the dataset. It is usually
represented as an abbreviation (e.g., POR
= porosity).

discrete dataset A collection of any set of points referenced


by a depth value and a data value. It is the
most common type of dataset in
PREDICT. It is usually imported into the
system or created through analysis. It can
also be associated to RLGs and
annotations.

display attributes Describes how the selected RLG or


dataset appears regarding the type of line,
symbol, or color.

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Term Description

DrillWorks/BASIN A Knowledge Systems software tool that


deals with a set of related geological,
petrophysical and drilling data
incorporated into a common pressure
evolution framework in basin time scale.
The BASIN Project comprises these data
plus the set of calibrated basin model
parameters providing pore pressure
prediction at any point inside the
calibration area.

DrillWorks/WITSLINK A Knowledge Systems software tool that


manages the real-time WITS input and
output streams for use with DrillWorks/
PREDICT.

Filter button In some dialog boxes where you must


select a dataset, the Filter button is
available so that you can display
dataset(s) that use a selected datatype.

geological age Time period used in lithology column


datasets that can be defined and
represented in PREDICT with names,
bitmap pictures, and colors.

Legend An explanatory list of the dataset(s), scale,


and datatype(s) that appear on the track.
The Legend appears at the bottom.

library dataset A repository of datasets that are usually


specific to a geographical area and/or a
geological age that can be accessed from
any PREDICT project on the same
machine. It saves you from importing the
same datasets used for reference to every
project you work on.

lithology column dataset A feature that models the stratigraphical


column for a well. It includes lithology
patterns and colors, as well as geological
ages and formation names.
menu bar The bar at the top of the program that
shows the selection of menus for
PREDICT, i.e., Project, Well, Data, View,
Analyze, Tools, MD/TVD, Basin, and Help.

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Term Description

OBG The abbreviation that represents the


overburden gradient.

polygon dataset Are geometrically shaped and can be used


to mark or shade tracks in order to
enhance something on display. The other
primary purpose for making polygons is to
build lithology columns in different shapes
other than rectangular since you can freely
create the shape of the polygon. The
polygon may have up to 50 vertices.

pop-up menu The menu that appears on the screen


when you right-click over the track area.

project The project function allows you to organize


your well data within the DrillWorks/
PREDICT database. Three types of
projects are frequently used: pre-drilling
well planning projects, drilling well
monitoring projects, and teaching/
demonstration projects.
real-time analysis Allows you to make analyses using data
streams while drilling. Datasets in
PREDICT are updated dynamically (real-
time) as data comes in.

RLG Stands for Reference Line Group and is a


line or collection of lines representing or
associated to a dataset.

scale A system of ordered marks at fixed


intervals used as a reference standard in
measurement. It is displayed on the tracks,
both vertically and horizontally.

status bar The bottom bar of the PREDICT program


that displays the current coordinates
(based on the vertical and horizontal
scales) of where the cursor is placed on
the track.

toolbar A "shortcut" bar that contains buttons to


open certain dialog boxes in order for you
to perform a selected function.

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Term Description

track An area on PREDICT's screen that


displays data and/or RLGs (Reference
Line Groups) and consists of a track name,
width, horizontal scale type, and vertical
scale. This can be compared to a paper
log.

UDM User Defined Method. A program that


provides you with an easier, flexible way to
create your own analysis programs using a
few lines of code that work well for
equations and relationships which can be
described in a simple "if, then, else"
structure. It has implicit looping handled by
the system. It is also a user-specific
program that can be added to the
PREDICT system and used to compute
datasets using other methods and types of
data.

UDP User Defined Program. A more complex


model or program that provides you with a
powerful, flexible way to create your own
analysis programs. It uses a BASIC-type
programming language and allows the
user to control loops and step sizes. The
UDP requires a basic understanding of
programming, while the UDM is easier to
use and understand for someone without a
programming background.

unit group A group of units that measure the same


type of data, but can be in different units,
e.g., a temperature unit group has degrees
Celsius unit and degrees Fahrenheit unit.
view Displays a customized screen that can
show a maximum of eight tracks. A View
can then be named and saved for future
retrieval and use.

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Changing Screen Settings

REFERENCE MANUAL

Chapter 2: Customizing Settings


In this chapter, you can customize DrillWorks/PREDICT settings to suit your
preferences or requirements.

Changing Screen Settings


You can customize DrillWorks/PREDICTs screen colors, resolution and
fonts to suit your taste.

Changing Screen Colors


To change the DrillWorks/PREDICT color scheme:
1 Select Tools > Options > Display from the menu bar. The Options
dialog box appears (see Figure 3).
2 In the Display tab, you can specify the colors for track background, grid
lines, Legend background color, and object selections, as well as font
types and colors for text items in screen view. These selections will also
apply to printed plots.
3 Click OK when done.

Figure 3: Options dialog box showing screen color settings

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Changing Screen Resolutions


The DrillWorks/PREDICT installation routine defaults to 1024 x 768 screen
resolution. To use a different screen resolution, see General Settings on
page 18.
Common screen resolution combinations are 1024 x 768 (PREDICT
installation default), 800 x 600, 1280 x 1024 and 1600 x 1200. Note: PREDICT
does not support 640 x 480 resolution.

General Settings
You can customize features for the display, autosave function and locations of
the programs directories and data files.
To change settings
1 Select Tools > Options... from the menu bar. The Options dialog box
appears and contains four tabs: Display, Grid line, System, and Path.
2 Select the desired tab. Each tab is described below.
Display tab

Figure 4: Options dialog box showing display options

This tab window is divided into 4 main areas:


Track dimension settings
Track window height Enter the height of PREDICTs screen in
pixels. For example, for a 1024 (height) x768 (width) resolution, the
number should be 525.

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Single track width Enter the width of a single track in pixels when
first created. Defines the maximum number of tracks that can be
shown in a view. For example, for a 1024 (height) x768 (width)
resolution, the number should be 200
Legend window height Enter the height of the Legend window
(bottom portion of the track). This needs to be correctly defined so
that the Legend is visible in the display. For example, for a 1024
(height) x768 (width) resolution, the number should be 120.
Font settings
Sets the fonts for the text in the display.
To reset the font, click on the Change button next to the relevant item
name and select the new font settings.
Track window Choose the font for the depth numbering in the
tracks.
Legend Choose the font for the text in the Legend window.
Dataset Choose the font for the labels/comments contained in the
third column of a dataset, and visible when the dataset is added to a
track.
Color Settings
Controls the color of various display items.
To change the color, click on the colored box next to the relevant item and
select the desired color from the chart that appears.
Track background Choose the color of the background of the tracks,
i.e., in the selected view
Object selection Choose the color that indicates which dataset or
RLG is active when the cursor is moved close to it on the track.
Regardless of the color of the dataset line or symbol, that line or
symbol set will display the color chosen in this field when the cursor
is over it.
Legend background Choose the color of the Legend window.
Grid lines Controls the color of the grid lines displayed on the
tracks. To make all grid lines invisible, select the grid line color to be
the same as the track background color.
Default view bottom depth Enter the bottom depth that is displayed
on the tracks.
Symbol size Select the size of the symbol that can be used to
represent a dataset on the track. The symbol is specified in attributes
when creating a dataset.

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Grid line tab

Figure 5: Options dialog box showing grid line options

Number of default grid lines in linear track Enter a number that is


divisible by 5 and is between 5 and 80. This number determines the
interval between X-axis grid lines on a linear horizontal scale on the
tracks.
Log track horizontal scale label option Choose Use what user
specified (in Tools > Grid line) if you want PREDICT to always use
the specified horizontal scale or choose Let DrillWorks/PREDICT
program decide if you want the system to use the best scale that fits
best.

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System tab

Figure 6: Options dialog box showing system options

Save project every - The Autosave feature determines how often


PREDICT will be saved. Check the box and enter the interval in
minutes, between 1 and 60.
Rebuild project index automatically on startup - If checked, PREDICT
rebuilds the project index file automatically each time it is started up.
This provides a way to repair a corrupted project index file.
Important Note: We dont recommend that you use this option in a
shared project environment. By default, this option is unchecked.
Path tab

Figure 7: Options dialog box showing default file path locations

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In this tab, you specify the file location of PREDICT related files, such as
project, library, and UDM/UDP directory files. By default, PREDICT uses
the Predict folder under Program Files, but you can specify another loca-
tion.
The file paths can be modified by clicking on the Change button to the
right of each field. The Browse for Folder dialog box appears allowing
you to navigate through Windows to find the new location.
Project directory the directory in which the PREDICT project
catalogs reside.
Defaults directory location of the default files.
UDM/UDP directory - location of the User Defined Method and User
Defined Program files.
Library directory - location of the Library files.
Export project directory - destination of projects exported from
PREDICT.
Export well directory - destination of wells exported from PREDICT.
WITS Input - location of the files containing WITS data imported in
realtime.
WITS output directory - location of the files containing WITS data
exported in realtime.
3 Change the settings, as desired. Click OK to return to PREDICT.

Defining Tracks and Views


In DrillWorks/PREDICT, we can set up how we view the information by
customizing tracks and views.

Track
A track is an area on PREDICTs screen that displays data and/or RLGs
(Reference Line Groups) and consists of a track name, width, horizontal scale
type, and vertical scale (see Figure 8). This can be compared to a paper log.
Another significant distinction is that any number of datasets and associated
RLGs can be displayed within the track, even if the datasets are associated
with different wells.

Creating a Track
Some of the advantages of using PREDICT is its versatility and ease in
changing the vertical scale, track width, and list of displayed datasets and
RLGs. The horizontal scale type can be linear or logarithmic. The vertical
scale can be any of seven fixed-depth scales.

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To create a track, you first create a view and select up to 8 track types to be
displayed in the view.

NOTE: After selecting the track types for the first time for the view, you
can easily resize the tracks by moving the side panes of the tracks.

Figure 8: Track with Legend and display attributes

Track Types
Track Types depict the size and type of horizontal scale used for the selected
track:
Half Linear approximately 1/8 the width of a screen, with linear
horizontal scale.
Single Linear - approximately 1/4 the width of a screen, with linear
horizontal scale.
Double Linear - approximately 1/2 the width of a screen, with linear
horizontal scale.
Quad Linear - approximately the width of a screen, with linear horizontal
scale.

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Half Log - approximately 1/8 the width of a screen, with logarithmic


horizontal scale.
Single Log - approximately 1/4 the width of a screen, with logarithmic
horizontal scale.
Double Log - approximately 1/2 the width of a screen, with logarithmic
horizontal scale.
Quad Log - approximately the width of a screen, with logarithmic
horizontal scale.

Viewing Track Properties


You can view properties such as how the horizontal and vertical depth scales
are set; how the Legend window, grid, or ruler are displayed; what the
number of grid lines are; and how the horizontal rescale is set for a selected
track.
To view track properties:
Right-click over the desired track (except on a curve). The Track Properties
dialog box appears (see Figure 9).

Figure 9: Track Properties dialog box

Changing the Vertical Depth Scale


You can change the vertical depth scale to a specific increment. When you
change the vertical depth scale of one track, you change all the tracks that are
locked to it.
To change the vertical depth scale:
1 Make sure that your mouse is over the desired track.
2 Right-click and select Track Properties in the pop-up menu. The Track
Properties dialog box opens (see Figure 9).

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3 In the Vertical Depth section, select the desired depth scale for the tracks
that are locked together.
In metric SI units the choices are: 1 cm = 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250 and 500
meters
In FPS units the choices are: 1 inch = 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 or
4000 feet
4 Click OK. The scale is dynamically changed, and the track display is
updated to reflect the new vertical depth scale.

Changing Horizontal Scale (Log or Linear)


You can change the tracks horizontal scale from logarithmic to linear or vice
versa.
To change the horizontal scale:
1 Make sure that your mouse is over the desired track.
2 Right-click and select Track Properties in the pop-up menu. The Track
Properties dialog box opens (see Figure 9).
3 In the Horizontal Scale section, choose either Linear or Log.
4 Click OK. Notice that the track scale changes. Note: If you go from Linear
to Log, it may cause some datasets with negative values to be removed
from the track. The system will prompt you if you want to continue.

Adding and Removing Depth Labels


The depth scale labels on the tracks can be switched on or off for each track.
This can be useful if you intend to produce a plot for presentation purposes
that does not show depths of data for confidentiality reasons.
To add or remove depth labels:
1 Right-click anywhere in the track area (except on a curve). The pop-up
menu appears.
2 Select Track Properties The Track Properties dialog box opens (see
Figure 9).
3 Check or uncheck the Show Depth Scale box. This toggles the depth
labels display on or off.
4 Click OK.

Showing or Hiding the Legend Window


The Legend window is the area on the bottom of the track that contains
information about the active dataset, scales, names, etc. You can choose to
show or not show the Legend window.
To show or hide the Legend window:
1 Right-click in the track area and the pop-up menu is displayed.
2 Select Track Properties and the Track Properties dialog box opens (see
Figure 9).
3 Check or uncheck the Show Legend window box in the Options section.

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4 Click OK. The Legend window is displayed as the default setting when
creating a View.
5 Save the project in order to save the settings of the track.

Adding or Removing Grid Lines


The vertical grid lines can be switched on or off for each track.
To add or remove grid lines:
1 Right-click in the track area, the pop-up menu appears.
2 Select Track Properties The Track Properties dialog box opens (see
Figure 9).
3 Check or uncheck the Show Grid box in the Options box. This toggles the
grid line display on or off.
4 Click OK. Note: When the grid lines are OFF, the depth scale is still
shown with the horizontal depth reference lines. To make all the lines
invisible, go to Tools > Options > Display, and make the Grid Lines
color the same as the Track Background color

Showing and Hiding Rulers


The horizontal scale ruler found on the bottom of the track can be switched on
or off. However, when the ruler is not displayed, the maximum and
minimum values of the active dataset are still shown.
To show or hide the rulers:
1 Right-click in the track area, the pop-up menu appears.
2 Select Track Properties The Track Properties dialog box opens (see
Figure 9).
3 Check or uncheck the Show Ruler box in the Options section. This toggles
the ruler display on or off.
4 Click OK.

Setting the Horizontal Rescale


If the horizontal rescale is ON, a dataset that you add to the track rescales
horizontally to the same scale as the active dataset that has already been
displayed in the track. This occurs if the units are the same for the two
datasets.
If the horizontal rescale is OFF, the added dataset is displayed with its
datatype default scale, if any, or with a scale of its minimum and maximum
values.
To set the horizontal rescale:
1 Right-click in the track area, the pop-up menu appears.
2 Select Track Properties The Track Properties dialog box opens (see
Figure 9).
3 Check the Horizontal Rescale box in the Options section. This toggles the
horizontal rescale on or off.

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4 Click OK.

Setting Grid Lines in the Track


You can define the number of grid lines to be placed in a linear track. This can
be useful to show a more readable horizontal scaling in a track.
To set grid lines in a linear track:
1 Right-click anywhere in the linear track area (except on a curve). The pop-
up menu appears.
2 Select Track Properties The Track Properties dialog box opens (see
Figure 9).
3 In the Number of Grid Lines field, enter the number of grid lines, that is,
the divisions that you want to see on the track. The number must be
between 5 and 40 and be divisible by 5.
4 Click OK. Notice that the linear tracks horizontal scale changes.
In the Status bar located to the bottom right of the PREDICT screen, the
coordinates of where your cursor is pointing to is displayed. The coordinates
are shown with respect to the horizontal scale of the active dataset and the
depth scale of the track. It is automatically updated according to the active
dataset in the track in which the cursor is seen.

Cursor Coordinates
In the Status bar located to the bottom right of the PREDICT screen, the
coordinates of where your cursor is pointing to is displayed. The coordinates
are shown with respect to the horizontal scale of the active dataset and the
depth scale of the track. It is automatically updated according to the active
dataset in the track in which the cursor is seen.

Locking Tracks for Scrolling


When creating a view, you can lock two or more tracks together so that when
you scroll one of the tracks in the locked group, the other track(s) locked with
it are scrolled at the same time. In addition, when the depth scale of a track in
a locked group is changed, the depth scales of the other tracks in the locked
group are changed. You can define two locked groups in each view.
To lock or unlock tracks in a view:
1 After creating a view, select View > Edit from the menu bar. The dialog
box Edit View appears (see Figure 10).
2 There are two locked groups to select, L1 or L2. In the View Layout list
box, select the track type(s) (e.g., Half Linear) that you want designated as
L1 (the first locked group) and press L1. Note: If you want all to scroll
together, then L1 should be assigned to all the track types in this list box.
3 If desired, choose one other track type(s) and click L2.

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4 To unlock a track, choose the track type(s) and click Unlock.


5 Click OK. Those track types assigned with L1 scroll simultaneously and
those with L2 scroll simultaneously.

Figure 10: Edit View dialog box

Zooming On the Track


You can zoom in or out on the track to see it in more or less detail. (This is not
available in the PREDICT.lite Wellsite version)
To zoom in or out on the track:
1 Right-click anywhere on the track, except for on a curve. The pop-up
menu appears.
2 Choose Interactive Zoom from the menu. The Interactive Zoom window
appears displaying the current scale used; in the track, the zoom bar (a
thick pink line with upper and lower brackets) appears.
3 On the track, adjust the brackets of the zoom bar up or down to the
desired scale.
4 Look in the Interactive Zoom window as you zoom in or out.
5 Close the Interactive Zoom window to exit out of the zoom function.

View
A View displays a customized screen that can show a maximum of eight
tracks. A View can then be named and saved for future retrieval and use.
Views can include any combination of track widths and types (linear and
logarithmic).

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Creating or Editing a View


A View displays a customized screen that can show a maximum of eight
tracks. A View can then be named and saved for future retrieval and use.
Views can include any combination of track widths (1/3, 1/2, 1, 2, and 4
wide) and types (linear and logarithmic).
To create a new View:
1 Select View > New from the menu bar. The Create View dialog box
appears (see Figure 11).
2 In the View Name field, enter a name for the view, which can contain up
to 59 characters. The View Name should indicate the function and
contents of the view. For instance, if the view is to be used to display well
logs from a specific offset well, a good view name would be Offset #11
Log Data.
3 Select whether you want to create a view from a template or specify a
new view from scratch.
To use an existing View as a template, select Copy from A Template
and choose the name of the View from which you want to copy from
in the drop-down list of existing views. Go to step 6.
To create a view from scratch, select Specify Each Track, and the
Available Track Types and View Layout list boxes become available.
Go to step 4.
4 Select a track type from the Available Track Types list box and click Add
to add it to the View Layout. You can also select a track type from View
Layout and click Remove to delete it from view. Note: The layout lists
the tracks in the order in which they will be displayed in the new view
from left to right. The maximum number of tracks is 8 per view.
5 To lock tracks so that they scroll together, see Locking Tracks for
Scrolling on page 27.
6 Make sure that the value specified in the Bottom field is correct, if not,
you can enter a new value.
7 Click OK.

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Figure 11: Create View dialog box

To display the new view:


1 Select View > Open from the menu bar. The Open a View dialog box
appears (see Figure 12). Alternatively, you can select the view from the
View drop-down list located on the top of the screen.
2 Select the View name in the list box and click OK.

Figure 12: Open a View dialog box

To edit a view:
1 Select View > Edit from the menu bar. The Edit View dialog box is
displayed (see Figure 13).
2 You can change the name of the view, the arrangement of tracks in the
view, and the locked tracks.
3 When you have finished editing the view, click OK and the display will
be updated to reflect the changes. Note: You can only edit the currently
opened view.

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Figure 13: Edit View dialog box

Deleting a View
1 Select View > Delete from the menu bar. The Delete Views dialog box
appears (see Figure 14).
2 Select the View name to be deleted in the list box. A dialog asking you to
confirm the deletion will take place.
3 Click Yes to delete the view or No to cancel the operation.

Figure 14: Delete Views dialog box

Displaying a View
A newly created view is not opened automatically. There are two methods for
opening the view.

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To open a view with the Open a View dialog box:


1 Choose View > Open on the menu bar. The Open a View dialog box
appears (see Figure 15).
2 Choose the name of the view you want to display.
3 Click OK.

Figure 15: Open a View dialog box

To open a view with the View drop-down list box:


Use the View drop-down list in the toolbar to select the relevant View (see
Figure 16).

Figure 16: View drop-down list box

In both cases a dialog appears, asking if you want to save the data. Select Yes
if you want to save your work, or No to discard all changes to the project
since it was last saved.

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Showing View Properties


1 To look at View information, select View > Properties from the menu
bar. The View Properties dialog box appears (see Figure 17).
2 The following tabs are available for you to view:
Datasets shows well name, dataset name, datatype, and file name
(extension .dds). These can be listed for each Track or for the whole
View.
Polygons - well name, polygon dataset name, and file name
(extension .lds). These can be listed for each Track or for the whole
View.
Lithology Columns - well name, lithology column dataset name, and
file name (extension .fds). These can be listed for each Track or for the
whole View.
RLGs - well name, dataset name, RLG name, and file name (extension
.rlg). These can be listed for each Track or for the whole View.
Annotations - well name, dataset name, annotation name, and file
name (extension .ano). These can be listed for each Track or for the
whole View.
3 Click OK when done viewing the list.

Figure 17: View Properties dialog box

Saving Views as Defaults


This function allows you to save the current view defined in the current
project as the default view. This view then becomes the default view for any
new project with the same project units (metric or English) that you create.

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To save the view as a default:


1 Select Tools > Default Views from the menu bar. The system prompts if
you want to save the View defaults (see Figure 18).
2 Click Yes.

Figure 18: Prompt for default views

Defining Datatypes and Units


A dataset in PREDICT is a collection of values for various depths. A datatype
helps to identify what kind of data is in the dataset and assigns the default
setting, display attributes, and physical properties for the dataset. For
example, a pore pressure dataset could have the datatype PP, a well log
originally created with a deep resistivity tool could be of datatype RES, and a
manually entered list of casing shoe depths and sizes could be datatype CSG.
DrillWorks/PREDICT has a pre-defined list of datatypes that you can assign
to the datasets that you import into the system. Most of the datatypes use the
most recognizable abbreviations, such as OBG, POR TREND, PP and so on.
However, you can choose to customize and assign datatypes to your datasets
using the nomenclature decided by your company or organization.
Datatyping allows:
you to better understand what information is contained in the dataset.
the program to list only the relevant datasets for a particular program
operation.
the setting of default attributes for all datasets of a specific datatype.
The following table lists datatypes that are predefined by the program and
cannot be deleted or renamed by the user:

Datatype Description

FG Fracture gradient dataset created using Analyze/Fracture


Gradient

OBG Overburden stress gradient dataset created using Analyze/


Overburden Gradient

POR TREND Porosity trend dataset created by Lines/Connect Lines

PP Pore pressure dataset created using Analyze/Pore Pressure

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SHPTS Shale point dataset created using Analyze/Shale Points

POR Porosity dataset created using Analysis/Porosity

MTX Matrix stress coefficients curve

POISSON Poisson's ratio curve

UNKNOWN Unknown datatype

SHIDX Shale Index

SHVOL Shale Volume

RHOB Density

Creating or Editing a Datatype


You can create and define a datatype or use the pre-defined datatypes that
come with the system.
To create a datatype:
1 Select Tools > Datatype from the menu bar. The Datatype dialog box
appears (see Figure 19).
2 In the Select Datatype Attributes section, enter the datatype in the Name
field.
3 In the Description field, enter a short description of the datatype.
4 In the Display Attributes field, select how the dataset using this datatype
should be represented on the screen by clicking on the Change button to
specify color, line type, and symbol.
5 In the Unit Group drop-down list box, select the unit group the datatype
belongs to.
6 In the Horizontal Limits section, you can select the following options:
Use Dataset Limit displays the range of the datasets minimum and
maximum values for the horizontal scale.
Use Specified Limit displays the range you specified in the fields
below this option.
7 Click the Add button. Notice that the Datatype is added to the list box to
the left.

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Figure 19: Datatype dialog box

To edit a datatype:
1 Select Tools > Datatype from the menu bar. The Datatype dialog box
appears (see Figure 19).
2 Select one of the datatypes from the list on the left. Notice that its
information and attributes appear to the right.
3 Make the desired changes and click Edit. You can modify additional
datatypes by repeating this procedure.

Deleting a Datatype
1 Select Tools > Datatype from the menu bar. The Datatype dialog box
appears (see Figure 19).
2 Select one of the datatypes from the list on the left. Notice that its
information and attributes appear to the right.
3 Click Delete. The datatype is deleted from the system. Note: Pre-defined
datatypes cannot be deleted (see Defining Datatypes and Units on
page 34).
4 Close the Datatype dialog box.

Datatype Filter Button


In some dialog boxes where you must select a dataset, the Filter button is
available so that you can display dataset(s) that use a selected datatype. For
example, if you choose an RHOB datatype to filter, it will only display
datasets based on the RHOB datatype, e.g., RHOB_DT_Gardner.

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To filter datasets by datatype:


1 In the dialog box where there is a Filter button to the left of the Select a
Dataset field, click the Filter button. The Datatype Filter dialog box is
displayed (see Figure 20).
2 Choose the datatype(s) to the left and click Add or you can click Add
ALL.
3 To delete, select the datatype in the right list box and click Remove.
4 When complete, click OK. The datasets that use the selected datatype(s)
are displayed in the field or list box.

Filter button

Figure 20: Dialog box showing a Filter button

Creating or Editing a Unit Group


You can specify the unit(s) for a unit group. The unit group can contain a
number of units, for example, the Temperature unit group consists of the
DegF and DegC units. When you create a datatype, you can then associate the
unit group to the datatype.
Because datatypes are associated to datasets, you choose the unit for the
dataset from the unit group that is specified for the datasets datatype. It is
possible to choose this unit for the dataset when you create a new dataset or
view dataset properties.
To create a unit group:
1 Select Tools > Unit Group from the menu bar. The Unit Group dialog box
appears (see Figure 21).
2 In the Group Name field, type the new name of the unit group.
3 In the Group Desc. field, type a brief description of the unit.
4 Click the Add button underneath the list box on the left side.
5 Select the new unit group you created in the left list box.
6 In the Unit Name field, type the unit name.
7 Click the Add button. Notice that the Unit Name is added to the list box
on the right.
8 Click Close.

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Figure 21: Unit Group dialog box

To edit a unit group:


1 Select Tools > Unit Group from the menu bar. The Unit Group dialog box
appears (see Figure 21). These are things you can edit:
To edit the group name, select it in the left list box and change the
name in the Group Name field. Click Edit under the left list box.
To edit the unit, first select the group name in the left list box, select
the unit in the right list box, and edit the name in the Unit Name field.
Click Edit under the right list box.
2 If desired, you can choose to enable a filter:
Enable Minimum Filter filters out the points that are not at least the
minimum of the value specified.
Enable Maximum Filter - filters out the points that are not at least the
maximum of the value specified.
3 Click Close.

Assigning Units to a Dataset


When you assign a datatype to a dataset, you also assign the units to the
dataset. This is because you associate a unit group for the selected datatype.
You can then apply the datatype to any number of datasets.

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Setting Lithology and Geological Age Display


Attributes
If you intend to use a lithology and/or geological age dataset, you can set
how the lithology or geological age type is to be displayed on the track. You
can choose a variety of colors and patterns to help distinguish the types.

Lithology Display Attributes


To add a lithology and its attributes:
1 Select Tools > Lithology from the menu bar. The Lithology dialog box
appears (see Figure 22).
2 In the Name field, type a new name.
3 In the Fill Pattern list box, select a pattern type that appears on the
background color.
4 In the Foreground Color drop-down list box, select a color that is used for
the pattern. Note: If you dont want to use a pattern, simply make the
foreground color the same as the background color.
5 In the Background Color drop-down list box, select a color that is used as
the background.
6 Click the Add button. Notice that a new lithology is added to the left list
box.
7 Click Close.

Figure 22: Lithology dialog box

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To edit or delete a lithology:


1 Select Tools > Lithology from the menu bar. The Lithology dialog box
appears (see Figure 22).
2 Select the desired lithology type to delete or edit in the left list box. Notice
that the information for the lithology appears to the right of the list box.
3 To delete, click Delete. Otherwise, make the changes to the right and then
click Edit.
4 Click Close.

Geological Age Display Attributes


To add a geological age:
1 Select Tools > Geological Age from the menu bar. The Geological Age
dialog box appears (see Figure 23).
2 In the Name field, type a new name.
3 In the Description field, type a short description.
4 In the Start and End Period fields, type the number in millions of years.
5 In the Fill Pattern list box, select a pattern type.
6 Click the Add button. Notice that a new geological age is added to the left
list box.
7 Click Close. These geological ages will appear in the Geological Age
drop-down list box when you create lithology columns. See also
Defining Tracks and Views on page 22.

Figure 23: Geological Age dialog box

To edit or delete a geological age:


1 Select Tools > Geological Age from the menu bar. The Geological Age
dialog box appears (see Figure 23).

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2 Select the desired geological age to delete or edit in the left list box. Notice
that the information for the geological age appears to the right of the list
box.
3 To delete, click Delete. Otherwise, make the changes to the right and then
click Edit.
4 Click Close. These geological ages appear in the Geological Age drop-
down list box when you create lithology columns. See also Defining
Tracks and Views on page 22.

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CHAPTER 3: WORKING WITH PROJECTS AND WELLS
Setting and Modifying Projects

REFERENCE MANUAL

Chapter 3: Working with Projects and Wells


Before doing the analyses, you should set up your project and supply general
data about your project and well(s).

Setting and Modifying Projects


The project function allows you to organize your well data within the
Drillworks/PREDICT database. Three types of projects are frequently used:
Pre-drilling well planning projects
Drilling well monitoring projects
Teaching/demonstration projects.

Creating a Project
1 From the menu bar, select Project > New. The Project Information dialog
box appears (see Figure 24).
2 Enter information in the following tabs:
General tab

Figure 24: Project Information dialog box showing the General tab

In this section, you enter


Project Name (up to 79 characters), mandatory
Description (up to 79 characters)

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Analyst person working with the project


Units choose either Feet or Meters, mandatory
Note: You cannot change a projects unit after it is set.
Boundaries tab

Figure 25: Project Information dialog box showing the Boundaries


tab

This section defines the geographical location and extent of the project
area (see Figure 25). It has to be correctly completed if DrillWorks/
BASIN is being used. It is wise, in any case, to enter correct data here
because the well data contains information about well location coordi-
nates. The following choices are available:
Coordinate System Choose the type of coordinate system used. The
default is Unknown (no geographical location information is available in
project).
Origin (only available if UTM is selected in the Coordinate System drop-
down list box) Enter the degrees of the UTM central meridian. This
coordinate system uses a meridian through the area of interest as the new
'equator'. Thus, in a strip sufficiently near this meridian, a Mercator pro-
jection of the new coordinate system is conformal and approximately
equivalent. The central meridian is one of the meridians of type 3,9,15
degrees. The value of the central meridian lies between 177 degrees
West and 177 degrees East. In the Boundaries section, the minimum and
maximum latitude and longitude coordinates are then entered in meters
from the central meridian.
Location (available if Latitude/Longitude or UTM is selected in the Coor-
dinate System drop-down list box) Enter the minimum and maximum
latitude and longitude coordinates in degrees, minutes and seconds. If

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UTM is selected, enter the minimum and maximum latitude and longi-
tude coordinates in meters from the central meridian.
Notes tab

Figure 26: Project Information dialog box showing Notes tab

You can enter any comments or notes regarding the project (see Figure
26).
3 Click Open to open the newly created project or click OK to save the new
project information and return to the project you were working on. The
Add New Wells dialog box appears prompting you to add the first well
and its information to the project (also see Creating a Well on page 55).

Creating Project Groups


You can group a number of related projects together as a Project Group.
To create a project group:
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > Project Group > New The dialog box
Create a Project Group is displayed (see Figure 27).
2 Enter a group name and description.
3 The list box on the left contains names of all the projects in your system.
Select the name of a project to be included in the new project group and
click the Add button to add it to a new list on the right side of the dialog
box menu bar
4 Repeat this for all desired projects.
5 If you add a project that you find out is not required in the project group,
click on its name in the right hand list and then click Remove to remove it
from the list. menu bar.
6 Click OK when done.

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Figure 27: Create a Project Group dialog box

To edit an existing project group:


1 From the menu bar, select Tools > Project Group > Edit The dialog box
Edit a Project Group is displayed showing existing project group names
(see Figure 28).
2 In the Group Name drop-down list box, select the desired project group.
3 Edit the name and/or description, if desired.
4 The list box on the left of the dialog box contains names of all the projects
in the system. If you want to add a project to the group, select the name of
the desired project and click the Add button to add it to the list on the
right side of the dialog box.
5 Repeat this for each project to be added.
6 If you wish to remove a project from the group, click on its name in the
right hand list and then click Remove to remove it from the list. Repeat as
necessary.
7 Click OK when done.

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Figure 28: Edit Project Groups dialog box

To delete a project group:


1 From the menu bar, select Tools > Project Group > Delete. The dialog box
Delete a Project Group is displayed showing existing project group
names (see Figure 29).
2 In the Group Name drop-down list box, select the desired project group
to delete.
3 Click OK. The project group is deleted.

Figure 29: Delete a Project Group dialog box

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Opening a Project
1 From the menu bar, click Project > Open. The Open a Project dialog box
appears.
2 Choose whether you want to view all projects in the system (List All
Projects option) or view projects belonging to a particular Project Group
(List by Project Group option).
3 Double-click the project name in the list box on the bottom of the dialog
box. The project opens displaying the default view (also see Viewing
Well Properties on page 59). To add wells to the project, see Creating a
Well on page 55.

