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# Properties of Steam

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## Temperature Enthalpy Diagram for Steam

Above discussion has been based on heating of ice at constant atmospheric pressure.
Therefore the line ABCDEF represents the constant pressure on temperature- enthalpy
diagram. We shall now extend the discussion in case of water at 0 C is heated at
various constant pressures.
Figure 1 shows the heating of water at various constant pressures e.g. at 1bar, 5bar,
50bar represented by cdef, c1d1e1f1 c2d2e2f2 etc.
Point d,d2,d3 etc represent the points of saturated liquid and the locus of such point is
called saturated liquid line.
Similarly all points e, e1, e2 etc. represent all the condition of steam at dry saturated.
The curve joining such point is called saturated vapor line.
To the left of the saturated liquid line represents the state of fluid as liquid, between the
liquid line and saturation line forming the dome as vapor or wet steam and the state of
fluid to the right of the saturated vapor line represent the superheated steam.

Important Observations:

## I. Saturation temperature of steam increases with increase in pressure.

II. Latent heat of vaporization decreases with increase in pressure.
III. As we keep on increasing the pressure, a state comes at which the latent heat of
vaporization [hfg] becomes zero as represent by point C, such a state is called critical
state of steam. At this state the liquid will directly will converted into gaseous state
without coming into two phase mixture [vapor state].
The Properties of steam at critical state are:
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Pc = 221.2 bar; Tc = 374.15 C; Vc = 0.000317m /kg
IV. Any liquid at temperature below its saturation temperature at a given pressure is called
subcooled liquid.

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## T-S and H-S diagram for Steam

Temperature entropy [T-S] diagram is shown in figure 2 and the enthalpy entropy [H-
S] diagram is shown in figure 3
H-S diagram is commonly known as Molliers diagram.
Diagram show the constant pressure line, constant dryness lines and constant
temperature line, C represent the critical point.
H-S diagram is practically useful for representation of reversible adiabatic and throttling
process. These have been explained later.

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## p-v Diagram for Water

i. ab represent the heating of ice at constant pressure form t i to 0C. the specific volume
of ice increases.
ii. bc represents the melting of ice at 0C and at atmospheric pressure. During the melting
process the specific volume decreases.
iii. cd represents the heating of water from 0C upto its saturation temperature ts . Water
below its saturation temperature at given pressure is called sub-cooled liquid and the
difference between saturation temperature and actual temperature of liquid is degree
of sub-cooling.
iv. de represents the heating of saturated liquid and its conversion into dry-saturated.
v. ef represents the superheating of steam.
vi. line joining the pints b,b1,b2 etc. represents the saturated solid line at which the
conversion from solid to liquid state takes place.
vii. Line joning c,c1,c2 etc and d,d1,d2 etc both represent the saturated liquid lines. At state
c the liquid is saturated with respect to the solidification. At state d the liquid is
saturated with respect to the vaporization.
viii. Line joining the points e, e1, e2 represents the saturated vapor line. Any point on this
curve will represent dry-saturated steam corresponding to its pressure.
ix. Point C represents the critical state of steam where the liquid is directly converted into
gaseous state w/o changing into two phase mixture.
x. Saturated liquid line d,d1,d2 is almost a vertical line since large pressure are needed to
compress a liquid.
xi. Solid[S] , Liquid [L] and Vapor [V] regions with the two phase mixture have been shown
in figure 4.
xii. PS represents the triple point line. This line represents where all the three phases of
mixture i.e. solid, liquid and vapor co-exist in equilibrium.
xiii. At a pressure below triple point line the substance cannot exist in liquid state and when
the solid is heated it is directly converted into vapor state, such a process is called
sublimation process.

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