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CAPITOLUL

CHAPTER
7

nvmnt; Cercetare Education; Research

7.1 nvmnt Education


7.2 Cercetare - dezvoltare Research - development
7.1 NVMNT EDUCATION

CUPRINS CONTENTS
Pagina
Page
Tabele: Tables:
7.1.1 nvmntul de toate gradele ............. 202 Education of all levels
7.1.2 Populaia colar din nvmntul School aged population of all levels
de toate gradele, pe sexe ................... 204 of education, by sex
7.1.3 Personalul didactic din nvmntul Teaching staff of all levels
de toate gradele, pe sexe ................... 205 of education, by sex
7.1.4 Absolvenii din nvmntul Graduates of all levels
de toate gradele ................................. 205 of education
7.1.5 Populaia colar din nvmntul School aged population of all levels
de toate gradele, pe tipuri de coli ..... 206 of education, by type of schools
7.1.6 Gradul de cuprindere n nvmnt Enrollment rate for school
a populaiei de vrst colar ............. 206 aged population
7.1.7 Elevii nscrii n nvmntul Pupils enrolled in pre-university
preuniversitar, dup studiul education, by studied
limbilor moderne ................................. 207 modern languages
7.1.8 nvmntul preuniversitar, dup Pre-university education,
limba de predare ................................ 208 by teaching language
7.1.9 nvmntul liceal, pe profiluri ............ 212 High school education, by profiles
7.1.10 nvmntul profesional, de ucenici, Vocational, apprenticeship, post high
postliceal i de maitri, pe tipuri de school and foremen education, by type
coli i profiluri de pregtire ................ 214 of schools and training profiles
7.1.11 nvmntul special ............................ 218 Special education
7.1.12 nvmntul superior, pe localiti ...... 218 Higher education, by localities
7.1.13 nvmntul superior, pe grupe de Higher education, by group of
specializri .......................................... 220 specializations
7.1.14 nvmntul superior din instituii Higher education from private
private, pe localiti, n anul institutions, by localities, in 1999/2000
universitar 1999/2000 ......................... 226 academic year
7.1.15 nvmntul superior din instituii Higher education from private institutions,
private, pe grupe de specializri, n by group of specializations, in 1999/2000
anul universitar 1999/2000 ................. 226 academic year
7.1.16 nvmntul de toate gradele din Education of all levels from private
instituiile private ................................. 227 institutions

Sursa datelor Data source

Rapoarte statistice anuale completate la nceputul i Yearly statistical reports filled in at the beginning and at
sfritul anului colar (universitar) de ctre unitile the end of school year (academic year) by pre-
colare de nvmnt preuniversitar i instituiile de university education school units and higher education
nvmnt superior (universiti, institute, academii) institutions (universities, institutes, academies) which
care desfoar activiti instructiv-educative. carry out training-educational activities.
Precizri metodologice Methodological notes

ncepnd cu anul colar 1991/1992 n numrul Starting with 1991/1992 school year, the number of
unitilor colare, al populaiei colare i al personalului school units, enrolled population and teaching staff
didactic, s-a inclus i sectorul privat din nvmntul also includes private sector of preschool and high
precolar i liceal, iar din anul colar 1992/1993 school education and since 1992/1993 school year,
nvmntul profesional i postliceal. De asemenea, vocational and post high school education. Likewise,
din anul universitar 1995/1996 datele statistice cuprind since 1995/1996 academic year, statistical data also
i nvmntul superior din instituii private. include higher education from private institutions.
Din anul colar 1990/1991, datele statistice privind Since 1990/1991 school year, statistical data on the
numrul copiilor i elevilor nscrii, absolvenilor i number of enrolled children and pupils, graduates and
personalului didactic din nvmntul preuniversitar teaching staff of preuniversity education (pre-school,
(precolar, primar i gimnazial, liceal, profesional, primary and secondary, high school, post high school)
postliceal) se refer i la nvmntul special. also refer to special education.
Profilurile, meseriile i specializrile n care se Profiles, trades and specializations for pupils and
pregtesc elevii i studenii sunt stabilite conform students are set up according to the stipulations of the
prevederilor legislaiei n vigoare referitoare la in force legislation referring to education organisation
organizarea i funcionarea nvmntului n Romnia and functioning in Romania and based on
i pe baza Nomenclatorului profilurilor, meseriilor i "Nomenclature of profiles, trades and specializations"
specializrilor ntocmit de Institutul Naional de drawn up by the National Institute of Statistics and
Statistic i Studii Economice mpreun cu Ministerul Economic Studies together with the Ministry of National
Educaiei Naionale. Education.
Datele statistice privind nvmntul universitar Statistical data on higher education (number of
(numrul facultilor, studenii nscrii, absolvenii i faculties, enrolled students, graduates and teaching
personalul didactic) includ i nvmntul superior de staff) also include short term higher education
scurt durat (colegii), precum i studenii strini care (colleges), as well as foreign students who study in
studiaz n Romnia; nu sunt nregistrate date statistice Romania; statistical data on Romanian students who
privind studenii romni care studiaz n alte ri. study in other countries are not recorded.
ncepnd cu anul universitar 1995/1996, n numrul Starting with 1995/1996 academic year, total number
total al absolvenilor instituiilor de nvmnt superior of higher education graduates also included those
au fost inclui i cei provenind din instituiile de graduated from private institutions.
nvmnt private. Number of teaching staff includes only natural
n numrul cadrelor didactice sunt incluse numai persons (pedagogues, schoolmasters, teachers,
persoanele fizice (educatori, nvtori, profesori, university assistants, university lecturers, senior
asisteni universitari, lectori, confereniari etc.) nscrise lecturers) enlisted in "Staff list" of reporting units; each
n tatele de funciuni ale unitilor raportoare; teaching person is recorded only once (at the unit
fiecare cadru didactic este nregistrat o singur dat (la where he has his pass). Foremen instructors who carry
unitatea unde are cartea de munc). Sunt inclui i out training-educational activity within educational
maitrii instructori, care desfoar activitate instructiv- system are also included.
educativ n sistemul de nvmnt. Since 1995/1996 academic year, the coverage for
Din anul universitar 1995/1996, gradul de cuprindere 19-23 years and over age group of table 7.1.6 also
pentru grupa de vrst 19-23 ani i peste din tabelul includes higher education from private institutions and
7.1.6 cuprinde i nvmntul superior din instituii post high school and foremen education.
private i nvaamntul postliceal i de maitri.
POPULAIA COLAR A ROMNIEI PE VRSTE, SEXE I NIVELURI DE INSTRUIRE
N ANUL COLAR (UNIVERSITAR) 1999/2000
SCHOOL AGED POPULATION OF ROMANIA BY AGE, SEX AND EDUCATION LEVELS
IN 1999/2000 SCHOOL (ACADEMIC) YEAR

mii persoane
thou persons
Masculin Vrsta Feminin
Male Age Female
23 ani i peste
22 ani
21 ani
20 ani
19 ani
18 ani
17 ani
16 ani
15 ani
14 ani
13 ani
12 ani
11 ani
10 ani
9 ani
8 ani
7 ani
6 ani
5 ani
4 ani
3 ani

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 - Precolar / Pre-school
2 - Primar / Primary
3 - Gimnazial / Secondary school
4 - Liceal / High school
5 - Profesional i de ucenici / Vocational and apprenticeship
6 - Postliceal i de maitri / Post high school and foremen
7 - Superior / Higher education
8 - Populaia de vrst colar - total / Population of school age - total
ABSOLVENII DIN NVMNTUL DE TOATE GRADELE, N ANUL COLAR (UNIVERSITAR) 1998/1999
GRADUATES OF ALL LEVELS OF EDUCATION, IN 1998/1999 SCHOOL (ACADEMIC) YEAR

10,0%
43,4%

5,5%

12,3%

28,8%

nvmnt gimnazial nvmnt profesional i de ucenici


Secondary education Vocational and apprenticeship education

nvmnt liceal nvmnt postliceal i de maitri


High school education Post high school and foremen education

nvmnt superior
Higher education

PERSONALUL DIDACTIC DIN NVMNTUL DE TOATE GRADELE,


N ANUL COLAR (UNIVERSITAR) 1999/2000
TEACHING STAFF OF ALL LEVELS EDUCATION, IN 1999/2000 SCHOOL (ACADEMIC) YEAR

11,8%

8,9% 55,2%

0,5%

1,3%

22,3%

nvmnt precolar nvmnt profesional i de ucenici


Pre-school education Vocational and apprenticeship education

nvmnt gimnazial nvmnt postliceal i de maitri


Secondary education Post high school and foremen education

nvmnt liceal nvmnt superior


High school education Higher education
7.1.1 NVMNTUL DE TOATE GRADELE (nvmnt de zi, seral i fr frecven)
EDUCATION OF ALL LEVELS (day, evening and extramural education)

1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000

Total / Total

Uniti 28303 28951 29129 29376 29327 29536 29815 29084 29409 27633
Units
Populaia colar 5066031 4805367 4664860 4569285 4594513 4703277 4688311 4643351 4631164 4578383
Enrolled population
Copii n grdinie 752141 742232 752063 712136 715514 697888 659226 623553 624778 616313
Children in kindergartens
Elevi - total 4121080 3847909 3677128 3607062 3623837 3669248 3674597 3659208 3598666 3509449
Pupils - total
nvmnt de zi 3850000 3654110 3564972 3504849 3512703 3541048 3533118 3523270 3469801 3394783
Day education
nvmnt seral 267995 193476 111315 101136 110327 126958 136549 127814 117543 101691
Evening education
nvmnt fr frecven 3085 323 841 1077 807 1242 4930 8124 11322 12975
Extramural education
Studeni 192810 215226 235669 250087 255162 336141 354488 360590 407720 452621
Students
nvmnt de zi 136032 159678 186419 208898 222330 273211 296143 306513 351465 387769
Day education
nvmnt seral 45894 40642 30433 21090 14896 11992 8832 5831 3813 3281
Evening education
nvmnt fr frecven 10884 14906 18817 20099 17936 50938 49513 48246 52442 51625
Extramural education
nvmnt deschis la distan - - - - - - - - - 9946
Learning at distance
Personal didactic 271719 274472 283716 288652 296355 306166 313255 309306 311570 301416
Teaching staff

nvmnt precolar / Pre-school education

Grdinie de copii 12529 12600 12603 12715 12665 12772 12951 12368 12760 12831
Kindergartens
Copii nscrii 752141 742232 752063 712136 715514 697888 659226 623553 624778 616313
Children enrolled
Personal didactic 37007 36326 36447 37303 37603 38915 39166 36648 36555 35619
Teaching staff

nvmnt primar i gimnazial / Primary and secondary education

coli 13511 13985 13920 13945 13963 13985 13978 13847 13795 13154
Schools
Elevi nscrii (n clase I-VIII) 2730306 2639279 2572454 2533491 2532169 2541945 2546231 2559766 2556930 2498139
Pupils enrolled (in forms I-VIII)
din care: / of which:
n nvmntul gimnazial 1464678 1416066 1358639 1282533 1181034 1149994 1140923 1186687 1272423 1309081
Secondary education
Personal didactic 163865 159199 164165 164780 168702 172147 175426 173517 173003 166332
Teaching staff
din care: / of which:
n nvmntul gimnazial 103489 99415 103893 103052 103191 102611 103597 102439 104359 102275
Secondary education
Din nvmntul primar i gimnazial:
Of primary and secondary education:
nvmntul special:
Special education:
coli 136 138 141 146 164 168 167 165 170 166
Schools
Elevi nscrii (n clase I-VIII) 29652 30365 31670 33085 35358 36362 36704 36953 37423 36729
Pupils enrolled (in forms I-VIII)
Personal didactic 5871 6012 6330 6708 7315 7772 8029 8076 8248 8154
Teaching staff

nvmnt liceal / High school education

Licee 1198 1209 1238 1277 1276 1284 1295 1309 1315 1340
High schools
Elevi nscrii 995689 778420 714013 722421 757673 787211 792788 765903 718017 694376
Pupils enrolled
Personal didactic 51731 55013 58161 59488 60514 62409 64485 63669 66101 67239
Teaching staff

nvmnt profesional i de ucenici / Vocational and apprenticeship education

coli 707 717 717 740 764 776 796 795 800 97
Schools
Elevi nscrii 365860 375303 333624 300443 288674 285450 262057 247239 227585 222234
Pupils enrolled
din care: / of which:
n nvmntul de ucenici 68114 102526 90162 79689 78824 72697 58858 53596 46728 55500
In apprenticeship education
Personal didactic 4209 5319 5193 6253 7356 7892 7627 7820 6794 3845
Teaching staff
din care: / of which:
n nvmntul de ucenici 572 1343 1496 1249 1516 1443 1113 811 648 255
In apprenticeship education

nvmnt postliceal i de maitri / Post high school and foremen education

coli 310 384 589 636 596 624 693 659 628 90
Schools
Elevi nscrii 29225 54907 57037 50707 45321 54642 73521 86300 96134 94700
Pupils enrolled
Personal didactic 980 1300 1627 1698 1728 2192 3074 3225 3104 1404
Teaching staff
din care: / of which:
nvmnt de maitri
Foremen education
coli 149 172 210 225 173 179 203 192 167 3
Schools
Elevi nscrii 11158 19734 19567 16248 11852 13366 16322 15823 13332 10444
Pupils enrolled
Personal didactic 138 254 340 278 319 233 241 324 176 148
Teaching staff

nvmnt superior / Higher education

Instituii de nvmnt superior 48 56 62 63 63 951) 1021) 1061) 1111) 1211)