NOTE: You can also open one of the last 8 projects previously opened by
selecting it on the bottom of the Project menu.

Figure 30: Open a Project dialog box

Deleting a Project
Use caution when deleting projects, since it cannot be undone.
To delete a project:
1 From the menu bar, select Project > Delete.
2 The system prompts you to make sure that you want to delete. Click Yes
to delete the project.

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Figure 31: Delete a Project dialog box

Viewing Project Properties


Project properties display the projects main information and includes a
summary about all the wells, seismic data, petrophysical well log data
(including wireline and MWD), directional surveys, stratigraphical and
lithological information, formation pressure data, and drilling data (including
gas) that are specified in the project. You can also view geographical
information used for basin modeling techniques in pore pressure prediction.
To view project information:
1 Select Project > Properties from the menu bar. The Project Information
dialog box appears.
2 Select one of the following tabs to view project information:

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General tab

Figure 32: Project Properties dialog box showing the General tab

Contains the project name, description, analyst name, project units, and
current directory location for project file.
Boundaries tab

Figure 33: Project Properties dialog box showing the Boundaries


tab

Shows the geographical coordinate information defining the four sides of


the project rectangle.

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Notes tab

Figure 34: Project Properties dialog box showing the Notes tab

Displays user comments.


Wells tab

Figure 35: Project Properties dialog box showing the Wells tab

Lists basic information about all the wells in the project and includes:
well name, ID, country, air gap (AG), water depth (WD), total depth
inTVD, and total depth in MD. To sort the columns according to the
header, click on the column header.

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Views tab

Figure 36: Project Properties dialog box showing the Views tab

Lists all views in the project and includes information about the view
name and numbers of tracks, datasets, lithology columns, polygons,
RLGs, and annotations in each view. To sort the columns according to the
header, click on the column header.
Datasets tab

Figure 37: Project Properties dialog box showing the Datasets tab

Lists all discrete datasets contained in the project. It includes information


about well name, dataset name, datatype, unit and internal file name for
each dataset. To sort the columns according to the header, click on the
column header.

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Polygons tab

Figure 38: Project Properties dialog box showing the Polygons tab

Lists all polygons contained in the project. It includes information about


the well, dataset and file name for each polygon. To sort the columns
according to the header, click on the column header.
Lithology Columns tab

Figure 39: Project Properties dialog box showing the Lithology


Columns tab

Lists all lithology columns contained in the project, well, or view. It


includes information about the well, dataset and file name for each lithol-
ogy column. To sort the columns according to the header, click on the col-
umn header.

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RLGs tab

Figure 40: Project Properties dialog box showing the RLGs tab

Lists all RLGs contained in the project, well, or view. It includes informa-
tion about the well, dataset and file name for each RLG. To sort the col-
umns according to the header, click on the column header.
Annotation tab

Figure 41: Project Properties dialog box showing the Annotations


tab

Lists all annotation(s) contained in the project, well, or view. It includes


information about the well, dataset and file name for each annotation. To
sort the columns according to the header, click on the column header.

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3 After viewing the information, click OK.

Setting Up and Modifying Wells


When working with a project in PREDICT, you define a list of one or more
wells that will be studied either prior to drilling or during the drilling
operation. This section describes how you set up wells in your project.

Creating a Well
A well can be added either to a new project when it is being created (also see
Creating a Project on page 43) or to an existing project when it is open (also
see Opening a Project on page 48).
To add a new well to an open project:
1 From the menu bar, select Well > New. The Add New Wells dialog box
appears. This dialog box contains three tabs which allow you to enter
well-related information:
General tab

Figure 42: Add New Wells dialog box showing the General tab

This section (see Figure 42) contains general information about the well,
such as:
Well name Enter the name of the new well, using up to 59 characters
Description Enter text describing the well
Well ID Enter a well ID number, for example API number

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Operator Enter name of operating company for whom the well is drilled
Analyst Enter name or initials of person performing pressure analysis
work
Rig name Enter name of drilling unit
Country Enter country in which well is located
Start Date Normally, you select the date the well was spudded. Click in
the box and change day/date/year with the arrow keys, as necessary.
Alternatively, click on the down arrow to the right of the box to get the
Windows calendar. Click on left or right arrows at the top of the calendar
to move dates. Click on the year number at the top of the calendar to
scroll quickly to select the year at a time
Completion Date Normally, you can select either the date the drilling
was finished or date of abandonment of the well. Click in the box and
change day/date/year with the arrow keys, as necessary. Alternatively,
click on the down arrow to the right of the box to display the Windows
calendar. Click on left or right arrows at the top of the calendar to move
dates. Click on the year number at the top of the calendar to scroll quickly
to select the year at a time
Type of Well Select Exploratory, Appraisal, or Development.
Status of Well Select Pre-spud, Drilling, Completing, Producing, Shut-
in, Temporarily Abandoned, Plugged and Abandoned, or Junked and
Abandoned.
Depth/Pressure tab

Figure 43: Add New Wells dialog box showing the Depth/Pressure
tab

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This tab contains details of key depths in the well, in addition to some
pressure information (see Figure 43):
Depth Section::
Air Gap The vertical distance between the zero datum, normally Drill
Floor (DF) or Rotary Kelly Bushing (RKB), and the Mean Sea Level (MSL)
on a offshore drilling unit, or Ground Level (GL) onshore.
Water Depth - The distance in an offshore well between the Mean Sea
Level (MSL) and the Seabed or Mud Line.
Total MD The total drilled depth of the well along the well path in Mea-
sured Depth (MD), from the zero datum point.
Total TVD - The total vertical drilled depth of the well in True Vertical
Depth (TVD), from the zero datum point.
Pressure section::
Mechanism The predominant mechanism that caused the abnormal for-
mation pressure. Examples include: Undercompaction, Aquathermal
Pressuring, Clay Diagenesis, Hydrocarbon Generation, Tectonic Stress,
etc. Choose from the drop-down list or type in your own.
Normal PG The normal hydrostatic Pressure Gradient for the well area.
Depth to Top The vertical depth from zero datum point to the top of the
main abnormally pressured zone.
Max PP The maximum Pore Pressure gradient estimated, measured or
expected in the well.
Max FG The maximum Fracture Pressure gradient estimated, measured
or expected in the well.
Location tab

Figure 44: Add New Wells dialog box showing the Location tab

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This section defines the geographical location and extent of the project
area (see Figure 44). It has to be correctly completed if DrillWorks/
BASIN is being used. It is wise, in any case, to enter correct data since the
well data contains information about well location co-ordinates. The fol-
lowing choices are available:
Coordinate System Choose the type of coordinate system used. The
default is Unknown (no geographical location information is available for
the project).
Origin (This choice is only available if UTM is selected in the Coordinate
System drop-down list box) Enter the degrees of the UTM central meri-
dien. This coordinate system uses a meridian through the area of interest
as the new 'equator'. Thus, in a strip sufficiently near this meridian, a
Mercator projection of the new coordinate system is conformal and
approximately equivalent. The central meridian is one of the meridians of
type 3,9,15 degrees. The value of the central meridian lies between
177 degrees West and 177 degrees East. In the Boundaries section, the
minimum and maximum latitude and longitude coordinates are then
entered in meters from the central meridian.
Location (available if Latitude/Longitude or UTM is selected in the Coor-
dinate System drop-down list box) Enter the minimum and maximum
latitude and longitude coordinates in degrees, minutes and seconds. If
UTM is selected, enter the minimum and maximum latitude and longi-
tude coordinates in meters from the central meridian.
2 When all the relevant well information has been entered, click the Add
button to add the well to the project. It is wise at this stage to save the
project.

NOTE: There is no limit to the number of wells that a project can contain.

Deleting a Well
Use caution when deleting wells, since it cannot be undone.
To delete a well:
1 From the menu bar, select Well > Delete. The Delete a Well dialog box
appears.
2 Select the well name in the list box.
3 Click OK.
4 The system prompts you to make sure that you want to delete. Click Yes
to delete the project.

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Figure 45: Delete a Well dialog box

Viewing Well Properties


Well properties display general information about the well, depth, pressure,
location, temperature, survey, annotations and datasets currently specified
for the selected well.
To view well properties:
1 From the menu bar, select Well > Properties. The Well Properties dialog
box appears.
2 Select one of the tabs to view:
General tab

Figure 46: Well Properties dialog box showing the General tab

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Contains information about the well name, description, ID, operator, ana-
lyst, rig name, country, start/completion dates, type and status of the
well.
Depth/Pressure tab

Figure 47: Well Properties dialog box showing the Depth/Pressure


tab

Contains information about the air gap, water depth, MD/TVD, pressure
mechanism, normal PG, depth to top, max PP and FG.

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Location tab

Figure 48: Well Properties dialog box showing the Location tab

Primarily used for DrillWorks/BASIN, this tab displays information


about the coordinate system used and its location.
Definitive Datasets tab

Figure 49: Well Properties dialog box showing the Definitive


Datasets tab

Displays which datasets for pore pressure gradient, fracture gradient,


and porosity were specified for BASIN to use.

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Survey tab

Figure 50: Well Properties dialog box showing the Survey tab

Shows the relationship between the MD and TVD if a survey file or MD/
TVD table was inputted.
Temperature tab

Figure 51: Well Properties dialog box showing the Temperature tab

Displays temperatures measured at given depths.

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Datasets tab

Figure 52: Well Properties dialog box showing the Datasets tab

Lists all the datasets that are associated and analyzed in the well.
LithColumn tab

Figure 53: Well Properties dialog box showing the LithColumn tab

Lists all the lithology datasets for the well.


Polygon tab

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Figure 54: Well Properties dialog box showing the Polygon tab

Lists all the polygons for the well.


Line Groups tab

Figure 55: Well Properties dialog box showing the Line Groups tab

Lists all the RLG (Reference Line Groups) for the well.

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Annotations tab

Figure 56: Well Properties dialog box showing the Annotations tab

Displays a list of annotations that were created for the selected well.
3 After viewing the information, click OK. If you made any changes to the
information, click Apply to apply the new information.

Setting Up Survey Tables for Wells


A survey table in PREDICT is a table of pairs of numbers that indicate the
relationships between measured depths (MD) and true vertical depths (TVD)
for the well.
There are several ways to create a survey in PREDICT:
by creating a top table (see Top Table on page 65) and then importing it
into the well.
by creating an MD/TVD table (see MD/TVD Table on page 69) and
then importing it into the well.
importing a survey data file from an external source (see Importing
Survey Data on page 71).

Top Table
A top table shows the depth correlation between a reference and proposed
well. This table is primarily used to generate a synthetic log. The function of a
top table is the same as the MD/TVD table function. However, a top table is
used more frequently to modify the depths in the logs of an offset or analog

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well so that they represent the depths of a proposed location. Usually, the
depths of the proposed well are derived from seismic data.
The top table can be used to:
expand or condense stratigraphic sections, and/or
create or remove faults and/or unconformities.

Creating a Top Table


A top table is comprised of two columns with the first column containing the
actual depth and the second column containing the corresponding desired
(projected) depth.
1 From the menu bar, select Well > Top Table > New. The New Top Table
appears (see Figure 57).
2 Enter a unique name up to 30 characters long.
3 Starting on line 1, enter an actual depth (reference depth) and
corresponding desired depth (projected depth) on each line.
4 You can use the following methods to enter data:
Use the Tab key to move to the next cell.
Click on a cell and type a value.
Cut or copy/paste cells by selecting them and clicking Cut or Copy.
To paste, click at the depth below the desired entry and then click the
Paste button.
To insert an extra line, click on the relevant line number and click
Insert. To insert several lines, click and drag the cursor to mark the
desired line numbers then click Insert.
5 When you are finished, click OK.

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Figure 57: New Top Table dialog box

Editing a Top Table


1 From the menu bar, select Well > Top Table > Edit. The Select Top Table
to Edit dialog box appears (see Figure 58).

Figure 58: Select Top Table to Edit dialog box

2 Navigate through Windows to locate and select the desired top table file
(.top).
3 Click Open. The Edit Top Table dialog box appears (see Figure 59).

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Figure 59: Edit Top Table dialog box

4 Make the desired changes. You can use the following methods to help
you edit data:
Use the Tab key to move to the next cell.
Cut or copy/paste cells by selecting them and clicking Cut or Copy.
To paste, click at the depth below the desired entry and then click the
Paste button.
To insert an extra line, click on the relevant line number and click
Insert. To insert several lines, click and drag to mark the desired line
numbers then click Insert.
5 When you are finished, click OK.

Deleting a Top Table


1 From the menu bar, select Well > Top Table > Delete. The Select Top
Table to Delete dialog box appears (see Figure 60).

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Figure 60: Select the Top Table to Delete dialog box

2 Navigate through Windows to locate and select the desired top table file
(.top).
3 Click Open.
4 The system prompts whether you really want to delete the top table.
Click Yes.

MD/TVD Table
You can create an MD/TVD (Measured Depth/True Vertical Depth) Table to
enable you to import data based on MD and store it in Predict in TVD. The
table is comprised of two columns, the first column containing the measured
depth and the second column containing the corresponding true vertical
depth.

Creating an MD/TVD Table


1 From the menu bar, select the Well > MD / TVD Table > New. The MD/
TVD Table dialog box appears (see Figure 61).
2 In the Name field, enter a unique name up to 30 characters long.
3 Starting at line 1, enter a measured depth value in the MD column and its
corresponding TVD in the TVD column.
4 You can use the following methods to help you enter data:
Use the Tab key to move to the next cell.
Click on a cell and type a value.
Cut or copy/paste cells by selecting them and clicking Cut or Copy.
To paste, click at the depth below the desired entry and then click the
Paste button.
To insert an extra line, click on the relevant line number and click
Insert. To insert several lines, click and drag the cursor to mark the
desired line numbers and then click Insert.
5 Click OK to close the MD/TVD Table dialog. After creating an MD/TVD
table, you must import it in order for it to be used for depth conversion

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during data import. For more information, see Importing Survey Data
on page 71. Hint: To find the directory to which the file was saved, select
Tools > Options > Path tab to see the default file paths.

Figure 61: MD/TVD Table window

Editing an MD/TVD Table


1 From the menu bar, select the Well > MD/TVD Table > Edit. The Select
MD/TVD Table to Edit dialog box appears (see Figure 62).

Figure 62: Select MD/TVD Table to Edit

2 Navigate through Windows to locate and select the desired MD/TVD


table file (.tbl).
3 Click Open. The MD/TVD Table dialog box appears.
4 Make the desired changes. You can use the following methods to help
you edit data:

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Use the Tab key to move to the next cell.


Cut or copy/paste cells by selecting them and clicking Cut or Copy.
To paste, click at the depth below the desired entry and then click the
Paste button.
To insert an extra line, click on the relevant line number and click
Insert. To insert several lines, click and drag the cursor to mark the
desired line numbers then click Insert.
5 When you are finished, click OK.

Deleting an MD/TVD Table


1 From the menu bar, select the Well > MD / TVD Table > Delete. The
Select MD/TVD Table to Delete dialog box appears.
2 Navigate through Windows to locate and select the desired MD/TVD
table file (.tbl).
3 Click OK.
4 The system prompts whether you really want to delete the top table.
Click Yes.

Importing Survey Data


In order for the well to use the survey data (i.e., top table, MD/TVD table, or
external survey file), you are required to import it into that well.
To import survey data:
1 From the menu bar, select Well > Import Survey Data. The Import Survey
Data dialog box appears (see Figure 63).

Figure 63: Import Survey Data dialog box

2 Navigate through windows to select the desired file (.top, .tbl, or other
external file). Hint: To find the directory where the file was saved, select
Tools > Options > Path tab to see the default file paths.
3 Click Open. The A second Import Survey Data dialog box appears (see
Figure 64).

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Figure 64: Import Survey Data dialog box, second part

4 Select the well that you want to associate the survey data to.
5 If you imported a .top or .tbl file, click OK in the dialog box. If you are
importing survey data from an external application, click Next and
proceed to the next step.
6 From the Map MD Column list box, select the column name of the
measured depth data.
7 From the Map TVD or Inclination Column list box, select the column
name of the TVD or inclination data.
8 Choose either the TVD or Inclination option to use.
9 Click Finish.

Viewing Survey Properties


If you want to view all the surveys associated to a particular well, you can
view them in the Well Properties window. For more information, see
Viewing Well Properties on page 59.

Importing and Exporting Projects and Wells


In addition to importing and exporting data, you can also import and export
PREDICT project and well information. This can save you re-entry time if you
exchange data with other PREDICT users.

Importing a Project
1 From the menu bar, select Project > Import. The Import a Project dialog
box appears.

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2 Navigate through windows to locate the desired project file (.prj).


3 Click Open. The system imports the data. You will have to open the
project to display it on screen. See Opening a Project on page 48.

Exporting a Project
The system exports project data to a folder specified in Tools > Options >
Path. For more information, read about the Path tab in the Options dialog box
found in General Settings on page 18.

NOTE: When you export a project, the default settings (e.g., datatype
names) and references to library datasets or UDM/UDPs are NOT exported
with the project. Therefore, the program may not function as you expect due
to inconsistencies in default settings between different client installations.

1 From the menu bar, select Project > Export. The Export a Project dialog
box appears.
2 Select the project name in the list box.
3 In the Subdirectory for Exported Project field, modify or keep the
subdirectory name (the system will create a folder with this name). The
project data will be exported to the directory specified in Tools > Options
> Path.
4 Click OK. The system exports the data.

Importing a Well
1 From the menu bar, select Well > Import. The Import a Well dialog box
appears.
2 Navigate through windows to locate the desired well file (.wel).
3 Click Open. The Import a Well dialog box appears so that you can, if
needed, enter the new name of the well that is being imported.
4 Click OK. The system imports the well data. To view the well properties,
see Viewing Well Properties on page 59.

Exporting a Well
The system exports well data to a folder specified in Tools > Options > Path.
For more information, read about the Path tab in the Options dialog box
found in General Settings on page 18.
1 From the menu bar, select Well > Export. The Export Well dialog box
appears.
2 Select the well name in the list box.

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3 In the Subdirectory for Exported Well field, modify or keep the


subdirectory name (the system will create a folder with this name). The
project data will be exported to the directory specified in Tools > Options
> Path.
4 Click OK. The system exports the data.

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Chapter 4: Working with Data


In this chapter, you learn about how to import and export data into
PREDICTs system. We also cover how to create and modify datasets so that
the information can be used to perform analyses.

Importing and Exporting Data


If you are not running PREDICT in real-time, you will need to import the data
from an external source. The data can be created from other applications, a
spreadsheet, or by another user using PREDICT outside of your network.

Before Importing
It will greatly simplify the importing of data if all the datasets have been
assigned datatypes before doing the import. This is done by naming the
column headers (channels) of your datasets with the same name as the
datatype.
Example: If you are importing a file of drilling parameters with Dxc, Rop,
Torque, Total Gas, Rpm, and Wob datasets, make sure the column headers
are named DXC, ROP, TORQ, TGAS, RPM, and WOB. Thereafter, make sure
that the datatypes in PREDICT have the same name as your column headers.
During the import, the dataset names and datatypes will match seamlessly.
Regardless of the original format of input data the start step for importing
into PREDICT is the same for all. See Importing Data from Files on page 75
below.
For more information about datatypes and units, see Creating or Editing a
Datatype on page 35 or Creating or Editing a Unit Group on page 37.

Importing Data from Files


Importing data involves importing datasets from external files and matching
them with PREDICT datatypes. A dataset is a collection of data that is either
imported into the system, created through analysis, or created manually by
the user. There are three types of datasets in PREDICT: discrete, lithology
column, and polygon. The dataset most commonly used and imported is the
discrete dataset.
You can import data in several types of formats. This includes:

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ASCII - *.asc, *.txt, *.las


LIS - *.lis, *.tif
DEX - *.dxd
PREDICTs discrete dataset file - *.dds
PREDICTs polygon dataset file - *.lds
PREDICTs lithology column file - *.fds
To import data from a file:
1 Make sure that you have the desired project open. If not, see Opening a
Project on page 48.
2 From the menu bar, select Data > Import. The Import Data dialog box
appears (see Figure 65).

Figure 65: Import Data dialog box

3 Navigate through Windows to find the desired data file that uses a
compatible format listed above.
4 Select the filename and click Open. The Import Datasets dialog box
appears (see Figure 66).

Figure 66: Import Datasets dialog box

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5 Specify the following options:


Select a Well Name Choose the well to which the data will be attached.
The list contains all the wells in the currently open project.
Depth Interval Select either a depth interval or select As Is.
TVD or MD Indicate whether the depth column in the data file is based
on Measured Depth (MD) or True Vertical Depth (TVD). If it is the
former, then you will need to have loaded a survey, MD/TVD Table or
Top Table file into the well before trying to import the data. If it is in TVD
then you can proceed without the need for these files.
Depth Reference The datum at which the dataset depth is equal to zero.
Normally this will be Kelly Bushing Level (= RKB = Drillfloor = DF), but
can sometimes be Mean Sea level (MSL) or Ground Level (GL).
6 After making your selections, click Next. The Select Datasets to Load
window appears (see Figure 67).

Figure 67: Select Datasets to Load window

7 In the Channels list box, there is a list of available sets of data to import
into the system. Choose one or more by clicking on their name.
8 Click Next. The Create a Dataset dialog box appears (see Figure 68).

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Figure 68: Create a Dataset dialog box

9 The system will go through the channels (or column headers) of the
imported data and allow you to verify that PREDICTs datatypes match
the datasets. See Before Importing on page 75 for more information.
If the channel name is the same as the datatype name, then the
default datatype will be highlighted in the list for each channel. Make
sure that the value in the Dataset Name field has the desired datatype
in the Datatype list box. If not, select the appropriate datatype for the
dataset.
If the channel name is NOT the same as the datatype name, the
default datatype will be Unknown and you will need to select the
correct datatype for that channel.

NOTE: It is important to verify the datatypes so the calculations, scales,


and attributes in the analyses will be correct. Also see Defining Datatypes
and Units on page 34. If UNK-Unknown is displayed in the Datatypes list
box, select the type that fits the Dataset Name in the Datatypes list box.

10 Click Next. The system will go through all the datasets one by one until
all the datasets have been verified.
11 Repeat steps 9 to 10. If it has gone through all the datasets, the Finish
button appears on the lower part of the dialog box. Click the Finish
button.
12 Wait one moment while the system imports the data into the system.
Notice that there is no data displayed. This is because you must display it
on the track. See Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94 for more
information.

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Copying Data from a Spreadsheet


There are instances when it may be necessary to add log data to an existing
DrillWorks/PREDICT dataset. Such a situation could arise, for instance,
when DrillWorks/PREDICT is being used on a well in progress where
periodic data updates are e-mailed from the wellsite to the office for daily or
tourly analysis. A similar situation could arise whenever data is missed due
to tool, hardware, or software problems.
The method for adding data to an existing dataset basically involves
importing the data in column form into a spreadsheet and then using the
Windows Cut and Paste functions to put the data into DrillWorks/PREDICT.
In addition, you can append data by using the Append function (see
Appending New Data to Datasets on page 86).
To copy data from a spreadsheet application:
1 Import the ASCII data into the spreadsheet program. Be sure that each
column of data in the ASCII file corresponds to a separate column in the
spreadsheet. The header information in the ASCII file can sometimes
confuse the spreadsheet program into dividing the columns incorrectly.
In such a case, it may be necessary to adjust the spreadsheet columns
manually during the data import process. This is called parsing.
2 Select Data > Edit from the menu bar. The Select a Dataset dialog box
appears (see Figure 69).

Figure 69: Select a Dataset dialog box to edit

3 Choose the well and dataset that you wish to edit.


4 Click OK. The Edit Discrete Dataset dialog box appears (see Figure 70).

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Figure 70: Edit Discrete Dataset dialog box

5 In the spreadsheet program, highlight the portion of the first column of


data to be imported and then copy it onto the Windows clipboard using
CNTL-C or the Edit > Copy from the menu bar.
6 Go back to the Edit Discrete Dataset dialog box and to the desired
insertion point and click Paste.

NOTE: If there is existing valid data above and below the depth interval
of the data you wish to import, you will need to make room for the new data
by inserting rows in the existing PREDICT spreadsheet grid. For instance, if
you have data from 3000-10000 and from 11000-14000, you will need to
insert a sufficient number of rows in the PREDICT data grid to accommodate
the data from 10,000-11,000 that you wish to add. To do this, highlight the
interval where the new data will go and then click the Insert button in the
Edit Discrete Dataset dialog box. Repeat this for the number of rows required.
If you fail to do this, PREDICT will write over any existing data beginning at
the insertion point.

7 Repeat the operation with the second column of data in the spreadsheet.
After both columns of data have been pasted into the PREDICT data grid,
click OK. The PREDICT dataset will automatically update.
8 Repeat steps 2 to 7 for each dataset to be updated.

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Exporting a Dataset
If you need to export a dataset so that it can be used in other PREDICT or
external projects, use this facility.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Export. The Select Datasets for Export
dialog box appears (see Figure 71).

Figure 71: Select Datasets for Export dialog box

2 Select an export format:


ASCII (.asc) or (.txt)
LAS (.las)
DEX (.dxd)
Predict discrete dataset file (.dds)
Predict polygon dataset (.lds)
Predict lithology column file (.fds)
3 Select a dataset or datasets to be combined in the export.
4 Enter the depth range and choose a depth interval:
As Is - for data with unequally spaced depths such as MDT data.
Only one dataset can be exported at a time.

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Equally Spaced enter an interval at which the data will be created


and select the interpolation. You can export up to 10 datasets
together.

NOTE: For DEX format, at most one PP (pore pressure) dataset and/or
one FG (fracture gradient) dataset can be exported at a time.

5 Click OK.

Working with Datasets


Datasets in DrillWorks/PREDICT are collections of data that are either
imported into the system, created through analysis, or created manually by
the user.
In this version, the system supports three different types of datasets:
Discrete dataset (also referred to as just dataset) This is a collection of
any set of points referenced by a depth value and a data value. It is the
most common type of dataset in PREDICT and is usually imported into
the system or created through analysis. It can also be associated to RLGs
and annotations. For more information, see Working with Discrete
Datasets on page 82.
Lithology column datasets This type is created manually by the user. See
Working with Lithology Column Datasets on page 96.
Polygons This type is created manually by the user. See Working with
Polygon Datasets on page 101.
In this section, we learn how to modify and display datasets, as well as create
lithology column and polygon datasets. To create datasets for manual data
entry, see Creating a New Dataset By Data Entry, Other Dataset, or RLG on
page 83. To import datasets, refer to Importing Data from Files on page 75.
Creating datasets through analysis are covered in Chapter 5: Analyzing
Data on page 149. Making RLGs and annotations and associating them to
datasets are covered in Using RLGs with Datasets on page 124 and Using
Annotations with Datasets on page 134.

Working with Discrete Datasets


A discrete dataset is a collection of any set of points referenced by a depth
value and a data value and is the most common type of dataset in PREDICT.
It can contain anything from 1 point to 64k points of depth/data pairs. From
petrophysical logs and seismic data, to RFT data or casing points, all types of
depth-related data are stored as discrete datasets. A discrete dataset can have
data points which are equally or unequally spaced in a vertical direction.
Discrete datasets can be displayed as symbols, connected lines of unequal

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length, or a combination of symbols and lines. Discrete datasets are also


known as just datasets.
A discrete dataset can be created by
entering data points manually via the keyboard or basing it on an RLG or
other dataset (see Creating a New Dataset By Data Entry, Other Dataset,
or RLG on page 83).
importing data from an external file (see Importing Data from Files on
page 75).
an analysis routine in PREDICT (see Chapter 5: Analyzing Data on
page 149).
importing data in realtime (see Chapter 7: Real-time Analysis on
page 253).
A dataset created manually by data entry usually consists of data points that
have variable depth spacings, e.g., RFT, LOT or Casing Shoes. These can have
a third text field where labels can be written to be displayed at the relevant
data point. For more information, see Creating a New Dataset By Data
Entry, Other Dataset, or RLG on page 83. A dataset created by an analysis
routine or by import usually contains data points that are equally spaced and
the third text field will not have the available.
Datasets can also contain RLGs, or Reference Line Groups (see Using RLGs
with Datasets on page 124). You can also create annotations that allow you
to put in comments or notes about a particular dataset (see Using
Annotations with Datasets on page 134).
Discrete datasets can be exported and then imported into another well or
project. Datasets containing unequally spaced data can be exported as is to
retain the unequal spacing. This can also be done using the Windows Copy
and Paste functions rather than the PREDICT Export and Import function.
For more information, see Importing and Exporting Data on page 75.

Creating a New Dataset By Data Entry, Other


Dataset, or RLG
You can create a dataset from scratch by manually entering data or basing
it on a dataset or RLG in DrillWorks/PREDICT.
To create a new dataset for manual data entry:
1 From the menu bar, select Data > New Dataset. The Create a Dataset Step
1 dialog box appears (see Figure 72).

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Figure 72: Create a Dataset - Step 1 dialog box

2 Select an option:
None Create a new dataset not based on a data source.
A dataset Create a new dataset based on the data in an existing dataset.
If selected, choose the well and dataset name in the drop-down list boxes.
A RLG Create a new dataset based on an RLG. If selected, choose the
well, dataset name, RLG and interpolation (not mandatory).
3 Click Next. The Create a Dataset Step 2 dialog box appears (see Figure
73).

Figure 73: Create a Dataset - Step 2 dialog box

4 In the Dataset Name field, type the new name of the dataset.
5 In the Description, type a brief description of the dataset (not mandatory).

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6 In the Datatype list box, choose a datatype that will be assigned to this
dataset. For more information, see Defining Datatypes and Units on
page 34.
7 In the Unit list box, select the unit.
8 If desired, change the attributes of how the dataset should be displayed
by clicking the Change button.
9 Click Finish. The Edit a Dataset window appears (see Figure 74).

Figure 74: Edit a Dataset dialog box

10 At this point, you can enter or copy/paste data into the data entry grid.
11 Click OK when complete.

Editing Datasets
You can edit data in a dataset at a later time, if required.
To edit a dataset:
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Edit. The Select a Dataset dialog box
appears (see Figure 75).

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Figure 75: Select a Dataset dialog box for editing

2 Choose the well and dataset name from the list boxes.
3 Click OK. The Edit a Dataset window appears displaying the data entry
grid (see Figure 74). You can edit the data and click OK.

Appending New Data to Datasets


If you want to add data to an existing dataset, you can use this function. The
data that will be appended to an existing dataset must be in ASCII file format.
The necessity to append data at a later time could arise, for instance, if part of
the well was drilled prior to setting up DrillWorks/PREDICT or if data over
an interval was missed.
To append a dataset:
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Append. The Append ASCII Data
dialog box appears (see Figure 76).

Figure 76: Append ASCII Data dialog box

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2 Navigate through Windows to select the desired ASCII file and click
Open. The Select Datasets to Load dialog box appears (see Figure 77).

Figure 77: Select Datasets to Load dialog box (for appending)

3 Select the desired dataset(s).


4 Click Next. The Select a Dataset dialog box appears (see Figure 78).

Figure 78: Select a Dataset dialog box (for appending)

5 Choose the well and the dataset that you want the new data to append to.
6 Click Finish. If you want to check to see that the data appended, see
Editing Datasets on page 85.

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Averaging Datasets
You can average the values of up to 10 datasets together to form one dataset.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Average. The Average Dataset Step 1
dialog box is displayed (see Figure 79).

Figure 79: Average Datasets - Step 1 dialog box

2 Select two or more datasets from the Dataset list box by clicking and
pressing the Shift or CTRL keys. You can sort the list by clicking on the
column headers, for example, to group all datasets of similar datatype
together.
3 Click Next. The Average Datasets Step 2 dialog box is displayed (see
Figure 80).

Figure 80: Average Datasets - Step 2 dialog box

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4 Select the appropriate project well, enter a name for the new dataset, and
enter a description of the dataset (optional).
5 Select the appropriate datatype and unit (required), change attributes, if
desired, and click Finish to complete the creation of the new dataset.
6 Click OK. To display this dataset on the track, see Displaying Datasets
on the Track on page 94.

Making a Composite Dataset


If desired, you can combine up to four datasets to make one composite
dataset. You can specify depths of the values you want from the dataset, as
well as select the datatype, unit, and display attributes.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Composite. The Create a Dataset from
Multiple Datasets dialog box appears (see Figure 81).

Figure 81: Create a Dataset from Multiple Datasets

2 In the Well Name drop-down list box, select the well.


3 In the Dataset Name field, enter a name for the composite dataset.
4 Select the datatype, unit, and change the display attributes, if desired.
5 Click Change to select the color, line, and symbols and click OK.
6 Click the Filter button. The Datatype Filter dialog box appears.
7 Select the datatype(s) that will pull up all datasets using the specified
datatypes you want to display in the drop-down list boxes. Do this by
highlighting datatypes to the left and click Add to add them to the right
list box.
8 From the drop-down list boxes, select the datasets and the depths of the
values you wish to create the composite.

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9 Click OK. To display this dataset on the track, see Displaying Datasets
on the Track on page 94.

Filtering Datasets
In PREDICT, a filter smooths out data by averaging a given number of points
in the dataset and as a result, places a new data point for every average.
Therefore, it makes the dataset curve smoother since it filters out points that
are very high or low. The main purpose of using a filter is to remove
unnecessary noise or flukes in a curve.
In PREDICT, you can use three types of filters:
Boxcar filter (equal weight) see Using the Boxcar or Shrink Boxcar
Filter on page 90.
Shrinking Boxcar filter (equal weight) see Using the Boxcar or Shrink
Boxcar Filter on page 90.
Moving Weight Average see Using the Moving Weight Average on
page 93.

