Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 35

p-REES 2: Module 2-B

Advanced Train Operations


PTC and CBTC

APTA and AREMA - 2015


Train Control Basic Objectives
B

Efficiently transport passengers / freight from point A to point B enforcing :


Safety (Safety management)
Train schedules (Traffic management)

whatever the conditions:


Traffic density
Perturbations and failures

APTA and AREMA - 2015 2


Why is there a need for train control

Environmental conditions, the mass of the train, and


increasing speeds make it more and more difficult to operate
safely without the assistance of technology.
Braking distance:
If a car can stop in
75m (dry weather) at
90kph,
a high speed train like
the ALSTOM TGV will
take 3200m at
300kph

APTA and AREMA - 2015 3


Train Control Signaling
Signaling is fail-safe:
A fail-safe device is one that, in the event of failure, responds in a
way that will cause no harm to other devices or danger to personnel
Safety is ensured but there is a compromise between:
System fail-safe capability
Operating procedures (especially in case of signaling override and
manual operation)
Safety measures are usually detrimental to traffic
performances, and must be balanced against system reliability
and availability.

APTA and AREMA - 2015 4


Why Communications Based Train Control (CBTC)
and Positive Train Control (PTC)?
Traditional systems in North America have been based on block signaling systems designed 30 -
100 years ago
Technology for ETCS (European Train Control System functionally similar to PTC) has been
available since the 1990s in Europe
CBTC Technology was first deployed in Asia in the early 2000s

CBTC and PTC systems can offer Equivalent or better safety


improvements over block signaling:
Improved performance

Increased reliability

Higher system throughput & capacity

Improved schedule adherence & reduced


variability in system performance

APTA and AREMA - 2015 5


Line capacity and Safe Braking Distance
Line capacity is the maximum number of trains that can be transported on a line past a
fixed point during a set time period.
A signaling system influences capacity by regulating
Dwell time in stations
Minimum train separation required for safety
The minimum train separation is dictated by the safe braking distance of a train
e.g. the distance needed to safely stop prior to a safety hazard

Rolling stock acceleration and braking performance


Maximum authorized train speed
Safe
braking
Train detection granularity
distance
Driver reaction time

APTA and AREMA - 2015 6


Block Signaling

Block Signaling Movement authorities communicated via signals to driver


without
Subject to human error / variability
Automatic Train
Safe breaking distances designed to worst case scenario not current conditions
Protection (ATP)

Movement authorities communicated via frequency pulse modulated signals through


Block Signaling track circuit blocks
with cab signal
Fail-safe, onboard computers stop train within safety zone
and ATP
Safe distance between two trains will be the worst case braking distance based speed

SPEED CODE Braking speed curve

Code 40/00 mph Code O mph


00/00
Stopping point
Speed Code transmission

Track Circuit Track Circuit Track Circuit

APTA and AREMA - 2015 7


Distance to Go and Positive Train Control
Movement authorities communicated based on track conditions ahead and civil speed
restrictions
Distance to Go Fail-safe
Permits precision stopping
Eliminates overlap block behind each train

Mandated by Law to reliably and functionally prevent:


Train-to-train collisions
Positive Train Over speed derailments, including enforcement of:
Control Civil engineering speed restrictions, slow orders, speed restrictions over switches
Incursions into established work zone limits without appropriate authority
The movement of a train through a main line switch in the improper position

60 mph Distance to Go braking speed curve

Target speed and distance Stopping point


transmission

Track Circuit Track Circuit Track Circuit

APTA and AREMA - 2015 8


Reference: United States of America. Federal Railway Administration. January 5, 2011. U.S. Code Title 49: Transportation. Subpart IPositive Train Control Systems
ACSES PTC on the North East Corridor
ACSES - Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System

Enforces stops, permanent and temporary speed limits.


Uses braking profiles for warning and enforcement
Receives intermittent line data from transponders
Radio used for dynamic wayside system status updates

ACSES on the North East Corridor is currently applied as an overlay to a


block signaling system with cab signaled speed codes
Train detection (track occupancy logic)
Interlocking logic
Broken rail detection
Onboard enforcement of signal speed.

http://transportationfortomorrow.com/final_report/volume_3_html/05_field_hearings
/content19ab.htm?name=1106_newyork_presentation_panel2

APTA and AREMA - 2015 9


Positive Train Control
Transponders

Communications Based (220Mhz TDMA Radio)

Onboard Controller

Central Safety Server

Wayside Interface Units

Interlocking (external system)

APTA and AREMA - 2015 10


Architecture Overview
ACSES: Onboard receives
precise location
data and civil
speed from
transponders.
Wayside Interface
Units and Safety
Server send
interlocking status
to Onboard via
data radio