Higher education institutions
Faculti 186 257 261 262 262 4371) 4851) 5161) 5561) 6321)
Faculties
Studeni nscrii - total 192810 215226 235669 250087 255162 3361411) 3544881) 3605901) 4077201) 4526211)
Students enrolled - total
din care: / of which:
nvmnt de scurt durat (colegii) - 3542 6131 9191 9779 15299 17162 21021 27244 36028
Short-term education (colleges)

Din total: studeni strini care studiaz n Romnia 8639 9833 10969 11868 12920 13362 14181 13956 13279 12591
Of total: foreign students studying in Romania

Personal didactic 13927 17315 18123 19130 20452 226111) 234771) 244271) 260131) 269771)
Teaching staff

Rate la 10000 locuitori / Per 10000 inhabitants

Elevi 1776 1660 1614 1585 1594 1618 1625 1623 1599 1563
Pupils
Studeni 83 93 103 110 112 148 157 160 181 202
Students
1)
Inclusiv nvmntul particular. / Including private education.
7.1.2 POPULAIA COLAR DIN NVMNTUL DE TOATE GRADELE, PE SEXE (nvmnt de zi, seral i fr frecven)
SCHOOL AGED POPULATION OF ALL LEVELS OF EDUCATION, BY SEX (day, evening and extramural education)

Total = T / Total = T
Masculin = M / Male = M 1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000
Feminin = F / Female = F

Populaia colar T 5066031 4805367 4664860 4569285 4594513 4703277 4688311 4643351 4631164 4578383
Enrolled population M 2594569 2458457 2378929 2327901 2338652 2387035 2380401 2351960 2335287 2302994
F 2471462 2346910 2285931 2241384 2255861 2316242 2307910 2291391 2295877 2275389

nvmnt precolar T 752141 742232 752063 712136 715514 697888 659226 623553 624778 616313
Pre-school education M 376794 371919 375821 357275 359039 351892 334098 316075 316300 311163
F 375347 370313 376242 354861 356475 345996 325128 307478 308478 305150

nvmnt primar i gimnazial T 2730306 2639279 2572454 2533491 2532169 2541945 2546231 2559766 2556930 2498139
Primary and secondary education M 1394715 1351782 1319054 1301013 1300430 1304059 1306555 1314280 1311406 1281144
F 1335591 1287497 1253400 1232478 1231739 1237886 1239676 1245486 1245524 1216995
din care: / of which:
nvmnt gimnazial T 1464678 1416066 1358639 1282533 1181034 1149994 1140923 1186687 1272423 1309081
Secondary education M 747427 724310 695336 658181 606101 589721 584974 608109 650060 668338
F 717251 691756 663303 624352 574933 560273 555949 578578 622363 640743
Din nvmntul primar i gimnazial:
Of primary and secondary education:
nvmnt special T 29652 30365 31670 33085 35358 36362 36704 36953 37423 36729
Special education M 17715 18394 19012 19945 21400 21913 22364 22485 22737 22348
F 11937 11971 12658 13140 13958 14449 14340 14468 14686 14381

nvmnt liceal T 995689 778420 714013 722421 757673 787211 792788 765903 718017 694376
High school education M 462616 335734 301886 310336 331037 348846 356085 344968 322533 313147
F 533073 442686 412127 412085 426636 438365 436703 420935 395484 381229

nvmnt profesional i de ucenici T 365860 375303 333624 300443 288674 285450 262057 247239 227585 222234
Vocational and apprenticeship education M 240486 251527 226392 199001 190280 188299 174318 163612 150976 145316
F 125374 123776 107232 101442 98394 97151 87739 83627 76609 76918
din care: / of which:
nvmnt de ucenici T 68114 102526 90162 79689 78824 72697 58858 53596 46728 55500
Apprenticeship education M 38075 54062 46388 39997 37905 34803 28753 26336 22551 30182
F 30039 48464 43774 39692 40919 37894 30105 27260 24177 25318

nvmnt postliceal i de maitri T 29225 54907 57037 50707 45321 54642 73521 86300 96134 94700
Post high school and foremen education M 18169 31301 30142 26700 22962 26862 31668 32545 34398 34175
F 11056 23606 26895 24007 22359 27780 41853 53755 61736 60525
din care: / of which:
nvmnt de maitri T 11158 19734 19567 16248 11852 13366 16322 15823 13332 10444
Foremen education M 10214 18255 18211 15078 11119 12549 15263 14603 12137 9511
F 944 1479 1356 1170 733 817 1059 1220 1195 933

nvmnt superior T 192810 215226 235669 250087 255162 3361411) 3544881) 3605901) 4077201) 4526211)
Higher education M 101789 116194 125634 133576 134904 167077 177677 180480 199674 218049
F 91021 99032 110035 116511 120258 169064 176811 180110 208046 234572
din care: / of which:
nvmnt de scurt durat (colegii) T - 3542 6131 9191 9779 15299 17162 21021 27244 36028
Short-term education (colleges) M - 1544 2751 4018 4431 6213 8089 10154 12473 15299
F - 1998 3380 5173 5348 9086 9073 10867 14771 20729
1)
Inclusiv nvmntul particular. / Including private education.
7.1.3 PERSONALUL DIDACTIC DIN NVMNTUL DE TOATE GRADELE, PE SEXE
TEACHING STAFF OF ALL LEVELS OF EDUCATION, BY SEX

Total = T / Total = T
Masculin = M / Male = M 1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000
Feminin = F / Female = F

Personal didactic T 271719 274472 283716 288652 296355 306166 313255 309306 311570 301416
Teaching staff M 82365 85386 89039 88965 90877 91467 91416 89859 90299 85154
F 189354 189086 194677 199687 205478 214699 221839 219447 221271 216262

nvmnt precolar T 37007 36326 36447 37303 37603 38915 39166 36648 36555 35619
Pre-school education M - - 117 177 315 168 160 129 35 36
F 37007 36326 36330 37126 37288 38747 39006 36519 36520 35583

nvmnt primar i gimnazial T 163865 159199 164165 164780 168702 172147 175426 173517 173003 166332
Primary and secondary education M 44369 43762 45938 45141 46352 46009 45565 44076 43757 40812
F 119496 115437 118227 119639 122350 126138 129861 129441 129246 125520
din care: / of which:
nvmnt special T 5871 6012 6330 6708 7315 7772 8029 8076 8248 8154
Special education M 1560 1531 1518 1610 1878 1759 1788 1717 1735 1536
F 4311 4481 4812 5098 5437 6013 6241 6359 6513 6618

nvmnt liceal T 51731 55013 58161 59488 60514 62409 64485 63669 66101 67239
High school education M 24747 25019 26487 26042 25188 25081 25503 24903 25810 25644
F 26984 29994 31674 33446 35326 37328 38982 38766 40291 41595

nvmnt profesional i de ucenici T 4209 5319 5193 6253 7356 7892 7627 7820 6794 3845
Vocational and apprenticeship education M 2509 3114 2801 3328 3775 3723 3615 3759 3248 1800
F 1700 2205 2392 2925 3581 4169 4012 4061 3546 2045

nvmnt postliceal i de maitri T 980 1300 1627 1698 1728 2192 3074 3225 3104 1404
Post high school and foremen education M 710 997 932 1041 954 1059 1244 1141 1022 628
F 270 303 695 657 774 1133 1830 2084 2082 776
din care: / of which:
nvmnt de maitri T 138 254 340 278 319 233 241 324 176 148
Foremen education M 130 235 266 254 267 185 194 252 137 144
F 8 19 74 24 52 48 47 72 39 4

nvmnt superior T 13927 17315 18123 19130 20452 22611 23477 24427 26013 26977
Higher education M 10030 12494 12764 13236 14293 15427 15329 15851 16427 16234
F 3897 4821 5359 5894 6159 7184 8148 8576 9586 10743

7.1.4 ABSOLVENII DIN NVMNTUL DE TOATE GRADELE (nvmnt de zi, seral i fr frecven)
GRADUATES OF ALL LEVELS OF EDUCATION (day, evening and extramural education)

Anul colar / School year 1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999

nvmnt gimnazial 335831 321441 296157 316790 304982 288948 266862 232555 275623
Secondary education

Licee 188732 217743 166890 151157 158591 176071 182643 183570 182783
High school

nvmnt profesional i de ucenici 115697 117031 142630 105118 92275 99102 89557 81878 78375
Vocational and apprenticeship education

nvmnt postliceal i de maitri 2259 11893 25363 23278 17156 17077 26112 29809 34958
Post high school and foremen education

din care: /of which:


nvmnt de maitri 864 3235 7376 7926 4054 3596 4964 6331 5468
Foremen education

nvmnt superior 25927 29901 33366 34240 47837 57360 80991 67799 63622
Higher education
7.1.5 POPULAIA COLAR DIN NVMNTUL DE TOATE GRADELE, PE TIPURI DE COLI 1)
SCHOOL AGED POPULATION OF ALL LEVELS OF EDUCATION, BY TYPE OF SCHOOLS 1)

procente percentage
1994/ 1995/ 1996/ 1997/ 1998/ 1999/
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Total 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 Total

Preprimar (precolar) 15,6 14,8 14,0 13,4 13,5 13,4 Preprimary (preschool)

Gradul I (clase I-IV) 29,4 29,6 30,0 29,6 27,7 26,0 I degree (forms I-IV)

Gradul II (secundar) 49,5 48,5 48,4 49,2 50,0 50,7 II degree (secondary)
Ciclul I (clase V-VIII) 25,7 24,5 24,3 25,5 27,5 28,6 I cycle (forms V-VIII)
Ciclul II 23,8 24,0 24,1 23,7 22,5 22,1 II Cycle
General (liceu teoretic) 6,7 6,6 6,8 6,6 6,3 7,5 General (high school)
Normal (coal normal) 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 Normal (pedagogical school)
Tehnic 16,7 17,0 16,9 16,7 15,8 14,2 Technical
- liceu 9,4 9,7 9,8 9,5 8,9 7,3 - high school
- profesional 4,6 4,5 4,3 4,2 3,9 3,7 - vocational
- de ucenici 1,7 1,6 1,3 1,2 1,0 1,2 - apprenticeship
- postliceal 0,7 0,9 1,2 1,5 1,7 1,8 - post high school
- de maitri 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,2 - foremen

Gradul III (superior) 5,5 7,1 7,6 7,8 8,8 9,9 III degree (higher)
- de lung durat 5,3 6,8 7,2 7,3 8,2 9,2 - long-term
- de scurt durat (colegii) 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 - short-term (colleges)

1)
Dup metodologia UNESCO. / According to UNESCO methodology.

7.1.6 GRADUL DE CUPRINDERE N NVMNT A POPULAIEI DE VRST COLAR


ENROLLMENT RATE FOR SCHOOL AGED POPULATION

procente percentage
1994/ 1995/ 1996/ 1997/ 1998/ 1999/
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Total 61,6 64,0 64,7 65,1 66,3 67,3 Total


3 - 6 ani 55,2 63,6 65,5 67,0 68,5 69,5 3 - 6 years
7 - 10 ani 99,4 96,9 96,7 94,4 95,8 95,5 7 - 10 years
11 - 14 ani 84,6 92,8 94,3 98,0 98,1 96,9 11 - 14 years
15 - 18 ani 68,9 59,7 61,1 61,6 63,0 65,9 15 - 18 years
19 - 23 ani i peste 14,0 22,6 24,0 24,3 26,7 28,9 19 - 23 years and over

Masculin 61,5 63,6 64,3 65,0 65,4 66,3 Male


3 - 6 ani 54,3 62,8 64,8 66,3 67,6 68,3 3 - 6 years
7 - 10 ani 100,0 96,9 96,9 94,6 95,9 95,7 7 - 10 years
11 - 14 ani 85,2 92,9 94,5 99,3 98,2 96,9 11 - 14 years
15 - 18 ani 67,2 58,4 59,9 62,0 61,4 64,0 15 - 18 years
19 - 23 ani i peste 14,6 22,7 23,8 23,5 25,2 27,2 19 - 23 years and over

Feminin 61,7 64,4 65,2 65,1 67,2 68,3 Female


3 - 6 ani 56,2 64,4 66,2 67,8 69,6 70,7 3 - 6 years
7 - 10 ani 98,7 96,8 96,4 94,2 95,6 95,2 7 - 10 years
11 - 14 ani 84,1 92,8 94,2 96,6 98,0 97,0 11 - 14 years
15 - 18 ani 70,8 61,0 62,3 61,2 64,6 67,8 15 - 18 years
19 - 23 ani i peste 13,4 22,6 24,3 25,1 28,3 30,7 19 - 23 years and over
7.1.7 ELEVII NSCRII N NVMNTUL PREUNIVERSITAR, DUP STUDIUL LIMBILOR MODERNE
PUPILS ENROLLED IN PRE-UNIVERSITY EDUCATION, BY STUDIED MODERN LANGUAGES

numr / number
Prima limb modern A doua limb modern
First modern language Second modern language