Using the Boxcar or Shrink Boxcar Filter


The Boxcar or Shrink Boxcar filters assume equal weight of all the data points.
The Boxcar filter averages a number of points specified in the Number of Filter
Points field. It places the average at the midpoint of the filter points set. For
example, if you specify 5 filter points, it will average every 5 data points and
place the averaged data value at the midpoint between the first through fifth
point (in this case, in the third data points place). Notice that the data points
1 and 2 are not displayed for this dataset since there are not two data points
below and two data points after the first and second data points. Throwing
out of data points occurs at the very beginning and end of the dataset.
The Shrink Boxcar filter also averages a number of points and places it at the
midpoint according to the number specified in the Number of Filter Points
field. However, instead of throwing out the data points that cannot be
averaged (because it doesnt have enough data points to do the filter as
specified in the Number of Filter Points field), it shrinks the number of filter
points in order to do the average. This is illustrated in the table below.

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Example:

APPLYING THE BOXCAR FILTER WITH 5 FILTER POINTS

Data point # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Data value 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.17 0.12 0.15 0.27 0.14 0.17 0.11

Averaged data X X 0.148 0.158 0.182 0.170 0.170 0.168 X X


value

Data points after The first two data points from the original dataset are thrown out, and the
filter first data point is 0.15 (the average of data point values 1 to 5), the second
is 0.16 (average of data point values 2 to 6), the third is the average
between data points 3 to 7, and so on until the number of filter points can
be averaged. Notice that data points 9 and 10 are unable to be filtered
using the traditional 5 point boxcar filter.

APPLYING THE SHRINK BOXCAR FILTER WITH 5 FILTER POINTS

Data point # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Data value 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.170 0.120 0.150 0.270 0.140 0.170 0.110

Averaged 0.100 0.150 0.148 0.158 0.182 0.170 0.170 0.170 0.168 0.110
data value

Data points The first data point is the first value of the dataset, the second data point is the
after filter average between the values of data points 1 and 3 (it allowed averaging of 3
filter point values, as opposed to only allowing 5 filter points), the third data
point begins using the traditional boxcar filter of 5 filter points (as explained in
the previous table), the fourth also uses the traditional boxcar filter, and so on.
Notice that points 9 and 10 are filled with a data value since data point 9 takes
the average of data point values 8 and 10 and point 10 is the value at point 10.

The boxcar filter function is used exclusively at the user's initiative. Some
examples of the many uses for this filter are:
separating shales from sands on SP and GR logs
creating Porosity Compaction profiles
determining normal compaction trends
extracting Sonic Events from DT logs.
To use the boxcar filter:
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Filter. The Filter a Dataset Step 1 dialog
box appears (see Figure 82).

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Figure 82: Filter a Dataset - Step 1

2 Choose either the Boxcar or Shrink Boxcar option and click Next. The
Filter a Dataset Step 2 dialog box appears (see Figure 83).

Figure 83: Filter a Dataset - Step 2

3 Select the well name and the dataset to be filtered.


4 In the Number of Filter Points field, enter an odd number between 3 to
1999 and click Next. The Filter a Dataset Step 3 dialog box appears (see
Figure 84).

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Figure 84: Filter a Dataset - Step 3

5 Enter the dataset name for the filtered dataset and a description
(optional), select a datatype and unit, and change the display attributes, if
desired.
6 Click Finish. To display the dataset, see Displaying Datasets on the
Track on page 94.

Using the Moving Weight Average


The Moving Weight Average filter is similar to a boxcar filter except it applies
weighted values for the number of data points specified for the filter points.
This is illustrated in the table below.

APPLYING THE MOVING WEIGHT AVERAGE FILTER WITH 5 FILTER POINTS

Data point # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Data value 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.17 0.12 0.15 0.27 0.14 0.17 0.11

Weight of data 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1
point

Averaged data X X 0.252 0.256 0.270 0.278 0.282 0.284 X X


value

Data points after The first data point is 0.252 (the value of data points 1 to 5 multiplied by
filter their weight and divided by 5), the second data point is 0.256 (the value of
data points 2 to 6 multiplied by their weight and divided by 5), and so on.

The MWA filter function is used exclusively at the user's initiative. Some
examples of the uses for this filter are:

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separating shales from sands on SP and GR logs


creating Porosity Compaction profiles
determining normal compaction trends
extracting Sonic Events from DT logs.
To use the moving weighted average filter:
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Filter. The Filter a Dataset Step 1 dialog
box appears (see Figure 85).

Figure 85: Filter a Dataset - Step 1 using Moving Weight Average

2 Choose either the Moving Weighted Average option and click Next. The
Filter a Dataset Step 2 dialog box appears (see Figure 83).
3 Select the well name and the dataset to be filtered.
4 In the Number of Filter Points field, enter an odd number between 3 to
1999.
5 In the Moving Weighted Average text box, type the weighted values for
the number of data points specified in the Number of Filter Points field.
Make sure you separate them by commas and click Next. The Filter a
Dataset Step 3 dialog box appears (see Figure 84).
6 Enter the dataset name for the filtered dataset and a description
(optional), select a datatype and unit, and change the display attributes, if
desired.
7 Click Finish. To display the dataset, see Displaying Datasets on the
Track on page 94.

Displaying Datasets on the Track


In order to view the datasets information, you have to display it on the track.

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For more information about changing the datasets attributes, see Displaying
and Modifying Dataset Attributes on page 116.

NOTE: When you add a library dataset to a track, it cannot be saved to the
project. It is only temporarily displayed on the track until you close
the project.

To display a dataset on the track:


1 Choose the track in which you wish the dataset to appear.
2 Right-click over the track (not on a curve). A pop-up menu appears.
3 Select Add Datasets from the menu. The Add Datasets to Track dialog
box appears (see Figure 86).

Figure 86: Add Datasets to Track dialog box

4 Choose the type of dataset, well, and dataset name and click OK. Notice
that the dataset appears in the track with the attributes you specified for
that dataset (for example, the GR dataset appears in blue since you chose
it to appear as a blue line).

NOTE: In order for the dataset to be the active dataset, the dataset
name should be displayed in the Legend window (white area on bottom of
track). Use the NextDS button to scroll through the dataset names in the Leg-
end (if more than one). Active datasets are important when creating RLGs
and annotations. In addition, datasets with zero or negative values cannot be
displayed. Delete those values by using the edit dataset function (see Editing
Datasets on page 85).

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Displaying the Last Dataset


To save time, you can add the last discrete dataset you created without
having to select it from the list.
1 Choose the track in which you wish the dataset to appear.
2 Right-click over the track (not on a curve). A pop-up menu appears.
3 Select Add Last Dataset from the menu. The last dataset that you created
appears on the track.

Removing Datasets on the Track


Removing datasets only takes them out of the track, but does not delete the
selected datasets from the project.
1 You can either right-click over the curve or symbol that represents the
desired dataset or right-click anywhere else on the track. Hint: You can
use the Legend and click NextDS to see which and how datasets are
represented.
2 Select Remove (if on the curve or symbol) or Remove Datasets (if not on
the curve or symbol).
3 If you right-clicked outside of the curve or symbol, the Remove Datasets
dialog box appears. Select the dataset you want to remove from the track
and click OK.
4 Notice that the curve or symbol is removed.

NOTE: Doing this only removes the datasets from the track, not from the
system.

Working with Lithology Column


Datasets
A lithology column is a feature that models the stratigraphical column for a
well. It includes lithology patterns and colors, as well as geological ages and
formation names.

Creating a Lithology Column


1 From the menu bar, select Data > Lithology Column > New. The Create
New Lithology Column dialog box appears (see Figure 87).

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Figure 87: Create a New Lithology Column dialog box showing


General Info. tab

2 In the Name and Description fields in the General Information tab, enter
the name and description of the lithology column.
3 In the Associated Well drop-down list box, select the well name with
which this lithology column is to be associated.
4 In the Track Start Position field, enter the location of the lithology column
by specifying the % of the track width starting from the left edge of the
track. This is where the lithology column will begin.
5 In the Lithology Column Display Width field, enter the width of the
Lithology Column, in % track width from the specified start position.
6 In the Age Display Width field, enter the width of the display for
Geological Age, in % of width of a single track.
7 Check any of the boxes if you want to display the formation name text,
geological age column and/or vertical text of geological age.
8 Click the Lithology Column tab (see Figure 88).

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Figure 88: Create a New Lithology Column dialog box, Lithology


Column tab

9 In the Name and Description fields, enter the name of the lithology
column unit and a description if desired.
10 In the Start and End Depth fields, enter start and end depths for this unit
in this well.
11 In the Geological Age and Lithology drop-down list boxes, select
geological age (e.g., Holocene) and lithology (e.g., blue).
12 If the geological age and/or lithology that you require are not available in
the drop-down list boxes, cancel this action by clicking Cancel, and create
the required geological age and/or lithology defaults via the Defaults
function first. See Creating or Editing a Geological Age on page 99.
13 Click Add to add this unit to the lithology column.
14 Repeat steps In the Name and Description fields, enter the name of the
lithology column unit and a description if desired. to Click Add to add
this unit to the lithology column. as often as needed to build up the
lithology column.
15 Click OK when finished.
16 To display the lithology column dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on
the Track on page 94. The following picture depicts how a lithology
column should appear (see Figure 89).

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lithology column

Figure 89: Lithology column on the track

Creating or Editing a Geological Age


The lithology column dataset contains a set of pre-defined geological ages, with
names and bit map pictures to represent a stratigraphic column for a well
location. The definitions of geological ages can be created, edited, or deleted
as desired in PREDICT. See Geological Age Display Attributes on page 40.

Editing a Lithology Column


1 From the menu bar, select Data > Lithology > Edit. The Select a Dataset
dialog box appears (see Figure 90).

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Figure 90: Select a Dataset dialog box

2 In the Wells list box, select the well that contains the lithology column.
3 Select the lithology column name in the Dataset list box.
4 Click OK. The Edit a Formation Column dialog box appears (see Figure
91).

Figure 91: Edit a Formation Column dialog box

5 Click the Lithology Column tab.


6 Choose a line item in the list box on the bottom of the window.
7 Edit any of the information in any of the fields and click the Edit button.
8 Click OK to save changes.

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Working with Polygon Datasets


Polygon datasets are geometrically shaped and can be used to mark or shade
tracks in order to enhance something on display. The other primary purpose
for making polygons is to build lithology columns in different shapes other
than rectangular since you can freely create the shape of the polygon. The
polygon may have up to 50 vertices.

Creating Polygon Datasets


1 In the desired track, right-click anywhere except for on a curve. The pop-
up menu appears.
2 Select Polygon > New in the menu. The New Polygon Dataset dialog box
appears (see Figure 92).

Figure 92: New Polygon Dataset dialog box

3 Select the well and enter a name for the polygon.


4 Click OK. The Create Polygon Dataset dialog box appears. Keep this
dialog box open as you draw your polygon (see Figure 93).

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Figure 93: Create Polygon Dataset dialog box

5 Make sure that the Add option is selected and choose a lithology pattern.
6 On the track that you right-clicked on, click and drag from the first point
to the next and continue to click other points and drag to form the shape
of the polygon.
7 Click Close Polygon.

Editing Polygon Datasets


Once the polygon shape is made, the only thing you can really edit is the
lithology pattern. If you need to change the shape, you have to delete the
polygon and begin again. To delete a polygon dataset, see Deleting Polygon
Datasets on page 103.
1 Right click over the polygon on the track. The pop-up menu appears.
2 Choose Polygon > Edit. The Edit Polygon Dataset dialog box appears (see
Figure 94).

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Figure 94: Edit Polygon Dataset dialog box

3 Choose the name of the polygon from the list.


4 Choose the Change option.
5 Choose a new lithology pattern and click OK. Notice that the polygon
changes to the pattern specified.

Deleting Polygon Datasets


1 Right click over the polygon on the track. The pop-up menu appears.
2 Choose Polygon > Edit. The Edit Polygon Dataset dialog box appears (see
Figure 94).
3 Choose the name of the polygon from the list.
4 Choose the Delete option.
5 Click OK. Notice that the polygon is deleted from the track.
Deleting datasets can also be done using Data > Delete. Also see Deleting
Datasets on page 120.

Comparing Datasets (Cross Plots)


For the purpose of ascertaining relationships between datasets, you can
compare two different datasets that have a relationship using depth as the
common dominator. For example, you can compare RHOB (Density) to your
DT dataset to find the RHOB for the DT at that specific depth.
When you compare datasets, one dataset is plotted on the x-axis and the other
dataset is plotted on the y-axis. PREDICT takes the values of both datasets
and plots them on the graph according to the value of the y dataset and the
value of the x dataset at a particular depth.
To compare datasets, follow this procedure:

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Create a cross plot view (see Creating a Cross Plot View on page 104).
Display the cross plot view (see Displaying the Cross Plot View on
page 105).
Add the x and y axes datasets to the graph (see Adding a Dataset for the
X or Y Axes on page 106).

Creating a Cross Plot View


First, create the cross plot view in order to store it in the system.
1 From the menu bar, select View > Cross Plot View. The screen becomes
blank (see Figure 95).

Figure 95: Cross Plot View mode

2 From the menu bar, select View > New. The Create Cross Plot dialog box
appears (see Figure 96).

Figure 96: Create Cross Plot dialog box

3 In the Cross Plot Name field, enter a name.


4 Select either Linear or Log for the horizontal and vertical scales.

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5 Click OK. You return to the blank screen. In order to display the cross
plot view, refer to Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.

Displaying the Cross Plot View


After creating the cross plot view, you have to display it on the screen.
1 From the menu bar, select View > Open. The Select a Cross Plot dialog
box appears (see Figure 97).

Figure 97: Select a Cross Plot dialog box

2 Select the cross plot dataset name.


3 Click OK. A blank grid appears (see Figure 98). You can then continue to
add the datasets for the x and y axes. See Adding a Dataset for the X or Y
Axes on page 106.

Figure 98: Blank Cross Plot

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Adding a Dataset for the X or Y Axes


1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
3 Select either X Axis Dataset or Y Axis Dataset from the menu. A dialog
box appears (see Figure 99).

Figure 99: Add Dataset to X AXIS dialog box

4 Select a well and a dataset. Click OK. Notice that a label with the datasets
name on the axis appears.
5 Repeat for the other axis. Notice that data points on the grid appear
which represent values of the two datasets (see Figure 100).

Figure 100: Cross plot of two datasets

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Changing Horizontal Scale for the X or Y Axes


1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
3 Select either X Axis Scale or Y Axis Scale from the menu. A dialog box
appears (see Figure 101).

Figure 101: Log Scale dialog box for cross plots

4 You can choose whether you want the scroll bar in the Lower and Upper
Limit fields to move together.
5 Scroll the bar in the Lower and/or Upper Limit bars to adjust the limit of
which dataset values are displayed. Alternatively, you can enter the
numbers in the fields to the right of the scroll bar.
6 Click OK. Notice that there is a shift on the grid which displays the value
data points.

Switching Between Log and Linear


If you want to switch from a log to a linear or vice versa, you can change it
after you have added the dataset.
1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Make sure that you added the two datasets to the axes. If not, see
Adding a Dataset for the X or Y Axes on page 106.
3 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
4 Select Switch (X or Y) Axis to (Log or Linear). Notice that the grid changes
scale.

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Creating or Editing a New Depth Reference


After viewing the cross plots of the two datasets, it may be useful to
approximately see which of the cross plots are for what depths. You can
create a depth reference to color the cross plots that are for a given depth
range.
1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Make sure that you added the two datasets to the axes. If not, see
Adding a Dataset for the X or Y Axes on page 106.
3 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
4 Select New Depth Reference from the menu. The Cross Plot Depth Range
Legend window appears (see Figure 102).

Figure 102: Cross Plot Depth Range Legend dialog box

5 Click Add to add a new depth or Edit to edit an existing one.


6 If adding, the Add Cross Plot Legend appears (see Figure 103). Enter the
first depth in the From field and the last depth for the range in the To
field.

Figure 103: Add Cross Plot Legend dialog box

7 In the Attributes field, click Change to modify how the depth will be
represented.
8 Select color, line, and/or symbol.
9 Click OK. You return to the Cross Plot Depth Range Legend window.

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10 If needed, you can delete a depth ranges by selecting it in the list box and
clicking Delete.
11 Click OK. Notice that the data points display the attributes you chose for
the values that are in the given depth and that the depth range
information appears in the Legend to the right of the graph.

Creating or Editing a New Dataset Reference


When you create a new dataset reference for the cross plots, it shows all of the
data points for the depths at which the dataset reference criteria (data range)
are satisfied. For example, on a cross plot of PP and FG, we choose GR as the
dataset reference and we want GR values between a range of 0 and 60 api.
The dataset reference will indicate, using the specified display attributes, all
the PP/FG points which coincide with a depth at which the GR values are
within 0 to 60 api.
To create or edit a new dataset reference:
1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Make sure that you added the two datasets to the axes. If not, see
Adding a Dataset for the X or Y Axes on page 106.
3 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
4 Choose New Dataset Reference from the menu. The Cross Plot Legend
window appears (see Figure 104).

Figure 104: Cross Plot Legend dialog box

5 Select the well and the dataset that you want to use as a reference.
6 Click Add on the bottom right of the window. The Add Cross Plot
Legend dialog box appears (see Figure 105).

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Figure 105: Add Cross Plot Legend dialog box

7 Enter the value range of referenced dataset. For values fitting this range
in the referenced dataset, the corresponding depths will be used when
plotting the other two datasets.
8 If desired, change the display attributes (colors, line and/or symbols) by
clicking on Change and then clicking OK.
9 Click OK. You return to the Cross Plot Legend window.
10 To edit or delete any of the line items in the list box, select it and press
Edit or Delete. If editing, the Add Cross Plot Legend appears for you to
make the changes. Click OK.
11 Click OK. Notice that the referenced data points appear with the display
attributes that you specified and that the referenced dataset information
appears in the Legend to the right of the graph (see Figure 106).

Figure 106: Legend window in Cross Plot view

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Creating Lines on the Cross Plot


If you want to draw a line in the cross plot graph, you can use this function.
1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Make sure that you added the two datasets to the axes. If not, see
Adding a Dataset for the X or Y Axes on page 106.
3 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
4 Select New Line in the menu. The Create a New Curve Fit Line dialog box
appears and displays instructions on how to draw the line (see Figure
107).

Figure 107: Create a New Curve Fit Line dialog box

5 Follow the instructions to draw the line and click OK. The Create a Curve
Fit dialog box appears (see Figure 108).

Figure 108: Create a Curve Fit dialog box

6 In the Curve Fit Name box, enter a name for the line.
7 If desired, click the Change button to change the appearance of the lines
color, shape, and/or symbol and click OK.
8 Click OK. Notice that a line appears on the graph.

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Deleting Lines on the Cross Plot


You can either remove lines from the screen (but still remain in the system) or
delete lines from the system. If you remove lines, you can also add those back
to the system.

Removing Lines
Removing lines only takes them out of display. They still remain in the
system and can be added back to display. For more information, see Adding
Lines that Were Removed on page 113.
1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
3 Select Remove Line from the menu. The Select a Curve Fit to Remove
dialog box appears (see Figure 109).

Figure 109: Select a Curve Fit to Remove dialog box

4 Choose the curve fit name (or line) from the list box.
5 Click OK. Notice that the lines disappear.

Deleting Lines
Deleting lines removes the lines from the display and system.
1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
3 Select Delete Line from the menu. The Select a Curve Fit to Delete dialog
box appears (see Figure 110).

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Figure 110: Select a Curve Fit to Delete dialog box

4 Choose the curve fit name (or line) from the list box.
5 Click OK. Notice that the lines disappear.

Adding Lines that Were Removed


If you have removed lines from display, you can add the lines back on
display.
1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
3 Select Add Line from the menu. The Select a Curve Fit to Add dialog box
appears (see Figure 111).

Figure 111: Select a Curve Fit to Add dialog box

4 Choose the curve fit name (or line) from the list box.
5 Click OK. Notice that the line is added back on display.

Zooming In/Out on the Cross Plot


You can take a closer view of an area by using the zoom in function. To
expand the view, you can use the zoom out function.

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1 Make sure that you have the desired cross plot view on screen. If not, see
Displaying the Cross Plot View on page 105.
2 Right-click anywhere on the screen. A pop-up menu appears.
3 To zoom in, select Zoom In. A dialog box is displayed (see Figure 112)
showing instructions on how to select the area to zoom in on. Click OK.

Figure 112: Zoom In dialog box

4 To zoom out, select Zoom Out.


5 Notice how the grid adjusts.

Editing Active Datasets


This facility allows you to cut, copy, and paste dataset values directly on the
curve in track view. You can also enable or disable interactive computing for
the selected dataset.
1 Make sure that the dataset you want to edit is the active dataset. (The
dataset that is displayed in the Legend window on the bottom of the track
is the active dataset.) If it isnt displayed, click NextDS until the name is
shown.
2 On the track, right-click over or outside the curve. A pop-up menu is
displayed.
3 Select either Edit (if on the curve) or Edit Active Dataset (if outside the
curve). The Edit Dataset dialog box is displayed (see Figure 113).

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Figure 113: Edit a Dataset dialog box

4 Select one of the following options:


Cut cuts the selected portion of data values from the dataset and
places it in memory to be pasted to another location. The area from
where you cut will contain no data and display a diagonal line.
Copy copies the selected portion of data values from the dataset
and places it in memory to be pasted to another location.
Paste pastes the selected portion of data values that was saved to
memory to a specified location.
Fill Constant fills the selected area with a constant or same value
from one point to another. The area you fill will display a straight
vertical line.
5 To enable interactive computing, check the Enable Interactive Computing
box. For more information, see Interactive Computing on page 145.
6 Choose the area you want to edit by clicking on the curve and dragging it
to the next point.
7 If you need to paste, select Paste and select the new area.
8 Click OK. Notice that the curve adjusts to the new changes.

Displaying Dataset Properties


You can view the properties of all the discrete datasets you created in the
system. It displays information such as name, datatype, and unit. In the same
dialog box, you can make some changes and apply it to the dataset.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Properties. The Dataset Properties
dialog box appears (see Figure 114).

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Figure 114: Dataset Properties dialog box

2 From the list box on the left, select a dataset name. Notice that the
selected datasets information is displayed to the right of the list box.
3 You can view or change any of the information in the fields to the right of
the list box.
4 Click OK after viewing the information or Apply after making the
changes.

Displaying and Modifying Dataset


Attributes
You can view and modify dataset attributes that determine how the dataset
appears. Datasets can be represented as lines (or curves), points, or symbols
with different colors and shapes.
To display and modify dataset attributes:
1 Right-click over the track where the dataset is located (on or not on the
curve). A pop-up menu appears.
2 Select either Dataset Attributes (if not on the curve) or Attributes (if on
the curve). The Dataset Attributes window appears (see Figure 115).

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Figure 115: Dataset Attributes dialog box

3 Change any of the display attributes, i.e., color, line, symbol, and/or text
display.
4 Click OK.

Changing Linear or Log Scales for


Datasets
You can change the linear or log scale by specifying the upper and lower
limits for a particular dataset. The linear and log scales appears in the Legend
window located on the bottom of the track.
1 On the track, right-click either on the curve of the active dataset or
outside the curve. The pop-up menu appears.
2 Select either Scales (if on the curve) or Dataset Scales (if outside the
curve). The Linear or Log Scale dialog box appears (see Figure 116 and
Figure 117).

Figure 116: Linear Scale dialog box

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Figure 117: Linear Scale dialog box

3 (Linear tracks only) If you right-clicked outside the curve, select the
dataset name that should have the linear scales adjusted.
4 (Linear tracks only) Check the Scroll Both Scroll Bars at the Same Time
option if you want the Lower Limit and Upper Limit scroll bars to move
together.
5 Choose the Lower Limit and/or the Upper Limit to the desired minimum
and maximum values on the scale that should be displayed.
6 Click OK. Notice that the linear or log scale for the selected datasets
adjusts to the new changes.

Displaying Dataset Parameters


Dataset parameters describe the different variables in the dataset such as the
depth reference level, number of valid data, top/bottom depth values, etc.
There are two classes of parameters for datasets: source parameters and
statistical parameters. These provide a way of tracking the work done to
create a dataset. For example, for a PP dataset it should look something like
this:
Analysis Method: Eaton Pore Pressure (sonic)
Well Name: 6507/5-3 Snadd
Dataset Name: PP maximum
Datatype: PP
Porosity Trend Dataset: DT twt
Normal Trend Line: ntl psdt
Normal Pore Pressure: 1.03 g/cc
Depth of The Most Shallow Valid Data: 500.00
OBG dataset: OBG avg for Donna Terrace
Eaton Exponent: 3.00
Number of Valid Data: 41
Number of Missing Data: 0

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Minimum Value: 0.972


Maximum Value: 1.740
Mean: 1.363
Standard Deviation: 0.216
Top: 442.000
Bottom: 4000.000
Total RLGs: 0
To display dataset parameters:
1 On the track, right-click anywhere (on or not on the curve).
2 From the menu, select either Dataset Parameters (if not on the curve) or
Parameters (if on the curve). The Parameters dialog box appears (see
Figure 118).

Figure 118: Parameters dialog box

3 Select the dataset you desire in the left list box. The parameters for that
dataset appear in the right box.
4 Click Close after viewing.

NOTE: Sometimes datasets created by a UDM/UDP on a different com-


puter may not show the parameters correctly.

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Deleting Datasets
You can delete datasets from any of the three different types of datasets:
discrete, lithology column, or polygon. This deletes the datasets from the
project you are working on. Please note that this operation cannot be undone.

NOTE: Whenever a dataset is deleted, its associated RLGs are also


deleted. If you want to save an RLG, convert it to a dataset (see Creating a
New Dataset By Data Entry, Other Dataset, or RLG on page 83).

1 From the menu bar, select Data > Delete. The Select Dataset to Delete
dialog box appears (see Figure 119).

Figure 119: Select Datasets to Delete dialog box

2 Choose whether the dataset is discrete, lithology column, or a polygon.


The datasets created for the selected type are displayed in the list boxes
below.
3 Select the well and the dataset to delete.
4 Click OK. The dataset is deleted from the system.
To delete the dataset from the track:
1 Make sure that the dataset is active on the track (that is, the dataset is
displayed in the Legend).
2 Right-click over the curve of the dataset. The pop-up menu appears.
3 Choose Delete from the menu. The system prompts whether you really
want to delete the dataset. Click Yes. The dataset is deleted.

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Using Library Datasets


The library is a repository of datasets that are usually specific to a
geographical area and/or a geological age. Library datasets can be accessed
from any PREDICT project on the same machine. It saves you time from
importing the same datasets used for reference to every project you work on.
It normally contains such data as regional overburden gradients, matrix
stress, etc which can be used in the analysis functions that determine pore
pressure and fracture gradient. However, any data can be stored there.
When you add a library dataset to a track, it cannot be saved to the project. It
can only be temporarily displayed on the track and used for reference.

Creating a Library Dataset


You can create a new library dataset from scratch by manually entering
data or basing it on a dataset or RLG in DrillWorks/PREDICT.
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > New Library Dataset. The Create a
Dataset Step 1 dialog box appears (see Figure 120).

Figure 120: Create a Dataset - Step 1 dialog box (Library)

2 Select an option:
None create a new dataset not based on a data source.
A dataset create a new dataset based on the data in an existing dataset. If
selected, choose the well and dataset name in the drop-down list boxes.
An RLG create a new dataset based on the dataset an RLG is associated
to. If selected, choose the well, dataset name, RLG and interpolation (not
mandatory).

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3 Click Next. The Create a Dataset Step 2 dialog box appears (see Figure
121). Notice that the well name says Library.

Figure 121: Create a Dataset - Step 2 dialog box (Library)

4 In the Dataset Name field, type the new name of the dataset.
5 In the Description, type a brief description of the dataset.
6 In the Datatype list box, choose a datatype that will be assigned to this
dataset. For more information, see Defining Datatypes and Units on
page 34.
7 In the Unit list box, select the unit.
8 If desired, change the attributes of how the dataset should be displayed
by clicking the Change button.
9 Click Finish. The Edit a Dataset window appears (see Figure 122).

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Figure 122: Edit a Dataset dialog box (creating a Library dataset)

10 At this point, you can enter or copy/paste data into the data entry grid.
11 Click OK when complete.

Editing a Library Dataset


1 From the menu bar, select Tools > Edit Library Dataset. The Edit Library
Curve dialog box appears (see Figure 123).

Figure 123: Edit Library Curve dialog box

2 Select the library dataset from the list box.

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3 Click OK. The Edit Library Curve dialog box appears (see Figure 124).

Figure 124: Edit Library Curve dialog box

4 Make the changes.


5 Click OK.

Deleting a Library Dataset


1 From the menu bar, select Tools > Delete Library Dataset. The Edit
Library Curve dialog box appears (see Figure 123).
2 Select the library dataset from the list box.
3 Click OK. A dialog box prompts whether you really want to delete the
item.
4 Click Yes. The dataset is deleted.

Using RLGs with Datasets


A reference line group (RLG) can be a collection of lines or a line (curve)
associated with a specific dataset. It typically indicates some interpreted
property of that dataset.
Many of the analysis functions use RLGs. An RLG can be used to indicate a
normal compaction trend, discriminate shale, and create formation
correlation lines. A dataset can have many RLGs associated with it but an
RLG can be associated with only one dataset. An RLG can be transformed

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into a discrete dataset, see Creating a New Dataset By Data Entry, Other
Dataset, or RLG on page 83.
There are two methods for creating an RLG depending on your situation:
1 Create an RLG based on manual key data entry, another dataset, or from
an exported RLG file. Refer to Creating an RLG from scratch on
page 125.
2 Create an RLG based on the active dataset on track and by using your
mouse to physically draw the lines on the track. Refer to Creating an
RLG Based on the Active Dataset on the Track on page 127.

NOTE: Whenever a dataset is deleted, its associated RLGs are also


deleted.

Creating an RLG from scratch


This method allows you to create an RLG from scratch by allowing you to
enter the data via a spreadsheet. You can also obtain data for the RLG from
another dataset, RLG, or RLG file.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > RLG > New. The New RLG Source
dialog box appears (see Figure 125).

Figure 125: New RLG Source dialog box

2 Select an option:
None contains no previous data and allows you to manually enter
the RLG data in a spreadsheet-like grid.
A Dataset allows you to obtain data from another dataset in the
project

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An RLG allows you to obtain data from another RLG in the project
An Exported RLG File allows you to obtain data from an RLG file
that was exported from another project.
3 Click Next (see Figure 126).

Figure 126: Create an RLG dialog box (RLG based on data entry)

4 Choose the well and dataset that you associate the new RLG to.
5 In the RLG Name field, enter a new name for the RLG.
6 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button to
change the color, line, and/or symbol.
7 Click Next (see Figure 127).

Figure 127: Edit an RLG dialog box (RLG based on data entry)

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8 The data grid is displayed. Depending on the option chosen in step 2, the
grid either contains no data or has data already displayed.
9 Enter more data in the data grid or leave it as is and click Finish.
10 To display the RLG on the track, refer to Displaying Datasets on the
Track on page 94.

Creating an RLG Based on the Active Dataset


on the Track
This method allows you to create an RLG based on the active dataset
currently displayed on the track. You can then use your mouse to draw the
lines which will be saved as the RLG.
1 Make sure that the dataset that you want to base the RLG on is displayed
in the track and is the active dataset. If not, see Displaying Datasets on
the Track on page 94.
2 On the track, right-click on a curve or outside the curve. A pop-up menu
appears.
3 From the menu, either select Add Lines (if on a curve) or Lines > New (if
outside a curve). The Create an RLG dialog box appears (see Figure 128).

Figure 128: Create an RLG dialog box

4 In the RLG Name field, enter the name for the RLG.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can change the color, line, and/or symbol and click OK.
6 Click OK. The Create Line Group dialog box appears (see Figure 129).

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Figure 129: Create Line Group dialog box

7 Make sure that the Add option is selected and keep this dialog box open
while you draw the line(s).
8 You can also use the following options:
Check the Use Least Square Interpretation to draw the lines using a
least square fit function.
Check the Enable Interactive Computing if you want other curves to
recalculate its analyses based on the new location of the curve.
Interactive computing is a process whereby datasets affected by
editing a shale baseline RLG or a normal compaction trend RLG are
recalculated whenever the RLG is edited. The recalculation affects
shale points, hardwired pore pressures and fracture gradients, and
any User Defined Methods that depend upon a shale baseline or a
compaction trend RLG.
9 Click and drag the line over the track, keeping in mind of the depth at
which you start.
10 When finished, click OK in the dialog box.

Editing an RLGs Data in the Data Grid


You can edit the values of the RLGs that have been entered manually in the
data grid, imported, or based on other RLGs and datasets. This is an alternate
to editing the RLG by using your mouse and moving the curve.
1 From the menu, select Data > RLG > Edit. The Edit an RLG dialog box
appears (see Figure 130).

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Figure 130: Edit an RLG dialog box.

2 Select a well, dataset that the RLG was based on and the RLG in the drop-
down list boxes. Notice that the values appear in the data grid.
3 Make the changes and click Apply and/or OK to accept the modification.

