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Madina Akram 16732474; Serena Gao 18389050; Yuki Ma 18294835; Zoe-Lee Fuller 16343229

102083 Diversity, Social Justice and Learning

Assignment 2: Culturally Responsive Teaching

Group Report

Resource Video Link: http://youtu.be/MCq0emNhF14

Privilege is an adaptation of the classic snakes and ladders game, which aims to foster students

understanding of the privileges and disadvantages associated with cultural capital. The resource is

informed by Bourdieus sociological theories of social reproduction, the habitus and cultural capital

(Bourdieu, 1977; Bourdieu and Passeron, 1990; Harker, Mahar & Wilkes, 1990). To be successful

in society, and maintain a position of power, one must possess cultural capital (Webb, Schirato &

Danaher, 2002, p. 23). Inequality arises out of the privileges bestowed upon the powerful, and the

disadvantage suffered by those who lack capital.

We have designed this resource so that the gameplays nature itself illustrates this inequality. The

aim of the game is to earn the most privilege tokens. Each player will start with a different number

of tokens (two, four, six or eight) to demonstrate the inequality occurring from birth associated with

cultural capital. Privilege tokens may be won by answering the questions on the cards.The questions

are varied, ranging from multiple choice to discussion, with some relating to our KLAs (English,

ESL, Japanese and business studies). Students may assist each other with the questions and search

for them on the internet. Some questions are basic KLA related knowledge, indicating that having

capital sometimes means having the right kind of knowledge. Other questions are designed to get

students thinking about how cultural capital operates within the schooling context, and greater

society, without their knowledge of it, and have them consider their own position with it. To go up

the ladders, or prevent going down the snakes, a player must pay tokens, thus indicating that

possession of cultural capital may help one to succeed, or save them from strife. The first player to

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Madina Akram 16732474; Serena Gao 18389050; Yuki Ma 18294835; Zoe-Lee Fuller 16343229

finish will gain five tokens, however, the player who finishes with the most tokens wins, signifying

that that the most successful and privileged people in society are those who possess cultural capital.

Peer-assisted learning informs our gameplay, for students are encouraged to discuss questions

with each other and help one other find answers. We have chosen this as one of our pedagogical

strategies because peer-assisted learning is one of the most highly effective pedagogies used in the

classroom (Topping, 2001). There is much emphasis on the importance of social interaction in the

learning process (Piaget, 1928; Vygotsky, 1978; Rohrbeck, Ginsburg-Block, Fantuzzo & Miller,

2003). Social interaction helps to stimulate cognitive development and helps to develop task

orientation, persistence and motivation to achieve (Rohrbeck et al., 2003, p. 242). Peer-assisted

learning strategies (PALS) consider these, and various studies document its effectiveness. Students

in PALS classrooms made far more significant progress than students in non-PALS classrooms,

regardless of prior achievement level or whether they had disability (Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes &

Simmons, 1997; Fuchs, Fuchs & Karns, 2001). PALS were also found to be effective in

encouraging positive learning behavior, such as on task behavior (Ginsburg-Block, Rorhbeck &

Fantuzzo, 2006).

Our game also employs discovery learning, which is a useful strategy, as students are more likely

to retain knowledge when it is gained through their own mental efforts, rather than from passive

reading or listening (Bok, 2006, p. 48-49). One study found that discovery learning can benefit

learners as long as it assisted with feedback, worked examples, scaffolding and elicited

explanations, and that older learners benefitted more younger learners (Alfieri, Brooks & Aldrich,

2011). Our resource is intended to be used with the guidance of an informed teacher, who should

give feedback and further explanation following gameplay. However, some limitations of the game

are that it does not consider scaffolding, and due to the critical thinking required by the questions, it

is too advanced for stage four students and possibly even some stage five students.

References

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Madina Akram 16732474; Serena Gao 18389050; Yuki Ma 18294835; Zoe-Lee Fuller 16343229

Alfieri, L., Brooks, P.J., & Aldrich, N.J. (2011). Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning?

Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1037/a0021017

Bok, D. (2006). Our underachieving colleges: A candid look at how much students

learn and why they should be learning more. Princeton, NJ: Princeton

University Press.

Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge: Cabridge University Press.

Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J. (1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture.

London: Sage Publications.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Mathes, P.G. & Simmons, D.C. (1997). Peer-assisted learning strategies:

Making classrooms more responsive to diversity. American Educational Research

Journal, 34(1), 174-206.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D. & Karns, K. (2001). Enhancing kindergartners mathematical development:

Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies. The Elementary School Journal,

101(5), 495-510.

Ginsburg-Block, M.D., Rohrbeck, C.A., Fantuzzo, J.W. (2006). A meta-analytic review of social,

self-concept, and behavioral outcomes of peer-assisted learning. Journal of

Educational Psychology, 98(4), 732-749. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.4.732

Harker, R., Mahar, C. and Wilkes, C. (1990). An introduction to the work of Pierre

Bourdieu. London: Macmillan.

Piaget, J. (1928). Judgment and reasoning in the child. Paterson, New Jersey: Littlefield.

Rohrbeck, C.A., Ginsburg-Block, M.D., Fantuzzo, J.W. & Miller, T.R. (2003). Peer-assisted

learning interventions with elementary school students: A meta-analytic review. Journal

of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 240-257.

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Madina Akram 16732474; Serena Gao 18389050; Yuki Ma 18294835; Zoe-Lee Fuller 16343229

Topping, K.J. (2001). The effectiveness of peer tutoring in further and higher education: a typology

and review of the literature. In S. Goodland(ed.), Mentoring and tutoring by

students (pp. 49-70). London: Kogan Page.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological

processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Webb, J., Schirato, T., & Danaher, G. (2002). Understanding Bourdieu. London, GBR: SAGE

Publications Ltd. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com