1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000

Total 2958426 2981471 2786606 2867647 1243951 1241957 1292860 1660931


Limba englez / English 898940 965751 968212 1093974 546119 560236 603510 824569
Limba francez / French 1781952 1764034 1590362 1585412 377094 390337 415076 546574
Limba german / German 127711 124620 117107 113654 107739 102802 108543 126726
Limba rus / Russian 134422 114681 100464 63928 202845 177797 156962 151604
Limba spaniol / Spanish 7422 6839 5505 5699 5018 5480 4044 4513
Limba italian / Italian 5556 5437 4956 4951 4189 4933 4725 6921
Limba greac / Greek 2423 109 - - 947 372 - 24
Limba japonez / Japanese - - - 29 - - - -

nvmnt primar 987843 987680 746744 756083 - - - -


Primary education
Limba englez / English 292484 313375 272828 326545 - - - -
Limba francez / French 605630 591871 419579 384208 - - - -
Limba german / German 48418 46044 34724 31935 - - - -
Limba rus / Russian 35849 31541 16207 10289 - - - -
Limba spaniol / Spanish 2771 2978 2047 2074 - - - -
Limba italian / Italian 1517 1762 1359 1032 - - - -
Limba greac / Greek 1174 109 - - - - - -

nvmnt gimnazial 1113578 1161615 1245801 1282074 773459 796010 866038 1219835
Secondary education
Limba englez / English 310596 338083 375190 407047 335620 360791 409965 619505
Limba francez / French 686188 713263 761918 773406 220651 234343 259274 377169
Limba german / German 52340 53560 59420 58388 67298 65483 69950 90872
Limba rus / Russian 57064 52094 44682 38164 142259 128419 121159 124773
Limba spaniol / Spanish 3447 2727 2510 2662 4440 4188 3312 3489
Limba italian / Italian 2694 1888 2081 2407 2339 2786 2378 4027
Limba greac / Greek 1249 - - - 852 - - -

nvmnt liceal 784725 761545 712246 690531 470492 445947 426822 441096
High school education
Limba englez / English 265673 275852 273942 284892 210499 199445 193545 205064
Limba francez / French 450248 429717 393863 370350 156443 155994 155802 169405
Limba german / German 25711 22888 20863 19189 40441 37319 38593 35854
Limba rus / Russian 40622 30191 21142 13950 60586 49378 35803 26831
Limba spaniol / Spanish 1204 1129 933 952 578 1292 732 1024
Limba italian / Italian 1267 1768 1503 1169 1850 2147 2347 2894
Limba greac / Greek - - - - 95 372 - 24
Limba japonez / Japanese - - - 29 - - - -

nvmnt profesional i de ucenici 38988 26348 28456 77410 - - - -


Vocational and apprenticeship education
Limba englez / English 11117 10527 12016 33608 - - - -
Limba francez / French 26527 13741 14816 39559 - - - -
Limba german / German 556 1456 1080 2597 - - - -
Limba rus / Russian 788 605 543 1460 - - - -
Limba italian / Italian - 19 1 186 - - - -

nvmnt postliceal i de maitri 33292 44283 53359 61549 - - - -


Post high school and foremen education
Limba englez / English 19070 27914 34236 41882 - - - -
Limba francez / French 13359 15442 186 17889 - - - -
Limba german / German 686 672 1020 1545 - - - -
Limba rus / Russian 99 250 17890 65 - - - -
Limba spaniol / Spanish - 5 15 11 - - - -
Limba italian / Italian 78 - 12 157 - - - -
7.1.8 NVMNTUL PREUNIVERSITAR DUP LIMBA DE PREDARE 1) (nvmnt de zi, seral i fr frecven)
PRE-UNIVERSITY EDUCATION BY TEACHING LANGUAGE 1) (day, evening and extramural education)

1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000

COPII I ELEVI NSCRII / CHILDREN AND PUPILS ENROLLED

nvmnt precolar 752141 742232 752063 712136 715514 697888 659226 623553 624778 616313 Pre-school education
Limba romn 697611 686405 694406 655741 658994 644987 609718 576015 577620 569520 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 47600 47530 49255 48192 47754 45839 42816 40978 40397 40207 Hungarian language
Limba german 5961 6847 7051 6725 7373 5769 5516 5579 5711 5467 German language
Limba srb 367 476 444 406 389 230 187 177 324 287 Serbian language
Limba ucrainean 156 310 305 342 383 323 351 323 272 282 Ukrainian language
Limba slovac 283 325 321 337 295 319 292 164 242 319 Slovakian language
Limba ceh 98 72 89 69 75 59 47 53 33 59 Czech language
Limba bulgar 25 186 164 148 - 133 117 120 - - Bulgarian language
Limba turc 40 81 28 156 153 151 128 85 70 54 Turkish language
Limba greac - - - 20 25 20 14 - - - Greek language
Limba croat - - - - 73 58 40 59 15 36 Croatian language
Limba romanes - - - - - - - - 94 82 Romanes language

nvmnt primar i gimnazial 2730306 2639279 2572454 2533491 2532169 2541945 2546231 2559766 2556930 2498139 Primary and secondary education
Limba romn 2574999 2492848 2431048 2396033 2394630 2407964 2412950 2424716 2420636 2367628 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 142459 134486 128879 125480 124167 121215 120597 121244 122385 118220 Hungarian language
Limba german 11183 10167 10793 10153 11526 11138 11013 12086 12175 10381 German language
Limba srb 472 575 457 497 461 383 392 345 361 375 Serbian language
Limba ucrainean 71 140 210 288 273 205 259 329 362 511 Ukrainian language
Limba slovac 966 918 935 912 903 891 909 899 834 813 Slovakian language
Limba ceh 156 145 132 128 188 111 76 124 107 101 Czech language
Limba croat - - - - 21 38 35 23 25 30 Croatian language
Limba romanes - - - - - - - - 7 80 Romanes language
Limba armean - - - - - - - - 38 - Armenian language

nvmnt liceal 995689 778420 714013 722421 757673 787211 792788 765903 718017 694376 High school education
Limba romn 952058 742946 680725 689573 725086 754570 760377 733611 687655 664816 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 41367 33447 31196 30475 30055 29950 29604 29196 27274 26430 Hungarian language
Limba german 1730 1605 1657 1931 2060 2260 2364 2576 2604 2388 German language
Limba srb 290 197 199 200 172 161 158 152 138 404 Serbian language
Limba ucrainean 49 92 113 125 162 114 91 140 99 99 Ukrainian language
Limba slovac 195 133 123 117 138 156 180 197 205 191 Slovakian language
Limba croat - - - - - - 14 31 42 48 Croatian language

nvmnt profesional i de ucenici 365860 375303 333624 300443 288674 285450 262057 247239 227585 222234 Vocational and apprenticeship education
Limba romn 361281 368714 327535 294331 282381 279959 256785 241255 221709 216469 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 4123 6380 5738 6112 6293 5491 5272 5984 5876 5747 Hungarian language
Limba german 22 - 351 - - - - - - 18 German language
Limba srb 95 209 - - - - - - - - Serbian language
Limba slovac 339 - - - - - - - - - Slovakian language

nvmnt postliceal i de maitri 29225 54907 57037 50707 45321 54642 73521 86300 96134 94700 Post high school and foremen education
Limba romn 28651 53706 55865 49537 44337 53621 72662 85112 94675 92507 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 525 1103 969 1058 862 905 753 1087 1347 2094 Hungarian language
Limba german 49 92 134 88 122 116 106 101 112 99 German language
Limba srb - - 69 - - - - - - - Serbian language
Limba ucrainean - - - 24 - - - - - - Ukrainian language
Limba slovac - 6 - - - - - - - - Slovakian language
din care: of which:
nvmnt de maitri 11158 19734 19567 16248 11852 13366 16322 15823 13332 10444 Foremen education
Limba romn 11134 19652 19409 16118 11762 13269 16217 15726 13255 10298 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 24 82 89 130 90 97 105 97 77 146 Hungarian language
Limba srb - - 69 - - - - - - - Serbian language

PERSONAL DIDACTIC / TEACHING STAFF

nvmnt precolar 37007 36326 36447 37303 37603 38915 39166 36648 36555 35619 Pre-school education
Limba romn 34343 33631 33721 34459 34681 35900 36150 33891 33756 33198 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 2337 2336 2371 2458 2518 2642 2643 2474 2498 2232 Hungarian language
Limba german 286 298 297 318 338 308 307 231 241 133 German language
Limba srb 18 23 22 21 19 12 12 11 20 11 Serbian language
Limba ucrainean 6 13 13 15 18 16 20 17 16 15 Ukrainian language
Limba slovac 12 13 14 16 15 16 16 9 13 18 Slovakian language
Limba ceh 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 Czech language
Limba bulgar 1 7 6 6 - 6 6 6 - - Bulgarian language
Limba turc 2 3 1 7 8 9 8 4 4 3 Turkish language
Limba greac - - - 1 1 1 1 - - - Greek language
Limba croat - - - - 3 3 2 3 1 2 Croatian language
Limba romanes - - - - - - - - 5 5 Romanes language

nvmnt primar i gimnazial 163865 159199 164165 164780 168702 172147 175426 173517 173003 166332 Primary and secondary education
Limba romn 154112 149657 154511 155156 158876 162334 165546 163705 164086 158855 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 8987 8842 8904 8901 9109 9177 9146 9193 8448 7154 Hungarian language
Limba german 618 565 596 563 560 490 573 473 341 195 German language
Limba srb 37 42 54 46 46 41 58 44 32 37 Serbian language
Limba ucrainean 8 5 16 24 17 14 14 15 11 17 Ukrainian language
Limba slovac 92 72 72 78 73 80 75 75 74 71 Slovakian language
Limba ceh 11 16 12 12 19 8 11 11 8 1 Czech language
Limba croat - - - - 2 3 3 1 2 2 Croatian language
Limba armean - - - - - - - - 1 - Armenian language

nvmnt liceal 51731 55013 58161 59488 60514 62409 64485 63669 66101 67239 High school education
Limba romn 50034 52861 55605 56967 57766 59626 61603 61127 63288 64120 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 1535 1941 2376 2319 2446 2458 2579 2246 2504 2759 Hungarian language
Limba german 154 187 110 130 248 263 221 183 222 186 German language
Limba srb 6 24 22 21 10 16 23 21 15 98 Serbian language
Limba ucrainean - - - 3 - - - 25 - - Ukrainian language
Limba slovac 2 - 48 48 44 46 44 56 60 58 Slovakian language
Limba croat - - - - - - 15 11 12 18 Croatian language

nvmnt profesional i de ucenici 4209 5319 5193 6253 7356 7892 7627 7820 6794 3845 Vocational and apprenticeship education
Limba romn 4179 5215 5079 6087 7193 7730 7496 7618 6635 3781 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 30 104 114 166 163 162 131 202 159 64 Hungarian language

nvmnt postliceal i de maitri 980 1300 1627 1698 1728 2192 3074 3225 3104 1404 Post high school and foremen education
Limba romn 977 1273 1569 1690 1662 2140 3007 3150 3028 1382 Romanian language
Limba maghiar 3 27 58 8 50 48 64 71 72 21 Hungarian language
Limba german - - - - 16 4 3 4 4 1 German language

din care: of which:


nvmnt de maitri 138 254 340 278 319 233 241 324 176 148 Foremen education
Limba romn 138 254 340 278 319 233 241 324 176 148 Romanian language
1)
Limba romn i limba minoritilor naionale. / Romanian and language of national minorities.
7.1.9 NVMNTUL LICEAL, PE PROFILURI (nvmnt de zi, seral i fr frecven)
HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION, BY PROFILES (day, evening and extramural education)

1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000

Licee 1198 1209 1238 1277 1276 1284 1295 1309 1315 1340
High schools

Licee i colegii teoretice 425 430 423 435 446 439 444 448 454 500
Theoretical high schools and colleges
Licee industriale 453 448 452 465 465 470 467 472 469 455
Industrial high schools
Licee agricole 123 120 127 129 131 129 126 124 123 110
Agricultural high schools
Licee silvice 5 5 5 6 5 6 6 5 5 6
Sylvicultural high schools
Licee agromontane - - - - - - - - - 4
Agromontain high schools
Licee sanitare 27 26 26 23 - - - - - -
Health high schools
Licee veterinare - - - - - - - - - 4
Veterinary high schools
Licee economice, administrative
i de servicii 47 51 48 51 51 53 58 59 62 69
Economic, administrative and
services high schools
1)
Licee de informatic 8 9 8 10 10 10 10 14 15
Informatics high schools
2) 2) 2)
Licee de metrologie 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Metrology high schools
coli normale 36 35 37 36 38 40 40 39 38 38
Pedagogical schools
Licee de art 31 34 37 38 39 42 41 44 43 42
Art high schools
Licee cu program de educaie fizic 17 19 23 24 25 26 30 31 30 31
Sports high schools
Licee militare 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 4
Military high schools
Seminarii teologice 14 19 38 47 51 54 58 61 65 70
Theological seminaries
Licee speciale 6 4 5 4 6 6 6 4 5 7
Special high schools

Elevi nscrii 995689 778420 714013 722421 757673 787211 792788 765903 718017 694376
Pupils enrolled

Licee i colegii teoretice 174327 248748 277882 296324 307201 311428 316685 308295 290864 343094
Theoretical high schools and colleges
Licee industriale 587115 335093 240511 217524 231048 243384 239761 227489 206131 195529
Industrial high schools
Licee agricole 125893 66179 49120 43691 44310 47795 48086 46632 42081 28636
Agricultural high schools
Licee silvice 3474 2491 2798 2977 3034 3446 3997 4397 4632 6081
Sylvicultural high schools
Licee agromontane - - - - - - - - - 1679
Agromontain high schools
Licee sanitare 14942 11736 8203 3605 - - - - - -
Health high schools
Licee veterinare - - - - - - - - - 6201
Veterinary high schools
Licee economice, administrative
i de servicii 54438 57316 58579 62268 64584 67105 67682 64046 60457 62227
Economic, administrative and
services high schools
1)
Licee de informatic 10702 20328 30355 40975 49377 55914 59002 60533 61942
Informatics high schools
2) 2) 2)
Licee de metrologie 746 1057 1095 1299 1496 1614 1873
Metrology high schools
coli normale 9920 13026 16598 18909 19967 18693 17928 17993 17257 16005
Pedagogical schools
Licee de art 4138 5616 7022 8440 8681 8788 8907 8846 8681 9165
Art high schools
Licee cu program de educaie fizic 4800 9774 11570 12836 12606 12320 11805 11293 10331 10849
Sports high schools
Licee militare 2531 3332 3646 3904 3921 3730 3444 3061 2666 1873
Military high schools
Seminarii teologice 2153 3180 6070 8804 10735 12252 12846 12560 12242 12357
Theological seminaries
Licee speciale 510 544 564 865 713 742 772 758 733 680
Special high schools
7.1.9 NVMNTUL LICEAL, PE PROFILURI (nvmnt de zi, seral i fr frecven)
HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION, BY PROFILES (day, evening and extramural education)
continuare / continued
1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000

