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AIM- TO Glow a LED through solenoid by generating current in it.

MATERIAL REQUIRED- copper wire , LED , cylindrical hollow tube , powerful


magnet etc.

THEORY-
A solenoid is a coil of insulated or enameled wire wound on a
rod-shaped form made of solid iron, solid steel, or powdered
iron. Devices of this kind can be used as electromagnets, as
inductors in electronic circuits, and as
miniature wireless receiving antennas.

In a solenoid, the core material is ferromagnetic, meaning that


it concentrates magnetic lines of flux. This increases the
inductance of the coil far beyond the inductance obtainable
with an air-core coil of the same dimensions and the same
number of turns. When current flows in the coil, most of the
resulting magnetic flux exists within the core material. Some
flux appears outside the coil near the ends of the core; a small
amount of flux also appears outside the coil and off to the side.

A solenoid chime is wound on a cylindrical, hollow, plastic or phenolic form with a


movable, solid iron or steel core. The core can travel in and out of the coil along its
axis. The coil is oriented vertically; the core normally rests somewhat below the coil
center. When a current pulse is applied to the coil, the magnetic field pulls the core
forcefully upward. Inertia carries the core above the center of the coil, where the core
strikes a piece of metal similar to a xylophone bell, causing a loud "ding".

PRINCIPAL- It is based on the principle of lenz and faraday law-

Faraday's Law
Any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage (emf)
to be "induced" in the coil. No matter how the change is produced, the voltage will be
generated. The change could be produced by changing the magnetic field strength,
moving a magnet toward or away from the coil, moving the coil into or out of the
magnetic field, rotating the coil relative to the magnet, etc.

Further comments on these examples

Faraday's law is a fundamental relationship which comes from Maxwell's equations. It


serves as a succinct summary of the ways a voltage (or emf) may be generated by a
changing magnetic environment. The induced emf in a coil is equal to the negative of
the rate of change of magnetic flux times the number of turns in the coil. It involves
the interaction of charge with magnetic field.
Lenz's Law
When an emf is generated by a change in magnetic flux according to Faraday's Law,
the polarity of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field
opposes the change which produces it. The induced magnetic field inside any loop of
wire always acts to keep the magnetic flux in the loop constant. In the examples
below, if the B field is increasing, the induced field acts in opposition to it. If it is
decreasing, the induced field acts in the direction of the applied field to try to keep it
constant.

PROCEDURE-

1.First of all take the cylindrical tube if about 10 cm which is hollow from inside.

2.then take the copper wire and start wrapping it on the cylindrical tube.
3. Make at least 400 to 500 turns to increase the intensity of current.

4. Now attach two eires to a LED and solder the led.

5.Then to glow the LED move the magnet inside the coil.

6. Finally the LED glows and confirms that solenoid had produced current due to
which LED is glowed.

PRECAUTIONS-
1.solding should be done only in the presence of an adult.
2.copper wire should be uniform throught.