Editing an RLG Using a Mouse


You can edit the RLG directly on the track by using your mouse to move or
change the line.
1 On the track, right-click. A pop-up menu appears.
2 From the menu, either select Edit (if you right-clicked over a curve) or
Lines > Edit (if you right-clicked anywhere outside the curve). The Edit
Line Group dialog box appears (see Figure 130).
3 You can use the following options to edit the line (or curve):
To move the end points to another location, select the Move and
Point option in the dialog box and click and drag the end point with
your mouse.
To shift the entire line while keeping its slope, select the Translate
option and click and drag the entire line to the new location.
Check the Use Least Square Interpretation to draw the lines using a
least square fit function. The least squares fit will only occur for the
interval in which the left mouse button is held down.
Check the Enable Interactive Computing if you want other curves to
recalculate its analyses based on the new location of the curve.
Interactive computing is a process whereby datasets affected by
editing a shale baseline RLG or a normal compaction trend RLG are

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recalculated whenever the RLG is edited. The recalculation affects


shale points, hardwired pore pressures and fracture gradients, and
any User Defined Methods that depend upon a shale baseline or a
compaction trend RLG.
4 Click OK.

Removing an RLG from Display


Removing an RLG from display takes it out of the track, but the RLG still
remains in the project.
1 On the track, right-click using your mouse. A pop-up menu appears.
2 From the menu, either select Remove (if you right-clicked over the curve)
or Lines > Remove (if you right-clicked anywhere outside the curve).
3 Select the RLG name in the list box (if it is the Remove RLG Attributes
dialog box) and click OK.
4 Notice how the RLG is taken off the display.

Deleting an RLG
You can delete the RLG from your project.

Deleting an RLG from the System via the Track Menu


This will remove the line from display and delete it from the system. This is
one of two ways to delete a line.
1 On the track, right-click anywhere except for on a curve. A pop-menu
appears.
2 From the menu, select Lines > Delete. The Delete Line Group dialog box
appears (see Figure 131).

Figure 131: Delete Line Group

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3 Select the RLG you want to delete in the list box.


4 Click OK.

Deleting an RLG from the System via the Data Menu


This will remove the line from display and delete it from the system. This is
one of two ways to delete a line.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > RLG > Delete. The Delete an RLG
dialog box appears (see Figure 132).

Figure 132: Delete an RLG dialog box

2 Select the well, dataset that the RLG is associated with, and the RLG in
the list box.
3 Click OK. The RLG is removed from the display and system.

Displaying the RLG on the Track


After creating the RLG based on manual data entry, RLG, dataset or RLG file,
you can then display the line on the track.
1 Make sure that the dataset associated to the RLG is the active dataset on
the track. (Hint: If the dataset appears in the Legend window, it is the
active dataset. If not, press the NextDS button until the desired dataset
appears).
2 Right-click on or outside the curve of the active dataset. A pop-up menu
appears.
3 From the menu, select Add Line (if on the curve) or Lines > Add (if
outside the curve). The Add RLG to Track dialog box appears (see Figure
133).

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Figure 133: Add RLG to Track dialog box

4 Select the RLG name you previously created in the list box.
5 Click OK. Notice that the RLG appears on the track.

Viewing RLG Properties


You can view the dataset and well that the RLG is associated to and change or
view the display attributes of how it appears on screen.
1 On the track, right-click. A pop-menu appears.
2 From the menu, either select Lines > Properties (if you right-clicked
somewhere outside the line) or Properties (if you right-clicked on the
line). The Change RLG Attributes or Attributes dialog box appears (see
Figure 134).

Figure 134: Attributes list box showing the RLGs properties

3 Select the RLG name in the list box (if it is the Change RLG Attributes
dialog box).
4 Notice the Well Name, Dataset Name (if it is the Change RLG Attributes
dialog box) and Display Attributes information.
5 To change the display attributes, click the Change button to change color,
lines, and or symbol of the RLG.

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6 Click OK.

Exporting RLGs
If you intend to use an RLG in other projects, you can export the RLG and
save it as an RLG file.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > RLG > Export. The Export an RLG
dialog box appears (see Figure 135).

Figure 135: Export an RLG dialog box

2 Select the well, the dataset the RLG is associated to, and the RLG in the
list box.
3 Click OK. The Save As dialog box appears (see Figure 136).

Figure 136: Saving the exported file

4 Navigate through Windows to find the folder to where you want to save
the RLG file.
5 In the File Name field, enter a file name for the RLG.

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6 Click OK. The RLG is now exported to the file specified. Keep note of the
file path for later retrieval into other projects.

NOTE: An RLG with overlapping line segments will not export properly.
Edit the line to remove overlapping segments before exporting.

Using Annotations with Datasets


An annotation is a user specified narrative displayed on a track. Annotations
can be used to describe the track and to identify a dataset displayed on the
track. The text and the background of the annotation can be one of 20 colors.
You can select fonts, font types, and font size. The size of an annotation
depends on the width of the track in which it is displayed but each line can
have no more than 40 characters. There is no theoretical limit to the number of
lines.
An annotation, like an RLG, is associated with a dataset.

Creating an Annotation
1 Make sure that the dataset you want to base the annotation on is
displayed in the track and is the active dataset. If not, see Displaying
Datasets on the Track on page 94.
2 On the track, right-click anywhere except on a curve. A pop-menu
appears.
3 From the menu, select Annotations > New. The Create New Annotation
dialog box appears (see Figure 137).

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Figure 137: Create New Annotation dialog box

4 In the Annotation Name field, enter the name for the annotation (not the
text that will be displayed in the annotation).
5 Choose the display attributes in the drop-down list boxes or click the
Change button: Foreground Color, Background Color, Font, and/or
Border Style.
6 Click OK. The Create Annotation dialog box appears (see Figure 138).

Figure 138: Create Annotation dialog box for editing

7 Make sure the Add Annotation option is selected.


8 Click once on the track screen. Notice that a white box appears.
9 Click once more in the white box to place the cursor in it. You can now
type the annotation in the box (see Figure 139).

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Figure 139: Sample annotation

10 When finished, click OK in the Create Annotation dialog box. Notice how
the annotation appears in the track (see Figure 140).

NOTE: It is possible to create additional annotation boxes under the


same annotation name by clicking outside the current annotation box.

annotation

Figure 140: Annotations displayed on the track

Editing an Annotation
1 On the track, right-click anywhere except on a curve. A pop-menu
appears.
2 From the menu, select Annotations > Edit. The Edit Annotation Space
dialog box appears (see Figure 141).

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Figure 141: Edit Annotation Space dialog box

3 Select one of the options:


Choose the Modify Annotation option to change the text and click
within the annotations textbox and make the necessary changes.
Choose the Move Annotation option and click on the annotations
text box and drag it to the new location.
Choose the Delete Annotation option to delete an annotation box.
Note: This only deletes a selected annotation box that is part of a
group of annotations under the same name.
Choose the Copy Annotation, click on the annotation box you wish to
duplicate, and drag it to the desired location using the mouse.
4 Click OK.

Deleting an Annotation
This function deletes the annotation from the project.
1 On the track, right-click anywhere except on a curve. A pop-up menu
appears.
2 From the menu, select Annotations > Delete. The Delete an Annotation
dialog box appears (see Figure 142).

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Figure 142: Delete an Annotation dialog box

3 Select the annotation you want to delete in the list box.


4 Click OK. The annotation is deleted from the system.

Using Color and Shading with Datasets


You can shade areas on a track between two datasets or between a dataset
and one edge of the track.
To use shading:
1 On the track, right-click anywhere except on a curve. A pop-menu
appears.
2 From the menu, select Shade Datasets. The Dataset Shading dialog box
appears (see Figure 143).

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Figure 143: Dataset Shading dialog box

3 Select the first dataset in the Dataset A list box.


4 If required, select the second dataset in the Dataset B list box.
5 In the Shading Pattern list box, select the color/pattern.
6 You can choose one of the following options:
From A to right margin Shade between dataset A and the right edge
of the track.
From left margin to A - Shade between the left edge of the track and
dataset A.
A > B Shade between datasets A and B only when dataset A has a
value greater than dataset B. In the list boxes, specify the names of the
datasets to be considered as dataset A and dataset B.
B > A - Shade between datasets A and B only when dataset B has a
value greater than dataset A. In the list boxes, specify the names of
the datasets to be considered as dataset A and dataset B.
Between A and B Shade all areas between datasets A and B.
Reset shading This allows you to cancel the shading. In the list
boxes, specify the names of the datasets considered as dataset A and
dataset B.
7 Click OK. Notice how the shading appears between the two datasets you
selected (see Figure 144).

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shading between
datasets

Figure 144: Shading between two pore pressure datasets

Converting Dataset Values


This facility allows you to convert the values in the datasets to a selected type
of measurement. You can convert
datasets from MD to TVD or TVD to MD, see Converting Datasets from
MD to TVD or TVD to MD on page 141.
depth measurement from feet to meters and meters to feet and reference
to Kelly Bushing, mean sea level, or ground level, see Converting
Dataset Depth Measurement and Reference on page 142.
units to another type of unit measurement, see Converting Units on
page 143.

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pressure gradient to pressure or pressure to pressure gradient, see


Converting Pressure Gradient and Pressure on page 144.

NOTE: Important! This utility is intended to be used on datasets before


you perform any analyses or make RLGs based on them. If you convert a
dataset at a later time, all the RLGs and analyses associated to that dataset
prior to the conversion will not change or update accordingly.

Converting Datasets from MD to TVD or


TVD to MD
This utility allows you to convert the depths in a selected dataset from MD
(Measured Depth) to TVD (Total Vertical Depth) or vice versa. You must have
a MD/TVD table loaded.

NOTE: Important! This utility is intended to be used on datasets before you


perform any analyses or make RLGs based on them. If you convert
a dataset at a later time, all the RLGs and analyses associated to that
dataset prior to the conversion will not change or update accord-
ingly.

1 From the menu bar, select Data > Convert TVD/MD. The Convert TVD to
MD or Convert MD to TVD dialog box appears (see Figure 145).

Figure 145: Convert TVD to MD or Convert MD to TVD dialog box

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2 Select the well name and dataset.


3 In the Dataset Name field, enter a name for the dataset of converted
depths.
4 If desired, click the Change button to modify the color, lines and/or
symbol of the display attributes.
5 Click OK. To see the dataset on the track, see Displaying Datasets on the
Track on page 94.

Converting Dataset Depth Measurement


and Reference
This facility allows you to change a datasets measurement from English (feet)
to Metric (meters) or vice versa. You can also change the depth reference to
Kelly Bushing, mean sea level, or ground level.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Change Depth. The Change Dataset
Depth dialog box appears (see Figure 146).

Figure 146: Change Dataset Depth dialog box

2 Select the well and the dataset you want to convert.


3 In the Option section, choose one of the following options:
Convert from feet to meters
Convert from meters to feet
Change depth reference to Kelly Bushing level
Change depth reference to mean sea level

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Change depth reference to ground level


4 Click OK.

NOTE: Important! This utility is intended to be used on datasets before


you perform any analyses or make RLGs based on them. If you convert a
dataset at a later time, all the RLGs and analyses associated to that dataset
prior to the conversion will not change or update accordingly.

Converting Units
You can convert units in a dataset to another unit measurement if you know
the formulas conversion and shift factors. Here are two examples:
From Celsius to Fahrenheit:
9 9
y= x + 32
5 where 5 is the conversion factor and 32 is the shift factor

psi
From
ft to ppg
y = 19.25x + 0 where 19.25 is the conversion factor and 0 is the shift fac-
tor
To convert the units:
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Convert Unit. The Convert Dataset Unit
dialog box appears (see Figure 147).

Figure 147: Convert Dataset Unit dialog box

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2 Select the well and the dataset name that contains the units that you want
to convert.
3 In the Convert To drop-down list box, select a unit that you want to
convert to.
4 Enter the conversion and shift factor (see equation in dialog box for
reference).
5 Click OK. The units in the selected dataset will be converted by PREDICT
based on the values given in the equation.

NOTE: Important! This utility is intended to be used on datasets before


you perform any analyses or make RLGs based on them. This is because if
you convert a dataset at a later time, all the RLGs and analyses associated to
that dataset prior to the conversion will not change or update accordingly.

Converting Pressure Gradient and


Pressure
You can convert a pressure gradient dataset to a pressure dataset and vice
versa.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Convert Pressure Gradient/Pressure.
The Conversion Between Pressure and Pressure Gradient dialog box
appears (see Figure 148).

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Figure 148: Conversion Between Pressure and Pressure Gradient


dialog box

2 Select whether you want to convert from pressure gradient to pressure or


from pressure to pressure gradient.
3 Select the well name, dataset you want to convert, and enter the new
name of the dataset.
4 Select the datatype.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button
and selecting a color, line and/or symbol.
6 In the Unit section, select the unit for the new dataset.
7 Click OK. To display the new dataset, see Displaying Datasets on the
Track on page 94.

NOTE: Important! This utility is intended to be used on datasets before


you perform any analyses or make RLGs based on them. If you convert a
dataset at a later time, all the RLGs and analyses associated to that dataset
prior to the conversion will not change or update accordingly.

Interactive Computing
Interactive computing in PREDICT basically means that if a dataset is
modified, all datasets associated to it are dynamically recalculated according

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to its relationship with the dataset. The recalculation affects datasets and
RLGs that depend upon those datasets.
The PREDICT system allows you full user control over what parts have
interactive computing. This is to protect the undesired updates of UDMs/
UDPs associated to a dataset affected by interactive computing. This facility
allows you the option to toggle interactive computing on or off.
To toggle on or off interactive computing:
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Interactive Computing. The Interactive
Computing Information window appears (see Figure 149).

Figure 149: Interactive Computing Information dialog box

2 Select the well in the list box.


3 Choose one of the options:
4 View All view all of the datasets and RLGs for the given well.
5 View by Dataset Choose a dataset name to view all the relationships for
a given dataset.
6 To toggle interactive computing on, check the box to the left of the dataset
or RLG relationship. To toggle interactive computing off, uncheck the
box.

NOTE: Please use careful discretion when toggling interactive comput-


ing on and off since turning it on can negatively affect any UDMs/UDPs
associated to the dataset.

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Confidence Information
This function gives you the opportunity to put estimates on the confidence
levels of the datasets calculated using PREDICT or on data imported from
outside of PREDICT. This facility is mainly designed in connection with the
use of DrillWorks/BASIN.
1 From the menu bar, select Data > Confidence Information. The Select a
Dataset dialog box appears, with the Discrete dataset as default (see
Figure 150).

Figure 150: Dataset Confidence Information dialog box

2 Select the relevant well and dataset for which confidence information will
be entered and click OK. The Dataset Confidence Information dialog box
appears, showing the well and dataset names selected.
3 Enter the Start depth and End depth for the first interval of the dataset.
4 Enter the confidence level placed on the data in that interval. Confidence
level ranges from 1 for very low confidence to 10 for maximum
confidence based on direct measurements. For example:
Log quality from Seabed at 1230ft down to Top Eocene at 5600ft is poor or
non-existent, enter Start depth=1230, End depth=5600, and Confi-
dence=1.
From Top Eocene at 5600 to base Paleocene at 11200, log and drilling data
quality is good and fairly complete, with pore pressure curves from LWD
Resistivity and Wireline Sonic coinciding quite well. Here you could
enter Start depth=5600, End depth=11200, and Confidence=7.

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From Top Upper Cretaceous at 11200 to base U. Cretaceous at 13000, log


and drilling data quality is very good and complete, pore pressure curves
from LWD Resistivity and Wireline Sonic coincide very well and are cali-
brated using direct measurements from the porous/permable intervals.
Here you could enter Start depth=11200, End depth=13000, and Confi-
dence=10.
5 Click Add to add this section to the list box directly under the Current
Record Information section.
6 Alternatively, if you need to edit the confidence information, select the
line in the list box, make the change and press Edit. To delete, select the
line item and press the Delete button.
7 Repeat steps Enter the Start depth and End depth for the first interval of
the dataset. to Click Add to add this section to the list box directly under
the Current Record Information section. for each interval for which
confidence information is to be created.
8 Click OK.

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Sequence for Basic Pore Pressure Analysis

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Chapter 5: Analyzing Data


In this chapter, we learn to analyze data to calculate pore pressure and
fracture gradients. Keep in mind that you may have to follow a certain order
since one analysis may depend on another analysis output.

Sequence for Basic Pore Pressure Analysis


This is a guideline you can follow to perform a basic pore pressure analysis
(not real-time or seismic). For information about real-time, refer to Chapter
7: Real-time Analysis on page 253. You can also follow a basic pore pressure
analysis tutorial that is included with the Help file.
Follow this sequence for basic pore pressure analysis:
Determining the Overburden Gradient (OBG). - In this event, we
calculate the Overburden Gradient (OBG). This requires that you either
have a RHOB (some type of density dataset) or be able to synthesize a
RHOB dataset. This step is crucial, since the pore pressure and frac
gradient are often calculated directly from the OBG. See Analyzing
Overburden Gradient (OBG) on page 150.
Discriminating Shale Intervals on the Lithology Curve - On the Lithology
curve (i.e., GR or SP), you determine where the shales are by drawing
shale base lines. See Defining Shale Points using an RLG on page 164.
Transferring Shale Points to Porosity Dataset Use the shale base line or
lithology dataset to determine the corresponding shale points on a
porosity dataset (i.e., RES, DT, or DXC). See Selecting Shale Points on
page 164.
Making the Porosity Trend Curve - At this stage, you connect and
smooth out the shale points to create the observed Porosity Trend
curve based on the porosity indicator log. To connect and smooth this
curve, you apply a filter to the shale points. See Analyzing Porosity on
page 173.
Drawing or Creating a Normal Compaction Trend Curve - In this event,
you can either create a new Reference Line Group (RLG) to represent the
normal compaction trend or use Bowers formula to calculate it. See
either Using RLGs with Datasets on page 124 or Analyzing
Compaction Trend on page 180.
Performing the Pore Pressure Analysis - You can either use the methods
already included in the program, the appropriate UDM (User-Defined
Method), or UDP (User-Defined Program). Calibrate the Pore Pressure
(PP) estimates using measured data and/or well response. See
Analyzing Pore Pressure Gradient on page 185.

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Calculating Poissons ratio The ratio can be used to calculate the


fracture gradient. See Analyzing Poisson Ratio on page 196.
Performing Frac Gradient Analysis - You can either use the methods
already included in the program, the appropriate UDM (User-Defined
Method), or UDP (User-Defined Program). See Analyzing Fracture
Gradient on page 203.

Analyzing Overburden Gradient (OBG)


DrillWorks/PREDICT supports several different methods of computing
overburden gradients using various kinds of log data as described below:
Bulk Density Log see Calculating OBG Using Bulk Density or Density
Porosity Log on page 150.
Density Porosity Log see Calculating OBG Using Bulk Density or
Density Porosity Log on page 150.
User Defined Method or User Defined Program see Overview of
UDMs and UDPs on page 213.

Calculating OBG Using Bulk Density or


Density Porosity Log
DrillWorks/PREDICT can compute an overburden gradient by performing a
numerical integration of the bulk density log. Corrections are made for water
depth, water density and average density of the formation between seabed
and top of data. In addition, an averaging computation is made for depth
intervals where no log was run. For sections where data are missing, you can
use a different OBG or density dataset to fill the gap.
DrillWorks/PREDICT can also compute an overburden gradient using a
density porosity log with the same corrections as specified for the bulk
density log.
To calculate OBG using bulk density or density porosity log:
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Overburden Gradient. The
Overburden Gradient Analysis Step 1 dialog box appears (see Figure
151).

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Figure 151: Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 1

2 Select either the Bulk Density or Density Porosity option and click Next
(see Figure 152).

Figure 152: Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 2

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button to
modify the color, lines, and/or symbol.
5 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 153).

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Figure 153: Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 3

6 Choose the bulk density or density porosity dataset in the list box to the
left. To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the Filter
button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.
7 If there is missing data, choose one of the following options:
Average Density Value - Use an average bulk density value for the
section of missing data. Missing values are usually used in the
PREDICT analysis as an interpolated average of the density at the
mud line and the density of the most shallow valid log reading. This
option is the default. If you select this option, then make sure the
value in Density at Mud line box is reasonable since PREDICT uses
this value for the computation.
An OBG Dataset Use another OBG dataset in this project. Click
Next to display the Step 4 dialog box in which you must select the
desired well from the Wells list box and the desired OBG dataset
from the Associated Datasets list box.
Density Dataset Use another density dataset that you have available
in the project or in the system library. Click Next to display the Step 4:
dialog box in which you must select the desired well from the Wells
list box and the desired density dataset from the Associated Datasets
list box.
Amoco Method This method calculates OBG derived from an
empirical relationship authored by Marty Traugott of Amoco.
8 Click Finish to do the calculation and create the OBG dataset. To display
the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

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Calculating OBG Using the Amoco


Method
This calculation creates a dataset containing OBG data derived from an
empirical relationship between water depth, air gap and OBG given by Marty
Traugott of Amoco. This is in reference to his article on page 68 of "Deepwater
Technology", a supplement to World Oil, dated August 1997.
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Overburden Gradient. The
Overburden Gradient Analysis Step 1 dialog box appears (see Figure
154).

Figure 154: Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 1 Amoco method

2 Select the Amoco option and click Next (see Figure 155).

Figure 155: Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 2 Amoco method

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3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
5 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 156).

Figure 156: Overburden Gradient Analysis - Step 3 Amoco method

6 Enter or keep the start and end depths.


7 Click Finish to do the calculation and create the OBG dataset. To display
the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Making the Shale Index


The shale index determines the range from 100% sand and 100% shale on the
lithology curve (usually gamma ray or SP) by setting shale and sand baselines
or areas on a curve. The shale index can then help in identifying shale
intervals and be used when doing a shale point analysis.
There are three ways to create a shale index depending on the situation:
Use Assigned Values as Base Lines You specify one shale base line and
one sand baseline. This option is best used if your curve is more vertically
aligned, and there are no trends or abnormal anomalies that make the
curve shift left or right. See Creating a Shale Index Using Assigned
Values as Base Lines on page 155.
Use RLGs as Base Lines If your curve shifts left or right for such reasons
as hole size, lithology, or unconformity, use this option to base it on an
RLG. You must then create an RLG and draw the shale and sand base
lines for the sections of the curve. For more information about RLGs, refer
to Using RLGs with Datasets on page 122. See Creating a Shale Index
Using RLGs as Base Lines on page 157.

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Use Data Adaptive Values as Base Lines Use this option if you want to
specify a range but not necessarily the shale and sand base lines for a
curve. PREDICT can then automatically calculate the shale index based
on the most popular region in the given area. See Creating a Shale Index
Using Data Adaptive Values as Base Lines on page 159.

Creating a Shale Index Using Assigned


Values as Base Lines
You specify one shale base line and one sand baseline. This option is best
used if your curve is more vertically aligned and there are no shifts in trends
or abnormal anomalies that make the curve shift left or right.
To create a shale index using assigned values as base lines:
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Shale Index. The Shale Index
Analysis Step 1 dialog box appears (see Figure 157).

Figure 157: Shale Index Analysis - Step 1 (Using Assigned Values)

2 Choose the Use Assigned Values as Base Lines option and click Next (see
Figure 158).

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Figure 158: Shale Index Analysis - Step 2 (Using Assigned Values)

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Note that the datatype SHIDX is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button to
change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see Figure 159).

Figure 159: Shale Index Analysis - Step 3 (Using Assigned Values)

6 Enter the shale base line. This is the point at which shale is estimated at
100%.
7 Enter the sand base line. This is the point at which sand is estimated at
100%.

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8 Select the radioactive log dataset from the list box. This is the dataset
being determined for the shale index.

NOTE: If the desired dataset is not listed, click the Filter button (refer to
Datatype Filter Button on page 36).

9 Click Finish. To display the shale index dataset, see .

Creating a Shale Index Using RLGs as


Base Lines
If your curve shifts left or right (for such reasons as hole size, lithology, or
unconformity), use this option to base it on an RLG. You must then create an
RLG and draw the shale and sand base lines for the sections of the curve. For
more information about RLGs, refer to Using RLGs with Datasets on
page 124.
To create a shale index using RLGs as Base Lines:
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Shale Index. The Shale Index
Analysis Step 1 dialog box appears (see Figure 160).

Figure 160: Shale Index Analysis - Step 1 (Using RLGs)

2 Choose the Use RLGs as Base Lines option and click Next (see Figure
161).

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Figure 161: Shale Index Analysis - Step 2 (Using RLGs)

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Note that the datatype SHIDX is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button to
change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see Figure 162).

Figure 162: Shale Index Analysis - Step 3 (Using RLGs)

6 Select the dataset you want the shale index based on, the RLG that will be
used as the sand base line, and the RLG that will be used as a shale base
line in the list boxes. Remember, you need to create the RLG before doing

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this type of shale index. If you didnt create the RLGs, refer to Using
RLGs with Datasets on page 124.

NOTE: If the desired dataset is not listed, click the Filter button (refer to
Datatype Filter Button on page 36).

7 Click Finish. To display the shale index dataset, see Displaying Datasets
on the Track on page 94.

Creating a Shale Index Using Data


Adaptive Values as Base Lines
Use this option if you want to specify a range but not necessarily the shale
and sand base lines for a curve. For this index, you still create an RLG,
however, the lines are the estimated ranges, and not the actual sand/shale
base lines. PREDICT can then automatically calculate the shale index based
on the most popular region in the given area.
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Shale Index. The Shale Index
Analysis Step 1 dialog box appears (see Figure 163).

Figure 163: Shale Index Analysis - Step 1

2 Choose the Use RLGs as Base Lines option and click Next (see Figure
164).

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Figure 164: Shale Index Analysis - Step 2

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Note that the datatype SHIDX is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button to
change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see Figure 165).

Figure 165: Shale Index Analysis - Step 3

6 Select the dataset you want the shale index based on, the RLG that will be
used as the first value in the range, and the RLG that will be used as the
second value in the range. Remember, you need to create the RLG before

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doing this type of shale index. If you didnt create the RLGs, refer to
Using RLGs with Datasets on page 124.

NOTE: If the desired dataset is not listed, click the Filter button (refer to
Datatype Filter Button on page 36).

7 Click Finish. To display the shale index dataset, see Displaying Datasets
on the Track on page 94.

Analyzing Shale Volume


After calculating the shale index (see Making the Shale Index on page 154),
you can take it a step further and calculate the shale volume based on the
shale index and using one of the following equations:

Larionov (Older Rocks)

Vsh = 0.33(2 2 I RA 1.0)

Larionov (Tertiary Rocks)

Vsh = 0.083(23.7 I RA 1.0)

Stiebar 32

Vsh = I RA /(3.0 2.0 I RA )

Clavier et al

Vsh = 1.7 [3.38 ( I RA + 0.7) 2 ]1/ 2

Stiebar 21

Vsh = I RA /(2.0 I RA )

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Stiebar 43

Vsh = I RA /(4.0 3.0 I RA )

Where
I RA = Shale Index and Vsh = Shale Volume

To calculate shale volume:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Shale Volume. The Shale Volume
Analysis Step 1 dialog box appears (see Figure 166).

Figure 166: Shale Volume Analysis - Step 1

2 Select an equation to use (also refer to the table at beginning of section)


and click Next (see Figure 167).

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Figure 167: Shale Volume Analysis - Step 2

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype SHVOL is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button to
change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see Figure 168).

Figure 168: Shale Volume Analysis - Step 3

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6 Select the shale index dataset in the list box and click Finish. To display
the shale volume dataset, see Displaying Datasets on the Track on
page 94.

NOTE: You should create the shale index first before doing this proce-
dure. Refer to Making the Shale Index on page 154.

Selecting Shale Points


The porosity-indicating dataset readings in intervals of high shale
concentration are referred to as shale points. Shale intervals can be identified
using a lithology indicating log, such as Gamma Ray or Spontaneous
Potential, and can be applied via analysis to any type of porosity-indicating
dataset. This is typically the resistivity, sonic, ITT, Dxc or conductivity.
With PREDICT, shale discrimination can be easily accomplished using one of
four methods:
a user-drawn RLG (line) refer to Using RLGs with Datasets on
page 124 and Defining Shale Points using an RLG on page 164.
user-specified parameters refer to Defining Shale Points Using
Parameters on page 166.
a user defined method or a user defined program refer to Overview of
UDMs and UDPs on page 213.
shale index refer to Defining Shale Points Using Shale Index on
page 170.
The process involves establishing rules for identifying the depth segments on
the lithology log that indicate shale. This process creates a dataset of shale
points. This dataset is then applied to the porosity log so that all the depths in
the shale points dataset are used in the porosity log to define the shale depths
on that log.

Defining Shale Points using an RLG


Before the shale points on the porosity indicator can be identified, you must
choose the depth intervals that contain a high percentage of shale. This is
done by creating a shale baseline RLG associated with a lithology indicator
such as the SP or Gamma Ray well log.
To identify shales on lithology logs (e.g. SP and GR logs) for doing an
analysis:
1 In a linear track, display the lithology indicating log using a horizontal
scale that adequately distinguishes the shale intervals. Make sure that the
lithology is the active dataset (see Editing Active Datasets on page 114).

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2 Create an RLG consisting of one or more lines that separate the shaly
from the non-shaly intervals that you see on the log. See Creating an
RLG Based on the Active Dataset on the Track on page 127. The detail
that you use in drawing the lines identifying shales is entirely at your
own discretion. In some cases, great detail does not appear to
significantly enhance the pore pressure analyses. In most cases, detailed
shale picking is essential to obtaining accurate pressure analyses.
3 Once the shale baseline RLG is created and all the lines are drawn, the
shale point identification can be performed. From the main menu, select
the Analyze > Shale Point. The Shale Point Analysis Step 1 dialog box
dialog box appears (see Figure 169).

Figure 169: Shale Point Analysis - Step 1 (Using an RLG)

4 Choose the Use RLGs option and click Next (see Figure 170).

Figure 170: Shale Point Analysis - Step 2 (Using an RLG)

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5 Select the well, enter the dataset name, change the display attributes by
clicking the Change button, if desired, and click Next (see Figure 171).

Figure 171: Shale Point Analysis - Step 3 (Using an RLG)

6 Select the lithology dataset you drew the shale baseline RLG on, the
desired shale baseline RLG associated with the lithology log you have
selected, and the porosity log. The porosity log is an indicator of porosity
trends such as a sonic or resistivity log. This is the log for which shale
point values will be determined and displayed.
7 In the Shale Point Pick Criteria section, select whether the shale points are
to the left or right of the shale baselines you drew. For the SP and Gamma
Ray logs, the values to the right are generally used.
8 Click Finish. You return to the PREDICT screen. You need to display the
dataset of shale points you just created. For more information, see
Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Defining Shale Points Using Parameters


Shale points can be determined using user-defined parameters that specify
selection criteria. These criteria can be specified for the entire log or for user
specified depth intervals. Parameters can be specified for each depth interval
for either the lithology or the porosity logs or both. Before starting the shale
point selection using parameters, examine the lithology and porosity logs and
decide on the desired parameters and the depth intervals that you will use.
To perform shale point selection using parameters:
1 From the menu, select Analyze > Shale Point. The Shale Point dialog box
is displayed (see Figure 172).

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Figure 172: Shale Point Analysis - Step 1 (Using parameters)

2 Select the Use Parameters option and click Next (see Figure 173).

Figure 173: Shale Point Analysis - Step 2 (Using parameters)

3 Select the well, enter the dataset name, change the display attributes by
clicking the Change button, if desired, and click Next (see Figure 174).

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Figure 174: Shale Point Analysis - Step 3 (Using parameters)

4 Select the porosity dataset. To display datasets that only use a particular
datatype, click the Filter button. Refer to the Datatype Filter Button on
page 36.
5 Supply desired depth intervals by clicking the Add button under the
Select Depth Interval list box. The Add Depth Interval dialog box appears
(see Figure 175).

Figure 175: Add Depth Interval dialog box

6 Enter a depth interval and then click OK to add the depth interval to the
Select Depth Interval list box.
7 Repeat this procedure until all desired depth intervals appear in the
Select Depth Interval list box. To edit a depth interval, select it in the
Select Depth Interval list box, click Edit, and supply the desired depths.
Then click OK or Cancel to return to the Shale Point Analysis dialog box.
To delete a depth interval, select that interval in the Select Depth Interval
list box and then click Delete. The interval will be deleted.
8 Under the Select Parameters list box, click Add. The Add Parameters
dialog box appears (see Figure 176).

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Figure 176: Shale Point Analysis - Add Parameters dialog box

9 Select the dataset (log) for which parameters are to be specified, e.g. GR >
70. Notice that the dataset appears in the Dataset field below the list box.
If the desired dataset name is not shown in the Select Dataset list box,
click the Filter button to add it. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on
page 36.
10 In the Select Operator section, select an operator. The selected operator
appears in the Operator field below the section.
11 Enter the desired value and click OK to add that parameter for that depth
interval to the Select Parameters list box. Repeat the Add Parameters
procedure for each parameter desired for each depth interval.
12 To edit a parameter(s):
From the Select Depth Interval list box, select the appropriate depth
interval.
From the Select Parameters list box, select the appropriate parameter.
Click Edit. The Shale Point Analysis dialog box is displayed showing
the dataset and parameter you have selected for editing.
Make the necessary changes and click OK.
To delete a parameter, select the parameter and click Delete.
13 When complete, click Finish. To display the new shale points dataset, see
Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

NOTE: The parameters used to create a new dataset via an analysis


method are now saved with the newly created dataset, along with the
method's dialogs. The parameters used during the previous run will remain
selected for the current run. You can change any of the parameter settings, if
desired. You can also delete the depth and delete the parameters.

