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p-REES 2: Module 2-B

Advanced Train Operations


APTA and AREMA - 2015

Train Control Basic Objectives

Efficiently transport passengers / freight from point A to point B enforcing :

Safety (Safety management)
Train schedules (Traffic management)

whatever the conditions:

Traffic density
Perturbations and failures

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Why is there a need for train control

Environmental conditions, the mass of the train, and

increasing speeds make it more and more difficult to operate
safely without the assistance of technology.
Braking distance:
If a car can stop in
75m (dry weather) at
a high speed train like
the ALSTOM TGV will
take 3200m at

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Train Control Signaling
Signaling is fail-safe:
A fail-safe device is one that, in the event of failure, responds in a
way that will cause no harm to other devices or danger to personnel
Safety is ensured but there is a compromise between:
System fail-safe capability
Operating procedures (especially in case of signaling override and
manual operation)
Safety measures are usually detrimental to traffic
performances, and must be balanced against system reliability
and availability.

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Why Communications Based Train Control (CBTC)
and Positive Train Control (PTC)?
Traditional systems in North America have been based on block signaling systems designed 30 -
100 years ago
Technology for ETCS (European Train Control System functionally similar to PTC) has been
available since the 1990s in Europe
CBTC Technology was first deployed in Asia in the early 2000s

CBTC and PTC systems can offer Equivalent or better safety

improvements over block signaling:
Improved performance

Increased reliability

Higher system throughput & capacity

Improved schedule adherence & reduced

variability in system performance

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Line capacity and Safe Braking Distance
Line capacity is the maximum number of trains that can be transported on a line past a
fixed point during a set time period.
A signaling system influences capacity by regulating
Dwell time in stations
Minimum train separation required for safety
The minimum train separation is dictated by the safe braking distance of a train
e.g. the distance needed to safely stop prior to a safety hazard

Rolling stock acceleration and braking performance

Maximum authorized train speed
Train detection granularity
Driver reaction time

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Block Signaling

Block Signaling Movement authorities communicated via signals to driver

Subject to human error / variability
Automatic Train
Safe breaking distances designed to worst case scenario not current conditions
Protection (ATP)

Movement authorities communicated via frequency pulse modulated signals through

Block Signaling track circuit blocks
with cab signal
Fail-safe, onboard computers stop train within safety zone
and ATP
Safe distance between two trains will be the worst case braking distance based speed

SPEED CODE Braking speed curve

Code 40/00 mph Code O mph

Stopping point
Speed Code transmission

Track Circuit Track Circuit Track Circuit

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Distance to Go and Positive Train Control
Movement authorities communicated based on track conditions ahead and civil speed
Distance to Go Fail-safe
Permits precision stopping
Eliminates overlap block behind each train

Mandated by Law to reliably and functionally prevent:

Train-to-train collisions
Positive Train Over speed derailments, including enforcement of:
Control Civil engineering speed restrictions, slow orders, speed restrictions over switches
Incursions into established work zone limits without appropriate authority
The movement of a train through a main line switch in the improper position

60 mph Distance to Go braking speed curve

Target speed and distance Stopping point


Track Circuit Track Circuit Track Circuit

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Reference: United States of America. Federal Railway Administration. January 5, 2011. U.S. Code Title 49: Transportation. Subpart IPositive Train Control Systems
ACSES PTC on the North East Corridor
ACSES - Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System

Enforces stops, permanent and temporary speed limits.

Uses braking profiles for warning and enforcement
Receives intermittent line data from transponders
Radio used for dynamic wayside system status updates

ACSES on the North East Corridor is currently applied as an overlay to a

block signaling system with cab signaled speed codes
Train detection (track occupancy logic)
Interlocking logic
Broken rail detection
Onboard enforcement of signal speed.


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Positive Train Control

Communications Based (220Mhz TDMA Radio)

Onboard Controller

Central Safety Server

Wayside Interface Units

Interlocking (external system)

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Architecture Overview
ACSES: Onboard receives
precise location
data and civil
speed from
Wayside Interface
Units and Safety
Server send
interlocking status
to Onboard via
data radio

Onboard enforces
limits and braking

Dispatchers may
enter specific
speed restrictions

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Transponder Transmission Subsystem

Train Stop

Civil Speed Address of

Restriction wayside
Data equipment

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Train to Wayside Communication

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Vital Safety TSR Server to Manage Temporary Speed
Restriction Data:
TSR Train Speed Restriction

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PTC Interoperability Issues

High need for

railroads which
operate on
territories with
diverse PTC

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ACSES Technical Challenges on NEC

Implemented as Ongoing Evolving the

a mandated implementation system to
safety system, of new radio incorporate new
future system band (900 Mhz products and
optimizations? to 220 MHz) and advancing
communication technologies

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From Block Signaling to CBTC Moving Block
SPEED CODE Braking speed curve

Code 40/00 mph Code O mph

Stopping point
Speed Code transmission

Track Circuit Track Circuit Track Circuit

DISTANCE TO GO Distance to Go braking speed curve

60 mph

Target speed and distance Stopping point


Track Circuit Track Circuit Track Circuit

CBTC MOVING BLOCK Moving Block braking speed curve

Movement Authority Stopping point
80 mph

Protection Envelope

Additional Gain
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Communication Based Train Control
Per IEEE: System shall provide
high-resolution train location determination, independent of track circuits
Communication continuous, high-capacity, bidirectional train-to-wayside data communications
Based Train Automatic Train Protection (ATP) functions shall provide fail-safe protection against
Control Collisions, excessive speed, and other hazardous conditions
Automatic Train Operation (ATO) functions shall control basic operations within the protection
limits imposed by ATP.