Absolveni 188732 217743 166890 151157 158591 176071 182643 183570 182783 3)
Graduates

Licee i colegii teoretice 11609 40358 51756 64798 71215 73176 75148 76265 76791
Theoretical high schools and colleges
Licee industriale 138367 131038 76490 42112 42762 52469 54050 53404 52147
Industrial high schools
Licee agricole 20190 23960 14228 11046 8932 10057 10578 10932 10314
Agricultural high schools
Licee silvice 968 406 646 616 696 739 744 744 1075
Sylvicultural high schools
Licee agromontane - - - - - - - - 324
Agromontain high schools
Licee sanitare 3301 3572 4555 3592 - - - - -
Health high schools
Licee economice, administrative
i de servicii 10375 12414 11754 14141 13007 14615 16456 16212 15286
Economic, administrative and
services high schools
1)
Licee de informatic 899 2008 2543 5792 8916 11929 13065 13863 14775
Informatics high schools
2) 2) 2)
Licee de metrologie 171 308 256 125 299 271 424
Metrology high schools
coli normale 1229 771 1424 2361 4735 4399 3465 3676 3529
Pedagogical schools
Licee de art 477 610 592 2011 1911 2037 2019 2172 2160
Art high schools
Licee cu program de educaie fizic - 1081 1312 2987 3194 2827 2874 2809 2677
Sports high schools
Licee militare 720 810 789 609 1017 1065 1078 633 697
Military high schools
Seminarii teologice 295 277 430 797 1727 2304 2560 2675 2811
Theological seminaries
Licee speciale 131 130 115 170 180 183 182 185 197
Special high schools

Personal didactic 51731 55013 58161 59488 60514 62409 64485 63669 66101 67239
Teaching staff

Licee i colegii teoretice 13760 16791 17301 18550 19248 19028 19882 19264 19944 21311
Theoretical high schools and colleges
Licee industriale 26407 25263 26008 25557 25185 26740 26935 27519 28615 28989
Industrial high schools
Licee agricole 5356 4564 4764 4773 4679 4818 4870 5005 5174 4870
Agricultural high schools
Licee silvice 141 155 245 243 193 193 171 202 197 196
Sylvicultural high schools
Licee agromontane - - - - - - - - - 142
Agromontain high schools
Licee sanitare 689 905 728 328 - - - - - -
Health high schools
Licee veterinare - - - - - - - - - 109
Veterinary high schools
Licee economice, administrative
i de servicii 2302 2888 3025 3099 3157 3367 3726 3427 3450 3617
Economic, administrative and
services high schools
1)
Licee de informatic 313 346 587 645 850 852 1092 508 618
Informatics high schools
2) 2) 2)
Licee de metrologie 40 55 53 55 40 61 78
Metrology high schools
coli normale 1208 1596 1796 2035 2270 2207 2231 2141 2227 2036
Pedagogical schools
Licee de art 904 1414 2084 2289 2666 2764 2834 2889 3061 3065
Art high schools
Licee cu program de educaie fizic 261 598 751 993 1002 1128 1336 1330 1425 1537
Sports high schools
Licee militare 174 237 263 267 267 272 252 251 187 114
Military high schools
Seminarii teologice 117 187 426 556 846 860 955 1055 1128 944
Theological seminaries
Licee speciale 59 14 130 98 111 119 123 78 75 309
Special high schools

1)
Sunt incluse n cadrul liceelor i colegiilor teoretice. / They are included in theorethic high schools and colleges.
2)
Sunt incluse n cadrul liceelor industriale, ca profil. / They are included in industrial high schools, as profile.
3)
Anul colar 1999/2000 se ncheie dup examenul de corigen din toamn. / 1999/2000 school year ends after the autumn second examination.
7.1.10 NVMNTUL PROFESIONAL, DE UCENICI, POSTLICEAL I DE MAITRI, PE TIPURI DE COLI I PROFILURI DE PREGTIRE
VOCATIONAL, APPRENTICESHIP, POST HIGH SCHOOL AND FOREMEN EDUCATION, BY TYPE OF SCHOOLS AND TRAINING PROFILES

Elevi inscrii / Pupils enrolled Absolveni / Graduates


1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999

coli profesionale 207957 196389 197834 188339 179090 166881 153592 66685 55373 60530 58786 56113 52055
Vocational schools
Construcii de maini 37520 31319 29121 26171 24408 22331 20540 14221 8828 9180 8456 7519 6676
Engineering
Electrotehnic i electronic 10729 10106 9388 8345 8581 8034 7747 3500 2686 3212 2940 2694 2265
Electrotechnics and electronics
Mine 6762 5224 5055 4553 3674 2716 1803 2174 1430 1280 1324 1171 910
Mines
Petrol 4503 5174 4951 3896 3302 2948 2499 887 1239 1452 1325 1178 977
Oil
Metalurgie 3256 2720 2351 2271 2075 1820 1063 1312 926 736 625 727 643
Metallurgy
Energetic 6599 6274 5559 4421 3880 3480 3485 2001 1908 1919 1377 1243 1220
Energy
Chimie industrial 5487 4698 4495 4160 3901 3129 2713 2057 1547 1319 1345 1207 1119
Industrial chemistry
Materiale de construcii 2523 2280 2258 1986 1823 1459 1258 901 698 748 549 672 521
Construction materials
Construcii-montaj 14796 14521 16266 15292 14477 13274 11859 4731 4203 4649 4664 4954 3898
Mounting construction
Exploatarea i industrializarea lemnului 14059 12428 11742 11321 11003 10146 8227 5351 3476 3673 3466 3162 3148
Wood exploitation and processing
Transporturi 34554 37150 40059 40368 39940 39734 38183 9155 9452 12701 12454 12101 12647
Transport
Pot i telecomunicaii 671 725 1093 1185 1274 1271 1794 183 182 377 372 367 316
Post and telecommunications
Industrie alimentar 7023 7337 7338 7223 6500 6192 6050 1756 2279 2422 2193 2015 2108
Food industry
Industrie uoar 15503 15017 15173 14718 14957 15214 15089 5021 4118 4683 4450 4469 4167
Light industry
Poligrafie 203 282 246 379 450 493 474 205 111 59 66 65 193
Poligraphy
Gospodrirea apelor 420 233 155 166 246 84 214 164 66 37 59 31 37
Water management
Agricultur 13327 13499 12288 11068 9856 9042 7252 3715 4203 3960 3773 3090 2922
Agriculture
Silvicultur 846 748 654 833 739 592 786 306 341 236 288 295 256
Sylviculture
Comer 7230 4180 4274 4028 3822 3175 3556 2577 1211 1285 1402 1284 1129
Trade
Alimentaie public 8809 7401 8262 8949 8491 8657 8629 3262 1959 2298 2602 2514 2830
Public catering
Industrie mic i prestri servicii 13137 15073 17106 17006 15691 13090 10371 3206 4510 4304 5056 5355 4073
Small-sized industry and rendering services

coli profesionale speciale 12797 13461 14919 14860 14553 13976 13142 2948 3386 3817 3312 3591 3816
Special vocational schools
Construcii de maini 2080 2050 2030 1931 1700 1728 1586 443 548 434 397 436 470
Engineering
Electrotehnic i electronic 93 84 96 84 76 55 34 21 21 53 23 30 24
Electrotechnics and electronics
Chimie 29 29 29 32 26 17 16 10 10 7 10 9 9
Chemistry
Materiale de construcii 23 10 - - - - 16 12 9 - - - -
Construction materials
Construcii-montaj 2425 2500 2825 2871 2858 2807 2644 624 570 857 756 626 816
Mounting construction
Exploatarea i industrializarea lemnului 2092 2106 2394 2216 2249 2088 1839 436 555 573 486 571 517
Wood exploitation and processing
Transporturi 87 148 309 413 525 572 650 12 23 69 39 172 164
Transport
Industrie alimentar 124 113 138 140 140 124 69 44 21 39 40 20 56
Food industry
Industrie uoar 3940 4432 4759 4825 4649 4324 3983 942 1104 1175 1140 1158 1118
Light industry
Agricol 652 580 578 599 534 528 500 163 172 156 113 189 165
Agriculture
Comer 47 90 43 12 24 25 13 - 17 29 - - 12
Trade
Alimentaie public 806 927 1269 1272 1340 1274 1365 132 203 291 210 276 347
Public catering
Industrie mic i prestri servicii 92 105 104 100 133 170 218 26 27 42 33 11 53
Small-sized industry and rendering services
Alte activiti industriale specifice 307 287 345 365 299 264 209 83 106 92 65 93 65
Other specific industrial activities
7.1.10 NVMNTUL PROFESIONAL, DE UCENICI, POSTLICEAL I DE MAITRI, PE TIPURI DE COLI I PROFILURI DE PREGTIRE
VOCATIONAL, APPRENTICESHIP, POST HIGH SCHOOL AND FOREMEN EDUCATION, BY TYPE OF SCHOOLS AND TRAINING PROFILES
continuare / continued
Elevi inscrii / Pupils enrolled Absolveni / Graduates
1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999

coli de ucenici 79689 78824 72697 58858 53596 46728 55500 35485 33516 34755 27459 22174 22504
Apprenticeship schools
Industrie 37264 34676 31689 26175 23907 20144 24850 16539 14754 14912 11675 10082 9525
Industry
Industrie mic 28073 29955 27725 21874 20748 18598 20869 12223 12868 13685 10502 8132 9257
Small sized industry
Prestaii pentru servirea populaiei 11895 10890 10613 8779 7404 6552 8057 5906 4477 4933 4241 3239 3173
Services for population
Activiti n agricultur 2457 3303 2670 2030 1537 1434 1724 817 1417 1225 1041 721 549
Activities in agriculture

coli postliceale 34390 33393 41160 57032 70387 82504 84022 15309 13075 13431 21085 23377 29339
Post high schools
Construcii de maini 1478 1493 1493 1190 884 698 651 611 535 537 514 405 196
Engineering
Electrotehnic i electronic 1453 1708 1750 1277 1152 983 835 590 529 706 613 401 369
Electrotechnics and electronics
Mine 320 515 550 291 101 161 62 97 176 217 190 54 62
Mines
Petrol 48 29 45 44 47 6 53 - - 26 14 16 -
Oil
Geologie 102 28 - 27 23 29 46 39 25 - - 23 -
Geology
Metalurgie 370 387 463 424 258 291 160 164 159 172 250 98 111
Metallurgy
Energetic 328 415 444 515 488 404 288 97 198 128 239 179 213
Energy
Chimie industrial 686 774 881 858 643 503 377 272 278 326 423 242 202
Industrial chemistry
Materiale de construcii 40 47 20 - - 21 19 15 19 14 - - -
Construction materials
Arhitectur, sistematizare i construcii-montaj 1337 1519 1824 1521 1189 1158 1082 377 626 605 739 396 373
Architecture, arrangement and
mounting construction
Exploatarea i industrializarea lemnului 540 418 377 313 262 322 238 212 216 137 157 110 70
Timber exploitation and processing
Transporturi 92 88 78 91 158 591 924 75 23 43 27 79 148
Transport
Pot i telecomunicaii 541 716 977 998 1115 1451 1733 220 310 394 589 506 506
Post and telecommunications
Industrie alimentar 639 584 692 827 933 1202 1386 271 236 220 351 332 470
Food industry
Industrie uoar 994 932 1212 1015 957 1385 1493 451 406 381 529 255 517
Light industry
Agricultur 1521 1473 2012 2091 1783 1877 1496 569 709 660 997 814 681
Agriculture
Silvicultur 326 398 548 801 973 1297 1582 133 166 182 321 460 488
Sylviculture
Gospodrirea apelor 176 89 80 90 191 177 96 52 55 18 39 83 93
Water management
Comer 1127 911 1106 1417 2240 2528 1193 500 406 373 598 641 1100
Trade
Finane, contabilitate, administrativ 4798 5556 7441 10099 14032 17915 24514 1857 2352 2846 4108 5107 7068
Finances, accountancy, administrative
Turism 797 896 1018 1115 1110 1417 1778 364 433 390 464 458 481
Tourism
Cooperaie meteugreasc i de consum 1140 867 966 1258 1140 1205 1010 499 376 315 478 432 420
Handicraft cooperation
Informatic 860 946 1321 1476 1678 2750 3688 348 421 456 644 580 779
Informatics
Metrologie 19 33 73 91 116 124 193 - 13 15 45 51 60
Metrology
Sanitar 11116 10108 13570 26148 32842 33295 32672 5770 3522 3353 8006 10062 12083
Sanitary
Cultur 159 192 186 249 293 316 355 66 73 84 103 93 120
Culture
Invmnt 1116 706 728 1510 4006 6833 5725 662 65 342 426 833 1506
Education
Altele 2267 1565 1305 1296 1773 3565 373 998 748 491 221 667 1223
Others
7.1.10 NVMNTUL PROFESIONAL, DE UCENICI, POSTLICEAL I DE MAITRI, PE TIPURI DE COLI I PROFILURI DE PREGTIRE
VOCATIONAL, APPRENTICESHIP, POST HIGH SCHOOL AND FOREMEN EDUCATION, BY TYPE OF SCHOOLS AND TRAINING PROFILES
continuare / continued
Elevi inscrii / Pupils enrolled Absolveni / Graduates
1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999