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Defining Shale Points Using Shale Index


You can determine the shale points based on a shale index for the curve. The
shale index specifies the range of dataset values that determine if a particular
lithology indicator log value is closer to 100 % shale or 100 % sand. For more
information, see Making the Shale Index on page 154.
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Shale Point. The Shale Point dialog
box is displayed (see Figure 177).

Figure 177: Shale Point Analysis - Step 1 (Using a shale index)

2 Select the Use Shale Index option and click Next (see Figure 178).

Figure 178: Shale Point Analysis - Step 2 (Using a shale index)

3 Select the well, enter the dataset name, and change the display attributes
by clicking the Change button, if desired. Click Next (see Figure 176).

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Figure 179: Shale Point Analysis - Step 3 (Using a shale index)

4 Select the shale index and porosity dataset in the list boxes. To display
datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the Filter button. Refer
to Datatype Filter Button on page 36 .
5 In the Shale Point Pick Criteria field, enter the minimum shale baseline
value at which you want to determine that there is a high percentage of
shale.
6 Click Finish. To display the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the
Track on page 94.

Analyzing Density
You can analyze density by using a Gardner velocity or time interval
equation:

Gardner Sonic or Velocity

10 6 e
= c( )
DT or
= cV e

Where
= Density
c = coefficient (typically 0.23)
e = exponent (typically 0.25)

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1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Density. The Density Analysis Step
1 dialog box appears (see Figure 180).

Figure 180: Density Analysis - Step 1

2 Select the type of Gardner equation you want to use and click Next (see
Figure 181).

Figure 181: Density Analysis - Step 2

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button to
change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see Figure 182).

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Figure 182: Density Analysis - Step 3

5 Select the dataset. To display datasets that only use a particular datatype,
click the Filter button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.
6 Enter the coefficient and exponent and click Finish. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Analyzing Porosity
One of the requirements of BASIN is to create a definitive porosity dataset (of
datatype POR) for any well to be included in the BASIN project. Three
methods are provided to enable you to create a porosity dataset by applying
empirical relationships with other petrophysical properties:
Using a density log, see Calculating Porosity Using Density Log on
page 174.
Using a sonic log (Wyllie-Rose or Raymer methods) , see Calculating
Porosity Using the Sonic Log (Wyllie-Rose or Raymer methods) on
page 176.
Using a porosity estimation zone method, see Calculating Porosity
Using Porosity Estimation Zone Method on page 178.
Before you can do this analysis, make sure that you have completed the
previous steps in the analysis procedure. See Sequence for Basic Pore
Pressure Analysis on page 149 for more information.

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Calculating Porosity Using Density Log

Gardner Sonic or Velocity

matrix
=
matrix fluid

Where
= Density
= Porosity

1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Porosity. The Porosity Analysis
dialog box appears (see Figure 183).

Figure 183: Porosity Analysis - Step 1 (Using Density Log)

2 Select the Using Density Log option and click Next (see Figure 184).

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Figure 184: Porosity Analysis - Step 2 (Using Density Log)

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button to
change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see Figure 185).

Figure 185: Porosity Analysis - Step 3 (Using Density Log)

5 Enter the Formation Matrix Density and choose the unit.


6 Enter the Fluid Average Density and choose the unit.
7 Choose the density log dataset from the list box. To display datasets that
only use a particular datatype, click the Filter button. Refer to Datatype
Filter Button on page 36.
8 Click Finish. A porosity dataset with datatype POR is created. To display
the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

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Calculating Porosity Using the Sonic


Log (Wyllie-Rose or Raymer methods)

Raymer method

DTmatrix
= 1
2 DT fluid

DTmatrix
= 2 + 1
DT

Wyllie-Rose method

DT DTmatrix
=
DT fluid DTmatrix

where

= porosity
DT = sonic

1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Porosity. The Porosity Analysis
dialog box appears (see Figure 186).

Figure 186: Porosity Analysis - Step 1 (Using Wyllie-Rose or Ramer


method)

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2 Choose either the Using Sonic Log Wyllie-Rose method or Raymer


method option and click Next (see Figure 187).

Figure 187: Porosity Analysis - Step 2 (Using Wyllie-Rose or Ramer


method)

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see
Figure 188).

Figure 188: Porosity Analysis - Step 3 (Using Wyllie-Rose or Ramer


method)

5 Enter the transit time of formation matrix material and choose the unit.
6 Enter the transit time of saturating fluid and choose the unit.

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7 Choose the sonic log dataset from the list box. To display datasets that
only use a particular datatype, click the Filter button. Refer to Datatype
Filter Button on page 36.
8 Click Finish. A porosity dataset with sonic information is created. To
display the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on
page 94.

Calculating Porosity Using Porosity


Estimation Zone Method
This function creates a smoothed porosity curve based on the user input of
the number of zones (minimum of 4) into which the log interval will be
divided and the number of porosity data points to be calculated for each
zone.
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Porosity. The Porosity Analysis
dialog box appears (see Figure 189).

Figure 189: Porosity Analysis - Step 1 (Using Porosity Estimation


Zone)

2 Select the Using Porosity Estimation Zone Method option and click Next
(see Figure 190).

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Figure 190: Porosity Analysis - Step 2 (Using Porosity Estimation


Zone)

3 Select the well name and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see
Figure 191).

Figure 191: Porosity Analysis - Step 3 (Using Porosity Estimation


Zone)

5 Enter the number of zones.


6 Enter the sample rate in each zone.
7 Choose the input porosity log dataset from the list box. To display
datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the Filter button. Refer
to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.

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8 Click Finish. A smoothed porosity dataset with datatype POR is


created. To display the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the
Track on page 94.

Analyzing Compaction Trend


Rather than drawing a normal compaction trend by using an RLG (see Using
RLGs with Datasets on page 124), you can calculate it using Bowers
equation. Doing this step requires that you have already calculated the OBG.
Refer to Analyzing Overburden Gradient (OBG) on page 150.
Keep in mind that before you can do this analysis, make sure that you have
completed the previous steps in the analysis procedure. See Sequence for
Basic Pore Pressure Analysis on page 149.

Creating the Compaction Trend Using


Bowers Sonic Equation
The Bowers sonic compaction trend is calculated using this equation:

Compaction Trend Using Bowers Sonic Equation

10 6
DT =
10 6
+ A ES
B

DTml

DT = sonic
DTml
= sonic at mudline
norm
= effective stress in normal pressure
A and B are empirical values that yielded the best fit for the relation
between velocity and effective stress based on the location of where the
data was taken.

To calculate the compaction trend using Bowers sonic equation:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Compaction Trend. The
Compaction Trend Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 192).

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Figure 192: Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 1 (Using Bowers


Sonic)

2 Select the Bowers Sonic Compaction Trend option and click Next (see
Figure 193).

Figure 193: Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 2 (Using Bowers


Sonic)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype DT is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 193).

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Figure 194: Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 3 (Using Bowers


Sonic)

203 sec
Enter the DT (usually
7
ft) at mudline and choose the unit
(or keep the default).
8 Enter the normal pore pressure gradient for water and select the unit (or
keep the default).
9 Enter the start depth (or keep the default).
10 Enter the empirical values in the A and B fields. These values vary
according to the location.
11 Choose the overburden gradient dataset. Also see Analyzing
Overburden Gradient (OBG) on page 150.
12 Click Finish. The normal compaction trend dataset is created. To display
the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

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Creating the Compaction Trend Using


Bowers Velocity Equation
The following equation is used in the computation of Bowers velocity
compaction trend:

Compaction Trend Using Bowers Velocity Equation

VN = Vmudline + A ES
B

VN
= velocity
Vmudline
= velocity at mudline
ES
= effective stress in normal pressure.
A and B are empirical values that yielded the best fit for the relation
between velocity and effective stress based on the location of where the
data was taken.

To calculate the compaction trend using Bowers velocity equation:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Compaction Trend. The
Compaction Trend Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 195).

Figure 195: Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 1 (Using Bowers


Velocity)

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2 Select the Bowers Velocity Compaction Trend option and click Next (see
Figure 196).

Figure 196: Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 2 (Using Bowers


Velocity)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype VEL is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 197).

Figure 197: Compaction Trend Analysis - Step 3 (Using Bowers


Velocity)

7 Enter the velocity at mudline and choose the unit (or keep the default).

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8 Enter the normal pore pressure gradient for water and select the unit (or
keep the default).
9 Enter the start depth (or keep the default).
10 Enter the empirical values in the A and B fields. These values vary
according to the location.
11 Choose the overburden gradient dataset. Also see Analyzing
Overburden Gradient (OBG) on page 150.
12 Click Finish. The normal compaction trend dataset is created. To display
the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94 .

Editing the Compaction Trend Dataset


1 Right-click over the compaction trends curve on the track. A pop-up
menu appears.
2 From the menu, select Edit. The Interactive Compaction Trend dialog box
appears (see Figure 198).

Figure 198: Interactive Compaction Trend dialog box

3 Make changes to the compaction trends variable values.


4 Click Apply to apply changes but not close the window or click OK to
apply changes and close the window.

Analyzing Pore Pressure Gradient


DrillWorks/PREDICT supports a number of built-in methods and models for
pore pressure analysis. Different methods require that you create certain
datasets before doing the analysis.
You can choose among the following types of methods:

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Eatons methods (using either resistivity, sonic, conductivity, interval


velocity, or Dxc). See Calculating Pore Pressure Using Eatons Methods
on page 186.
Equivalent depth. See Calculating Pore Pressure Using Equivalent
Depth on page 190.
Bowers methods (using either sonic or interval velocity). See
Calculating Pore Pressure Using Bowers Method on page 193.
Keep in mind that before you can do this analysis, make sure that you have
completed the previous steps in the analysis procedure. See Sequence for
Basic Pore Pressure Analysis on page 149 for more information.

Calculating Pore Pressure Using


Eatons Methods
The Eaton Method is one of the more widely used quantitative methods. This
method applies a regionally defined exponent to an empirical formula.
DrillWorks/PREDICT supports a unique calibration technique by allowing a
user to compute an exponent using directly measured pressure data from
offset wells or while drilling. This approach facilitates the calibration of the
Eaton Model for different parts of the world where it may be appropriate for
application.
There are several Eaton equations used depending on the type of data used
for the calculation:

Eaton Method Resistivity

PP = OBG (OBG PPN )( RO / RN ) * * X

Where:
PP = Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
PPn = Normal Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
Ro = Observed Resistivity (ohms-m2/m)
Rn = Observed Resistivity (ohms-m2/m)
X = Eaton Exponent (dimensionless)

Eaton Method Sonic or ITT

PP = OBG (OBG PPN )( DTN / DTO ) * * X

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Where:
PP = Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
PPn = Normal Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
DTo = Observed Interval Transit Time, (msec/ft), (msec/m)
DTn = Normal Interval Transit Time, (msec/ft), (msec/m)
X = Eaton Exponent (dimensionless)

Eaton Method Conductivity

PP = OBG (OBG PPN )(C N / CO ) * * X

Where:
PP = Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
PPn = Normal Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
Co = Observed Conductivity ( ohms-m2 / m )
Cn = Observed Conductivity ( ohms-m2 / m )
X = Eaton Exponent (dimensionless)

Eaton Method Internal Velocity

VO 3
PP = OBG (OBG PPN )( )
VN

PP = Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)


OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
PPn = Normal Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
Vo = Observed Internal Velocity
Vn = Normal Interval Velocity

Eaton Method Dxc (d Exponent)

PP = OBG (OBG PPN )( DCO / DCN ) * * X

Where:
PP = Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
PPn = Normal Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
Dco = Observed Dc exponent (dimensionless)
Dcn = Normal Dc exponent (dimensionless)
X = Eaton Exponent (dimensionless)

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To calculate the pore pressure gradient:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Pore Pressure Gradient. The Pore
Pressure Gradient Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 199).

Figure 199: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Eaton


method)

2 Select an Eaton option and click Next (see Figure 200).

Figure 200: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Eaton


method)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype PP is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.

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5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.


You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 201).

Figure 201: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Eaton


method)

7 Select the porosity trend dataset. If the dataset is not displayed, click the
Filter button.
8 To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the Filter
button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.
9 Select either an RLG created for the normal compaction trend or a
dataset.
10 Enter either a constant or use a dataset for the overburden gradient.
11 Enter the Depth of First Valid Reading in your dataset.
12 Enter the normal PP (or keep the default). Check to be sure that the
normal PP value is appropriate for the selected unit.
13 Enter the exponent. Alternatively, you can click the Calculate button to
calculate the Eaton exponent corresponding to a known pressure:
Click the Calculate button. The Calculate Exponent from Known
Data dialog box appears.
Enter the known pore pressure, depth of known pressure, and
normal pore pressure gradient.
Press the Calculate button. Notice that the exponent value appears in
the field.
Click OK. The exponent value is transferred to the Exponent field.
14 Click Finish. The pore pressure gradient dataset is created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

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Calculating Pore Pressure Using


Equivalent Depth
For some areas of the world, the Equivalent Depth method provides good
results. Refer to this diagram and equation:

Equivalent Depth Method

PA = PB + ( S A S B )

where:
PA = Abnormal Pore Pressure

PB = Normal Pore Pressure

SA
= Overburden Pressure at point A
S B = Overburden Pressure at point B

To calculate using Equivalent Depth:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Pore Pressure Gradient. The Pore
Pressure Gradient Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 202).

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Figure 202: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Equivalent


Depth)

2 Select the Equivalent Depth option and click Next (see Figure 203).

Figure 203: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Equivalent


Depth)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype PP is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 204).

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Figure 204: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Equivalent


Depth)

7 Select the porosity trend dataset. If the dataset is not displayed, click the
Filter button.
8 To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the Filter
button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.
9 Select either an RLG created for the normal compaction trend or a
dataset.
10 Enter either a constant or use a dataset for the overburden gradient.
11 Enter the Depth of First Valid Reading in your dataset.
12 Enter the normal PP (or keep the default).
13 Click Finish. The pore pressure gradient dataset is created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

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Calculating Pore Pressure Using


Bowers Method
Bowers method uses overburden gradient, the velocity or sonic
measurements, and empirical values to arrive at the pore pressure gradient.
The following equations are used:

Bowers Method Sonic

If depth maximum velocity depth then:


106 u
c( 5000) B
PP = OBG DT
depth
Otherwise,
1
106 B
c( 5000)
DT
PP = OBG A
depth

where:
PP = Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
DT= Sonic
A, B = Empirical Values

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Bowers Method Interval Velocity

If depth maximum velocity depth then:


u
c(V 5000) B
PP = OBG
depth
Otherwise,
1
c(V 5000) B

PP = OBG A
depth

where:
PP = Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
V = Velocity
A, B = Empirical Values

To calculate pore pressure using Bowers methods:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Pore Pressure Gradient. The Pore
Pressure Gradient Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 205).

Figure 205: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Bowers


method)

2 Select a Bowers method option and click Next (see Figure 206).

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Figure 206: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Bowers


method)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype PP is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 207).

Figure 207: Pore Pressure Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Bowers


method)

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7 Select a sonic or velocity dataset.

NOTE: To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the
Filter button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.

8 Enter the start depth, maximum velocity depth, top-most depth, and
bottom-most depth.
9 In the Normal PPG, enter a normal pore pressure gradient and select a
unit.
10 Enter an unloading exponent and sea water density.
11 In the Overburden Gradient section, choose whether to use a constant or
use an overburden dataset.
12 Click Finish. The pore pressure gradient dataset is created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Analyzing Poisson Ratio


You can calculate the Poisson ratio in order to compute the fracture gradient.
There are three methods that use different equations:
From LOT Use this method if leak-off tests (LOTs) have been performed
and you calculated both overburden (OBG) and pore pressure (PP). See
Calculating the Poisson Ratio From Leak-off Tests on page 196.
Deep Water Use this method if you know the mudline and airgap and
the well is located in deep water territory. This calculation is in feet, so if
your measurements are in meters, you need to convert your datasets
measurements. See Calculating the Poisson Ratio in Deep Water on
page 199.
Gulf Coast Use this method if you know the mudline and airgap and
the well is located in Gulf Coast water territory. This calculation is in feet,
so if your measurements are in meters, you need to convert your datasets
measurements. See Calculating the Poisson Ratio in the Gulf Coast on
page 201.

Calculating the Poisson Ratio From


Leak-off Tests
This method is used if leak-off tests (LOTs) have been performed and you
calculated both overburden (OBG) and pore pressure (PP). Make sure that the
same units are used in all three datasets before performing this analysis (also
see Converting Dataset Values on page 140).
This function uses the following equation:

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Poisson Ratio from Leak-off Tests (LOTs)

LOT PP
K=
OBG + LOT 2 PP
where
K = Poisson ratio
LOT = Leak-off test
PP = pore pressure gradient
OBG = overburden gradient

To calculate the Poisson Ratio from leak-off tests:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Poisson Ratio. The Poisson Ratio
Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 208).

Figure 208: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 1 (From LOT)

2 Select the From LOT option and click Next (see Figure 209).

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Figure 209: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 2 (From LOT)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype POISSON is displayed. When searching for
this dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the
dataset at a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see
Figure 210).

Figure 210: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 3 (From LOT)

6 Enter a start depth, if desired.

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7 Choose the leak-off test, pore pressure, and overburden gradient dataset
or enter a constant.

NOTE: To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the
Filter button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.

8 Click Finish. The Poisson Ratio dataset is now created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Calculating the Poisson Ratio in Deep


Water
This method is used if you know the mudline and airgap, and the well is
located in deep water. This calculation is in feet, so if your measurements are
in meters, you need to convert your datasets measurements (also see
Converting Dataset Values on page 140).
There are two different equations depending on the condition:
mudline = water depth + airgap
adjusted depth = depth mudline depth
1 If adjusted depth >= 0 and adjusted depth < 4100 feet, this equation is
used:
Poisson Ratio = 0.3124642857 + 0.00005785 * adjusted
2
depth 0.0000000060893 (adjusted depth)
2 If adjusted depth > 5000 feet (no values between 4100 and 5000 feet), this
equation is used:
Poisson Ratio = 0.4260341387 + 0.0000072947129 *
2
adjusted depth 0.000000001882 (adjusted depth)
To calculate the Poisson Ratio in deep water:
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Poisson Ratio. The Poisson Ratio
Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 211).

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Figure 211: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 1 (Deep Water)

2 Select the Deep Water option and click Next (see Figure 212).

Figure 212: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 2 (Deep Water)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype POISSON is displayed. When searching for
this dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the
dataset at a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see
Figure 213).

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Figure 213: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 3 (Deep Water)

6 Enter a start depth, end depth, and depth interval.


7 Click Finish. The Poisson Ratio dataset is now created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Calculating the Poisson Ratio in the


Gulf Coast
This method is used if you know the mudline and airgap and the well is
located in Gulf Coast water territory. This calculation is in feet, so you need to
convert your datasets measurements if your measurements are in meters
(also see Converting Dataset Values on page 140).
There are two different equations depending on the condition:
mudline = water depth + airgap
adjusted depth = depth mudline
1 If adjusted depth >= 0 and adjusted depth < 5000 feet, this equation is
used:
Poisson Ratio = 0.2007142857 + 0.000080214286
2
(adjusted depth) 0.0000000075 (adjusted depth)
2 Otherwise, this equation is used:
Poisson Ratio = 0.3724340861 + 0.0000094748424
2
(adjusted depth) 0.000000000177258 (adjusted depth)
To calculate the Poisson Ratio in the Gulf Coast:
1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Poisson Ratio. The Poisson Ratio
Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 214).

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Figure 214: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 1 (Gulf Coast)

2 Select the Gulf Coast option and click Next (see Figure 215).

Figure 215: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 2 (Gulf Coast)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype POISSON is displayed. When searching for
this dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the
dataset at a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol. Click Next (see
Figure 216).

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Figure 216: Poisson Ratio Analysis - Step 3 (Gulf Coast)

6 Enter a start depth, end depth, and depth interval.


7 Click Finish. The Poisson Ratio dataset is now created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Analyzing Fracture Gradient


DrillWorks/PREDICT allows a variety of formation pressure analysis
methods. The user is free to prepare the inputs to the analysis methods in any
way desired. Fracture gradients can be analyzed using
Eaton Method See Calculating Fracture Gradient Using Eatons
Method on page 204.
Matthews & Kelly Method See Calculating Fracture Gradient Using
Matthews and Kellys Method on page 206.
Breckels and Van Eekelen See Calculating Fracture Gradient Using
Breckels and Van Eekelen on page 209.
Daines See Calculating Fracture Gradient Using Daines on page 211.
Before you can do this analysis, make sure that you have completed the
previous steps in the analysis procedure. See Sequence for Basic Pore
Pressure Analysis on page 149 for more information.

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Calculating Fracture Gradient Using


Eatons Method
Using Eatons method requires that you have already analyzed pore pressure,
Poisson ratio, and the overburden gradient. The following equation is used in
the calculation:

Fracture Gradient Using Eatons Method

v
FG = PP + (OBG PP)[ ]
1 v
Where:
FG = Fracture Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
PP = Pore Pressure Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
v = Poissons Ratio (dimensionless)

To calculate fracture gradient using Eatons method:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Fracture Gradient. The Fracture
Gradient Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 217).

Figure 217: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Eaton)

2 Choose the Eaton option and click Next (see Figure 218).

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Figure 218: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Eaton)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype FG is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 219).

Figure 219: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Eaton)

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7 Choose the pore pressure dataset, the Poisson ratio, and the overburden
gradient.

NOTE: To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the
Filter button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.

8 Click Finish. The fracture gradient dataset is now created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Calculating Fracture Gradient Using


Matthews and Kellys Method
Using Matthews and Kellys method requires that you have already analyzed
pore pressure and the overburden gradient, as well as have a matrix stress
dataset. The following equation is used in the calculation:

Fracture Gradient Using Matthews and Kellys Method

FG = PP + (OBG PP) K i

Where:
FG = Fracture Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
PP = Pore Pressure (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
OBG = Overburden Gradient (psi/ft or lb/gal), (kPa/m or g/cc)
Ki = Matrix Stress Coefficient (dimensionless)

To calculate fracture gradient using Matthews and Kellys method:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Fracture Gradient. The Fracture
Gradient Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 220).

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Figure 220: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Matthews & Kelly)

2 Choose the Matthews and Kelly option and click Next (see Figure 221).

Figure 221: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Matthews & Kelly)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype FG is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 222).

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Figure 222: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Matthews & Kelly)

7 Choose the pore pressure dataset, matrix stress dataset, and the
overburden gradient.

NOTE: To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the
Filter button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.

8 Click Finish. The fracture gradient dataset is now created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

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Calculating Fracture Gradient Using


Breckels and Van Eekelen
Using Breckels and Eekelens method requires that you already have
analyzed pore pressure and have information about the tectonic stress and
correction factors. The following equation is used in the calculation:

Fracture Gradient Using Breckels and Van Eekelen

S 3 = 0.053Z 1.145 + 0.46( P Pn ) forZ 3,500m


S 3 = 0.264Z 317 + 0.46( P Pn ) forZ > 3,500m

Where:
S3
= minimum horizontal stress (bar)
Z = depth (meters)
P = pore pressure (bar)
Pn
= normal pore pressure (bar)

To calculate fracture gradient using Breckels and Van Eekelens method:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Fracture Gradient. The Fracture
Gradient Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 223).

Figure 223: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Breckels and Van


Eekelen)

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2 Choose the Breckels and Van Eekelen option and click Next (see Figure
224).

Figure 224: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Breckels and Van


Eekelen)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype FG is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 225).

Figure 225: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Breckels and Van


Eekelen)

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7 Choose the pore pressure dataset, and enter the normal PPG and
correction factor.

NOTE: To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the
Filter button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.

8 Click Finish. The fracture gradient dataset is now created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Calculating Fracture Gradient Using


Daines
Using Daines method requires that you already have analyzed pore
pressure, the Poisson ratio, overburden gradient, and have the tectonic stress
factor. The following equation is used in the calculation:

Fracture Gradient Using Daines Method


1 + ( )+P
1
FG =
depth

Where:
t
= superimposed tectonic stress

1 = K = Poissons ratio
P = pore pressure (bar)

To calculate fracture gradient using Daines:


1 From the menu bar, select Analyze > Fracture Gradient. The Fracture
Gradient Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 226).

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Figure 226: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 1 (Daines)

2 Choose the Daines option and click Next (see Figure 227).

Figure 227: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 2 (Daines)

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 Take note that the datatype FG is displayed. When searching for this
dataset, keep in mind the datatype so that you can retrieve the dataset at
a later time.
5 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.
You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol.
6 Select the unit and click Next (see Figure 228).

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Figure 228: Fracture Gradient Analysis - Step 3 (Daines)

7 Choose the pore pressure dataset, the Poisson ratio dataset, overburden
gradient and enter the tectonic stress.

NOTE: To display datasets that only use a particular datatype, click the
Filter button. Refer to Datatype Filter Button on page 36.

8 Click Finish. The fracture gradient dataset is now created. To display the
dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

Overview of UDMs and UDPs


User Defined Methods (UDMs) or User Defined Programs (UDPs) are user-
specific programs that can be added to the PREDICT system and used to
compute datasets using other methods and types of data. These can be based
on published or proprietary methods or created by a programmer.
For more information, see User Defined Methods (UDMs) on page 213 and
User Defined Programs (UDPs) on page 223.

User Defined Methods (UDMs)


The User Defined Method (UDM) is a program with a few lines of code that
work well for equations and relationships which can be described in a simple
"if, then, else" structure. It also has implicit looping handled by the system.
The UDM capability extends the DrillWorks/PREDICT system and allows
the user to:

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Define a new method in minutes - The User Defined Method makes it


possible to add a new method in a very short time. A UDM enables the
user to access the DrillWorks/PREDICT database for values and store
results in a database without knowing the database structure.
Use full features of the system - When a new method is added to
DrillWorks/PREDICT becomes a permanent part of the system. It is as
easy to use a User Defined Method as it is to use a method that is hard-
coded into the system.
Use a full complement of operators - DrillWorks/PREDICT includes a
complement of both mathematical and logical operators that work with
the if, then, else structure to allow effective input of various functions
and methods. The UDM provides implicit looping when the user
supplies a beginning depth, depth interval and ending depth.
To understand the structure and language of the UDM, see Structure and
Language of a UDM on page 214.
To create, edit or delete a UDM, see Creating a UDM on page 214 to
Deleting a UDM on page 216.
To create the program code for the UDM, see Understanding UDM
Expressions and Statements in Programming Code on page 217.

Structure and Language of a UDM


The User Defined Method uses an IF, THEN, ELSE structure to enable you
to control the program logic. It also allows you to do arithmetical and logical
operations. It does not provide a loop statement, such as a FOR statement.
PREDICT will ask you to supply the beginning depth, ending depth, and
depth interval. It implements looping implicitly using these values when you
apply the method. The language is not case-sensitive. Therefore, "IF and "if"
are considered the same in this language. The language uses a free format, so
a statement can be started from any column of a line. Because you are
entering text to describe the method using Motif Scrolled Text, you should
press the Return key at the end of each line.

Creating a UDM
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > User Defined Method > New. The
Create a User Defined Method dialog box appears (see Figure 229).

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Figure 229: Create a User Defined Method dialog box showing an


example

2 Enter the name of the UDM and supply the appropriate information in
the Criteria window. The Criteria box contains the program code for the
UDM. For help with inputting code, see Understanding UDM
Expressions and Statements in Programming Code on page 217.
3 Click OK to add the UDM to your system. Click Export to copy (write)
the contents of the Criteria window to an ASCII file. Click Import to
paste (read) criteria from an ASCII file containing UDM code into the
Criteria window for the UDM you are creating. Click Cancel to terminate
this addition.

Editing a UDM
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > User Defined Method > Edit. The Edit
a User Defined Method dialog box appears (see Figure 230).

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Figure 230: Edit a User Defined Method dialog box

2 Select the User Defined Method to edit from the list box. Notice that the
code for the UDM is displayed in the Criteria box.

NOTE: If you have grouped the UDMs, select the List by Group option
and choose the UDM group in the drop-down list box. Notice that the UDM
list box to the left displays the UDMs for the selected UDM group.

3 Make the required changes in the Criteria box. For help with inputting
code, see Understanding UDM Expressions and Statements in
Programming Code on page 217.
4 Click OK to accept changes to the UDM and close the dialog box or click
Apply to apply changes but not close the dialog box. Click Export to copy
(write) the contents of the Criteria window to an ASCII file. Click Import
to paste (read) criteria from an ASCII file containing UDM code into the
Criteria window for the UDM you are creating. Click Cancel to terminate
this addition.

Deleting a UDM
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > User Defined Method > Delete. The
Delete a User Defined Method dialog box appears (see Figure 231).

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Figure 231: Delete a User Defined Method dialog box

2 Select the User Defined Method to delete from the list box. Notice that the
code for the UDM is displayed in the Criteria box.
3 If you have grouped the UDMs, select the List by Group option and
choose the UDM group in the drop-down list box. Notice that the UDM
list box to the left displays the UDMs for the selected UDM group.
4 Click OK to delete the UDM or Cancel to discontinue the operation.

Understanding UDM Expressions and


Statements in Programming Code
You can create the programming code for the UDM by constructing it with
the expressions and statements explained in this section.
The following expressions and statements of the UDM are described:
Variables Used with UDM on page 218
Constants Used with UDM on page 218
Operators Used with UDM on page 218
Logical Operators Used with UDM on page 218
Assignment Statement Used with UDM on page 218
IF Statement Used with UDM on page 218
Functions Used with UDM on page 219
Comment Used with UDM on page 219
Reserved Words Used with UDM on page 219
UDM Example on page 219

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Variables Used with UDM


Variable names can be up to 30 characters. The first character must be an
alphabetic character. It can be followed by alphanumeric, _, and -. A variable
in a User Defined Method is used either to represent an input dataset or a
constant. A variable can be an integer, real number, dataset, or reference line
group. A variable value is assigned by the user when the User Defined
Method is applied.

Constants Used with UDM


A constant in a User Defined Method can be entered as a number, or as a
variable to be assigned to a constant when the method is applied. Constants
must be entered with units consistent with those specified for the output
dataset, as no automatic conversion is performed.

Operators Used with UDM


The allowed arithmetical operations in the User Defined Program are:
+, -, *, /, **
where ** is an exponent operation.
Example:
result = ((a - 2) * (b + 3)) **2

Logical Operators Used with UDM


The allowed logical operations in the User Defined Method are:
and, or, not, ==, <>, <, >, >=, <=

Example:

if (value > 20 and value <= 30) then ...


else ...

Assignment Statement Used with UDM


Syntax:
variable = expression
In a UDM, the item on the left hand side of the equal sign is always a dataset.
This dataset is the dataset in which the results of the calculations are stored.

IF Statement Used with UDM


Syntax:
if A then B
or
if A then B else C

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Functions Used with UDM


The allowed functions in a User Defined Method are:
abs, sqrt, log, ln, exp, sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan, mean,
stddev
Where:
abs = Absolute value
sqrt = Square root
log = Log 10
ln = log e
exp = Exponent
sin = Sin
cos = Cosine
tan = Tangent
asin = Arc sin
acos = Arc cos
atan = Arc tangent
mean = Mean function.
stddev = Standard deviation.

Comment Used with UDM


Everything between two # signs is considered to be a comment.

Reserved Words Used with UDM


The following words are reserved and have special meaning to the
programming language.
if, then, else, and, or, not, sqrt, abs, log, ln, exp, sin, cos,
tan, asin, acos, atan, mean, stddev, depth, water_depth,
air_gap

NOTE: water_depth and air_gap pull the values from Well > Prop-
erties > Depth/Pressure tab in the menu bar.

UDM Example
This is an example of a pore pressure calculation using the Eaton method:
if (depth > start_depth) then
ds = OBG - ((OBG-norm_pp) * (dataset_value/
rlg_value)**eaton_pp)
else

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ds= norm_pp
#any text used to explain the UDM operation can be written between the
cross-hatch symbols#

Applying a UDM to Create a Dataset


When you apply a User Defined Method, you specify which datasets and
constants are to be used for the variables. The program will then create a new
dataset using the UDM.
To apply a UDM to create a dataset:
1 From the menu bar, select the Analyze > User Defined Method. The User
Defined Method Analysis dialog box appears (see Figure 232).

Figure 232: User Defined Method Analysis - Step 1

2 Select the desired method from the list box and click Next (see Figure
233).

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Figure 233: User Defined Method Analysis - Step 2

NOTE: If you have grouped the UDMs, select the List by Group option
and choose the UDM group in the drop-down list box. Notice that the UDM
list box to the left displays the UDMs for the selected UDM group.

3 Select the well name, and enter a dataset name and description (optional).
4 From the Datatype list box, choose the datatype.
5 From the Unit List drop-down list box, choose the unit.

NOTE: Depending on the datatype chosen, the Unit List drop-down list
box changes accordingly.

6 If desired, change the display attributes by clicking the Change button.


You can then change the color, lines, and/or symbol and click Next (see
Figure 234).

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Figure 234: User Defined Method Analysis - Step 3

7 In the Variables list box, select a variable.


8 In the Dataset Values list box, select the dataset that will be associated to
the variable. Notice that the next variable in the list box is highlighted.
9 Select a dataset for the chosen variable or enter a constant value for the
variable.
10 Repeat steps 7 to 9 until all the variables are associated. Click Next (see
Figure 235).