Movement Authority precision is increased by absolute train detection envelope

Safe braking distance is based on current train speed and location


Moving Block braking speed curve
Movement Authority Stopping point
80 mph

Protection Envelope

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Reference: IEEE Standard for Communications- Based Train Control (CBTC) Performance and Functional Requirements. IEEE Std. 1474.1, Page 1-28, 2005
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ALSTOM URBALISTM More than 25% of radio
based CBTC deployments worldwide
A leaders experience in radio CBTC :
Today, Operators trust URBALIS radio CBTC for 49 metro lines
spanning driverless or manned systems, new lines or signaling renovation.

Automatic Train Protection ATP
Maximum Warning Emergency
speed curve Brake curve 120 km/h

Train Speed
(Manual Driving)

0 km/h
ATP = Supervision of Train Speed
If Train Speed >Emergency Brake Speed,
then Emergency Brake = ON
Else If Train Speed > Warning Speed
then Warning Sound = ON

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Automatic Train Operation ATO
Maximum Warning Emergency
speed curve Brake curve 120 km/h

Train Speed
(Auto Driving)

0 km/h
ATO = Drives the Train
Traction and Braking of the train is
not managed by the driver, but by the
ATO train equipment (Automatic Pilot)

ATO: reduces system reliability while allowing

for power consumption optimization
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Communication Based Train Control

Communications Based (2.4, 5.8, 4.9 Ghz)

Onboard Controller

Centralized Zone Controller

Wayside Interlocking Control

Centralized Interlocking processor

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CBTC General Architecture
ATS & SCADA ATC Interlocking Maintenance
PIS & Security Zone Controller Controller



Controller PIS & Security

Interlocking I/O
ATS: Automatic Train Supervision
PIS & Security
PIS: Passenger Information System
SCADA: Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
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ATC: Automatic Train Control
Zone Controller Moving Block Operation
Movement Authority
Direction of traffic
Train speed

Automatic protection Automatic protection

A Braking curve

Movement Authority ATC Location

Zone Controller

Train Y

Train B
The Zone Controller calculates Train A

Movement Authority based on train Train X
location and track database and
transmits it to the trains Trackside beacons
contain static
Onboard controller calculates braking location information
curve and precise location
In between beacons odometers
and high performance slip/slide
algorithms are used to calculate
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Interlocking: the logic and the track product
Signal Switch Machine


Conditions out
- switch machine move
Track - signal changes

Interlocking I/O
Conditions IN (Logic)
- track circuit occupancy
- switch position

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Control Center for decision support PIS & Security

Passenger information Energy, Ventilation, Ancillaries

Security (CCTV,)

Train interface

Mass transit Suburban

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PIS & Security
Security and Information
Visual travel Audio & visual
People and assets
information information or
protection through
or emergency emergency messages
Integrated Security and intrusion detection &
messages through through WiFi
Passenger Information access control
displays communication
Event detection,
through video
Fire Detection
Audio travel
or emergency
through public
Emergency call

Audio & visual

information or
through kiosk

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Security and Information Trainborne
PIS & Security

Audio Announcement

Video Surveillance

Passenger Information

Passenger Emergency Intercom



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Data Communication System
Complete redundancy for robust availability
ATC Interlocking ATS & SCADA
Zone Controller Controller PIS & Security
Switch Router Backbone

Station 1 Redundant Backbone Transmission Network Station 2

Redundant Optical
Access Point 400m to 1600m (*) fiber

Double Radio Cell Station Double Radio Cell

Radio cell

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Innovation in CBTC: Increasing the simplicity of the
system through train-oriented architectures
Wayside-centric Train-centric
CBTC system CBTC system


Route request Train movement Train movement

Block Location
Object Controller Interlocking release
Zone Controller Train

Track resource request

/ release
Train Controller

Several information paths and models One consistent information path

to be reconciled
- No need to synchronize Interlocking and ATC
- Design can be focused on headway, flexible
operation, and robustness performance.

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System Optimization
Wayside-centric Train-centric
CBTC system CBTC system
Location request
MA MA report
Following Preceding Following
& commitment
Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle

End of Locatio Train-to-Train communication

Authority n
ATC report
Zone Controller
From System Theory
A technical system throughout its life tends to
become more reliable, simple, and effective moving
Cyclic communication towards a more Ideal state:
with ATC Zone Controller Transfer functions to the working element
which produces the final action

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Advanced train control design and deployment requires a
multidiscipline effort to successfully balance safety,
performance, and system reliability.
The increasing complexity of train control systems requires
an engineering community that can create holistic solutions
that match the magnitude of the challenges presented by
the transportation industry.
Transportation solutions are a means of improving the
quality of life of people living in high density urban centers.

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APTA and AREMA - 2015

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Nicholas Columbare
Solution Director
Strategy and Solution Portfolio
1025 John Street
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