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Department of Electrical Engineering




1) Explain the procedure for LV and HV windings design for transformer.

2) Why stepped core are used in transformers? Derive the equations of step sizes for a cruciform core in
terms of diameter of circumscribing circle.
3) Derive the equation Et = K Q . Also derive the output equation for three phase core type transformer.

How does the value of EMF/turn change with the type and service condition of transformer?
4) Design the frame of a 3-, core type, 100 kVA, 11000/433 volt, delta-star, 50 Hz distribution transformer
from the following data:
EMF/turn: 4.5 V Flux density: 1.3 Wb/m2 Current density: 2.4 A/mm2
Use cruciform core.
5) Justify the following statements:
a) LV winding is placed nearer to core in transformer.

b) Transformer is most efficient among all conventional electrical machines.

c) Cross section of yoke is greater than core area in a shell type transformer.

d) Tapings are generally provided on HV side and in the centre of winding.

e) Flux density in power transformer is higher than that of a distribution transformer.

f) Rating of transformer is given in terms of kVA.

6) Determine: (i) Main dimensions of core and yoke and (ii) core losses of a 100 kVA, 3-, 50 Hz, 11000/433
V, delta/star core type distribution transformer from the following data.
Bmax: 1.7 T Et: 4.5 V : 2.5 A/mm2 kW: 0.29
Ratio of height of window to width of window: 2. Use cruciform core section with stacking factor as 0.9.
Iron weight: 7.8 gms/cm2 and specific iron loss: 1.3 W/kg.
7) Define window space factor and discuss briefly the factors affecting the same.

8) Explain the effects of selecting higher flux density in design, performance and cost of the transformer.

9) State the effects of variation in the following on voltage regulation in a transformer design with supporting
(a) Ratio of height to the width of window.

(b) Ratio of total flux to Amp-turn

Prof. B.G.Shah
Department of Electrical Engineering

(c) Sandwiching of coils

10) Define the stacking factor applied to transformer design. State the factors affecting the same.

11) Calculate (i) overall dimension (ii) HV and LV turns/phase for a 200 kVA, 6600/440 V, 50 Hz, 3- core
type transformer with Dy1 connections. Use the following data for design
Bmax: 1.3 T Et: 4.5 V : 2.5 A/mm2 kW: 0.3
Ratio of height of window to width of window: 2.5 m/AT: 4.5 10-4
Assume three stepped core with stacking factor as 0.9.
12) With usual notations,
1 wi + wc
Prove that the total area of tubes = 12.5St for transformer tank design.
13) Design suitable HV and LV winding for 50 kVA, 11000/440 V, delta-star core type transformer.

14) Explain the selection of current density in designing a transformer.

15) Explain the different types of windings used in poly phase transformers and suggest their applications.

16) Design suitable HV and LV windings for 25 kVA, 50 Hz, 11000/440 V, 3-phase core type transformer
from the following data:
Et: 2.5 V Hw: 0.35 m Ww: 0.14 m : 2.2 A/mm2 star-star connection.
17) Explain how you will obtain regulation of transformer.

18) Obtain the tank dimensions and number of cooling tubes for a transformer with following design data:
Height of frame: 1.25 m Outer diameter of HV winding: 0.45 m
Distance between adjacent limbs: 0.49 m Diameter of tube: 50 mm
Temperature of oil should not exceed: 40 C.
Show arrangement of cooling tubes.
19) Write a short note on:
(a) Cooling of transformers

(b) Calculation of no load current for transformer

(c) Effect of variation of linear dimension on output efficiency and temperature rise

20) Explain the important design differences amongst power and distribution transformers with specific
21) Explain how iron and copper losses vary with linear dimensions in two transformers of same type having
ratio x:1.
22) Calculate: (i) net iron area of the 4 stepped core, (ii) diameter of circumscribing circle (iii) HV and LV
winding turns for a 500 kVA, 50 Hz, 6600/433 V, delta-star, 3-phase power transformer. Assume

following data:
Prof. B.G.Shah
Department of Electrical Engineering

m/AT: 1.62 Bm: 1.6 T Iron space factor: 0.79 Stacking factor: 0.9
23) Determine the main dimensions of the core of a 160 kVA, 6.6kV/433 V, 50 Hz, 3-phase star-delta
transformer. Also calculate number of turns and cross sections of both the windings. Assume following
Et: 9 V Hw: 2Ww : 250 A/cm2 Bm: 1.25 T kw: 0.27
Maximum width of lamination: 0.9d Ai: 0.6d
24) Explain the steps involved to calculate no load current of 3-phase transformer from its design data.

25) Calculate p.u. reactance of a 3-phase, 50 Hz core type transformer having equal length of windings from
following design data:
Width of HV winding: 36 mm Overall length of mean turn: 0.60 m
Width of LV winding: 12 mm Volta/turn: 3V
Width of oil duct: 18 mm HV amp turns: 5555 AT
Height of each winding: 0.35 m
26) Suggest possible changes with specific reasons to improve (i) voltage regulation and (ii) efficiency while
designing 3-phaase transformer.
27) Give procedure in brief for calculating number of tubes to be provided to control temperature rise at
specific level in transformer design.
28) What is design optimization? Derive necessary condition for designing a transformer with minimum cost.

29) The tank of a 1.25 MVA natural oil cooled transformer has the dimensions of 155cm 65 cm 185 cm
(length, width and height). The full load losses are 13100 watts. Estimate the number of cooling tubes
required for this transformer. Assume: W/m2-0C due to radiation = 6 and due to convection = 6.5;
improvement in convection due to provision of tubes = 40%. ; Temperature rise = 400C. ; Length of each
tube = 1 m ; diameter of tubes = 50 mm. Neglect top and bottom surfaces of the tank as regards cooling.
30) A 200 kVA, 6.6kV/440volts, 50Hz, three phase core type transformer has the following design data:
Max. flux density :1.25 wb/m2
Emf / turn :10 volts
Stacking factor :0.9
Window space factor :0.32
Current density :2.4 A/mm2
Overall width and overall height are same. If three stepped core is used determine overall dimensions.
Also show them on a sketch.
31) Discuss the importance of mitred joints in the core assembly of transformers.

32) Obtain the expression of leakage reactance of a 3-phase core type distribution transformer.

Prof. B.G.Shah