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Figure 235: User Defined Method Analysis - Step 4

11 Enter the depth in the Depth From and To fields.


12 Choose the depth interval option:
Equal Depth enter the incremental number.
As Is Depth takes the depth values already used in the chosen
dataset.
13 Click Finish. The dataset is created as specified by the UDM. To display
the dataset, refer to Displaying Datasets on the Track on page 94.

User Defined Programs (UDPs)


For more complex models and methods, the comprehensive User Defined
Program (UDP) may be more suitable. The User Defined Program (UDP)
provides a powerful, flexible way for you to create your own analysis
programs. As with the UDM, once a new method is defined, it can be applied
to data by specifying the values, and datasets RLGs (Reference Line Groups)
used by the UDP to produce a results dataset similar to the built-in analysis
methods. Sample User Defined Programs are included with the system for a
variety of different analysis models and functions.
The UDP uses a BASIC-type programming language and allows the user to
control loops and step sizes. The UDP requires a basic understanding of
programming, while the UDM is easier to use and understand for someone
without a programming background. The User Defined Program is basically
similar to a User Defined Method, but it extends the functionality of the User
Defined Method quite considerably.

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With a UDP, the user can:


Define a new program easily You can add new programs easily by
using the specified syntax either within DrillWorks/PREDICT or by
using a file editor. As with the UDM, the UDP enables the user to access
the DrillWorks/PREDICT database for values and then store results in
the database without knowing the database structure.
Use full features of the system - When a new UDP is added, it can use the
full features and capabilities of the system to include datatypes and
filtered scroll lists. The UDP becomes a permanent part of the system. It is
as easy to use a User Defined Program as it is to use one of the methods
that are built into the program.
Use a full complement of operators and datatypes - DrillWorks/
PREDICT includes mathematical and logical operators to allow the
effective definition of various functions and methods. You can also
control step size and looping within the program.

Structure and Language of a UDP


The User Defined Program (UDP) provides a powerful but easy-to-use
capability for adding additional analysis methods to DrillWorks/PREDICT
that are too complex for a User Defined Method. With a UDP, the user can
use such facilities as variable assignments, loops inside loops, subroutines,
etc., to specify complex programs that can have a hundred or more
statements using a simple language similar to BASIC. Examples of UDPs that
have been built include complex models for pore pressure and fracture
gradient computations, overburden gradient computation, rock mechanics
and borehole stability computations.
The UDP capability provides an easy way for companies to incorporate
proprietary models and methods to DrillWorks/PREDICT in such a way that
they are only available within that company. With the power available
through UDP, the only limit to what you can do is your imagination.

Creating a UDP
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > User Defined Program > New. The
Create a User Defined Program dialog box appears (see Figure 236).

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Figure 236: Create a User Defined Program dialog box

2 Enter the name of the UDP and supply the appropriate information in the
Criteria window. The Criteria window contains the program code for the
UDP. For help with inputting code, see Understanding UDP
Expressions and Statements in Programming Code on page 227.
3 Click OK to add the UDP to your system. Click Export to copy (write) the
contents of the Criteria window to an ASCII file. The ASCII file
containing the contents of the UDP will be stored in the UDM/UDP
directory specified under Tools > Options > Path tab. Click Import to
paste (read) criteria from an ASCII file containing UDP code into the
Criteria window for the UDM you are creating. Click Cancel to terminate
this addition.

Editing a UDP
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > User Defined Program > Edit. The Edit
a User Defined Program dialog box appears (see Figure 237).

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Figure 237: Edit a User Defined Program dialog box

2 Select the User Defined Program to edit from the list box. Notice that the
code for the UDP is displayed in the Criteria box.

NOTE: If you have grouped the UDPs, select the List by Group option
and choose the UDP group in the drop-down list box. Notice that the UDM
list box to the left displays the UDPs for the selected UDP group.

3 Make the required changes in the Criteria box. For help with inputting
code, see Understanding UDP Expressions and Statements in
Programming Code on page 227.
4 Click OK to accept changes to the UDM and close the dialog box or click
Apply to apply changes but not close the dialog box. Syntax errors will be
flagged as soon as OK is pressed. Click Export to copy (write) the
contents of the Criteria window to an ASCII file. Click Import to paste
(read) criteria from an ASCII file containing UDP code into the Criteria
window for the UDP you are creating. Click Cancel to terminate this
addition.

Deleting a UDP
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > User Defined Program > Delete. The
Delete a User Defined Program dialog box appears (see Figure 238).

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Figure 238: Delete User Defined Program dialog box

2 Select the User Defined Program to delete from the list box. Notice that
the code for the UDP is displayed in the Criteria box.

NOTE: If you have grouped the UDPs, select the List by Group option
and choose the UDP group in the drop-down list box. Notice that the UDP list
box to the left displays the UDPs for the selected UDP group.

3 Click OK to delete the UDP or Cancel to discontinue the operation.

Understanding UDP Expressions and


Statements in Programming Code
You can create the programming code for the UDP by constructing it with
expressions and statements.
The following expressions and statements of the UDP are described:
Datatypes Used with UDP on page 228
Variables Used with UDP on page 228
Constants Used with UDP on page 228
Operators Used with UDP on page 228
Logical Operators Used with UDP on page 229
Assignment Statement Used with UDP on page 229
IF Statement Used in UDP on page 229
FOR Statement Used in UDP on page 229
Functions Used with UDP on page 230
Reference Dataset Value by Depth on page 230
Reference Dataset Value by Index on page 231

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Reference Line Group Value Representation on page 232


Reference RLG Value by Depth on page 232
Comments Used with UDP on page 233
Reserved Words Used with UDP on page 233
UDP Example 1 on page 234
UDP Example 2 on page 234

Datatypes Used with UDP


The allowed datatypes in the User Defined Program are:
integers
reals
single dimensional array of integers or reals
The only format for a real number is xxxxx.yyyyy. The exponent format,
such as xxxx.yyy e zzz, is not implemented.
Use the open bracket ([) and close bracket (]) to declare an array. An array
index begins with 1 (rather than 0).
Some examples of data typing and variable definitions are as follows:
integer loop, number_points, sum[100]
real depth, value, pressure[3000]

Variables Used with UDP


Variable names can be up to 30 characters. The first character must be an
alphabetic character. It can be followed by an alphanumeric, _, and -.
Variables in a User Defined Program are used to represent the input dataset
or constants.
A variable can be an integer, real number, dataset or reference line group
(RLG). A variable can be assigned a value at any time after it is declared. If a
value of a variable is used in an expression before it is given a value, the value
is assigned when the User Defined Program is applied.

Constants Used with UDP


Constants in a User Defined Program can be entered as a number or as a
variable to be assigned to a constant when the program is applied. Constants
must be entered with units consistent with those specified for the output
dataset, as no automatic conversion is performed.

Operators Used with UDP


The allowed arithmetical operations in the User Defined Program are:
+, -, *, /, **
where ** is an exponent operation.
Example:
result = ((a - 2) * (b + 3)) **2

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Logical Operators Used with UDP


The allowed logical operations in the User Defined Program are:
and, or, not, ==, <>, <, >, >=, <=
Example:
if (value > 20 and value <= 30)
then
...
else
...
endif

NOTE: An IF statement in a User Defined Program requires a terminat-


ing ENDIF statement. The terminating ENDIF is not necessary in a User
Defined Method.

Assignment Statement Used with UDP


Syntax:
variable = expression

IF Statement Used in UDP


Syntax:
if A then B endif
or
if A then B else C endif

NOTE: endif is required in a UDP, but NOT required in a UDM.

FOR Statement Used in UDP


Syntax:
FOR variable = begin to end step increment
...
NEXT
The increment can be positive or negative. If the increment is negative, only
the constant value is allowed. A negative value from the expression result is
not allowed.
For example the following statements are legal:
for loop = 100 to 1 step -1
next

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increment = 5 - 3
for loop = 1 to 100 step increment
next
The following statements are illegal because they use a negative variable for
the increment.
increment = 3 - 5
for loop = 100 to 1 step increment
next

Functions Used with UDP


The functions allowed in a User Defined Program are:
abs, sqrt, log, ln, exp, sin, cos, atan, number_ds_point,
first_ds_depth, last_ds_depth
Where
abs:Absolute value
sqrt:Square root
log: Log 10
ln: log e
exp:Exponent e
sin:Sin
cos: Cosine
atan:Arctangent
number_ds_point: Get the numbers of points of the specified dataset/
RLG.
first_ds_depth: Get the top depth of the specified dataset/RLG.
last_ds_depth: Get the bottom depth of the specified dataset/RLG.

Reference Dataset Value by Depth


If you are going to access the dataset value by depth, you can call the function
first_ds_depth to get the top depth of the input dataset, and the function
last_ds_depth to get the bottom depth of the input dataset. You can also
use any values for the starting depth and ending depth. If you use any
number for depth and the depth is between the top depth and the bottom
depth of the specified dataset, the program will interpolate it to get the
dataset value of the specified depth. If the specified depth is less than the top
depth, or greater than the bottom depth of the specified dataset, the value of
the specified dataset at the specified depth is undefined. That means that the
program will return NO READING (-999.25) as a value. Use the open

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and close braces, { and }, to access dataset values by depth, such as


input_ds{depth}.
For example, if you want to filter a dataset value and create points from the
top depth to bottom depth of the specified dataset at every 5 feet of depth
interval, use this example:
integer i, index
#declare integer variables i and index#
real depth, value, begin_depth, end_depth
#declare real variables depth, value, begin_depth#
#and end_depth#
begin_depth = first_ds_depth(input_ds)
#Get the top depth of the specified dataset. The user needs
to supply the input dataset when applying this program#
end_depth = last_ds_depth(input_ds)
#Get the bottom depth of the specified dataset.#
for depth = begin_depth to end_depth step 5
value = input_ds{depth}
#Get the dataset value of input_ds at depth #
#You use the open brace ({)and close brace(}) and
depth to access the dataset value#
if (value >= cons_1 and value <= cons_2)
#The user needs to supply cons_1 and cons_2 when applying
this program#
then
add_point(depth, value)
endif
next

Reference Dataset Value by Index


If you are going to access the dataset value by index, you need to first call the
function number_ds_point to get the numbers of the points in the dataset
so you will know the index range. For example, if you want to filter a dataset
value and create points at a depth exactly like the input dataset, use the
following approach:
integer i, index, n_points
#declare integer variables i, index and n_points#
real depth, value
#declare real variables depth and value#
n_points = number_ds_point(input_ds)
#Get the numbers of points of the specified dataset. The user
needs to supply the input dataset when applying this
program#

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index = 1
#Let index points to the first element, eg. top depth#
for i=1 to n_points step 1
depth = input_ds[index]
#get the depth#
value = input_ds[index+1]
#get the dataset value of this point#
#You use open bracket ([) and close bracket(])and index to
access the dataset value#
if (value >= cons_1 and value <= cons_2)
#The user needs to supply cons_1 and cons_2 when applying
this program#
then
add_point(depth, value)
endif
index = index + 2
#let index point to the next depth#
next

Reference Line Group Value Representation


When you use an RLG name in the User Defined Program, you can only
access the RLG value by depth.

Reference RLG Value by Depth


If there is an RLG defined at the specified depth, the program will interpolate
it to get the RLG value of the specified depth. If there is no line segment
defined at the specified depth, the value of the specified RLG at the specified
depth is undefined. That means that the program will return NO READING
(-999.25) as a value. Use the open and close braces, {and}, to access an
RLG value by depth, such as rlg_line{depth}.
For example, if you want to use the User Defined Program to get the shale
point from a porosity dataset and the lithology dataset is greater than its shale
base line, use this example:
integer i, index, n_points
#declare integer variables i and index and n_points#
real depth, porosity_ds_value, lithlogy_ds_value, rlg_value
#declare real variables depth, value, etc.#
n_points = number_ds_point(porosity_ds)
#Get the numbers of points of the porosity dataset#
#The program uses this number to control the for loop.#
#The user needs to supply the porosity dataset when applying
this program#

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index = 1
#Let index points to the first element, eg. top depth#
for i=1 to n_points step 1
depth = porosity_ds[index]
#Get the depth from porosity dataset.#
#You use an index to access the porosity dataset's depth#
lithology_ds_value = lithology_ds{depth}
#Get the dataset value from lithology at specified depth.#
#You use the open brace ({) and close brace (}) and depth to
access the lithology's dataset value#
rlg_value = shale_base_line{depth}
#Get the RLG value from lithology's shale base line at the
specified depth. You use the open brace ({),close brace (})
and depth to access the lithology's shale base line value#
if (lithology_ds_value >= rlg_value)
then
value = porosity_ds[index+1]
add_point(depth, value)
endif
index = index + 2
next

Comments Used with UDP


Everything between two # signs is considered to be a comment.

Print Statement
The purpose of the print statement is to print a variable value on screen for
debugging purposes.
Syntax:
print(expression)
Example:
result = a * b + input_ds{depth}
print(result)

Reserved Words Used with UDP


The following words are reserved:
if, then, else, endif, for, step, next, add_point, print, and, or,
not, sqrt, abs, log, ln, exp, sin, cos, atan, number_ds_point,
first_ds_depth, last_ds_depth, air_gap, water_depth,
program, EndProgram, Function, return, Prototype,
EndPrototype

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UDP Example 1
This is an example of a pore pressure calculation using the Eaton program.
#declare real variable#
real begin_depth, end_depth, depth, value, obg_value
begin_depth = first_ds_depth(trend_ds)
#get the starting depth of the input dataset trend_ds#
end_depth = last_ds_depth(trend_ds)
#get the ending depth of the input dataset trend_ds#
for depth = begin_depth to end_depth step 5
if (depth > start_depth)
#Start_depth will be entered by the user when applying#
#this program#
then
obg_value = OBG{depth}
#indexing by depth#
#Get the value at specified depth of the input dataset OBG#
dataset_value = trend_ds{depth}
#indexing by depth#
#Get the value at specified depth of the input dataset#
#trend_ds#
rlg_value = trend_line{depth}
#indexing by depth#
#Get the value at specified depth of the input trend line#
#trend_line#
value = obg_value - ((obg_value-noem_pp)*
(dataset_value/rlg_value)**eaton_pp)
else
value = norm_pp
#norm_pp will be entered by the user when applying#
#this program#
endif
add_point(depth, value)
#Add the depth and value pair#
next

UDP Example 2
This is an example of how to calculate the percentage shale using a sonic log
and a bulk density log (optional). The program will ask the user to specify a
sonic log dataset, bulk density log dataset if it is available, and the points

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used to calculate the mean and standard deviation; it will then calculate the
percentage shale.
integer n_points, stop_point, specify_points,
prev_value_index
real sum, std_sum, ds_mean, ds_std, value, depth, std_value
integer i, j, value_index, std_value_index
real percent, diff, ref_value
n_points = NUMBER_DS_POINT(input_ds)
stop_point = n_points - specify_points
if (stop_point > 1 and specify_points > 0) then
sum = 0
value_index = 2
for j = 1 to specify_points step 1
value = input_ds[value_index]
sum = sum + value
value_index = value_index + 2
next
ds_mean = sum / specify_points
std_sum = 0
std_value_index = 2
for j = 1 to specify_points step 1
std_value = input_ds[std_value_index]
diff = std_value - ds_mean
std_sum = std_sum + diff*diff
std_value_index = std_value_index +2
next
std_sum = std_sum / specify_points
ds_std = sqrt(std_sum)
value_index = 2
ref_value = ds_mean - 2*ds_std
for j = 1 to specify_points step 1
depth = input_ds[value_index-1]
value = input_ds[value_index]
percent = (value-ref_value)/(4*ds_std)*100
if (percent > 100) then percent = 100
else
if (percent < 0) then percent = 0
endif
add_point(depth, percent)
value_index = value_index + 2
next

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prev_value_index = 2 * specify_points
value_index = 2 * (specify_points+1)
for i = specify_points+1 to n_points step 1
depth = input_ds[value_index-1]
value = input_ds[value_index]
sum = sum + input_ds[value_index] -
input_ds[value_index - prev_value_index]
ds_mean = sum / specify_points
std_sum = 0
std_value_index = 2 * i
for j=1 to specify_points step 1
std_value = input_ds[std_value_index]
diff = std_value - ds_mean
std_sum = std_sum + diff * diff
std_value_index = std_value_index -2
next
std_sum =std_sum/specify_points
ds_std = sqrt(std_sum)
ref_value = ds_mean - 2 * ds_std
percent = (value - ref_value)/(4*ds_std)*100
if (percent > 100) then percent = 100
else
if (percent < 0) then percent = 0
endif
endif
add_point(depth, percent)
value_index = value_index + 2
next
endif

UDP Subroutines
DrillWork/Predict now supports subroutines in the UDP (User Defined
Program ). You can declare and define subroutines in a main UDP. These
defined subroutines can then be called inside the main UDP. Parameters can
be passed into a subroutine. A subroutine can also return an integer or a real
value back to the main program. Moreover, the subroutine is able to return
any number of integers, real values, or data values back to the main UDP

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through the parameters passing into the subroutine. A subroutine may also
call other subroutines.

UDP Main Program


The format of a UDP main program is shown:
Prototype
RetType fctnName1( pType1 [pName1], pType2
[pName2], )
RetType fctnName2( pType1 [pName1], pType2
[pName2], )

EndPrototype
Program
Variables
Statements
EndProgram
Function fctnName1( pType1 pName1, pType2 pName2, )
{
}
Function fctnName2( pType1 pName1, pType2 pName2, )
{
}

NOTE: Prototype, EndPrototype, Program, Endprogram, and Function


are keywords. If a main UDP does not have keyword Program, it must not
include keywords Prototype, EndPrototype, Endprogram, and Function
either. In this case, the UDP is taken as a usual UDP, that is, it can not call any
subroutine. If a main UDP does have keyword Program, it must also have all
the keywords mentioned above. Terms function and subroutine are
exchangeable in this document.

Example Here is a simple example of a main program.


# |
This is a function to test. | comments
# |

PROTOTYPE |
integer sum( integer n ) | function prototype
ENDPROTOTYPE |

PROGRAM |

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integer i, n |
real depth, value |
for n = 100 to 150 step 5 | main Program body
depth = sum(n) |
value = 12.0 |
add_point( depth, value ) |
next |
ENDPROGRAM |
FUNCTION sum( integer n ) |
{ |
integer i, s |
s = 0 | function body
for i = 1 to n step 1 |
s = s + I |
next |
return(s) |
} |
This UDP includes a main program and one function called sum. The
function sum takes one parameter n with type integer and returns an
integer value.
A UDP with functions must include the keywords Prototype,
EndPrototype, Program, EndProgram, and Function. These
keywords are not case sensitive and must appear in the order as shown
above. In the program and function body, the syntax is almost the same as
that in a UDP without functions. It allows the user to define variables and
write statements.

UDP Prototype
Function prototypes are declared inside the keyword Prototype and
EndPrototype. Each function prototype has a return type, a function name,
and a number of parameter types. These parameter types, separated by
commas, are put inside a pair of parentheses. Each parameter type may
optionally be followed by a parameter name.

UDP Function Body


A function body must begin with the keyword Function followed by the
function name and some space between them. A function body does not
include the return type. The number and the types of parameters passed into
the function must be the same as those declared in the function prototype,
and, each parameter type must be followed a parameter name. Parameters
passed into a function should not be redefined as a variable in the function
body. Curly brackets in a function body are optional. The return statement

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in a function body returns the value of the expression that is inside the
following pair of parentheses and terminates the execution of the function.

Return Value and Multiple Values


Currently, only one single integer or real value can be directly returned from
a function. Returning a dataset or multiple integer, real, or dataset values
from a function can be done through parameters. When a parameter type is
followed by an asterisk * in both the prototype and body of a function, it
means the value of the variable is returned from the function. For example, in
the function retValue with the following prototype
Integer retValue( integer, real*, Data, Data* )
And body
Function retValue( integer n, real* x, Data d_in, Data*
d_out ),
n, x, d_in, and d_out are input variables and x and d_out are also
output variables. The values of x and d_out in the function are returned to
the calling function or the main program.

Passing Data into Function


All the data passing into a function must be from the calling function or the
main program. Functions cannot get any data from the outside by
themselves. All parameters passed into a function, whether input or output
parameters, must be declared in the calling function or the main program.
These parameters must be declared variables since expressions are not
supported in the current version of UDP.

An Additional Example
The following example shows how the UDP functions return multiple
datasets through parameters and also shows how the UDP functions call
other functions.
#This UDP tests the mean and the standard deviation
calculations#

Prototype
integer DatasetMul( integer n, Data d1, Data d2, Data* dMul )
real DatasetMean( integer n, Data d )
real DatasetSTDV( integer n, Data d )
EndPrototype

Program
integer n
real dMean, dSTDV, depth, bd,ld

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Data d_in
n = number_ds_point( d_in )
dMean = DatasetMean( n, d_in )
bd = first_ds_depth( d_in )
ld = last_ds_depth( d_in )
dSTDV = DatasetSTDV( n, d_in )
for depth = bd to ld step 200
add_point( depth, dMean )
next
EndProgram

Function DatasetMul( integer n, Data d1, Data d2, Data* dMul


)
{
integer i
for i=2 to 2*n step 2
dMul[i] = d1[i] * d2[i]
next
return(1)
}

Function DatasetMean( integer n, Data d )


{
integer i
real dMean
dMean = 0
for i=2 to 2*n step 2
dMean = dMean + d[i]
next
dMean = dMean / n
return(dMean)
}

Function DatasetSTDV( integer n, Data d )


{
integer retVal
real dMean, stdv
Data tDs[14]
dMean = DatasetMean( n, d )
retVal = DatasetMul( n, d, d, tDs )
stdv = DatasetMean( n, tDs )

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stdv = sqrt( stdv - dMean*dMean )


return( stdv )
}

Writing a UDM/UDP to File


A UDM or UDP in DrillWorks/PREDICT can be saved as a file.
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > User Defined Method (or User Defined
Program) > Edit. The Edit a User Defined Method (or Program) dialog
box appears (see Figure 239).

Figure 239: Edit a User Defined Program dialog box

2 Click the Export button. The Save As dialog box appears (see Figure 240).

Figure 240: Save As dialog box

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3 Navigate through Windows to save the file to the desired location.


4 Enter the name of the file in the File Name field.
5 Click Save. The UDM or UDP is saved as a text file.

Making UDM or UDP Groups


To better organize the number of UDMs or UDPs in your system, you can
arrange them in groups with this facility.
1 From the menu bar, select Tools > UDM (or UDP) Group > New. The
Create a UDM (or UDP) Group dialog box appears (see Figure 241).

Figure 241: Create a UDP Group

NOTE: To edit the UDM or UDP group, choose Tools > UDM (or UDP)
Group > Edit. To delete a UDM or UDP group, choose Tools > UDM (or UDP)
Group > Delete.

2 Enter a group name and description, if desired.


3 From the left list box, choose a UDM (or UDP) and click Add. To remove
from the group, choose it from the right list box and click Remove.
4 Click OK. The UDM or UDP group is created.

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Printer Setup

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Chapter 6: Report Generation


You can generate different reports and print graphic displays from
DrillWorks/PREDICT using this utility.

Printer Setup
In this facility, you can set up the printer to the desired settings.
1 From the menu bar, select Project > Printer Setup. The Print Setup dialog
box from Windows is displayed (see Figure 242).

Figure 242: Print Setup dialog box

2 Choose the printer, paper size, paper source, orientation and/or change
the settings accordingly.

NOTE: The program assumes a 300 x 300 dpi print resolution.

3 Click OK.

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Printing
In this facility, you can print reports or screen images (such as the tracks and
views).

Printing a Report
By using this facility, you can create a report with the specifications you
choose for the scaling, header, footer, logo size, and font.
1 From the menu bar, select Project > Print Report. The Print Report
window is displayed (see Figure 243).

Figure 243: Print Report dialog box - Report tab

2 Choose one of the following tabs:


Report (see Figure 243)
In the Report Title, choose the title of the report that appears at the top of
the report. By default, the system chooses the name of the View.
In the Analyst field, keep or change the initials. The data here is taken
from the Project Properties dialog box.
Enter the depth range and choose the vertical scale:
Fit on one page the vertical scale adjusts according to the size of the
page.
Specify Vertical Scale allows you to enter the maximum depth of
the vertical scale.

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Header (see Figure 244)

Figure 244: Print Report dialog box - Header tab

Choose the title default:


Current view name the default is the View name currently
displayed on screen.
Last saved entry the default is the last saved entry when you last
printed a report.
Blank there is no default.
Choose the alignment (left, center, right, or full).
Choose what to include (page number, total pages, company logo, data/
time, analyst, or parameters).

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Footer (see Figure 245)

Figure 245: Print Report dialog box - Footer tab

Choose where the Legends should appears.


Enter the footer text.
Logo (see Figure 246)

Figure 246: Print Report dialog box - Logo tab

Enter the file path of your logo graphic file (or click the Browse button to
navigate through Windows).
Choose the logo size:

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Use original size use the size specified in the original file.
Scale to whole header area the logo is adjusted to the size of the
whole header area.
Specify (in pixels) enter the width and height of the logo size.
Font (see Figure 247)

Figure 247: Print Report dialog box - Font tab

In the Font Name drop-down list box, choose the font.


In the Font Size section, choose the font sizes of each of the components
(title, header, depth scale, Legend and/or footer).
3 Click Print to print the report based on your specifications. Click Preview
to view the report based on the specifications. Click Page Setup to view
the page setup properties (paper size, paper source, orientation, and
margins).

Printing a Screen Image


You can get a screen dump (a picture capture of the screen or anything on
screen) in PREDICT. This can be done using standard Windows functions to
save the screen image to the Windows Clipboard. Thereafter, it can be pasted
into Windows Paintbrush so that it can be viewed, edited, and saved as a
Windows .bmp (bitmap) or another type of graphic file.
To print a screen image:
1 Arrange the view as you want it to look in the screen dump.
2 Press the PrtScr button (or ALT+PRINT SCRN) on the keyboard to copy
the image of the window to the clipboard.
3 Activate MS Paint via Start > Programs > Accessories > MS Paint.

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4 Choose Edit > Paste from the MS Paints menu bar.


5 Now you can manipulate the picture as desired, by using Copy, Cut and
Paste or resizing it using MS Paints functions. You can then save it using
a graphic file format (e.g., .bmp, .tif, .jpg, etc).

Printing a Cross plot Report


You can print a report of a cross plot using this facility.
1 Make sure that you are in Cross plot View. If not, choose View > Cross
Plot View and select the desired cross plot from the View drop-down list
box located in the tool bar.
2 From the menu bar, select Project > Print Report. The Print Report
window is displayed (see Figure 248).

Figure 248: Print Crossplot dialog box - Cross Plot tab

3 Choose one of the following tabs:


Cross Plot (see Figure 248)
In the Report Title, choose the title of the report that appears at the top of
the report. By default, the system chooses the name of the View.
In the Analyst field, keep or change the initials. The data here is taken
from the Project Properties dialog box.
Header (see Figure 249)

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Figure 249: Print Crossplot dialog box - Header tab

Choose the title default:


Current view name the default is the View name currently
displayed on screen.
Last saved entry the default is the last saved entry when you last
printed a report.
Blank there is no default.
Choose the alignment (left, center, right, or full).
Choose what to include (page number, total pages, company logo, data/
time, analyst, or parameters).

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Logo (see Figure 250)

Figure 250: Print Crossplot dialog box - Logo tab

Enter the file path of your logo graphic file (or click the Browse button to
navigate through Windows).
Choose the logo size:
Use original size use the size specified in the original file.
Scale to whole header area the logo is adjusted to the size of the
whole header area.
Specify (in pixels) enter the width and height of the logo size.
Font (see Figure 251)

Figure 251: Print Crossplot dialog box - Font tab

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In the Font Name drop-down list box, choose the font.


In the Font Size section, choose the font sizes of each of the components
(title, header, depth scale, Legend and/or footer).
4 Click Print to print the report based on your specifications. Click Preview
to view the report based on the specifications. Click Page Setup to view
the page setup properties (paper size, paper source, orientation, and
margins).

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CHAPTER 7: REAL-TIME ANALYSIS
Introduction

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Chapter 7: Real-time Analysis


This chapter covers how DrillWorks/WITSLINK and DrillWorks/PREDICT
products are connected and used to do real-time analyses. The chapter
further explains how data is structured, transmitted, and read in real-time.

Introduction
Real-time data is data that is processed and/or updated simultaneously as
information streams in, thereby creating a real-time situation. The MWD/
LWD real-time option enables DrillWorks/PREDICT to accept real-time data
generated during a drilling operation. DrillWorks/PREDICT, in turn, uses
this data to perform real-time updates of any calculation derived from the
real-time data inputs. In addition, DrillWorks/PREDICT can now transmit
data in real-time. Real-time capability is an option which must be activated
during the initial installation and licensing process.

Well Information Transfer Specification


(WITS)
DrillWorks/PREDICT accepts real-time data in Well Information Transfer
Specification (WITS) format. WITS is an industry-accepted data transmission
standard which has been implemented by most of the LWD and mudlogging
contractors. It is used to transfer wellsite data from one computer to another
and is designed to allow data to be transferred in either batch or online mode.
DrillWorks/PREDICT and DrillWorks/WITSLINK are designed to work
with WITS data in an online or real-time mode.
At present, DrillWorks/PREDICT will accept WITS data in WITS level 0, 1,
and 2 formats. This makes it possible to transmit any data stored as a dataset
within DrillWorks/PREDICT to another WITS-aware system. This should
prove useful in providing other WITS-aware software with real-time updates
of the pore pressure and fracture gradient calculations carried out within the
system.
WITS data can be transmitted to the DrillWorks/PREDICT computer using
either a standard RS-232 serial interface (null modem cable) or over a TCP/IP
network connection. WITS data transmitted by the DrillWorks/PREDICT
computer also uses these same interfaces.

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DrillWorks/WITSLINK
The program which actually manages the real-time WITS input and output
streams is called DrillWorks/WITSLINK. DrillWorks/WITSLINK is
specifically designed to function with DrillWorks/PREDICT. It is through
WITSLINK that the WITS data is received by the WITS sender and translated
into a file format readable by DrillWorks/PREDICT. WITSLINK also reads
the output files generated by the WITS transmit functions from within
DrillWorks/PREDICT and reformats them into WITS-standard data
transmission formats. It is through WITSLINK that the software and
hardware connections to the WITS sending computer and/or the WITS
receiving computer are implemented.
DrillWorks/WITSLINK reads the input WITS data, parses it into the proper
data channels and associated depths, and stores the data from each separate
WITS channel in a separate file on the hard drive. The DrillWorks/PREDICT
program, in turn, periodically searches these files for data updates and then
updates its own real-time datasets accordingly (approximately 9 seconds
each), including any affected screen displays. Similarly, when DrillWorks/
PREDICT is configured to transmit WITS data, an output file for each
separate channel is generated by the system. The output file is read
periodically and checked for updates by the DrillWorks/WITSLINK sender.
DrillWorks/WITSLINK translates the updated data contained in these files
into WITS-standard format and sends them in WITS format to the selected
receiver.
DrillWorks/WITSLINK normally runs minimized in the background. In
WITS receive mode, it can function independently of DrillWorks/PREDICT.
This allows the user to perform tasks within DrillWorks/PREDICT (such as
editing out spurious points in a real-time dataset) which require toggling off
the real-time data update capability without missing any of the data
transmitted by the WITS sender in the interim. When DrillWorks/PREDICTs
real-time update capability is toggled back on, the data files generated by
DrillWorks/WITSLINK will be searched for updates. DrillWorks/PREDICT
will then update accordingly if data is missed.

Real-time Operation
All of the basic functionality is supported in the real-time operation. Any
operation in DrillWorks/PREDICT that can be performed with static data can
also be performed using real-time data. All of the hardwired calculations
which depend upon real-time data input will also update in real-time.
Similarly, any calculation carried out from within a User Defined Method
(UDM) will update in real-time as each real-time input dataset is updated. For
example, if downhole temperature data in degrees Celsius is being recorded
in real-time, then a dataset that is the result of a User-Defined Method to

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convert temperature from degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit will also


update in real-time.

WITS Data Structure


WITS data is organized according to WITS levels, WITS data records, and
WITS channel.
The WITS level governs the overall format of the data, whereas the WITS
record number and WITS channel relate directly to the data itself.
WITS data is typically transmitted and received either by RS-232 serial cable
or using a TCP/IP network with standard Ethernet hardware and cabling.

WITS Levels
In order of increasing complexity, DrillWorks/PREDICT and DrillWorks/
WITSLINK support WITS Levels 0, 1, and 2.
WITS Level 0 is an ASCII standard format that allows unidirectional
transfer of WITS data from one computer to another.
WITS Level 1 is a binary unidirectional WITS data transfer format.
WITS Level 2 is a bidirectional data transfer format that allows the
receiver to control various aspects of the communcations session.
At present, WITS Level 0 is the most common, probably because the
datastream is directly readable without special tools or software.