coli postliceale speciale 69 76 116 167 169 298 234 43 27 50 63 101 151
Special post high schools
Sanitar 69 76 116 167 169 218 234 43 27 50 63 101 69
Sanitary
nvmnt - - - - - 80 - - - - - - 82
Education

coli de maitri 16248 11852 13366 16322 15744 13332 10444 7926 4054 3596 4964 6331 5468
Foremen schools
Construcii de maini 4902 3128 4066 4668 4737 3865 3006 2452 864 1053 1359 1985 1571
Engineering
Electronic i electrotehnic 1491 944 1318 1441 1455 1245 937 651 233 333 505 542 427
Electronics and electrotechnics
Mine 849 1041 1418 1986 1456 768 253 237 358 398 477 756 518
Mines
Petrol 204 244 327 507 401 478 447 139 98 142 216 199 159
Oil
Metalurgie 621 476 487 607 537 354 241 346 131 105 226 243 177
Metallurgy
Energetic 1160 1096 1383 1770 2022 1849 1557 542 422 291 498 705 728
Energy
Chimie industrial 868 534 700 1026 729 494 334 559 160 118 398 342 226
Industrial chemistry
Materiale de construcii 139 103 84 63 133 151 157 63 21 65 17 - 38
Construction materials
Construcii-montaj 993 760 606 753 881 775 715 579 179 179 290 308 224
Mounting construction
Exploatarea i industrializarea lemnului 836 569 579 960 795 391 241 355 333 132 311 534 209
Wood exploitation and processing
Transporturi 1006 805 907 1327 1736 1802 1530 467 260 187 335 379 769
Transport
Pot i telecomunicaii - 36 28 - - 31 21 - - 27 - - 31
Post and telecommunications
Industria alimentar 579 336 183 127 87 27 38 287 174 88 25 48 13
Food industry
Industria uoar 515 363 367 378 509 624 538 266 179 161 137 103 153
Light industry
Poligrafie 30 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Poligraphy
Agricultur 810 628 497 380 266 275 209 360 241 143 109 119 74
Agriculture
Altele 1245 789 416 329 - 203 220 623 401 174 61 68 151
Others
7.1.11 NVMNTUL SPECIAL
SPECIAL EDUCATION

Din care: n nvmntul / Of which: in education


Primar i Profesional i Postliceal i
Anii School
Total Precolar gimnazial Liceal de ucenici de maitri
colari years
Pre-school Primary and High school Vocational and Post high school
secondary apprenticeship and foremen

1993/1994 coli 231 38 146 4 42 1 Schools 1993/1994


Elevi nscrii 48930 2114 33085 865 12797 69 Pupils enrolled
din care: feminin 19413 977 13140 532 4733 31 of which: female
Personal didactic 8687 628 6708 98 1207 46 Teaching staff
din care: feminin 6420 602 5098 61 645 14 of which: female
1994/1995 coli 263 40 164 6 52 1 Schools 1994/1995
Elevi nscrii 52349 2741 35358 713 13461 76 Pupils enrolled
din care: feminin 20876 1269 13958 394 5207 48 of which: female
Personal didactic 9557 771 7315 111 1351 9 Teaching staff
din care: feminin 7010 752 5437 79 738 4 of which: female
1995/1996 coli 278 42 168 6 61 1 Schools 1995/1996
Elevi nscrii 54717 2578 36362 742 14919 116 Pupils enrolled
din care: feminin 21889 1228 14449 419 5726 67 of which: female
Personal didactic 10295 798 7772 119 1597 9 Teaching staff
din care: feminin 7841 772 6013 74 978 4 of which: female
1996/1997 coli 288 47 167 6 65 3 Schools 1996/1997
Elevi nscrii 55326 2823 36704 772 14860 167 Pupils enrolled
din care: feminin 22018 1358 14340 446 5783 91 of which: female
Personal didactic 10773 893 8029 123 1714 14 Teaching staff
din care: feminin 8191 861 6241 88 991 10 of which: female
1997/1998 coli 279 51 165 4 56 3 Schools 1997/1998
Elevi nscrii 54952 2519 36953 758 14553 169 Pupils enrolled
din care: feminin 21826 1146 14468 458 5663 91 of which: female
Personal didactic 10785 786 8076 78 1828 17 Teaching staff
din care: feminin 8211 774 6359 45 1026 7 of which: female
1998/1999 coli 305 67 170 5 59 4 Schools 1998/1999
Elevi nscrii 55237 2807 37423 733 13976 298 Pupils enrolled
din care: feminin 21952 1266 14686 436 5349 215 of which: female
Personal didactic 10937 876 8248 75 1719 19 Teaching staff
din care: feminin 8415 859 6513 51 977 15 of which: female
1999/2000 coli 268 60 166 7 34 1 Schools 1999/2000
Elevi nscrii 53510 2725 36729 680 13142 234 Pupils enrolled
din care: feminin 21343 1277 14381 419 5120 146 of which: female
Personal didactic 10580 689 8154 309 1421 7 Teaching staff
din care: feminin 8357 679 6618 241 818 1 of which: female
7.1.12 NVMNTUL SUPERIOR, PE LOCALITI (nvmnt de zi, seral, fr frecven i nvmnt deschis la distan)
HIGHER EDUCATION, BY LOCALITIES (day, evening, extramural education and learning at distance)

Instituii de invmnt superior / Higher education institutions Faculti / Faculties Studeni nscrii / Students enrolled Personal didactic / Teaching staff
Localiti Localities
1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000

Total 56 62 63 63 951) 1021) 1061) 1111) 1211) 257 261 262 262 4371) 4851) 5161) 5561) 6321) 215226 235669 250087 255162 3361411) 3544881) 3605901) 4077201) 4526211) 17315 18123 19130 20452 226111) 234771) 244271) 260131) 269771) Total

Bucureti 15 15 15 15 29 34 36 37 41 70 70 70 70 135 158 165 168 177 84136 89884 93468 89283 136344 136904 136272 147331 151553 6798 6462 6573 7111 7978 8876 8029 8897 9224 Bucharest
Iai 5 6 6 6 9 10 11 11 12 37 37 35 35 48 49 52 53 60 30054 32127 33227 33067 38097 38774 36950 40237 43368 2389 2526 2585 2887 3069 3296 3330 3482 3460 Iai
Cluj-Napoca 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 30 30 31 32 47 49 50 53 56 23161 26488 28206 28829 34749 36616 36731 41722 45228 2098 2227 2374 2464 2583 2666 2775 2961 3207 Cluj-Napoca
Timioara 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 7 7 23 23 23 23 39 47 51 51 56 21817 21968 19529 21723 25810 27520 29592 32752 36135 1804 1949 2279 2638 2144 1654 2651 2625 2705 Timioara
Craiova 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 12 13 13 13 15 15 19 24 26 11347 12989 14407 14821 15447 15891 15956 18692 21923 773 989 889 956 1018 1029 1112 1115 1244 Craiova
Braov 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 12 12 12 12 13 16 20 22 22 8796 9586 9897 10060 10561 11430 14701 16732 20573 581 673 680 536 703 668 1094 876 891 Braov
Galai 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 7 7 7 7 9 9 12 13 14 7093 7042 7128 7037 7122 7808 7877 10038 11025 485 500 502 502 684 554 552 571 626 Galai
Ploieti 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 14 14 6 6 6 3119 3106 3446 3681 3955 4241 3739 4170 5209 244 247 253 263 270 350 271 282 299 Ploieti
Trgu Mure 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 8 13 14 14 13 2180 2497 2981 3108 3177 5010 5303 6289 6735 298 334 374 450 448 471 490 537 565 Trgu Mure
Petroani 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3401 3344 3090 2923 2911 2763 3014 3532 4081 194 186 192 189 203 195 179 180 179 Petroani
Sibiu 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 10 10 10 10 13 13 13 14 17 4019 5247 6361 7248 9358 10080 9365 10711 12270 432 575 687 514 522 552 537 548 614 Sibiu
Piteti 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 7 9 2314 2936 3214 3439 4835 5220 5243 6422 8928 154 163 191 213 271 233 240 275 295 Piteti
Baia Mare 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 7 8 8 9 10 1437 1732 2033 2271 2040 2326 3147 4040 4491 108 140 152 177 177 178 189 217 225 Baia Mare
Reia - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 698 840 858 977 759 914 878 1109 1503 61 87 92 46 56 57 56 59 58 Reia
Hunedoara - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1170 449 581 683 662 595 580 608 613 21 25 29 29 40 43 41 55 56 Hunedoara
Constana 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 8 8 8 8 12 17 21 23 25 4376 5565 6807 7428 7542 9515 10671 12727 15564 369 369 443 474 622 658 648 801 748 Constana
Suceava 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 1845 2150 2472 2729 2787 2969 2830 3707 4848 128 148 158 177 185 208 212 226 243 Suceava
Oradea 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 6 8 8 15 15 15 18 23 1419 2559 4632 6152 9341 12136 11204 12385 15038 92 77 219 293 431 354 601 725 803 Oradea
Bacu 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 918 1324 1835 2069 2564 2963 2826 3773 4478 137 87 124 125 158 158 155 198 228 Bacu
Arad 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9 8 9 10 11 385 665 956 1249 4635 5112 5693 6620 6737 41 104 63 65 375 393 383 617 481 Arad
Brila - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 553 535 438 443 2125 1963 1930 1936 1787 13 16 19 27 64 76 44 71 28 Brila
Rmnicu Vlcea 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 190 172 184 177 1340 1303 1407 1706 1668 9 28 29 43 75 56 44 45 35 Rmnicu Vlcea
2)
Cugir - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 107 50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cugir
Alba Iulia 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 8 9 9 9 271 649 737 927 1875 2984 3849 4900 6279 26 48 62 82 52 137 129 112 190 Alba Iulia
2) 2)
Satu Mare - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - 1 3 74 133 133 246 - - - 79 305 - - - - - - - - - Satu Mare
Bistria - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - 1 1 5 80 47 - - - - 20 59 162 - - - - - - - - - Bistria
Buzu 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 216 339 354 414 451 395 382 431 410 60 62 60 54 84 27 28 6 6 Buzu
Trgovite - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 6 7 10 12 50 513 1508 2210 2514 3337 3501 5518 8383 - 81 61 63 186 370 330 341 365 Trgovite
Trgu Jiu - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 - 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 8 - 509 984 1262 1096 1440 1293 1739 3103 - 20 36 41 43 50 58 55 66 Trgu Jiu
2) 2) 2)
Drobeta-Turnu Severin - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 1 2 - 152 389 598 667 611 573 663 833 - - - 27 31 34 36 40 44 Drobeta-Turnu Severin
2) 2)
Botoani - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 3 - 72 78 - - - - 16 215 - - - - - - - - - Botoani
Blaj - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 - - 154 108 877 553 485 391 453 - - 4 6 11 14 40 10 19 Blaj
Deva - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 2 2 3 - - - - 535 606 738 821 986 - - - - 42 45 51 54 26 Deva
Caracal - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - 132 - - - - - - - - 33 - - - - Caracal
Vlenii de Munte - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 113 - - - - - - - - - - - - - Vlenii de Munte
Lugoj - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - 1 2 3 3 4 - - - - 1720 1970 2624 3036 3339 - - - - 53 47 83 32 47 Lugoj
Marghita - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 - - - - - - 79 64 60 - - - - - - - - - - Marghita
Bile Herculane - - - - - 1 1 1 1 - - - - - 1 1 2 2 - - - - - 460 951 1365 1931 - - - - - 28 39 - - Bile Herculane
Caransebe - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 - - - - - - 45 108 181 - - - - - - - - - Caransebe
Sfntu Gheorghe - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2 3 - - - - - - 60 182 444 - - - - - - - - - Sfntu Gheorghe
Gheorghieni - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 - - - - - - 45 153 243 - - - - - - - - - Gheorghieni
Focani - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 2 - - - - - - 51 99 231 - - - - - - - - - Focani
Beiu - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - 125 352 - - - - - - - - - Beiu
Nsud - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - 18 51 - - - - - - - - - Nsud
Clrai - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2 - - - - - - - 39 111 - - - - - - - - - Clrai
Sighetul Marmaiei - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2 - - - - - - - 62 119 - - - - - - - - - Sighetul Marmaiei
Piatra Neam - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 3 - - - - - - - 29 177 - - - - - - - - - Piatra Neam
Zalu - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 3 - - - - - - - 22 117 - - - - - - - - - Zalu
Cmpulung - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 566 - - - - - - - - - - Cmpulung
Vatra Dornei - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 79 - - - - - - - - - Vatra Dornei
Brlad - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 53 - - - - - - - - - Brlad
Aiud - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 33 - - - - - - - - - Aiud
Trgu Secuiesc - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 53 - - - - - - - - - Trgu Secuiesc
Odorheiu Secuiesc - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 40 - - - - - - - - - Odorheiul Secuiesc
Miercurea Ciuc - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 46 - - - - - - - - - Miercurea Ciuc
Toplia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 27 - - - - - - - - - Toplia
Ora Fget - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - 110 - - - - - - - - - Town Fget
1)
Inclusiv nvmntul particular. / Including private-education.
2)
Secie. / Section.
7.1.13 NVMNTUL SUPERIOR, PE GRUPE DE SPECIALIZRI (nvmnt de zi, seral, fr frecven i nvmnt deschis la distan)
HIGHER EDUCATION, BY GROUP OF SPECIALIZATIONS (day, evening, extramural education and learning at distance)

1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/20007)

