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ENGLISH GRAMMAR GUIDE

Connectors show logical relationships between clauses in a sentence, between sentences within a paragraph, or even
between paragraphs. They may convey different ideas such as addition, contrast, concession, time, reason, result, etc.

We bought the food She both dances and They are short of He didnt discuss the Shed never manage to
and they supplied the sings. food. In addition, they matter with her. More- work 8 hours a day as a
drinks. need doctors and medical over, he didnt contact secretary. Besides, she
Shes fluent in French. supplies. her after the meeting. cant type.
Addition/ The place was not only She also speaks a little
Exemplifi- cold, but also damp. In addition to missing Besides being away It is possible to
Italian.
cation his children, Tom misses from home, hes having combine Computer Science
- He not only brought with other subjects, for
She speaks a little his wife. trouble in school, not to
food and drinks, but example/ for instance
Italian too. mention feeling lonely all
he also brought a pile Physics.
Furthermore, they the time.
of presents for the
She speaks a little need water, clothes and
children. Wildflowers such as
Italian as well. toiletries.
orchids and primroses are
becoming very rare.
Is it a boy or a girl? You can have either - You can either come I neither smoke nor
Alternativ tea or coffee. drink.
with me now or walk home.
e
It was raining, but/ Although / Though/ In spite of being one He isnt getting good The job wasnt very
yet/ and yet Ann went out Even though it was of the best students in grades. In spite of this, interesting, but on the
without an umbrella. raining, Ann went out her class, Ann doesnt like he is still trying to other hand it was well
Contrast/ without an umbrella. Maths. improve. paid.
It was raining;
Concession
however, / nevertheless,/ Despite / In spite of In spite of the fact While / Whereas Culture shock is a
nonetheless, / even so, the rain, Ann went out that / Despite the fact some languages have 30 universal experience. Deep
Ann went out without an without an umbrella. that he still has a fever, or more different vowel depression, in contrast, is
umbrella. he has decided to go to sounds, others have 5 or not.
school. less.
He went to see his Due to / Owing to He was worried about As a result of his He sat down to rest.
advisor, for/because he was the bad weather, the his grades. Accordingly, advice, he realized that
worried about his grades. match was cancelled. he went to see his advisor. he should be patient. He got up early in
order to have time to
Reason/ Because/ Since/ As he He found it difficult His advisor told him He was feeling much pack.
Result/ was worried about his to concentrate due to that culture shock is better now. Thus, he had
grades, he went to see his being depressed. universal. He consequently no excuse to go home Hes going to leave
Purpose
advisor. felt much better about earlier. now, so as not to/ in
He was depressed, his depression. As a order not to be late.
He went to see his so he went to see his result, he decided not to Hes stayed there for
advisor because of his advisor. go home earlier. six months so that he
depression. Therefore, he cancelled could improve his English.
his plane reservation.

After I left school. I Ill call in and see First, take the When the Prime He soon became
went to America. you for a few minutes underground to West- Minister opens the door, depressed and homesick.
during the afternoon. minster Station. Then hand him this parcel.
I went to America after walk up Parliament Street Finally, dont wait for an I stay with Monica
Time/ leaving school. He hasnt phoned until/ till you get to answer. whenever I go to London.
since he went to Berlin. Downing Street. Next go
Sequence Im going to do my
to number 10. Smile at the As soon as he arrived
exams and afterwards Im She got a terrible policeman before you ring at the airport, he took a
going to study medicine. cold last month. Since
the bell. taxi and went home.
then she has always
carried an umbrella.

The advisor told him to His advisor told him In that case, ask the Supposing he is not at He didnt want to go
keep busy or else he would to get a lot of exercise policeman to deliver the home, what should I do? home early He would
become more depressed. provided/ providing/ if parcel. feel that he had failed.
he could do that without My parents lent me Under such
Condition I asked whether/ if she neglecting his studies. You can stay with us as the money. Otherwise, circumstances, he might
had any letters for me. long as/ so long as you I couldnt have afforded even feel worse than he
Ill give you the day share the expenses. the trip. had in America.
Ill be back tomorrow
off on condition that
unless theres a plane strike.
you work on Saturday

Sources: Grammar Dimensions 3, Stephen H. Thewlis, H&H; Practical English Usage,


Michael Swan, OUP; Intermediate English Practice , Michael Vince, Heinemann
morning.

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