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# Concepts of Math 21-127 EXCEL

mspoerl@andrew.cmu.edu Cyert Hall B5 412-268-6878

1 Warm-Up
1. Write down three questions you still have about any of the material:
(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

## 3. Pick one topic you dont need to work on today:

(a)

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2 Sets
2.1 Set-Builder Notation
Use set-builder notation to write down the following sets:

1. Let x R. Then let Ax be set of all real numbers y such that the difference between x and y is rational.

## 2. The set containing all such Ax for any real number x.

3. The set of all subsets of the power set of the naturals that contain the element N.

4. Let a and b be positive real numbers such that ab is not rational. Then let Na + Zb be the set whose
elements are a natural number times a plus an integer times b.

## Describe the following sets in plain English:

1. {r Q : r2 < |r|}

2. {(x, y) R2 : x2 + xy + y 2 = 1}

## 3. Let n N. Then An = {A P(N) : n

/ A}.

4. {(x, A) R P(R) : x A}

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2.2 Finding Elements of Sets
List out three elements of the following sets:
1. P(R) P(N)

2. R N

4. Q N N2

## 2.3 Containment Proofs

1. Prove or disprove: P(A B) P(A) P(B)

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2. Prove or disprove: P(A) P(B) P(A B)

3. For each x (0, 1) define Sx = {y R : x < y < x1 }. Prove or disprove the following:
S
(a) Sx (0, )
x(0,1)

S
(b) (0, ) Sx
x(0,1)

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3 Logic
3.1 Translating Logic
Translate the following statements into plain English and determine whether they are true or false (no proof):
1. x R. y R. xy
/Q

2. x, y R. xy
/Qx
/ Qy
/Q

3. x, y R. x + y Z x Z y Z

4. x R. y, z Q. x 6= yz

Write the following statements symbolically and determine whether they are true or false (no proof):
1. Any real number divided by any other real number is a real number.

2. If the sum of two rational numbers is positive, then both of them are positive.

3. The product of two natural numbers is greater than or equal to either number.

4. Any two real numbers have either a sum or a product which is at least zero.

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3.2 Negation
Write down the following examples in positive form (ie move the negation as far inside as possible) and
determine whether they are true or false (no proof):
Consider the universal set U p
=R
Let P (x) be the proposition |x| x
Let Q(x) be the proposition x Q
Let R(x) be the proposition k Z. |x k| < k1
1. x R. P (x) R(x)

2. x R. Q(x) R(x)

## 3.3 Constructing Examples

Construct examples of sets such that the first statement is true and the second is false (or if you cant,
explain why it is impossible).
1. (a) x, y A. x + y B
(b) z B. x, y A. z 6= x + y

2. (a) x A. y B. z C. xy = z
(b) x A. y B. x > y

3. (a) x A. y, z B. x > y + z
(b) y B. x A. y > x

4. (a) x A. y B. z C. x + y < z x + y C
(b) x A. y B. z C. (x + y < z) (x + y
/ C)

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3.4 Proofs
Write down the following propositions symbolically and prove them:
1. An integer k is even if and only if 7(k + 2)2 is even.

## 4. An integer k is odd if and only if (k + 6)3 is odd.

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4 Conclusion
1. Write down three things you dont need to study any more:

(a)

(b)

(c)

2. Write down two things youre going to study before the test tomorrow:

(a)

(b)

(a)