STUDENI NSCRII - total 192810 215226 235669 250087 255162 3361411) 3544881) 3605901) 4077201) 4526211) STUDENTS ENROLLED - total
din care: of which:
nvmnt de subingineri 11710 8851 4738 684 - - - - - - level engineers
nvmnt de zi 136032 159678 186419 208898 222330 273211 296143 306513 351465 387769 Day education
din care: of which:
nvmnt de subingineri 304 38 59 33 - - - - - - level engineers
nvmnt seral 45894 40642 30433 21090 14896 11992 8832 5831 3813 3281 Evening education
din care: of which:
nvmnt de subingineri 11406 8813 4679 651 - - - - - - level engineers
nvmnt fr frecven 10884 14906 18817 20099 17936 50938 49513 48246 52442 51625 Extramural education
nvmnt deschis la distan - - - - - - - - - 9946 Learning at distance

Tehnice 120541 123736 118097 111145 100837 94289 95792 98864 112720 125357 Technical
din care: nvmnt de zi 79288 87230 91840 93790 89451 86875 90285 95184 108535 118987 of which: day education

Industrie 96871 94975 84684 79834 72642 64266 63968 64928 72081 85230 Industry
din care: nvmnt de zi 61601 63638 62803 65624 63233 58268 59373 62335 70007 82852 of which: day education
Mine 3455 2619 2174 1601 1320 1067 860 924 970 2017 Mining
din care: nvmnt de zi 2176 1556 1488 1229 1073 881 714 838 940 1952 of which: day education
Petrol-Geologie 2539 2075 1720 1699 1755 1312 1287 1339 1474 700 Petroleum-Geology
din care: nvmnt de zi 2220 1799 1447 1419 1509 1234 1257 1339 1474 700 of which: day education
Energie electric i electrotehnic 26277 29209 25881 27805 27776 27306 27218 27675 30632 45686 Electric power and electrotechnics
din care: nvmnt de zi 15636 19317 19655 23307 24562 25045 25700 26938 29996 44363 of which: day education
Metalurgie i construcii de maini 49649 46238 41694 37251 31957 25453 25439 25829 27979 24060 Metallurgy and engineering
din care: nvmnt de zi 31507 30101 29781 29910 27218 22424 22779 24116 26595 23130 of which: day education
Tehnologie chimic 8262 8036 6721 5677 4237 3654 3836 4304 4794 5879 Chemical technology
din care: nvmnt de zi 4856 5291 4769 4430 3551 3395 3710 4264 4783 5843 of which: day education
Industria lemnului i materialelor de construcii 1944 1907 1739 1718 1667 1450 1258 1018 1192 243 Wood and building materials industry
din care: nvmnt de zi 1231 1302 1324 1457 1478 1322 1177 1001 1192 243 of which: day education
Industria uoar 2943 2849 2792 2084 1973 1883 1840 1740 1829 1860 Light industry
din care: nvmnt de zi 2703 2694 2698 2037 1958 1883 1840 1740 1816 1836 of which: day education
Industria alimentar 1802 2042 1963 1999 1957 2141 2230 2099 3211 4785 Food industry
din care: nvmnt de zi 1272 1578 1641 1835 1884 2084 2196 2099 3211 4785 of which: day education
Transporturi i telecomunicaii 2709 2152 4831 3944 3473 3383 3407 2918 3739 3360 Transport and telecommunications
din care: nvmnt de zi 1950 1666 3967 3185 2968 3023 3123 2835 3722 3356 of which: day education
Arhitectur i construcii 11148 12955 12627 11524 10188 10057 10409 11473 13308 11537 Architecture and construction
din care: nvmnt de zi 6058 8589 9430 9481 8833 9218 9858 11198 12972 11214 of which: day education
Agricultur (inclusiv Medicin veterinar) 7075 8236 9213 9604 9301 9421 10761 12074 14293 18562 Agriculture (veterinary medicine included)
din care: nvmnt de zi 7003 7955 8914 9261 9184 9354 10714 11491 12897 15377 of which: day education
Agricultur 4858 5873 6431 6782 6499 6526 7565 8827 10894 13854 Agriculture
din care: nvmnt de zi 4786 5592 6132 6439 6382 6459 7518 8244 9498 11649 of which: day education
Medicin veterinar 2217 2363 2782 2822 2802 2895 3196 3247 3399 4708 Veterinary medicine
din care: nvmnt de zi 2217 2363 2782 2822 2802 2895 3196 3247 3399 3728 of which: day education
Silvicultur 794 874 1605 1257 1362 1328 1392 1383 1568 837 Sylviculture
din care: nvmnt de zi 732 838 1589 1257 1362 1328 1392 1383 1568 837 of which: day education
Alte specializri 1944 4544 5137 4982 3871 5834 5855 6088 7731 5831 Other specialities
din care: nvmnt de zi 1944 4544 5137 4982 3871 5684 5825 5942 7369 5351 of which: day education

Medico-farmaceutice 20128 21796 23656 25738 26316 32237 32714 31862 32130 32227 Medicine and pharmacy
Medicin uman 2) - nvmnt de zi 19024 20458 21913 23554 24018 29415 29868 29207 29173 28808 Human medicine 2) - day education
Farmacie - nvmnt de zi 1104 1338 1743 2184 2298 2822 2846 2655 2957 3419 Pharmacy - day education

tiine economice 20003 24801 35279 39867 47712 83996 87472 86861 101896 105727 Economics
din care: nvmnt de zi 9757 15303 24143 28992 37983 57727 64206 63545 77110 80721 of which: day education

Juridic 3975 7543 10865 14854 15424 43143 48268 53445 57294 63055 Juridical
din care: nvmnt de zi 2298 3134 4530 6831 8165 24226 28727 34204 37412 41152 of which: day education

Universitar-pedagogice 26270 34367 44298 54297 59947 76729 83430 82370 96071 118371 University-pedagogy
din care: nvmnt de zi 22668 29232 38776 49362 55490 66551 73631 74750 88857 106942 of which: day education
Filologie 3) 5057 6560 9086 12912 14512 20630 21112 22987 21688 28203 Philology 3)
din care: nvmnt de zi 4159 5821 8410 12269 13919 17498 19761 21320 21384 26462 of which: day education
Istorie-Filosofie 4) 3823 5311 7624 10142 11458 15504 18137 19252 29285 23800 History-Philosophy 4)
din care: nvmnt de zi 3132 4109 6018 8818 10463 13701 16086 17334 25973 20544 of which: day education
Geografie 589 838 1589 1682 1878 3659 4417 4237 5396 7009 Geography
din care: nvmnt de zi 456 663 1189 1460 1674 2624 3072 3103 4472 6098 of which: day education
Biologie 1567 2135 3051 3455 3590 3763 4117 3872 4273 4657 Biology
din care: nvmnt de zi 1400 1770 2659 3154 3420 3717 4095 3866 4273 4637 of which: day education
Chimie 2325 3390 3640 4259 5118 4591 4222 3253 3711 3671 Chemistry
din care: nvmnt de zi 2271 3390 3640 3954 4523 4098 3834 3156 3558 3581 of which: day education
Matematic-Fizic 9038 10833 12934 13817 14363 13829 13737 11746 12720 14320 Mathematics-Physics
din care: nvmnt de zi 7397 9042 11473 12792 13538 13006 13153 11228 12251 13940 of which: day education
7.1.13 NVMNTUL SUPERIOR, PE GRUPE DE SPECIALIZRI (nvmnt de zi, seral, fr frecven i nvmnt deschis la distan)
HIGHER EDUCATION, BY GROUP OF SPECIALIZATIONS (day, evening, extramural education and learning at distance)
continuare / continued
1990/1991 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/20007)

Pedagogie 5) 2916 2882 3006 3586 4299 8281 10698 9762 11106 19132 Pedagogy 5)
din care: nvmnt de zi 2898 2882 3006 3586 4299 7097 8735 9457 10728 17526 of which: day education
Educaie fizic 955 2418 3368 4444 4729 6472 6990 7261 7892 9807 Physical education
din care: nvmnt de zi 955 1555 2381 3329 3654 4810 4895 5286 6218 7444 of which: day education
tiine politice i administrative - - - - - - - - - 7772 Political and administrative sciences
din care: nvmnt de zi - - - - - - - - - 6710 of which: day education

Artistice 1893 2983 3474 4186 4926 5747 6812 7188 7609 7884 Artistic
din care: nvmnt de zi 1893 2983 3474 4185 4925 5595 6580 6968 7421 7740 of which: day education
Art plastic i decorativ 728 1191 1344 1716 2004 2494 2905 2975 3094 3078 Fine and decorative arts
din care: nvmnt de zi 728 1191 1344 1716 2004 2494 2905 2975 3094 3078 of which: day education
Art teatral i cinematografic 6) 402 627 690 776 694 930 1227 1310 1410 1414 Theatre and cinematography 6)

din care: nvmnt de zi 402 627 690 776 694 930 1227 1310 1410 1414 of which: day education
Muzic 763 1165 1440 1694 2228 2323 2680 2903 3105 3392 Music
din care: nvmnt de zi 763 1165 1440 1693 2227 2171 2448 2683 2917 3248 of which: day education

ABSOLVENI 25927 29901 33366 34240 47837 57360 80991 67799 63622 GRADUATES

Tehnice 18344 19876 21615 19527 23565 19260 18445 15614 14935 Technical

Industrie 15547 16125 17568 15272 17303 13569 12579 9746 9463 Industry
Mine 568 490 564 374 413 229 210 130 110 Mining
Petrol-Geologie 672 484 393 367 363 271 259 167 226 Petroleum-Geology
Energie electric i electrotehnic 3721 4127 4759 4392 5310 5052 4980 4538 4286 Electric power, electrotechnics
Metalurgie i construcii de maini 8162 8405 8987 7256 8298 5970 5535 3705 3450 Metallurgy and engineering
Tehnologie chimic 1379 1514 1634 1601 1431 799 529 352 456 Chemical technology
Industria lemnului i materialelor de construcii 273 331 343 348 495 411 331 229 192 Wood and building materials industry
Industria uoar 487 429 512 559 574 432 307 224 264 Light industry
Industria alimentar 285 345 376 375 419 405 428 401 479 Food industry
Transporturi i telecomunicaii 393 633 652 875 820 719 852 758 742 Transport and telecommunications
Arhitectur i construcii 1834 1970 2037 1816 2079 1863 1610 1554 1463 Architecture and construction
Agricultur 459 1057 1276 1445 1724 1445 2038 2117 2094 Agriculture
Agricultur 403 850 894 960 1377 977 1535 1558 1553 Agriculture
Medicin veterinar 56 207 382 485 347 468 503 559 541 Veterinary medicine
Silvicultur 111 91 82 119 316 277 253 257 308 Sylviculture
Alte specializri - - - - 1323 1387 1113 1182 865 Other specializations

Medico-farmaceutice 2577 2864 2866 3260 4220 5095 5625 6202 5910 Medicine and pharmacy
Medicin uman 2) 2452 2747 2733 2923 3899 4731 5043 5630 5419 Human medicine 2)
Farmacie 125 117 133 337 321 364 582 572 491 Pharmacy

tiine economice 2209 2749 2760 3941 5982 9672 22887 18726 16266 Economics

Juridic 314 560 1898 1013 1726 7830 10362 9624 8510 Juridical

Universitar-pedagogice 2408 3679 4091 6072 11676 14400 22547 16409 16829 University-pedagogy
Filologie 388 575 589 1398 3157 3352 5597 5068 5184 Philology 3)
Istorie-Filosofie 168 375 523 1300 1691 2752 4173 3191 4354 History-Philosophy 4)
Geografie 37 102 123 53 330 618 1093 850 753 Geography
Biologie 134 218 250 395 698 573 1381 773 763 Biology
Chimie 228 313 411 511 1059 1187 1521 674 568 Chemistry
Matematic-Fizic 845 1186 1339 1430 2724 2724 4515 2305 2103 Mathematics-Physics
Pedagogie 438 504 398 234 839 2084 2404 1929 1743 Pedagogy 5)
Educaie fizic 170 406 458 751 1178 1110 1863 1619 1361 Physical education

Artistice 75 173 136 427 668 1103 1125 1224 1172 Artistic
Art plastic i decorativ - 74 49 102 164 461 458 620 469 Fine and decorative arts
Art teatral i cinematografic 44 38 42 183 185 272 254 240 258 Drama and cinematography
Muzic 31 61 45 142 319 370 413 364 445 Music
1)
Inclusiv nvmntul particular. / Including private education.
2)
Inclusiv Stomatologie. 3) Inclusiv Jurnalistic. 4) Inclusiv Teologie. 5) Inclusiv Socio-psiho-pedagogie. 6) Inclusiv Coregrafie. 7) Anul universitar 1999/2000 se ncheie dup restanele din toamn.
2)
Stomatology included. 3) Journalism included. 4) Theology included. 5) Socio-psyho-pedagogy included. 6) Coregraphy included. 7) 1999/2000 university year ends after autumn second examinations.
7.1.14 NVMNTUL SUPERIOR DIN INSTITUII PRIVATE, PE LOCALITI, N ANUL UNIVERSITAR 1999/2000
HIGHER EDUCATION FROM PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS, BY LOCALITIES, IN 1999/2000 ACADEMIC YEAR

Studeni nscrii Personal didactic


Instituii de
Localiti nvmnt superior Faculti Students enrolled Teaching staff
Localities Higher education Faculties din care: feminin din care: feminin
institutions Total Total
of which: female of which: female