WITS Data Records


Whereas the WITS Level involves the overall communications format
between the WITS sender and the WITS receiver, the WITS Record Number
and WITS Item actually deal with the data itself. In general, the WITS Record
Number designates the overall data category, whereas a WITS Item number
designates a specific data item within a WITS record. There are a number of
pre-defined WITS Records; each of these pre-defined WITS Records includes
a number of pre-defined WITS items.
Standard WITS Record categories are as follows:

Record #1:General Time-Based


Record #2:Drilling Depth-Based
Record #3:Drilling Connections
Record #4:Hydraulics
Record #5:Tripping/Casing Time-Based
Record #6:Tripping/Casing Connection-Based
Record #7:Survey/Directional

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Record #8:MWD Formation Evaluation


Record #9:MWD Mechanical
Record #10: Pressure Evaluation
Record #11: Mud Tank Volumes
Record #12: Chromatograph Gases Cycle-Based
Record #13: Chromatograph Gases Depth-Based
Record #14: Lagged Continuous Mud Properties
Record #15: Cuttings / Lithology
Record #16: Hydrocarbon Show
Record #17: Cementing
Record #18: Drill Stem Testing
Record #19: Configuration
Record #20: Mud Report
Record #21: Bit Report
Record #22: Remarks
Record #23: Well Identification
Record #24: Vessel Motion / Mooring Status
Record #25: Weather / Sea State

Most of the WITS data required by DrillWorks/PREDICT is included under


WITS Records #s 2, 8, and 10 because these records include depth-based
items which are likely to be transmitted in real-time while drilling.
Some of the LWD and mudlogging contractors have designated additional
WITS Records for certain types of information. These company-specific
record numbers are outside the WITS standard and are not directly
supported by DrillWorks/PREDICT and DrillWorks/WITSLINK except for
Level 0. However, it is possible to work around this problem by remapping
data in an unsupported WITS record to a spare channel within a supported
WITS record. In either case, you will be required to edit the WITS.SPC file in
the DrillWorks/PREDICT root directory as indicated in the section on WITS
Data Mapping .

WITS Data Items


Whereas the WITS Level involves the overall communications format
between the WITS sender and the WITS receiver, the WITS Record Number
and WITS Item actually concern the data itself. In general, the WITS Record
Number designates the overall data category, whereas the WITS Item
designates a specific data item within a particular WITS Record Number.
There are a number of pre-defined WITS Records; each of these pre-defined
WITS Records includes a number of pre-defined WITS items. Most of the
WITS data required by DrillWorks/PREDICT is included under WITS
Records #s 2, 8, and 10.
WITS Record #2 includes drilling depth-based data items. These may include
ECD, Corrected D-Exponent, Rotary Speed, MW in, and ROP. Each of these
data items corresponds to a particular WITS item number. Both the WITS
Record and WITS Item are required to designate a particular item uniquely

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because the same WITS Item number can naturally occur in several different
WITS Records. In WITS Record #2, the ROP value is normally Item #10, and
mud weight is normally Item #17. Since DrillWorks/PREDICT is a depth-
based system, each WITS data item requires an associated depth for plotting.
In Record #2, the bit TVD is Item #9, and the bit MD is Item #8. An ROP
which comes in via WITS is generally associated with the depth included in
either Item #8 or Item #9.
WITS Record #8 includes LWD data. Since the depth of each LWD sensor is
different, Record #8 includes separate vertical and measured depth channels
for each associated data item. This allows data values from multiple tool
sources to be mapped to their respective depths. For example, in Record #8,
borehole corrected gamma ray 1 is usually Item 24, which is usually
associated with its corresponding vertical sensor depth in Item 22. Corrected
resistivity 1, usually Item 16, is associated with the depth value in Item 14.

WITS Transfer Specification Data


Mapping
Since DrillWorks/PREDICT is a depth-based system, each WITS data value
must also be associated with a particular depth. A WITS datastream for a
single item includes its WITS record #, item # and a value. In a depth-based
system, two separate WITS items must be transmitted for each particular data
point. One of the data items is a depth whereas the second of these data items
is a parameter value.
The DrillWorks/PREDICT system has to have a way of connecting parameter
values with corresponding depths. During the initial DrillWorks/PREDICT
installation, a file called WITS.SPC is copied into the DrillWorks/PREDICT
root directory, which by default is C:\Program Files\Predict\ . The
WITS.SPC file contains the information necessary to map a particular
parameter with the item number of its associated depth. If any WITS item
mapping requires changing, it must be edited manually within WITS.SPC
using an ASCII text editor (WordPad or Notepad).
The WITS.SPC file requires that each line use a specific format. Each line
includes eight fields, which are either space or comma delimited. A section
from a typical WITS.SPC file is shown below:

0201 0 0000 XXXX Well Identifier, WID, A, 16


0202 0 0000 XXXX Sidetrack/Hole Sect NO., SKNO, US, 2
0203 0 0000 XXXX Record Identifier, RID, US, 2
0204 0 0000 XXXX Sequence Identifier, SQID, L, 4
0205 0 0000 XXXX Date, DATE, L, 4
0206 0 0000 XXXX Time, TIME, L, 4
0207 0 0000 XXXX Activity Code, ACTC, US, 2
0208 0 0000 XXXX Depth Hole(Measure), DMEA, F, 4
0209 0 0000 XXXX Depth Hole(Vertical), DVER, F, 4

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0210 1 0209 ROPA ROP Average, ROPA, F, 4


0211 1 0209 WOBA WOB Average, WOBA, F, 4
0212 1 0209 HKLA Hookload Average, HKLA, F, 4
0214 1 0209 TQA Torque average, TQA, F, 4
0217 1 0209 MDIA Mud Density In average, MDIA, F, 4
0218 1 0209 ECDT Eff Circ Density at TD, ECDT, F, 4
0227 1 0209 DXC Dxc Exponent, DXC, F, 4
0801 0 0000 XXXX Well Identifier, WID, A, 16
0802 0 0000 XXXX Sidetrack/Hole Sect NO., SKNO, US, 2
0803 0 0000 XXXX Record Identifier, RID, US, 2
0804 0 0000 XXXX Sequence Identifier, SQID, L, 4
0805 0 0000 XXXX Date, DATE, L, 4
0806 0 0000 XXXX Time, TIME, L, 4
0807 0 0000 XXXX Activity Code, ACTC, US, 2
0808 0 0000 XXXX Depth Hole(Measure), DMEA, F, 4
0809 0 0000 XXXX Depth Hole(Vertical), DVER, F, 4
0810 0 0000 XXXX Depth Bit(Measure), DBTM, F, 4
0811 0 0000 XXXX Depth Bit(Vertical), DBTV, F, 4
0812 0 0000 XXXX Pass Number, PASS, US, 2,
0813 0 0000 XXXX Depth Resis 1 sensor(Measure), DR1M, F, 4
0814 0 0000 XXXX Depth Resis 1 sensor(Vertical), DR1V, F, 4
0815 1 0814 MR1 Resistivity 1 Reading, MR1, F, 4
0816 1 0814 MRC1 Resistivity 1 (borehole corr), MR1C, F, 4
0817 0 0000 XXXX Depth Resis 2 sensor(Measure), DR2M, F, 4
0818 0 0000 XXXX Depth Resis 2 Sensor(Vertical), DR2V, F, 4
0819 1 0818 MR2 Resistivity 2 Reading, MR2, F, 4
0820 1 0818 MR2C Resistivity 2 (borehole corr), MR2C, F, 4
0821 0 0000 XXXX Depth G.Ray 1 Sensor(Measure), DG1M, F, 4
0822 0 0000 XXXX Depth G.Ray 1 Sensor(Vertical), DG1V, F, 4
0823 1 0822 MG1 Gamma Ray 1 Reading, MG1, F, 4
0824 1 0822 MG1C Gamma Ray 1 (borehole corr), MG1C, F, 4

To edit the WITS.SPC file, see Editing the WITS.SPC File on page 259.
The eight fields in WITS.SPC are explained below, in order from left to right
using the following example:
EXAMPLE:

0824 1 0822 MG1C Gamma Ray 1 (borehole corr), MG1C, F, 4


1 Record number and item number The first field shown in the example
taken from the WITS.SPC file is 0824. The 0824 represents WITS record
number 8, item 24.
2 Flag for a depth reference for an item The second field is either 1 or 0. If
it is a 1, a depth must be associated with the item. If 0, no depth is
associated. This field may be filled with a 0 if the item is already a depth,
is time-based rather than depth-based or if the item contains
miscellaneous information, such as a well name.
3 Depth reference - If the third field (in the example, it is 0822) was
populated with a 1, then this field must be populated with the item
number of the associated depth. For instance, item 0824 contains gamma

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ray values. The associated depth for these gamma ray values is item 0822
(see WITS.SPC list). Note that the second and third fields in item 0822
are populated with 0 and 0000, respectively. This means that there is no
external depth reference. In this case, no external depth reference is
required because item 0822 is itself a depth value. It is possible to have
more than one item mapped to a particular depth item. This is often the
case in WITS Record #2, which contains drilling data. Most of these data
items map to item 0209, which is vertical bit depth. By default,
WITS.SPC is shipped with depth-based mapped to vertical depth
channels. Some WITS sending systems only work with measured depth.
For example, an LWD contractor may wish to transmit gamma ray, item
0824, in measured depth. If so, the associated depth may be sent via item
0821 rather than 0822. In such a case, it will be necessary to edit
WITS.SPC manually and change the third field in the item 0824 line
from 0822 to 0821.
4 Long mnenomic Mnemonic designating the data item. In the example,
the fourth field displays MG1C, which is the standard mnemonic for
Borehole Corrected Gamma Ray 1.
5 Item description In the fifth field, a description of the particular WITS
item number is shown.
6 Short mnemonic - Mnemonic identifier for the data item, usually 4
characters maximum. This sixth field is usually the same as the fourth
field.
7 Datatype In the seventh field, the datatype is displayed. There are
several datatypes associated with this item. Usually it will be either A,
alphanumeric, or F, floating point. If the item is a numeric parameter
value or depth, the data type will be F.
8 Number of Bytes - Alphanumeric fields are 16 bytes in length, so this
eighth field should be populated with 16 if the data type is alphanumeric.
If the data type is floating point, F, this field should be populated with a
4.
DrillWorks/PREDICT and DrillWorks/WITSLINK read WITS.SPC
whenever either program is loaded. Fields 1 and 4 are displayed in the
selection dialog boxes involving real-time data in both programs.

Editing the WITS.SPC File


You can choose the WITS items you want to use in the data transfer and
customize the WITS.SPC file using this utility.

NOTE: Only edit the WITS.SPC file if changes need to be made to it since
the last time you did a data transfer. Otherwise, it can remain the
same. If changes are made to the WITS.SPC file, make sure you
restart WITSLINK and PREDICT in order for it to accept the new
changes.

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There are two ways to edit the WITS.SPC File:


Edit it in WITSLINK. See below for more information.
Edit it using a text editor program, such as Notepad.
It is possible to virtually map any data channel to any item. Lines can also be
added to the file provided they follow the general format described in WITS
Transfer Specification Data Mapping. Also see WITS Transfer Specification
Data Mapping on page 257. Many of the items contain a number of spare
channels which can be used for user-defined tools or sensors.
To edit the WITS.SPC file in WITSLINK:
1 Open the WITSLINK program.
2 Choose File > WITS Channel Mapping. The Edit WITS Channel Mapping
Information dialog box appears (see Figure 252).

Figure 252: Edit WITS Channel Mapping Information dialog box

3 Click the Browse button to navigate through Windows to locate the


WITS.SPC file. Normally, it is stored in the C:\Program
Files\PredictXX\ directory.
4 You can check the Show Enabled Channels Only box if you want to see
only the items that are enabled.
5 Choose one of the following:
To add a WITS item, fill in the item channel, depth channel,
description and mnemonic and click Add.
To edit a WITS item, choose the item in the list box on the bottom,
make the changes, and click Edit.

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To delete a WITS item, choose the item in the list box on the bottom
and click Delete.
6 Click Close. Restart both DrillWorks/PREDICT and DrillWorks/
WITSLINK.

WITSLINK Connection

Reading a WITS Datastream


Of the three WITS levels supported by DrillWorks/PREDICT, only WITS
Level 0 is transmitted and received in an ASCII format which is directly
readable by the user. WITS Levels 1 and 2 are binary formats which are not
directly readable by the user but which can be read by the DrillWorks/
WITSLINK software.
WITS Level 0 A WITS Level 0 transmission consists or one of more data sets.
A data set is comprised of one or more related data items. Each WITS Level 0
data set begins with a pair of ampersand characters (&&) and ends with a pair
of exclamation point characters (!!). Each data item within a WITS Level 0
dataset is separated by a CR/LF (carriage return/line feed) character
combination. An example of a WITS Level 0 session containing 4 data items is
shown below. The four data items are: Measured depth of the resistivity 1
reading, resistivity 1 reading, measued depth of the gamma ray 1 reading,
and gamma ray 1 reading.

&&<CR><LF> beginning of the WITS dataset


08133561.35<CR><LF> WITS record 08, item 13, value 3561.35
0815.97<CR><LF> WITS record 08, item 15, value .97
08213565.13<CR><LF> WITS record 08, item 21, value 3565.13
082397.1<CR><LF> WITS record 08, item 23, value 97.1
!! <CR><LF> end of the WITS dataset

In the preceding example, there are four data items, with one data item per
line, and two additional lines which mark the beginning and the end of the
WITS transmission. The first two characters on any data line represent the
WITS Record number. In the example, all of the data items are from WITS
Record 8. The next two characters in each line represent the WITS item
number within the WITS record. These record numbers are 13, 15, 21, and 23
for each of the four data lines, respectively. In the WITS standard under
Record 8, item 13 is the measured depth of the resistivity 1 sensor, item 15 is
the resistivity 1 sensor reading itself, item 21 is the measured depth of the
gamma ray sensor 1, and item 23 is the gamma ray sensor 1 reading.
Characters 5 through <CR> on each line represent the data value of the WITS
item.

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WITS Level 0 data can be displayed on any WITS receiver computer using
standard terminal emulation software (telnet or HyperTerminal). This ability
can sometimes be handy in debugging a WITS connection without involving
DrillWorks/WITSLINK. When DrillWorks/WITSLINK is running, any
received or transmitted WITS Level 0 is displayed directly beneath the split in
the main DrillWorks/WITSLINK screen.
WITS Levels 1 and 2 Since WITS Levels 1 and 2 are binary formats, the
WITS datastream is not directly readable using standard software. True, the
raw datastream can be displayed using standard terminal emulator, but the
datastream itself is unreadable. Therefore, DrillWorks/WITSLINK must be
used to read the transmitted or received data in real time. WITS Level 1 and 2
data are displayed in child screens which pop up whenever the first data item
is received or transmitted. One child screen is used for each different WITS
record. Therefore, it may be necessary to toggle between several screens if
multiple WITS records are involved. This is in contrast to WITS Level 0 data,
which is displayed directly beneath the horizontal split in the DrillWorks/
WITSLINK main screen. An example of a WITS Level 1 data display screen is
shown in the figure below. The display for WITS Level 2 is similar.
In the figure above, null values are represented by 999.25. In this case, items
14, 16, 22, and 24 are populated with data values. In addition, items 1-8 in the
header information portion are also populated.

Receiving Real-time Data in WITS


Format
DrillWorks/PREDICT and DrillWorks/WITSLINK work with data in Well
Information Transfer Specification (WITS) Level 0, 1, or 2 format. The WITS
format is an industry-standard data transmission format which has been
adopted by many of the LWD and mudlogging vendors to allow
communication between various systems. It is actually DrillWorks/
WITSLINK that monitors the connection between itself and the computer
sending the WITS data.
When real-time WITS data is received by DrillWorks/WITSLINK, the data is
written into files that are located in the specified location for the WITS Input
or Output directory under Tools > Options > Path in DrillWorks/PREDICTs
menu bar. The default location for these files is in
C:\Program Files\Predict\Predict\Projects\WitsInput
Data from each WITS channel is written to a separate file in which the data
contained in that particular WITS channel and its associated depth are stored.
The individual files have names that are of the form WITSXXYY where XX
represents the WITS data record number and YY represents the
corresponding channel within that record.

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Although depth information is typically sent as a separate channel in a WITS


transmission, the DrillWorks/PREDICT system includes a mapping file
called WITS.SPC (WITS specification file), which allows the user to map
specific data channels to specific depth channels. Both DrillWorks/
WITSLINK and DrillWorks/PREDICT read WITS.SPC to determine the
links between data channels and depth channels. This allows corresponding
depths and data to be stored in the same file. Therefore, depths are not stored
in separate files, and these channels will not appear as separate WITSXXYY
files in the aforementioned subdirectory. The WITSXXYY files are binary files
and are not user-editable or readable.
In order to receive WITS data, the physical connection between the computer
sending the WITS data and the computer receiving the WITS data must be
made. The WITS sender and receiver are typically connected using a special
RS-232 serial cable called a null modem cable or via a TCP/IP network, which
typically uses standard Ethernet topology, cabling, and hardware. It is
possible to establish communication and test the link between the WITS
sender and receiver without running DrillWorks/PREDICT or DrillWorks/
WITSLINK. However, once the connection has been properly established, it is
necessary to run PREDICT and WITSLINK in order to store and update real-
time received WITS data (see Figure 253).

Figure 253: DrillWorks/WITSLINK screen showing the receiving end

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Connecting WITS Sender and Receiver


Via RS-232 Cable
It is possible to connect the serial port of the WITS transmitter directly to the
serial port of a WITS receiver using a null modem cable. A null modem cable
is a special serial cable which is designed to allow data transfer between two
computers directly via their respective serial ports. A null modem cable looks
much like a standard serial cable except that it generally has female RS-232
connectors on both ends. The advantage of a null modem connection is its
relative simplicity and low cost. The disadvantages include speed and
distance. Of the two, distance is the more critical limiting factor in
transmitting and receiving real-time WITS data. Typically, the performance of
an RS-232 connection between two computers is degraded once the cable
length exceeds 100 feet. Serial connections are also prone to electrical noise
and magnetic interference, both of which can be present in great quantities at
the wellsite.
The serial port parameters need to be set the same on both the WITS sender
and receiver. Parameters that need to be set and checked are as follows:
Baud rate (aka bits per second): 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200, or 300 (use 9600,
2400, or 1200)
Data Bits: 7 or 8 (use 8)
Parity: Even, Odd, None, Mark, or Space (use None)
Stop Bits: 1, 1.5, or 2 (use 1)
Flow Control: Hardware, Software, or None (use None)
If possible, it is always desirable to use the highest baud rate because the data
transmission is faster. However, using 9600 baud may not always be feasible
due to noise and magnetic interference. In such a case, it may be necessary to
slow the baud rates on both machines down to 2400 or even 1200 bps.
When using a null modem cable to connect the serial port on the WITS
transmitter to the serial port on the WITS receiver (WITSLINK/PREDICT
computer), it is always good to verify the integrity of the connection before
attempting to configure (or troubleshoot!) WITSLINK.
One way to verify the serial connection between two computers is to use
Hyperterminal, a communications program in the Windows Accessories
group.
To set up Hyperterminal on a computer:
1 Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications >
Hyperterminal. A group of icons appears.
2 Double-click the Hyperterminal icon. This launches a Hyperterminal
session.
3 Give the session a name and select an icon.
4 When the Connect to Hyperterminal dialog box appears, select the Direct
to Com 1 or Direct to Com 2 from the Connect Using list. The ComXX
properties dialog appears.

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5 Set your communications parameters as outlined above.


6 Be sure and set flow control to None. When you exit Hyperterminal, it
will ask if you want to save the session. If you click Yes, the settings, icon,
and name you supplied earlier will be stored in the Hyperterminal
Program Group for later use.
7 After setting up Hyperterminal on one computer, do the same on the
other computer. Be sure the two computers are connected and that the
communications parameters are the same on both computers. The Com
ports do not need to be the same, but the other communications
parameters need to match.
8 Make sure Hyperterminal is running on both computers. Test your link
by typing in characters on one computer. These characters should appear
in Hyperterminal on the other computer.
9 Once the RS-232 link has been verified, you can safely proceed with
configuring WITSLINK and DrillWorks/PREDICT on the receiving
computer and configuring WITS on the sending computer.

Connecting WITS Sender and Receiver


Via TCP/IP Network
DrillWorks/WITSLINK is capable of recording and transmitting WITS Levels
0, 1, and 2 data over a TCP/IP network connection. The WITS sender and
WITS receiver need to be able to communicate directly with each other over
the TCP/IP connection. The manner in which each computer is physically
connected to the TCP/IP network is unimportant as long as the connection
supports TCP/IP and the computers can communicate. For example, one
computer could be connected to a TCP/IP network using a PPP dialup link
through a telephone modem while the other is connected via Ethernet.
In order to establish communication between two computers, it is necessary
to know their respective IP addresses and/or their network names. For
instance, we might have a computer named fox on our local area network
whose IP address is 192.168.1.131, and another computer named cheetah
whose IP address is 192.168.1.133.
To find a computers IP address in Windows 95 or 98:
1 Click on Start > Run in the Windows taskbar.
2 Type winipcfg in the box and click OK. A box containing the IP address
information for the computer appears.
The required information generally appears in the Interface column of the
output. In a Windows-based LAN, a computer may also have a friendly
name such as lion or tiger.
To find out the Windows name for the computer:
1 Click My Computer > Control Panel > Network.
2 Click the Identification tab.

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A TCP/IP connection between two machines can be tested using the


Windows ping command. Ping sends a data packet from one machine to
another machine on the network. If the second machine receives the packet, it
acknowledges that fact to the sending machine. The sending machine
displays the results on its screen. The ping command can be issued from the
MS-DOS prompt.
To ping, type Ping <IP address or name of second machine>.
In Windows NT, it is possible to obtain the computers IP address by issuing a
ROUTE PRINT command at the Command Prompt (DOS prompt).

Configuration and Transmission

Configuring DrillWorks/WITSLINK to
Receive WITS Data
After the link between the WITS sender and the DrillWorks/PREDICT
computer has been established and tested, it will be necessary to configure
DrillWorks/WITSLINK to receive real-time WITS data and DrillWorks/
PREDICT to process the data received in WITSLINK. It does not matter which
operation is performed first.
To configure WITSLINK to receive WITS Data:
1 Open the WITSLINK program. The actual configuration is handled
through a series of Wizards which guide the user through the various
configurations.
2 Select Receiver > Receive Wizard from the menu bar. The WITSLINK
Receive Setup dialog box appears with 3 options (see Figure 254).

Figure 254: WITSLINK Receive Wizard dialog box - Step 1

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Clean up files in Wits Input directory - allows the user the option of
deleting any previous files stored in the ..\WitsInput
subdirectory. In general, you will want to enable this option if there
are files left over from a previous project or if there is reason to
suspect that the current files are corrupted. You should leave this
option disabled if DrillWorks/PREDICT is currently updating in
real-time. It performs its updates based on the information stored in
these files. Usually, it is only necessary to delete the existing files
whenever a new project is started or if spurious depth values have
been transmitted and stored in the files. A spurious depth value can
sometimes cause DrillWorks/PREDICT to stop updating in real-time.
Receive Data Immediately After Connection (default) records WITS
data immediately.
Log Received Data options (default) - Keeps a file with a copy of the
raw WITS data.
3 Click Next. The Medium dialog box appears. The Medium dialog box
allows the user to select the connection medium between the WITS
sender and the WITS receiver (see Figure 255).

Figure 255: WITSLINK Receive Wizard dialog box - Step 2

There are three choices:


Network (TCP/IP) server This option requires that the other
machine be set up as a client. Setting up WITSLINK as a server has an
advantage because multiple sending clients can connect to
WITSLINK simultaneously
Network (TCP/IP) client -This option requires that the other machine
be set up as a server.
RS232 (Serial port) This option requires that both machines use the
RS232 option.
One of the two network options should be selected if it is anticipated that
WITS data will be transmitted via a TCP/IP network. If the Network

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(TCP./IP) client option is selected, a dialog will appear within WITSLINK


which will walk the user through establishing a connection with the
WITS sender. If WITSLINK is configured as a TCP/IP client, then only
one connection can be established per WITSLINK instance. The TCP/IP
client/server functionality is included to accommodate WITS sending
software from various vendors. You should select the RS232 (Serial port)
option if the DrillWorks/WITSLINK computer is connected to the WITS
sending computer by a null modem cable. The Com port setting defaults
to Com 1, but, it can be changed if the null modem cable is attached to a
different com port. Serial port settings need to be the same on both the
WITS sender and WITS receiving computers. Typical serial port settings
of 9600 Bits per second, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity and no flow con-
trol are configured. Additional information on the serial hookup is
included in Connecting WITS Sender and Receiver Via RS-232 Cable on
page 264.
4 Click Next The dialog box which allows the user to select the WITS Level.
The WITS level dialog box allows the user to select WITS Level 0, 1, or 2
data input (see also WITS Levels on page 255). See Figure 256.

Figure 256: WITSLINK Receive Wizard dialog box - Step 3

The Level 2 address option is enabled only if WITS Level 2 is selected. In


WITS Level 2, each computer can be assigned an arbitrary numeric
address. This numeric address is used by the WITS protocol to send mes-
sages back and forth. Since WITS Levels 0 and 1 are unidirectional proto-
cols, this particular option is not enabled in WITS Levels 0 or 1. If 9999 is
chosen is chosen as a receiver address, then any data sent by Drill-
Works/WITSLINK using the WITS Level 2 protocol will be broadcast to
all the computers hooked into the WITS network. If any other address is
supplied here, then any WITS Level 2-generated messages go only to that
particular computer. In this example, the WITSLINK computer is desig-
nated as address 1, and the receiving computer is designated address as

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9999, which broadcasts any messages emanating from the WITSLINK


computer to all the WITS computers on the network.
5 Click Finish.
What happens when the user clicks Finish in the screen above depends on the
selected connection option. If RS-232 was selected, the main screen within
DrillWorks/WITSLINK should display a message indicating that the
communications port was opened successfully. Failure to see a message
indicating a successful connection to the Com port suggests that the Com port
is either invalid or is already in use by another program or device.
To resolve the error:
1 Select File > Close Current Session from the DrillWorks/WITSLINK
menu bar.
2 Go back through the Receive Wizard steps outlined above.
If the user selected the Network (TCP/IP) server option, a message will
appear on the main WITSLINK screen stating that WITSLINK is ready to
accept a remote connection. In this case, the WITS sender will be required
to initiate the connection. When the sender connects, a message will
appear indicating a successful connection. Multiple WITS computers can
connect to a TCP/IP Network Server. Such functionality might be useful,
for instance, when separate WITS datastreams are coming from a mud-
logging contractor and an LWD contractor. If the user selected Network
(TCP/IP) client option during the initial configuration, a dialog will
appear requesting an IP address or friendly network name for the
WITS sender and a TCP/IP port through which the connection should be
made. In the figure below, the user has specified a connection to port 1400
on a WITS sending computer with an IP address of 192.168.1.132.
It is generally safe to accept the default port value, but any unused TCP/IP
port can be used. A list of the ports already assigned within the system is in
the ..\Windows\services file.
The Receive Wizard option is enabled by default when the DrillWorks/
WITSLINK program first starts, but the option is disabled once the initial
receive configuration is complete. If it is necessary to change session
parameters after the initial configuration has been completed, the Receive
Wizard can be rerun by clicking File > Close Current Session on the menu bar
and then rerunning the Receive Wizard.
To disconnect all the other WITS computers from DrillWorks/WITSLINK
and quit the program, select File > Exit from the menu bar.
To change the DrillWorks/WITSLINK activation options, select File >
Register from the menu bar.

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WITS Data Display


Of the three WITS levels supported by DrillWorks/PREDICT, only WITS
Level 0 is transmitted and received in an ASCII format which is directly
readable by the user. WITS Levels 1 and 2 are binary formats which are not
directly readable by the user but which can be read by the DrillWorks/
WITSLINK software.
WITS Level 0 data can be displayed on any WITS receiver computer using
standard terminal emulation software (telnet or HyperTerminal). This ability
can sometimes be handy in debugging a WITS connection without involving
DrillWorks/WITSLINK. When DrillWorks/WITSLINK is running, any
received or transmitted WITS Level 0 is displayed directly beneath the split in
the main DrillWorks/WITSLINK screen as shown below.
WITS Levels 1 and 2 Since WITS Levels 1 and 2 are binary formats, the
WITS datastream is not directly readable using standard software. True, the
raw datastream can be displayed using standard terminal emulator, but the
datastream itself is unreadable. Therefore, DrillWorks/WITSLINK must be
used to read the transmitted or received data in real time. WITS Level 1 and 2
data are displayed in child screens which pop up whenever the first data item
is received or transmitted. One child screen is used for each different WITS
record. Therefore, it may be necessary to toggle between several screens if
multiple WITS records are involved. This is contrast to WITS Level 0 data,
which is displayed directly beneath the horizontal split in the DrillWorks/
WITSLINK main screen. An example of a WITS Level 1 data display screen is
shown in the figure below. The display for WITS Level 2 is similar.
In the figure above, null values are represented by 999.25. In this case, items
14, 16, 22, and 24 are populated with data values. In addition, items 1-8 in the
header information portion are also populated.

Registering DrillWorks/WITSLINK
DrillWorks/WITSLINK is activated using either a hardware key or a
software key. Since DrillWorks/WITSLINK is an option, the product is not
automatically activated when DrillWorks/PREDICT itself is activated.
The hardware key is a parallel port lock (dongle) which is shipped with the
software licensing parameters pre-configured. Whenever the DrillWorks/
WITSLINK program is activated with a valid hardware lock installed, the
program will start normally without any user intervention. This capability
allows the user to install copies on several computers and share a single
license among them by simply connecting the parallel port software lock to
the appropriate computer. Changing the terms of the licensing agreement
requires either replacing or reprogramming the parallel port lock. Contact
Knowledge Systems by telephone at 281-879-1400, fax at 281-879-1499 or via

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e-mail at support@knowsys.com if a dongle reconfiguration or replacement is


required.
The software key licensing option is computer-specific. If multiple copies of
DrillWorks/WITSLINK are installed on multiple computers, each
DrillWorks/WITSLINK instance must be licensed separately and explicitly.
To activate the software using a software licensing key, select File > Register
on the DrillWorks/WITSLINK menu bar. A dialog box will appear which
displays a Computer Code and Computer ID. Contact Knowledge Systems at
281-879-1400 (voice), 281-879-1499 (fax), or e-mail support@knowsys.com to
obtain the necessary Access Code and Additional Code. You will need to
supply us with the Computer Code and Computer ID shown when you
invoke File > Register from the DrillWorks/WITSLINK menu bar before it
will be possible for us to issue the required codes for unlocking DrillWorks/
WITSLINK.

Configuring DrillWorks/PREDICT to
Receive WITS Data
In the DrillWorks/PREDICT system, DrillWorks/WITSLINK handles the
physical connection and the actual writing of WITS data to files readable by
DrillWorks/PREDICT. It is DrillWorks/PREDICT that handles the data
append, real-time append, display, and calculation updates.
In order for a dataset to be capable of being updated in real-time, it must
explicitly be set up as a real-time dataset from within DrillWorks/PREDICT.
To set up a dataset as a real-time dataset:
1 Select MWD/LWD > New Dataset from the DrillWorks/PREDICT menu
bar. The Import Datasets dialog box appears (see Figure 257).

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Figure 257: Import Datasets dialog box (for Real-time)

2 Select the well with which the data will be associated.


3 Select whether the WITS data will be transmitted as measured depth
(MD) or true vertical depth (TVD). Usually, you will select the True
Vertical Depth option. If the Measured depth option is selected, the
program assumes that you have already loaded a table of values to
convert the depths to TVD.
4 Select the depth interval and depth reference. Usually, incoming data will
be TVD, 1 or 0.5 ft interval, and RKB depth reference.
5 Click Next. The Select Datasets to Load dialog box appears listing the
WITS datasets (see Figure 258).

Figure 258: Select Datasets to Load dialog box (for Real-time)

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6 Select all the WITS channels that correspond to the WITS data which will
be sent. DrillWorks/PREDICT reads the contents of the WITS.SPC file to
generate the Channels as shown onscreen. If the desired channel is not
shown, you will need to edit the WITS.SPC file and supply additional
lines that contain the required information. See WITS Transfer
Specification Data Mapping on page 257 for additional information
regarding WITS.SPC. You may select up to 10 channels at a time.
7 Once all the required incoming WITS datasets have been chosen, click
Next to continue the configuration. The Create a Dataset window appears
(see Figure 259).

Figure 259: Create a Dataset dialog box (for Real-time)

8 Select a name, attributes, and datatype for each incoming WITS dataset.
The channel name is the name of the associated channel in the WITS.SPC
file, and the well name is the name of the well with to which the data is
associated.
9 Click Next. The dialog box cycle through all WITS datasets selected.
10 Click Finish. At this point, the WITS datasets contain no data.

Sending Data from DrillWorks/PREDICT


After the WITS datasets have been created, the user can actually begin real-
time updates by selecting MWD/LWD > Start from the menu bar.
Conversely, it may occasionally be necessary to stop the real-time updates in
order to edit out bad data or to perform other system maintenance work. The
real-time updates can be toggled off by selecting MWD/LWD > Stop from the
menu bar.
It is also possible and often necessary to append ASCII data into an existing
real-time dataset. This situation could arise, for example, when LWD or

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wireline data has been collected prior to setting up DrillWorks/PREDICT in


real-time or if some real-time data has been missed due to a computer glitch.

Appending Datasets
It is possible to append data to an existing real-time dataset. The necessity to
do so could arise, for instance, if part of the well was drilled prior to setting
up DrillWorks/PREDICT or if data over an interval was missed. In either
case, it is possible to append data to an existing real-time dataset.
The data to be appended must be in ASCII file format.
To append data to an existing real-time dataset:
1 Select Data > Append from the DrillWorks/PREDICT menu bar. A
standard Windows file selection dialog box prompts you to select the
ASCII data file to append (see Figure 260).