Onboard enforces
limits and braking
profile

Dispatchers may
enter specific
speed restrictions

APTA and AREMA - 2015 11


Transponder Transmission Subsystem

Positive
Location
Train Stop
Data
Target

Civil Speed Address of


Restriction wayside
Data equipment
Transponder

APTA and AREMA - 2015 12


Train to Wayside Communication

APTA and AREMA - 2015 13


Vital Safety TSR Server to Manage Temporary Speed
Restriction Data:
TSR Train Speed Restriction

APTA and AREMA - 2015 14


PTC Interoperability Issues

High need for


interoperability
between
railroads which
operate on
territories with
diverse PTC
solutions
http://nec.amtrak.com/content/nec-and-connecting-commuter-rail-services

APTA and AREMA - 2015 15


ACSES Technical Challenges on NEC

Implemented as Ongoing Evolving the


a mandated implementation system to
safety system, of new radio incorporate new
future system band (900 Mhz products and
optimizations? to 220 MHz) and advancing
communication technologies
system

APTA and AREMA - 2015 16


From Block Signaling to CBTC Moving Block
SPEED CODE Braking speed curve

Code 40/00 mph Code O mph


00/00
Stopping point
Speed Code transmission

Track Circuit Track Circuit Track Circuit

DISTANCE TO GO Distance to Go braking speed curve


60 mph

Target speed and distance Stopping point


transmission

Gain
Track Circuit Track Circuit Track Circuit

CBTC MOVING BLOCK Moving Block braking speed curve


Movement Authority Stopping point
80 mph

Protection Envelope

Additional Gain
APTA and AREMA - 2015 17
Communication Based Train Control
Per IEEE: System shall provide
high-resolution train location determination, independent of track circuits
Communication continuous, high-capacity, bidirectional train-to-wayside data communications
Based Train Automatic Train Protection (ATP) functions shall provide fail-safe protection against
Control Collisions, excessive speed, and other hazardous conditions
Automatic Train Operation (ATO) functions shall control basic operations within the protection
limits imposed by ATP.

Movement Authority precision is increased by absolute train detection envelope

Safe braking distance is based on current train speed and location

CBTC MOVING BLOCK


Moving Block braking speed curve
Movement Authority Stopping point
80 mph

Protection Envelope

APTA and AREMA - 2015 18


Reference: IEEE Standard for Communications- Based Train Control (CBTC) Performance and Functional Requirements. IEEE Std. 1474.1, Page 1-28, 2005
APTA and AREMA - 2015 19
ALSTOM URBALISTM More than 25% of radio
based CBTC deployments worldwide
A leaders experience in radio CBTC :
Today, Operators trust URBALIS radio CBTC for 49 metro lines
spanning driverless or manned systems, new lines or signaling renovation.

20
Automatic Train Protection ATP
Maximum Warning Emergency
speed curve Brake curve 120 km/h

Train Speed
(Manual Driving)

0 km/h
ATP = Supervision of Train Speed
If Train Speed >Emergency Brake Speed,
then Emergency Brake = ON
Else If Train Speed > Warning Speed
then Warning Sound = ON
End

APTA and AREMA - 2015 21


Automatic Train Operation ATO
Maximum Warning Emergency
speed curve Brake curve 120 km/h

Train Speed
(Auto Driving)

0 km/h
ATO = Drives the Train
Traction and Braking of the train is
not managed by the driver, but by the
ATO train equipment (Automatic Pilot)

ATO: reduces system reliability while allowing


for power consumption optimization
APTA and AREMA - 2015 22
Communication Based Train Control
Transponders

Communications Based (2.4, 5.8, 4.9 Ghz)

Onboard Controller

Centralized Zone Controller

Wayside Interlocking Control

Centralized Interlocking processor

APTA and AREMA - 2015 23


CBTC General Architecture
ATS & SCADA ATC Interlocking Maintenance
PIS & Security Zone Controller Controller

DCS GIGABIT NETWORKS

RADIOS

ATC
Onboard
Controller PIS & Security

Interlocking I/O
Station
ATS: Automatic Train Supervision
PIS & Security
PIS: Passenger Information System
SCADA: Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
APTA and AREMA - 2015
ATC: Automatic Train Control
Zone Controller Moving Block Operation
Movement Authority
Direction of traffic
Train speed

Automatic protection Automatic protection

A Braking curve
B

Movement Authority ATC Location


Zone Controller

Train Y

Train B
The Zone Controller calculates Train A

Movement Authority based on train Train X
location and track database and
transmits it to the trains Trackside beacons
contain static
Onboard controller calculates braking location information
curve and precise location
In between beacons odometers
and high performance slip/slide
algorithms are used to calculate
location
APTA and AREMA - 2015 25
Interlocking: the logic and the track product
information
Signal Switch Machine