Total 63 221 130492 76137 3168 1454

Alba Iulia - 5 2734 1536 53 30


Blaj - 1 330 277 1 1
Arad 1 7 4552 2277 346 155
Piteti - 1 2210 1252 40 24
Bacu 1 1 1222 745 54 15
Oradea 3 6 1029 618 31 4
Braov 2 9 8372 4810 3 -
Botoani 1 1 100 50 - -
Brila 1 1 1274 757 28 16
Buzu 1 1 119 37 6 2
Bile Herculane 1 2 1931 652 - -
Cluj Napoca 3 13 6896 3868 158 70
Constana 3 9 4941 2858 26 11
Craiova 2 8 3228 1845 - -
Galai 1 3 1743 1071 67 24
Deva - 1 744 400 26 14
Iai 7 15 7944 4525 187 91
Baia Mare 2 4 1414 802 23 7
Trgu Mure - 4 2481 1505 112 38
Ploieti 1 1 151 86 - -
Sibiu 1 5 1962 1050 17 9
Timioara 3 24 8707 5242 172 100
Lugoj 1 3 3266 1650 47 12
Rmnicu Vlcea - 1 1668 966 35 15
Trgu Jiu 1 3 409 236 - -
Ora Fget - 2 110 83 - -
Town Fget
Municipiul Bucureti 27 90 60955 36939 1736 816
Bucharest Municipality
7.1.15 NVMNTUL SUPERIOR DIN INSTITUII PRIVATE, PE GRUPE DE SPECIALIZRI,
N ANUL UNIVERSITAR 1999/2000
HIGHER EDUCATION FROM PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS, BY GROUP OF SPECIALIZATIONS,
IN 1999/2000 ACADEMIC YEAR

din care: feminin


Total
of which: female

STUDENI NSCRII - total 130492 76137 STUDENTS ENROLLED - total


nvmnt de zi 90703 53851 Day education
nvmnt seral 130 115 Evening education
nvmnt fr frecven 39594 22116 Extramural education
nvmnt deschis la distan 65 55 Learning at distance

Tehnice 4565 1941 Technical


din care: nvmnt de zi 2481 941 of which: day education
Industrie 319 71 Industry
din care: nvmnt de zi 319 71 of which: day education
Mine 134 24 Mines
din care: nvmnt de zi 134 24 of which: day education
Energie electric i electrotehnic 185 47 Electric energy and electrotechnics
din care: nvmnt de zi 185 47 of which: day education
Arhitectur i construcii 220 65 Architecture and construction
din care: nvmnt de zi 220 65 of which: day education
Agricultur 4026 1805 Agriculture
din care: nvmnt de zi 1942 805 of which: day education

Medico-farmaceutice 2116 1262 Medicine and pharmacy


Medicin uman 1) - nvmnt de zi 2076 1224 Human medicine 1) - day education
Farmacie - nvmnt de zi 40 38 Pharmacy - day education

tiine economice 50711 29707 Economics


din care: nvmnt de zi 33611 19256 of which: day education

Juridic 45828 25201 Juridical


din care: nvmnt de zi 29070 16541 of which: day education

Universitar-pedagogice 26058 17412 University-pedagogy


din care: nvmnt de zi 22355 15315 of which: day education
Filologie 2) 6139 5112 Philology 2)
din care: nvmnt de zi 5598 4676 of which: day education
Istorie-Filosofie 3) 5393 2923 History-Philosophy 3)
din care: nvmnt de zi 4106 2267 of which: day education
Geografie 1675 982 Geography
din care: nvmnt de zi 1076 673 of which: day education
Biologie 386 199 Biology
din care: nvmnt de zi 386 199 of which: day education
Matematic-Fizic 290 87 Mathematics-Physics
din care: nvmnt de zi 264 79 of which: day education
Pedagogie 4) 7972 6480 Pedagogy 4)
din care: nvmnt de zi 7358 5986 of which: day education
Educaie fizic 2411 529 Physical education
din care: nvmnt de zi 2045 457 of which: day education
tiine politice i administrative 1792 1100 Political and administrative sciences
din care: nvmnt de zi 1522 978 of which: day education

Artistice 1214 614 Artistic


din care: nvmnt de zi 1070 536 of which: day education
Art plastic i decorativ 432 251 Fine and decorative arts
din care: nvmnt de zi 432 251 of which: day education
Art teatral i cinematografic 423 187 Drama and cinematography
din care: nvmnt de zi 423 187 of which: day education
Muzic 359 176 Music
din care: nvmnt de zi 215 98 of which: day education
1)
Inclusiv Stomatologie. / Stomatology included. 2) Inclusiv Jurnalistic. / Journalism included. 3)
Inclusiv Teologie. / Teology included.
4)
Inclusiv socio-psiho-pedagogie. / Socio-psycho-pedagogy included.

267
7.1.16 NVMNTUL DE TOATE GRADELE DIN INSTITUIILE PRIVATE
EDUCATION OF ALL LEVELS FROM PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS

Uniti colare / Education units Populaia colar - nscrii / Enrolled population Absolveni / Graduates
1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999

nvmnt precolar 16 14 11 13 26 94 84 70 451 686 752 664 1174 4088 3821 3491 - - - - - -
Pre-school education

nvmnt liceal 4 4 6 4 3 13 17 23 1194 1201 1317 1397 1419 3199 3686 3838 324 990 236 135 324 559
High school education

nvmnt profesional i de ucenici 34 21 22 21 20 21 22 7 18296 11048 11752 14128 13744 13065 10230 7491 3543 3643 4449 4191 4342 3273
Vocational and apprenticeship
education

nvmnt postliceal i de maitri 23 20 26 39 39 98 117 57 2807 2841 3456 6395 18964 30342 37940 39190 1086 1394 2067 5736 8226 12631
Post high school and foremen
education

din care: / of which:


nvmnt de maitri 1 3 3 3 4 6 8 - 143 166 151 183 264 233 386 357 74 36 55 134 65 130
Foremen education

nvmnt superior 328 316 316 119 161 174 195 221 85000 110880 114500 85305 93434 110715 130054 130492 - 5419 11910 16876 18118 16890
Higher education
7.2 CERCETARE - DEZVOLTARE RESEARCH - DEVELOPMENT

CUPRINS CONTENTS
Pagina
Page
Tabele: Tables:
7.2.1 Principalii indicatori din unitile cu Main indicators from
activitate de cercetare-dezvoltare, research-development
pe sectoare de execuie .................... 234 units, by execution sectors
7.2.2 Principalii indicatori din unitile cu Main indicators from
activitate de cercetare-dezvoltare, research-development
pe sectoare de execuie i units, by execution sectors
forme de proprietate .......................... 235 and type of ownership
7.2.3 Salariaii din activitatea de cercetare- Employees from research-development
dezvoltare, dup ocupaie i activity, by occupation and
nivelul de pregtire ............................. 236 training level
7.2.4 Salariaii din activitatea de cercetare- Employees from research-development
dezvoltare din sectorul ntreprinderi, activity in enterprises sector, by occupation
dup ocupaie i activiti ................... 236 and activity
7.2.5 Salariaii din activitatea de cercetare- Employees from research-development
dezvoltare, pe sectoare de execuie activity, by execution sectors and
i ocupaii ........................................... 238 occupations
7.2.6 Cercettorii din activitatea de Researchers from research-development
cercetare-dezvoltare, pe domenii activity, by scientific fields and
tiinifice i grupe de vrst ................ 238 age groups
7.2.7 Salariaii din activitatea de cercetare- Employees from research-development
dezvoltare, pe sectoare de execuie activity, by execution sectors and training
i nivelul de pregtire ......................... 239 level
7.2.8 Salariaii din activitatea de cercetare- Employees from research-development
dezvoltare din sectorul ntreprinderi, activity in enterprises sector, by training
dup nivelul de pregtire i activiti .. 240 level and activity
7.2.9 Cheltuielile curente din activitatea de Current expenditures from research-
cercetare-dezvoltare, pe sectoare de development activity, by execution
execuie i tipuri de cercetare ............. 242 sectors and type of research
7.2.10 Cheltuielile totale din activitatea de Total expenditures from research-
cercetare-dezvoltare, pe sectoare de development activity, by execution
execuie i categorii de cheltuieli ........ 243 sectors and expenditures category
7.2.11 Cheltuielile totale din activitatea de Total expenditures from research-
cercetare-dezvoltare din sectorul development activity in enterprises sector,
ntreprinderi, pe categorii de by expenditures category and
cheltuieli i activiti ............................ 244 activity
7.2.12 Cheltuielile curente din activitatea de Current expenditures from research-
cercetare-dezvoltare din sectorul development activity in enterprises
ntreprinderi, pe elemente sector, by component elements and
componente i activiti ...................... 244 activity
7.2.13 Cheltuielile de capital din activitatea de Capital expenditures from research-
cercetare-dezvoltare din sectorul development activity in enterprises
ntreprinderi, pe elemente sector, by component elements
componente i activiti ...................... 246 and activity
7.2.14 Cheltuielile totale din activitatea de Total expenditures from research-
cercetare-dezvoltare, pe sectoare de development activity, by execution
execuie i surse de finanare ............. 248 sectors and financing sources
7.2.15 Cheltuielile totale din activitatea de Total expenditures from research-
cercetare-dezvoltare, pe tipuri de development activity, by type of
programe de cercetare-dezvoltare research-development programmes
conform NABS i surse de finanare, according to NABS and financing sources,
n 1999 ............................................... 249 in 1999
7.2.16 Numrul de brevete de invenii i lucrri Number of patents and papers issued by
publicate de personalul de specialitate specialized staff from research-
din unitile cu activitate de cercetare- development activity units, by type
dezvoltare, pe tipuri de programe de of research programmes
cercetare conform NABS, n 1999 ..... 250 according to NABS, in 1999
Sursa datelor Data source

Rapoarte statistice anuale completate de unitile Yearly statistical reports filled in by specialized units
specializate (cu activitate principal) n cercetare- (with main activity) in research-development, economic
dezvoltare, unitile economice cu colective de cercetare- units with research-development staff (minimum 8
dezvoltare (minim 8 salariai) i unitile de nvmnt employees) and higher-education units which have
superior care au structuri de cercetare-dezvoltare. research-development structures.

Surse administrative: Administrative sources:


Ministerul Finanelor, pentru datele statistice din Ministry of Finances, for statistical data of yearly
bilanurile contabile anuale. accounting balance sheets.

Precizri metodologice Methodological notes

Cercetarea-dezvoltarea experimental reprezint Experimental research-development represents


