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Diversity is a key component as to the reason why second

language acquisition is becoming more and more important.
The teaching of language is not only important in an English
course, but across all courses. If the students are unable to
express themselves in their second language, which in this
case is English, then education will degrade into schooling.
Therefore, it is important that teachers are capable of helping
second language students.We will begin by identifying which
theory is prominent throughout different peer reviewed journal
articles. We will move on to explain how a teacher is to
approach this theory to be able to help the second language
students and suggest a couple of activities that amplify the
approach. And finally, we will end with an example of a mini
lesson plan, practical resources and an instructional video on
second language acquisition.

Theory - Communicative Approach

Heart of Second Language Acquisition

Most theoretical frameworks attempted to understand which method would be most effective
when approaching teaching English as a second language. Grammar was the prominent mode
for approaching second language teaching[1] [2] . When analyzing the effects of a grammatical
approach, the researchers have observed that children do not respond positively (Pica, 1999).
The researchers have determined that the communicative approach is a lot more effective
because it allows the children to express themselves in their second language without having
extra pressure of being grammatically correct (Pica, 1999; Canale & Swain 1980). The oral
communication becomes the most important component because it allows the student to
possess the basic knowledge of the second language that is necessary before applying
grammatically correct sentences. However, the grammatical component is important when
teaching adolescents and adults because it allows the adolescents and the adults to better
comprehend the language in question by comparing the grammatical laws of both languages in
question (Pica, 1999).

Also, when a teacher approaches the students when helping with their
comprehension of the second language, the teacher must always be
direct when giving instructions and when correcting the students. A
rule of thumb is that the teacher should not point out more than one
error per feedback (Pica, 1999). Also, if the students are not
expressing themselves correctly, there are strategic questions that the
teacher can ask to help the students. Examples of these questions
according to Patricia A. Duff are as follows: Did you say X?' or
Could you say that again? (Duff, 2007). Only once the students are
capable of expressing themselves comprehensibly in the second
language does the grammatical approach becomes important. The
grammatical approach, also known as the garden path approach,
becomes dominant because the focus is placed on the forms,
features, and structures of the second language (Pica, 1999). In other
words, the "garden path" is a grammatical approach to the second language where the
technique is of "sequencing instruction on grammar rules and exceptions" rather than having the
rules and exceptions explained together at the same time (Pica, 1999).


When the teacher takes into consideration that the students

should first and foremost be able to express themselves
orally, the initial assessments should all be oral and to what
extent the student is comfortable in such a language. It
would be impossible for the students to take a paper quiz.
The assessment should always be ongoing because the
teacher should be able to notice when the students are
ready to tackle grammar in their second language.
Therefore, the assessments noted will help the teacher to
make the decision to either move forward with the material,
or to rearrange the lesson plan to fit the second language
students' needs