Interlocking
Controller

Conditions out
- switch machine move
Track - signal changes
Circuits

Interlocking I/O
Interlocking
Conditions IN (Logic)
- track circuit occupancy
- switch position

APTA and AREMA - 2015 26


ATS & SCADA
Control Center for decision support PIS & Security

Passenger information Energy, Ventilation, Ancillaries

Security (CCTV,)
Signalling

Train interface

Mass transit Suburban

APTA and AREMA - 2015 27


ATS & SCADA
PIS & Security
Security and Information
Visual travel Audio & visual
People and assets
information information or
protection through
or emergency emergency messages
Integrated Security and intrusion detection &
messages through through WiFi
Passenger Information access control
displays communication
Center
Event detection,
monitoring
through video
surveillance
Fire Detection
Audio travel
information
or emergency
messages
through public
address
Emergency call
point/intercom

Audio & visual


information or
emergency
messages
through kiosk

APTA and AREMA - 2015 28


Security and Information Trainborne
PIS & Security

Audio Announcement

Video Surveillance

Passenger Information

Passenger Emergency Intercom

Infotainment/Advertisement

Internet

APTA and AREMA - 2015 29


Data Communication System
Complete redundancy for robust availability
ATC Interlocking ATS & SCADA
Zone Controller Controller PIS & Security
Switch Router Backbone

Station 1 Redundant Backbone Transmission Network Station 2

Redundant Optical
Access Point 400m to 1600m (*) fiber
AP AP AP
AP
AP AP
AP AP
AP

Double Radio Cell Station Double Radio Cell


Double
Radio cell

APTA and AREMA - 2015 30


Innovation in CBTC: Increasing the simplicity of the
system through train-oriented architectures
Wayside-centric Train-centric
CBTC system CBTC system

ATS ATS

Route request Train movement Train movement


Block Location
status,
overlap
Object Controller Interlocking release
Zone Controller Train

Track resource request


Location
/ release
EoA
Infrastructure
Train Controller

Several information paths and models One consistent information path


to be reconciled
- No need to synchronize Interlocking and ATC
- Design can be focused on headway, flexible
operation, and robustness performance.

APTA and AREMA - 2015 31


System Optimization
Wayside-centric Train-centric
CBTC system CBTC system
Location request
Location
MA MA report
Following Preceding Following
& commitment
Preceding
Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle

End of Locatio Train-to-Train communication


Authority n
ATC report
Zone Controller
From System Theory
A technical system throughout its life tends to
become more reliable, simple, and effective moving
Cyclic communication towards a more Ideal state:
with ATC Zone Controller Transfer functions to the working element
which produces the final action

APTA and AREMA - 2015 32


Conclusions
Advanced train control design and deployment requires a
multidiscipline effort to successfully balance safety,
performance, and system reliability.
The increasing complexity of train control systems requires
an engineering community that can create holistic solutions
that match the magnitude of the challenges presented by
the transportation industry.
Transportation solutions are a means of improving the
quality of life of people living in high density urban centers.

APTA and AREMA - 2015 33


THANK YOU

APTA and AREMA - 2015


Copyright Restrictions and Disclaimer
Presentation Author
Nicholas Columbare
Solution Director
Strategy and Solution Portfolio
ALSTOM
1025 John Street
West Henrietta, N.Y., 14586
585-279-1465
Nicholas.Columbare@ALSTOM.com

It is the authors intention that the information contained in this file be used for non-commercial, educational purposes with
as few restrictions as possible. However, there are some necessary constraints on its use as described below.
The materials used in this file have come from a variety of sources and have been assembled here for personal use by the
author for educational purposes. The copyright for some of the images and graphics used in this presentation may be held
by others. Users may not change or delete any author attribution, copyright notice, trademark or other legend. Users of
this material may not further reproduce this material without permission from the copyright owner. It is the responsibility of
the user to obtain such permissions as necessary. You may not, without prior consent from the copyright owner, modify,
copy, publish, display, transmit, adapt or in any way exploit the content of this file. Additional restrictions may apply to
specific images or graphics as indicated herein.
The contents of this file are provided on an "as is" basis and without warranties of any kind, either express or implied.
The author makes no warranties or representations, including any warranties of title, noninfringement of copyright or
other rights, nor does the author make any warranties or representation regarding the correctness, accuracy or reliability
of the content or other material in the file.

APTA and AREMA - 2015 35