Figure 260: Append ASCII Data dialog box (Real-time datasets)

2 Click Open. The Select Datasets to Load dialog box appears displaying
the column headers in the ASCII file (see Figure 261).

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Figure 261: Select Datasets to Load dialog box (Real-time datasets)

3 Select those column headers that correspond to the data items to append.
You should NOT have to select the column containing the depth, as
DrillWorks/PREDICT will read the required depth information directly
from the file. You can select up to 10 items at a time.
4 Once the appropriate items have been highlighted, click Next. The Select
a Dataset dialog box appears (see Figure 262).

Figure 262: Select a Dataset dialog box (Real-time datasets)

5 The Channel Name in this dialog is the original column name in the
ASCII file containing the data to be appended. A list of wells is shown on
the left list and the associated datasets are shown on the right.

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6 Select the appropriate well in the left list box , and then select the dataset
to which the ASCII data should be appended in the Associated Datasets
list box. DrillWorks/PREDICT cycles through the Select a Dataset dialog
until all the datasets selected for appending have been appropriately
mapped to the corresponding column in the ASCII file.
7 When all the datasets have been associated, click Finish.
DrillWorks/PREDICT will append data in the ASCII file below the deepest
depth of the existing data in the DrillWorks/PREDICT dataset. The append
function will not overwrite existing PREDICT data. It appends only beneath
the base of the deepest existing data. If you need to replace existing data with
data in the ASCII file, then you will need to edit the dataset manually before
performing the append.

Editing a Real-Time Dataset


It may occasionally be necessary to edit an existing real-time dataset in order
to fill in missing data or to delete spurious points. Before editing, the real-
time data update capability must be toggled off by selecting MWD/LWD >
Stop from the DrillWorks/PREDICT menu bar.
The procedure for editing a real-time dataset is exactly the same as the
procedure for editing any other dataset. The only difference is that the
MWD/LWD data acquisition mode must be toggled off as explained above.
Also see Editing Datasets on page 85.

Transmitting Data in WITS Format


The ability to transmit WITS data in real-time has been incorporated into
DrillWorks/PREDICT. Such capability is potentially useful, for instance,
whenever the results generated from within DrillWorks/PREDICT are
needed as inputs by other WITS-aware applications. This can be, for example,
a borehole stability application running on another computer.
The physical requirements for transmitting WITS data are exactly the same as
those for receiving WITS data. However, when the same machine is used to
receive and transmit WITS data, two instances of Drillworks/WITSLINK
must be run, with one instance acting as the WITS receiver while the other
acts as the WITS transmitter. Only one instance of DrillWorks/PREDICT,
however, is required. Since two applications cannot simultaneously connect
to the same serial port, at least two serial ports must be free in order to receive
and transmit WITS using RS-232 serial cabling. Ethernet does not share this
limitation, and, in general, simultaneous WITS sending and receiving is much
more flexible over an Ethernet TCP/IP network than over RS-232 serial
cabling.

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Both DrillWorks/PREDICT and DrillWorks/WITSLINK must be properly


configured in order for the WITS sending function to work. In general, the
data channel mapping and the depth interval to be sent is configured from
within DrillWorks/PREDICT, whereas the physical connection, data sending
rate , and WITS Level are configured from within DrillWorks/WITSLINK.
DrillWorks/PREDICT writes outgoing WITS data to files in a specific
subdirectory. Data from each different WITS data channel is written to a
separate file with a name of the form WITSXXYY where XX is the WITS
Record number and YY is the WITS item number within that record. The
naming convention and file format are identical to those used with incoming
WITS data. By default, outgoing WITS data is written to the
\Program Files\Predict\Predict\Projects\WitsOutput
subdirectory. Whenever new data is generated within DrillWorks/PREDICT,
the affected data files containing outgoing WITS data are also updated.
DrillWorks/WITSLINK runs in the background and periodically checks the
files in the ..\WitsOutput directory for updates and transmits the new data
as appropriate.

Configuring DrillWorks/PREDICT to
Send Data in WITS Format
The data channels, depth interval, depth range, and data mapping for WITS
send are all configured from within DrillWorks/PREDICT itself.
To configure DrillWorks/PREDICT for sending WITS data:
1 Select MWD/LWD > Send Setup from the menu bar. The Map Datasets
to WITS Items for Realtime Sending dialog box appears (see Figure 263).

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Figure 263: Map Datasets to WITS Items for Real-time Sending


dialog box

2 Choose whether only new data, a specified depth range of data, or all
selected data will be sent. When the Specify option is selected, WITS data
over the interval specified in the From and To boxes will be sent.
3 Data mapping is handled by the 3 list boxes in the Channel mapping
section. Datasets are listed by well. Once the proper well has been
selected, the user can then map the datasets to be sent to the proper WITS
channels. The WITS channels are shown in the Mapped WITS list box to
the right. The Mapped WITS items are read directly from the WITS.SPC
file as explained in WITS Transfer Specification Data Mapping on
page 257.
4 To map a dataset to a WITS item, highlight the desired WITS item in the
Map WITS items list at right. Then highlight the corresponding data item
in the Datasets list at left. Then click Add. The completed mapping will be
shown next to the WITS item at right. In the example above, the user has
mapped a gamma ray dataset, MG1C, to the 0824 MG1C WITS channel. If
you need to delete a mapping, highlight the desired item at right and
click Remove. Click OK when you have finished mapping all the desired
WITS channels.
5 When you are ready to begin sending, begin the transfer by selecting
MWD/LWD > Start from the menu bar. This action initializes
DrillWorks/PREDICT to begin writing the desired WITS data to files in
..\WitsOutput directory. These files are read by DrillWorks/
WITSLINK, which handles the actual data transmission. See

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Configuring DrillWorks/WITSLINK to Send Data in WITS Format on


page 279.

Configuring DrillWorks/WITSLINK to
Send Data in WITS Format
The WITS connection and data sending are handled from within DrillWorks/
WITSLINK. DrillWorks/WITSLINK can send WITS data either via an RS-232
serial link or over a TCP/IP Network link. The TCP/IP network link is much
more flexible in this regard because the same physical device (network card)
can handle WITS sending and receiving over multiple links, whereas a serial
connection can handle only a single link and is distance-limited.
If WITS send and receive functions are both handled using the same machine,
two instances of DrillWorks/WITSLINK will be required one for sending
and one for receiving. It is, in fact, possible to run 3 or more instances of
DrillWorks/WITSLINK in various sending and receiving configurations if
the situation requires.
WITS sending configuration should be performed within DrillWorks/
PREDICT before attempting to configure DrillWorks/WITSLINK for WITS
sending.
To run WITSLINK to send WITS Data:
1 Open WITSLINK. Configuration is handled through a series of Wizards,
which guide the user through the various configurations.
2 Select Sender > Send Wizard from WITSLINKs menu bar. The Medium
dialog box appears. The Medium dialog box allows the user to select the
connection medium between the WITS sender and the WITS receiver (see
Figure 264).

Figure 264: Medium dialog box (Send Wizard)

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The Medium dialog box allows the user to select the connection medium
between the WITS sender and the WITS receiver. There are three choices:
Network (TCP/IP) server This option requires that the other
machine be set up as a client. Setting up WITSLINK as a server has an
advantage because multiple sending clients can connect to
WITSLINK simultaneously
Network (TCP/IP) client -This option requires that the other machine
be set up as a server.
RS232 (Serial port) This option requires that both machines use the
RS232 option.
One of the two network options should be selected if it is anticipated that
WITS data will be transmitted via a TCP/IP network. If the Network
(TCP./IP) client option is selected, a dialog will appear within WITSLINK
which will walk the user through establishing a connection with the
WITS sender. If WITSLINK is configured as a TCP/IP client, then only
one connection can be established per WITSLINK instance. The TCP/IP
client/server functionality is included to accommodate WITS sending
software from various vendors. You should select the RS232 (Serial port)
option if the DrillWorks/WITSLINK computer is connected to the WITS
sending computer by a null modem cable. The Com port setting defaults
to Com 1, but, it can be changed if the null modem cable is attached to a
different com port. Serial port settings need to be the same on both the
WITS sender and WITS receiving computers. Typical serial port settings
of 9600 Bits per second, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity and no flow con-
trol are configured. Additional information on the serial hookup is
included in Connecting WITS Sender and Receiver Via RS-232 Cable on
page 264.
3 Click Next The dialog box which allows the user to select the WITS Level
appears (see Figure 265).

Figure 265: WITS Level dialog box (Send Wizard)

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The WITS level dialog box allows the user to select WITS Level 0, 1, or 2
data input (see also WITS Levels on page 255).
The Level 2 address option is enabled only if WITS Level 2 is selected. In
WITS Level 2, each computer can be assigned an arbitrary numeric
address. This numeric address is used by the WITS protocol to send mes-
sages back and forth. Since WITS Levels 0 and 1 are unidirectional proto-
cols, this particular option is not enabled in WITS Levels 0 or 1. If 9999 is
chosen is chosen as a receiver address, then any data sent by Drill-
Works/WITSLINK using the WITS Level 2 protocol will be broadcast to
all the computers hooked into the WITS network. If any other address is
supplied here, then any WITS Level 2-generated messages go only to that
particular computer. The WITS Level 2 address configuration screen is
shown below. In this example, the WITSLINK computer is designated as
address 1, and the receiving computer is designated address 9999, which
broadcasts any messages emanating from the WITSLINK computer to
all the WITS computers on the network.
4 Click Next. The Send option dialog box appears (see Figure 266).

Figure 266: Send Option dialog box (Send Wizard)

The Send option - specify how fast you want to send the data in samples
per second.
5 Click Finish.
What happens after the user configures the WITS sending rate depends
on which connection option was selected between the WITS sender and
receiver. If RS-232 was selected, the main screen within DrillWorks/
WITSLINK should display a message indicating that the communications
port was opened successfully. Failure to see a message indicating a suc-
cessful connection to the Com port suggests that the Com port is either
invalid or is already in use by another program or device.

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To resolve the error:


1 Select File > Close Current Session from the DrillWorks/WITSLINK
menu bar.
2 Go back through the Send Wizard steps outlined above.
If the user selected the Network (TCP/IP) server option during the con-
figuration process, a message will appear in the main WITSLINK screen
stating that WITSLINK is ready to accept a remote connection. In this
case, the WITS receiver will be required to initiate the connection. When
the receiver connects, a message will appear onscreen indicating a suc-
cessful connection. Multiple WITS computers can connect to a TCP/IP
Network Server. Such functionality might be useful, for instance, when
the outgoing WITS datastreams needs to be transmitted to several differ-
ent computers. If the user selected Network (TCP/IP) client option dur-
ing the initial configuration, a dialog will appear requesting an IP address
or friendly network name for the WITS receiver and a TCP/IP port
through which the connection should be made. In the figure below, the
user has specified a connection to port 1400 on a WITS receiving com-
puter with an IP address of 192.168.1.132.
It is generally safe to accept the default port value, but any unused TCP/
IP port can be used. A list of the ports already assigned within the system
is in the ..\Windows\services file.
The Send Wizard option is enabled by default when the DrillWorks/
WITSLINK program first starts, but the option is disabled once the initial
sending configuration is complete. If it is necessary to change session
parameters after the initial configuration has been completed, the Send
Wizard can be rerun by clicking File > Close Current Session from the
main menu and rerunning the Send Wizard.
WITS sending can be toggled on and off manually. There are two ways to
begin sending data:
Select Sender > Start from the DrillWorks/WITSLINK menu bar.

Click the Start button in the toolbar directly beneath the menu
bar.
Neither of these options will be enabled until after the user has satisfacto-
rily finished configuring the WITS options. The following options are
available:
To pause an ongoing session, select Sender > Pause from the menu

bar or click the Pause button on the toolbar.


To stop an ongoing session, select Sender > Stop from the menu bar

or click the Stop button on the toolbar.


The rate at which WITS data is sent can be changed by pausing the
session and selecting Sender > Property from the menu bar. Valid
sending rates are from 1-9 samples/second.

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Selecting File > Exit from the menu bar disconnects all the other WITS
computers from DrillWorks/WITSLINK and quits the program.
File > Register allows the user to change the DrillWorks/WITSLINK
activation options.
File > Close Current Session disconnects the WITS sender from the
WITS receiver and reenables the Simulation Wizard option.

Drilling Simulation using DrillWorks/


WITSLINK Overview
The drilling simulation function within DrillWorks/WITSLINK is similar to
the WITS sending function because it is also designed to send data in WITS
format. The difference is that the real-time WITS sender sends data directly
from DrillWorks/PREDICT datasets, whereas the simulator translates ASCII
files containing log data from ASCII to WITS format. It then transmits a
resulting WITS datastream.
The drilling simulation is used mainly in testing real-time DrillWorks/
PREDICT configuration and in training. The simulator configuration is
handled entirely within DrillWorks/WITSLINK. A real-time training
simulation can be easily devised by exporting existing DrillWorks/PREDICT
datasets into ASCII format and then transmitting them back into DrillWorks/
PREDICT in WITS format using the DrillWorks/WITSLINK drilling
simulator. This allows the user to gain experience setting up DrillWorks/
WITSLINK and DrillWorks/PREDICT in receive mode. The entire simulation
operation is entirely transparent to the WITS receiver, so no changes in the
receiving configuration are required to accommodate the simulator.
The drilling simulator is capable of sending WITS data using either RS-232
serial cabling or a TCP/IP network. It is also possible to run an instance of
DrillWorks/WITSLINK in simulation mode, another instance of DrillWorks/
WITSLINK on the same computer in WITS receiving mode, and DrillWorks/
PREDICT running in real-time update mode at the same time. This
functionality allows real-time simulation to be carried out on a single
machine and can be useful in testing particular data mapping schemes.
The drilling simulator within DrillWorks/WITSLINK can be configured to
send from 1 9 WITS samples/sec. The higher sending rates allow the
drilling simulation of an entire well to be completed in minutes rather than
hours.

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Configuring the DrillWorks/WITSLINK


Drilling Simulator
Configuring the DrillWorks/WITSLINK drilling simulator is similar to
configuring the WITS send option. The main difference is that the drilling
simulator reads its data from a standard ASCII file containing the log data
whereas the WITS sender reads its data from binary files that are specified
and then generated from within DrillWorks/PREDICT.
Basic simulator configuration steps consist of selecting the ASCII file which
contains the log data, specifying the connection medium, selecting the WITS
Level, specifying the channel mapping, and specifying the depth interval and
data sending rate.
To run the simulator:
1 Run the WITSLINK program. The actual sending configuration is
handled through a Wizard, which guides the user through the various
required steps.
2 Select Sender > Simulation Wizard from the DrillWorks/WITSLINK
menu bar. The Select an ASCII file dialog box appears (see Figure 267).

Figure 267: Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 1

3 Click Browse to navigate through Windows to find the desired ASCII file.
When you locate the file, click Open.
4 Click Next to continue. The Medium dialog box appears (see Figure 268).

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Figure 268: Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 2

5 Click Next. The Medium dialog box appears. The Medium dialog box
allows the user to select the connection medium between the WITS
sender and the WITS receiver. There are three choices:
Network (TCP/IP) server This option requires that the other
machine be set up as a client. Setting up WITSLINK as a server has an
advantage because multiple sending clients can connect to
WITSLINK simultaneously
Network (TCP/IP) client -This option requires that the other machine
be set up as a server.
RS232 (Serial port) This option requires that both machines use the
RS232 option.
One of the two network options should be selected if it is anticipated that
WITS data will be transmitted via a TCP/IP network. If the Network
(TCP./IP) client option is selected, a dialog will appear within WITSLINK
which will walk the user through establishing a connection with the
WITS sender. If WITSLINK is configured as a TCP/IP client, then only
one connection can be established per WITSLINK instance. The TCP/IP
client/server functionality is included to accommodate WITS sending
software from various vendors. You should select the RS232 (Serial port)
option if the DrillWorks/WITSLINK computer is connected to the WITS
sending computer by a null modem cable. The Com port setting defaults
to Com 1, but, it can be changed if the null modem cable is attached to a
different com port. Serial port settings need to be the same on both the
WITS sender and WITS receiving computers. Typical serial port settings
of 9600 Bits per second, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity and no flow con-
trol are configured. Additional information on the serial hookup is
included in Connecting WITS Sender and Receiver Via RS-232 Cable on
page 264.

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6 Click Next The dialog box which allows the user to select the WITS Level.
The WITS level dialog box allows the user to select WITS Level 0, 1, or 2
data input (see also WITS Levels on page 255 and Figure 269).

Figure 269: Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 3

The Level 2 address option is enabled only if WITS Level 2 is selected. In


WITS Level 2, each computer can be assigned an arbitrary numeric
address. This numeric address is used by the WITS protocol to send mes-
sages back and forth. Since WITS Levels 0 and 1 are unidirectional proto-
cols, this particular option is not enabled in WITS Levels 0 or 1. If 9999 is
chosen is chosen as a receiver address, then any data sent by Drill-
Works/WITSLINK using the WITS Level 2 protocol will be broadcast to
all the computers hooked into the WITS network. If any other address is
supplied here, then any WITS Level 2-generated messages go only to that
particular computer. The WITS Level 2 address configuration screen is
shown below. In this example, the WITSLINK computer is designated as
address 1, and the receiving computer is designated address 9999, which
broadcasts any messages emanating from the WITSLINK computer to
all the WITS computers on the network.
7 Click Next. The Send Items dialog box appears (see Figure 270).

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Figure 270: Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 4

It is in this window that the mappings between the desired WITS Items
and the corresponding ASCII log file columns are configured. The ASCII
file column headers appear in the list to the right, and the WITS data
items appear in the list to the left. The WITS Items are sorted by WITS
Level. The specific WITS items which appear depend on the WITS level
selected in the drop-down list box. It is possible to map multiple WITS
levels by changing the selected WITS level in the drop-down list box.
Only the items which appear in the WITS.SPC file are shown. For more
information on editing or adding to the WITS.SPC file, see WITS
Transfer Specification Data Mapping on page 257.
8 To map a particular WITS item to a corresponding ASCII file column,
highlight the corresponding items in both the left and right columns and
click the Add button. To delete an item that has already been mapped,
select the mapped item at right and click Delete. The mapped items are
indicated with arrows followed by the WITS item number and
mnemonic.
9 Click Next when you are finished with the data mapping. The Send
Option dialog box appears (see Figure 271).

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Figure 271: Simulation Wizard dialog box - Step 5

It is in this window that you can select the starting depth, ending depth,
depth interval (.25, .5, 1. ,2, 5 ft or m), and the send rate (1-9 samples/sec).
10 Click Finish when done.
11 At this point, the simulator is ready to connect to the WITS receiver.
If the simulator was configured as a TCP/IP Network Client, a dialog
box appears asking you to enter the TCP/IP Servers address and a
valid TCP/IP port number. It is generally safe to accept the default
port number of 1400. A successful connection will be indicated in a
message on the main WITSLINK screen. An unsuccessful connection
attempt causes a dialog box to be displayed which explains the
failure and allows the user to retry.
If the TCP/IP Network Server option was enabled, a message
appears in the main screen stating that DrillWorks/WITSLINK is
ready to accept a TCP/IP connection from a TCP/IP client.
If RS-232 was selected, a message indicating that the communications
port has been successfully opened should appear.
Oftentimes the drilling simulator and DrillWorks/PREDICT will be running
on the same computer. In such a case, two instances of DrillWorks/
WITSLINK must be running with one configured as a drilling simulator and
the other configured to receive WITS. Also, one instance must be configured
as a TCP/IP network server and one must be configured as a TCP/IP
network client (see Figure 272).

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Figure 272: The Simulation window

Simulation is toggled on and off manually. There are two ways to begin
sending data:
Select Sender > Start from the DrillWorks/WITSLINK menu bar.

Click the Start button in the toolbar directly beneath the menu bar.
Neither of these options will be enabled until after the user has satisfactorily
finished configuring the WITS simulation options. The following options are
available:
To pause an ongoing session, select Sender > Pause from the menu bar or

click the Pause button on the toolbar.


To stop an ongoing session, select Sender > Stop from the menu bar or

click the Stop button on the toolbar.


The rate at which WITS data is sent can be changed by pausing the
session and selecting Sender > Property from the menu bar. Valid
sending rates are from 1-9 samples/second.
Selecting File > Exit from the menu bar disconnects all the other WITS
computers from DrillWorks/WITSLINK and quits the program.
File > Register allows the user to change the DrillWorks/WITSLINK
activation options.

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File > Close Current Session disconnects the WITS sender from the WITS
receiver and reenables the Simulation Wizard option (see Figure 273)..

Record 8 (data transfer)

WITSLINK Senders WITSLINK


end (simulation) Datastream Receivers end
Figure 273: DrillWorks/WITSLINK Displaying a Data Transfer

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Index Table

A selecting for import, 78


Clavier et al, 161
air gap, 57 client settings/folders, 7
Amoco method, 153 column headers, 78
analysis comments
compaction trend, 180 UDM, 219
density, 171 UDP, 233
fracture gradient, 203 compaction trend analysis, 180
overburden gradient, 150 using Bowers_ sonic equation, 180
Poisson Ratio, 196 using Bowers_ velocity equation, 183
pore pressure gradient, 185 compaction trend, editing, 185
porosity, 173 comparing datasets, 103
sequence to calculate pore pressure, 149 components, 11
shale index, 154 composite datasets, 89
shale points, 164 confidence information, 147
shale volume, 161 configuration, PREDICT to send WITS data, 277
annotations, 134 configuration, WITS data, 266, 271
creating, 134 configuration, WITSLINK, 279
deleting, 137 constants
editing, 136 UDM, 218
appending data, 86 UDP, 228
assignment statement contact information, 9
UDM, 218 email, 9
UDP, 229 fax number, 9
Autosave feature, 21 phone, 9
averaging datasets, 88 website, 9
converting
depth reference, 142
B English-Metric, 142
MD-TVD, 141
bottom depth, 19 pressure gradient _ pressure, 144
Bowers, 180, 193, 194 units, 143
boxcar filter, 90 converting values, 140
Breckels and Van Eekelen, 209 coordinate system, 44, 58
cross plots, 103
adding datasets to X/Y axes, 106
C adding lines that were removed, 113
changing horizontal scale, 107
central meridian, 44 creating a view, 104
change requests, 9 creating lines, 111
channels creating or editing depth reference, 108
matching with datatypes, 78 dataset reference, 109

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deleting lines, 112 converting units, 143


displaying view, 105 creating from data entry, 83
printing reports, 248 definition, 34
removing lines, 112 deleting, 120
switching between log/linear, 107 discrete, 82
zooming in/out, 113 display attributes, 116
cursor coordinates, 27 displaying, 94
curves, 124 displaying last created, 96
editing, 85
editing active, 114
D exporting, 81
filtering, 90
Daines, 211 filtering by datatype, 36
data importing, 75, 78
analyzing, 149 interactive computing, 145
analyzing compaction trend, 180 library, 121
analyzing density, 171 lithology column, 82, 96
analyzing fracture gradient, 203 making composite, 89
analyzing overburden gradient, 150 parameters, 118
analyzing Poisson Ratio, 196 polygons, 82, 101
analyzing pore pressure gradient, 185 removing datasets, 96
analyzing pore pressure sequence, 149 RLGs, 124
analyzing porosity, 173 using a UDM, 220
analyzing shale index, 154 datatype
analyzing shale volume, 161 filtering datasets, 36
copying from a spreadsheet, 79 Datatype Filter button, 36, 152,
157, 159, 161,
importing, 75 168, 171, 173, 175, 178, 192, 196, 213
sending data in WITS format, 277 datatypes
shale discrimination, 164 creating or editing, 35
transmitting in real-time, 276 definition, 34
data file formats, 75, 81 deleting, 36
data, appending, 86 importing, 78
datasets, 82 matching with channels, 78
appending data, 86 UNK-Unknown, 78
appending in real-time, 274, 276 defaults
assigning units, 38 directory file paths, 21
averaging, 88 viewing bottom depth, 19
based on other dataset, 83 Views, 33
based on RLG, 83 density analysis, 171
changing scales, 117 depth interval, 77
colors/shading, 138 depth labels, 25
comparing with crossplots, 103 depth measurement conversion, 142
confidence information, 147 depth reference, 77
converting, 140 depth reference conversion, 142
converting depth reference, 142 discrete datasets, 82
converting English-Metric, 142 display attributes
converting MD-TVD, 141 geological age, 40
converting pressure gradient - pressure, 144 lithology, 39

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displaying fonts, 19
dataset display attributes, 116 FOR statement, 229
dataset properties, 115 fracture gradient analysis, 203
datasets, 94 using Breckels and Van Eekelen, 209
last dataset created, 96 using Daines, 211
RLG properties, 132 using Eaton, 204
dongle, registering with, 8 using Matthews and Kelly, 206
drilling simulation in WITSLINK, 283 functions
configuring, 284 UDM, 219
DrillWorks/PREDICT UDP, 230
components/terminology, 11
how the system works, 2
introduction, 1 G
new features, 3
packaging and installation, 4 Gardner, 171, 174
philosophy, 1 geographical location, 44
registration, 7 geological age
terminology, 12 creating or editing, 99
DrillWorks/WITSLINK, 254 display attributes, 40
drilling simulation, 283 selecting for lithology column, 98
registration, 270 grid lines
adding or removing, 26
changing color, 19
E changing settings, 20
setting number, 27
Eaton, 186, 187, 204
email, 9
Equivalent Depth method, 190 H
examples
UDM, 219 hardware lock, registration, 8
UDP, 234 hardware requirements, 4
exporting horizontal rescale, 26
datasets, 81 horizontal scale, 25
projects, 73 rulers, 26
RLGs, 133
wells, 73
external survey files I
importing into wells, 71
IF statement
UDM, 218
F UDP, 229
importing
fax number, 9 data, 75
features, new, 3 data formats, 75
file paths, default, 21 data, channels, 78
filtering datasets, 90 data, depth interval, 77
boxcar, 90 data, depth reference, 77
moving weight average, 93 data, TVD or MD, 77

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datasets, 75 meridian, 44, 58


datatypes, 78 moving weight average filter, 93
projects, 72
survey data, 71
wells, 73 N
installation, 4
basic, 5 networking, 6
client settings/folders, 7 client settings, 7
networks, 6 user licenses, 6
user licenses, 6 NextDS button, 96, 114
interactive computing, 114, 128, 129, 145
O
L
operators
Larionov, 161 UDM, 218
Legend, 25 UDP, 228
changing colors, 19 overburden gradient analysis, 150
library datasets, 121 Amoco method, 153
creating, 121 bulk density or density log, 150
deleting, 124 overview, 1
editing, 123
License Manager
registering, 7 P
linear scale, 117
lines, 124 packaging, 4
lithology column datasets, 82, 96 HW/SW requirements, 4
creating, 96 parameters, 118
editing, 99 phone numbers, 9
lithology display attributes, 39 Poisson Ratio analysis, 196
location, 58 from LOTs, 196
log scale, 117 Gulf Coast, 201
logical operators in deep water, 199
UDM, 218 Poisson Ratio equation, 197
UDP, 229 polygon datasets, 82, 101
creating, 101
deleting, 103
M editing, 102
pore pressure analysis
Matthews and Kelly, 206 sequence of steps, 149
MD, 57 pore pressure gradient analysis, 185
MD/TVD tables, 69 using Bowers_ method, 193
creating, 69 using Eaton_s methods, 186
deleting, 71 using equivalent depth, 190
editing, 70 porosity analysis, 173
importing into wells, 71 using density log, 174
Measured Depth, 57, 77 using porosity estimation zone, 178
coverting to TVD, 141 using sonic log, 176

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print statement in UDP, 233 by depth, 230


printer setup, 243 by index
printing UDP, 231
cross plots, 248 Reference Line Groups, 124
reports, 244 registering, 7
screen images, 247 DrillWorks/WITSLINK, 270
problem reports, 9 using a hardware lock, 8
product overview, 1 using the License Manager, 7
project groups, 45 removing datasets from the track, 96
deleting, 47 reports, 243
editing, 46 printer setup, 243
project index file, 21 printing, 244
projects, 43 printing cross plots, 248
central meridian, 44 printing screen image, 247
coordinate system, 44 requirements, hardware/software, 4
creating, 43 reserved words
deleting, 48 UDM, 219
exporting, 73 UDP, 233
geographical location, 44 RLGs, 83, 124
grouping, 45 converting to a dataset, 83
importing, 72 creating based on active dataset, 127
opening, 48 creating by data entry, dataset or other
viewing properties, 49 RLG, 125
deleting, 130
displaying, 131
R editing data in data grid, 128
editing using a mouse, 129
Raymer, 176 exporting, 133
real-time analysis in UDP, 232
appending datasets, 274, 276 removing from display, 130
configuring to receive data, 266, 271 viewing properties, 132
configuring WITSLINK to send data, 279 RS-232 cable, 264
connecting via RS-232 cable, 264 rulers, 26
connecting via TCP/IP network, 265
drilling simulation, 283
editing the WITS.spc file, 259 S
introduction, 253
mapping data, 257 scales
reading a WITS datastream, 261 horizontal, 25
receiving data in WITS format, 262 horizontal rescale, 26
sending data from PREDICT, 273, 277 vertical, 24
transfering data using WITS, 253 SCR (Software Change Request), 10
transmitting data, 276 screen image, printing, 247
WITS data display, 270 screen settings, 17
WITS data items, 256 scrolling, 27
WITS data records, 255 settings
WITS levels, 255 bottom depth, 19
reference dataset value changing colors, 19

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changing symbol size, 19 T


directory file paths, 21
fonts, 19 TCP/IP network, 265
grid line, 20 terminology, 11, 12
system, 21 top tables, 65
track dimensions, 18 creating, 66
shading datasets, 138 deleting, 68
shale index analysis, 154 editing, 67
assigned values as base lines, 155 importing into wells, 71
data adaptive values as base lines, 159 Total Vertical Depth, 57, 77
RLGs as base lines, 157 converting MD, 141
shale points selection, 164 track types, 23
using an RLG, 164 tracks, 22
using parameters, 166 changing background colors, 19
using shale index, 170 changing dimensions, 18
shale volume analysis, 161 creating, 23
shrink boxcar filter, 90 depth labels, 25
simulation in WITSLINK, 283 displaying datasets, 94
Software Change Request (SCR), 10 displaying last dataset created, 96
Software Problem Report (SPR), 10 grid lines, 26
software requirements, 4 horizontal rescale, 26
source parameters, 118 horizontal scale, 25
SPR (Software Problem Report), 10 locking together for scrolling, 27
statistical parameters, 118 properties, 24
Status bar removing datasets, 96
cursor coordinates, 27 rulers, 26
Status bar, cursor coordinates, 27 setting number of grid lines, 27
Stiebar, 161 shading/coloring datasets, 138
subroutines in UDP, 236 track types, 23
example, 239 vertical depth scale, 24
function body, 238 zooming, 28
main program format, 237 TVD, 57
passing data into function, 239
prototype, 238
return and multiple values, 239 U
Support contact information, 9
survey tables, 65 UDMs, 213
importing external survey files, 71 assignment statement, 218
importing into well, 71 comments, 219
MD/TVD tables, 69 constants, 218
top tables, 65 creating, 214
viewing properties, 72 creating a dataset, 220
symbols deleting, 216
changing size, 19 editing, 215
examples, 219
expressions/statements, 217
functions, 219
IF statement, 218

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logical operators, 218 V


making groups, 242
operators, 218 variables
reserved words, 219 UDM, 218
structure/language, 214 UDP, 228
variables, 218 version, new features, 3
writing to file, 241 vertical depth scale, 24
UDPs, 213, 223 viewing
assignment statement, 229 project properties, 49
comments, 233 survey properties, 72
constants, 228 well properties, 59
creating, 224 Views, 28
datatypes, 228 creating or editing, 29
deleting, 226 deleting, 31
editing, 225 displaying, 31
examples, 234 properties, 33
expressions/statements, 227 saving as defaults, 33
FOR statement, 229
functions, 230
IF statement, 229 W
logical operators, 229
main program format, 237 water depth, 57
making groups, 242 website, 9
operators, 228 wells, 55
print statement, 233 air gap, 57
reference dataset value by depth, 230 coordinate system, 58
reference dataset value by index, 231 creating, 55
reference RLG value by depth, 232 deleting, 58
reserved words, 233 exporting, 73
RLGs, 232 importing, 73
structure/language, 224 location, 58
subroutines, 236 MD, 57
variables, 228 meridian, 58
writing to file, 241 TVD, 57
unit groups UTM, 58
creating or editing, 37 viewing properties, 59
units water depth, 57
assigning to a dataset, 38 WITS
groups, 37 configuring, 266, 271
UNK-Unknown, 78 configuring WITSLINK to send data, 279
User Defined Methods, 213 connecting via RS-232 cable, 264
User Defined Programs, 213 connecting via TCP/IP network, 265
user licenses, 6 data display, 270
UTM, 44, 58 data items, 256
data records, 255
editing the WITS.spc file, 259
introduction, 253
levels, 255

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reading a datastream, 261 Z


receiving real-time data, 262
sending data from PREDICT, 273, 277 zooming
transfer specification data mapping, 257 cross plots, 113
transmitting data, 276 in track, 28
WITS format, 253
Wyllie-Rose, 176

298 KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, INC. Copyright2001