activitatea sistematic i creatoare iniiat pentru a the systematic and creating activity initiated to
spori volumul de cunotine, inclusiv cunotinele enhance the volume of knowledge, including those on
despre om, cultur i utilizarea acestor cunotine human being, culture and using them for new
pentru noi aplicaii. applications.
Cercetarea-dezvoltarea experimental (denumit n Experimental research-development (mentioned
continuare cercetare-dezvoltare) cuprinde: below as research-development) includes:
- cercetarea fundamental, activitate - fundamental research, experimental or
experimental sau teoretic iniiat n principal, pentru theoretical activity mainly initiated to accumulate new
acumularea de noi cunotine privind aspectele knowledge on the fundamental aspects of phenomena
fundamentale ale fenomenelor i faptelor observabile, and facts that could be examined, without having in
fr s aib n vedere o aplicaie deosebit sau view a special or specific application;
specific; - applicative research, activity of original
- cercetarea aplicativ, activitate de investigation in order to accumulate new knowledge,
investigare original n scopul acumulrii de noi being mainly oriented towards a specific practical
cunotine, fiind ns orientat, n principal, spre un purpose or objective;
scop sau un obiectiv practic specific; - experimental development, systematic
- dezvoltarea experimental, activitate activity which uses the knowledge accumulated
sistematic, care se folosete de cunotinele as a result of research and/or practical experience
existente acumulate de pe urma cercetrii i/sau a in order to launch in fabrication new materials,
experienei practice n vederea lansrii n fabricaie de products and devices, to introduce new procedures,
noi materiale, produse i dispozitive, introducerea de systems and services or to significantly improve a
noi procedee, sisteme i servicii sau mbuntirea those already existing.
substanial a celor deja existente. Statistical data related to research-development
Datele statistice aferente activitii de cercetare- activity also include technological design.
dezvoltare includ i proiectarea tehnologic. Data in tables 7.2.1, 7.2.2 and 7.2.16 refer to the
Datele din tabelele 7.2.1, 7.2.2 i 7.2.16 se refer la activity of research-development specialised units
activitatea unitilor specializate cu activitate de (including related activities) and to research-
cercetare-dezvoltare (inclusiv activitile conexe) i la development activity for other categories of units.
activitatea de cercetare-dezvoltare pentru celelalte Data in tables 7.2.3 - 7.2.15 refer only to the
categorii de uniti. research-development activity.
Datele din tabelele 7.2.3 - 7.2.15 se refer numai la Human and financial resources from research-
activitatea de cercetare-dezvoltare. development are presented by OECD execution
Resursele umane i financiare din cercetare- sectors (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
dezvoltare sunt prezentate pe sectoare de execuie Development), observing the model of those used in
OECD (Organizaia de Cooperare i Dezvoltare the National Accounts System, as follows:
Economic), dup modelul celor din Sistemul - enterprises sector comprises research-
Conturilor Naionale, astfel: development units which develop their basic activity
- sectorul ntreprinderi cuprinde unitile de based on contracts with the beneficiaries. Economic
cercetare-dezvoltare care i desfoar activitatea pe units which develop research activities besides their
baz de contracte cu beneficiarii. Se includ i agenii basic activity, are also included;
economici ce desfoar, pe lng activitatea de baz - government sector includes all units
i activiti de cercetare; providing collective services (without selling them), as
- sectorul guvernamental cuprinde toate well as those managing public business and applying
unitile care furnizeaz (fr a le vinde) servicii the economic and social policy of a society;
colective, precum i cele care administreaz afacerile - higher education sector comprises all profile
publice i aplic politica economic i social a units which develop the research-development activity
societii; in an organised manner.
- sectorul nvmnt superior cuprinde toate In order to define the indicators on human and
unitile de profil care desfoar n mod organizat financial resources, both the national norms and
activitate de cercetare-dezvoltare. legislation in force and the recommendations of
n definirea indicatorilor privind resursele umane i international bodies were taken into account.
financiare s-a inut cont att de normele i legislaia
naional n vigoare, ct i de recomandrile
organismelor internaionale.
Personalul din activitatea de cercetare-dezvoltare Staff from research-development activity is
este constituit din persoanele care particip la constituted of staff who participate in carrying out
realizarea temelor de cercetare sau furnizeaz servicii research themes or who provides services related to
directe legate de aceast activitate. this research-development activity.
Personalul de cercetare-dezvoltare a fost grupat dup Research-development staff was broken-down by
mai multe criterii (unele se refer la personalul cu several criteria (some refer only to the staff of higher
calificare superioar), astfel: qualification), as follows:
a) dup ocupaie: a) by occupation:
- cercettori, persoanele care i desfoar - researchers, persons who carry out the
activitatea n acumularea de cunotine, crearea de activity in accumulating knowledge, creating new
produse, procedee, metode i sisteme noi, n products, procedures, methods and systems, in
gestionarea proiectelor concepute. n aceast managing the drawn up projects. This category
categorie se cuprind att cercettorii atestai ct i cei includes both certified researchers and assimilated;
asimilai acestora; - technicians and assimilated, persons for
- tehnicieni i asimilai, persoanele pentru whom main tasks accomplisment requires knowledge
care realizarea sarcinilor principale presupune and a technical expertise in several fields of social and
cunotine i o experien tehnic n mai multe domenii human, physical, technical sciences a.s.o. Generally,
ale tiinelor sociale i umane, fizice, tehnice etc. n this category includes the staff with a specialized post
general, aceast categorie cuprinde personalul cu o high-school training into a technical field or another.
pregtire postliceal de specialitate ntr-un They take part directly in research-development
domeniu tehnic sau de alt natur. Ei particip direct la activity, applying principles and operational methods or
activitatea de cercetare-dezvoltare prin aplicarea under the control of researchers;
principiilor i metodelor operaionale sau sub controlul - other categories include workers, secretariate
cercettorilor; staff and clerks who take part in research-development
- alte categorii includ muncitorii i personalul projects or are directly associated in order to carry out
de secretariat i de birou care particip la execuia such projects.
proiectelor de cercetare-dezvoltare sau care sunt b) by level of training:
direct asociai n execuia unor astfel de proiecte. - higher education staff;
b) dup nivelul de pregtire: - post high-school education staff;
- personal cu studii superioare; - high-school education staff;
- personal cu studii postliceale; - other situations.
- personal cu studii liceale; Depending on the education field, according to the
- alte situaii. graduating diploma, researchers are grouped by
n funcie de pregtire, conform diplomei de absolvire, scientific fields as follows: natural and exact sciences,
cercettorii sunt ncadrai pe domenii tiinifice astfel: engineering and technological sciences, medical
tiine naturale i exacte, tiine inginereti i sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences and
tehnologice, tiine medicale, tiine agricole, tiine humanities.
sociale i tiine umaniste. Starting with 1993 the staff from research-
ncepnd cu anul 1993, personalul din activitatea de development activity has been also calculated in
cercetare-dezvoltare s-a calculat i n echivalent full-time equivalent converting the number of part
norm ntreag prin transformarea numrului de time workers in equivalent of full-time workers,
lucrtori cu norm parial n echivalent de lucrtori cu corresponding to the working time devoted to this
norm ntreag, corespunztor timpului de lucru activity (tables: 7.2.4, 7.2.5, 7.2.7 and 7.2.8).
destinat acestor activiti (tabelele: 7.2.4, 7.2.5, 7.2.7 The evaluation of human resources was performed
i 7.2.8). as follows:
n funcie de acesta, evaluarea resurselor umane s-a - full-time in the field of research-development
fcut n felul urmtor: (90% of time or over);
- norm ntreag n domeniul cercetrii- - mainly working in the field of research-
dezvoltrii (90% din timp sau peste); development (50-90% of time);
- lucreaz, n principal, n domeniul cercetrii- - part-time in the field of research-development
dezvoltrii (50% - 90% din timp); (less than 50% of time).
- norm parial n domeniul cercetrii- Current expenditures include all payments during a
dezvoltrii (mai puin de 50% din timp). period within the units, representing the cost of labour
Cheltuielile curente cuprind toate plile efectuate force, of materials, as well as other current
n cursul unei perioade n cadrul unitilor, expenditures.
reprezentnd costul forei de munc, al materialelor, Capital expenditures (investments) include
precum i alte cheltuieli curente. payments made during a period for construction works,
Cheltuielile de capital (investiii) cuprind plile purchase of apparatus, instruments, machines and
efectuate n cursul unei perioade pentru realizarea de equipment or other similar expenditures, meant to
lucrri de construcii, achiziionarea de aparate, contribute to the increase in the unit's fixed assets
instrumente, maini i echipamente sau alte cheltuieli volume.
de aceast natur, menite s contribuie la creterea Total expenditures (capital and current ones) for
volumului de mijloace fixe ale unitii. research-development activity were structured by
Cheltuielile totale (curente i de capital) aferente several features, as follows:
activitii de cercetare-dezvoltare s-au grupat dup o a) by financing source:
serie de caracteristici, astfel: - from public funds (state budget) - mainly
a) dup sursa de finanare: managed by the coordinators of funds and used for
- din fondurile publice (bugetul de stat) financing the research-development works, based on
administrate n principal de coordonatorii de fonduri i contracts and general programmes financed from the
utilizate pentru finanarea lucrrilor de cercetare- budget;
dezvoltare realizate pe baz de contracte i programe
generale finanate de la buget;
- de la agenii economici, destinate realizrii - from economic units, meant to perform
lucrrilor de cercetare-dezvoltare contractate de research-development works based on contracts,
acetia, indiferent de forma de proprietate sau irrespective of ownership type and activity field;
domeniul de activitate al acestora; - from higher education of units, to achieve
- de la unitile din nvmntul superior, research-development works based on contracts;
pentru realizarea lucrrilor de cercetare-dezvoltare - from non-lucrative associations, to perform
contractate de acestea; research-development works contracted by
- de la asociaii cu scop nelucrativ, pentru professional organizations, trade-union associations,
realizarea lucrrilor de cercetare-dezvoltare contractate cultural ones, charity and mutual assistance
de organizaii profesionale, asociaii sindicale, organizations a.s.o.;
culturale, organizaii de caritate sau ntrajutorare etc.; - from units own funds, to perform research-
- din fondurile proprii ale unitii, pentru development works based on the resources from
realizarea lucrrilor de cercetare din resursele production activities, micro-production, savings to units
provenite din activitile de producie, microproducie, general expenditures and any other sources of the unit;
economii la cheltuielile generale ale unitii i orice alte - from other domestic funds, whose financing
surse de care dispune unitatea; source is represented by donations or any other
- din alte fonduri din ar, a cror surs de unspecified source;
finanare o reprezint donaiile sau oricare alt surs - funds from abroad for research-development
nespecificat; activities, including sources received from international
- din fondurile din strintate, pentru activiti organizations, foreign governments or institutions.
de cercetare-dezvoltare, inclusiv sursele primite de la b) by research-development scientific
organizaii internaionale, guverne sau instituii strine. programmes, the expenditures for research-
b) dup programele tiinifice de cercetare- development activity are structured (according to the
dezvoltare, cheltuielile aferente activitii de Nomenclature for analysis and comparison of budgets
cercetare-dezvoltare sunt structurate (conform and scientific programmes NABS) by types of
Nomenclatorului pentru analiza i comparaia scientific programmes used at international level.
bugetelor i programelor specifice NABS) pe tipuri de The patent represents the document released by the
programe tiinifice utilizate pe plan internaional. state competent body to the inventor or person to
Brevetul de invenie reprezint documentul pe care whom he granted his rights, by which it is recognised
organul de stat competent l elibereaz inventatorului their right to exclusively exploite the invention for a
sau persoanei creia acesta i-a transmis drepturile certain period of time.
sale i prin care se recunoate dreptul acestora de a Data on patents are based on the Law no. 64/1991
exploata exclusiv invenia un anumit timp. regulations, stipulating the tasks and competences of
Datele referitoare la brevetele de invenii au la baz State Office for Inventions and Marks, deposit of
reglementrile din Legea nr. 64/1991 n care sunt National Patents Register enlisting all data on patents
prevzute sarcinile i competenele Oficiului de Stat requirements and patents released.
pentru Invenii i Mrci, depozitarul Registrului
Naional de Brevete n care se nscriu toate datele
privind cererile de brevet i brevetele eliberate.
STRUCTURA SALARIAILOR DIN UNITILE CU ACTIVITATE DE CERCETARE - DEZVOLTARE,
PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE
STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYEES FROM THE UNITS WITH RESEARCH - DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY,
BY EXECUTION SECTORS

%
110
2,3 3,2 4,8 6,1 8,7 7,3
100

90
20,6 22,3 20,4 19,9
80 21,3 23,4

70

60

50

40 77,1 74,5 74,8 74,0 70,0 69,3


30

20

10

0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Sectorul ntreprinderi / Enterprises sector Sectorul guvernamental / Government sector

Sectorul nvmnt superior / Higher education sector

STRUCTURA SALARIAILOR DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE - DEZVOLTARE, DUP NIVELUL


DE PREGTIRE, N 1999
STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYEES FROM RESEARCH - DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY,
BY TRAINING LEVEL, IN 1999

14,1%

22,9% 44091*
56,0%

7,0%

Studii superioare Studii postliceale * - numr persoane n echivalent norm ntreag


Higher education Post high school * - number of persons in full-time equivalent
Studii liceale Alte situaii
High school Others
STRUCTURA CHELTUIELILOR TOTALE DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE - DEZVOLTARE,
PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE I SURSE DE FINANARE, N 1999
STRUCTURE OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES FROM RESEARCH - DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY,
BY EXECUTION SECTORS AND FINANCING SOURCES, IN 1999

2,5% 1,9%
19,2% 21,7%

31,6%
38,6%
46,7% 37,8%

Cheltuieli de Sectorul ntreprinderi


cercetare - dezvoltare - total Enterprises sector
Expenditures from
research - development - total

16,7% 5,2%
10,2% 3,4%
12,6% 9,0%

73,8%
69,1%

Sectorul guvernamental Sectorul nvmnt superior


Government sector Higher education sector

Fonduri publice Alte surse


Public funds Other sources
Ageni economici Fonduri din strintate
Economic units External funds
7.2.1 PRINCIPALII INDICATORI DIN UNITILE CU ACTIVITATE DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE,
PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE
MAIN INDICATORS FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT UNITS, BY EXECUTION SECTORS

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Uniti (numr) - la sfritul anului


Units (number) - end of year

Total 617 591 615 616 645 643 626 Total

Sectorul ntreprinderi 460 452 454 455 496 493 473 Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 120 105 120 122 109 114 109 Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt Higher education
superior 37 34 41 39 40 36 44 sector

Salariai (numr) - la sfritul anului


Employees (number) - end of year

Total 118329 117046 105195 104185 92822 89797 76744 Total


din care: femei ... ... 49462 53042 44270 42329 36586 of which: women

Sectorul ntreprinderi 90876 90272 78308 77882 68702 62832 53216 Enterprises sector
din care: femei ... ... 35249 39268 30841 27936 23747 of which: women

Sectorul guvernamental 24224 24091 23487 21351 18493 19121 17941 Government sector
din care: femei ... ... 12568 12091 11150 11628 10610 of which: women

Sectorul nvmnt Higher education


superior 3229 2683 3400 4952 5627 7844 5587 sector
din care: femei ... ... 1645 1683 2279 2765 2229 of which: women

Numr mediu al salariailor pe unitate


Average number of employees by unit

Total 192 198 171 169 144 140 123 Total


Sectorul ntreprinderi 198 200 172 171 139 127 113 Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 202 229 196 175 170 168 165 Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt Higher education
superior 87 79 83 127 141 218 127 sector

Cheltuieli (milioane lei preuri curente)


Expenditures (million lei current prices)

Cheltuieli totale 426473 862248 1283702 1901862 3610925 4669496 5926696 Total expenditures

Sectorul ntreprinderi 360416 738733 1090829 1575057 2964089 3585208 4566229 Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 60276 115272 178178 301169 605080 1000614 1205700 Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt Higher education
superior 5781 8243 14695 25636 41756 83674 154767 sector

Cheltuieli curente 412421 826070 1224428 1799921 3419163 4444540 5664423 Current expenditures

Sectorul ntreprinderi 348892 711510 1045879 1491184 2812368 3465901 4408346 Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 57803 106532 164886 285904 568936 905951 1153578 Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt Higher education
superior 5726 8028 13663 22833 37859 72688 102499 sector

Cheltuieli de capital Capital expenditures


(investiii) 14052 36178 59274 101941 191762 224956 262273 (investments)

Sectorul ntreprinderi 11524 27223 44950 83873 151721 119307 157883 Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 2473 8740 13292 15265 36144 94663 52122 Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt Higher education
superior 55 215 1032 2803 3897 10986 52268 sector
7.2.2 PRINCIPALII INDICATORI DIN UNITILE CU ACTIVITATE DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE I PE FORME DE PROPRIETATE
MAIN INDICATORS FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT UNITS, BY EXECUTION SECTORS AND BY TYPE OF OWNERSHIP

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999


Forma de proprietate Forma de proprietate Forma de proprietate Forma de proprietate Forma de proprietate
Type of ownership Type of ownership Type of ownership Type of ownership Type of ownership

Total Total Total Majoritar Majoritar Total Majoritar Majoritar


Public Mixt Privat Public Mixt Privat Public Mixt Privat Total de stat privat de stat privat
Public Mixed Private Public Mixed Private Public Mixed Private State Private State Private
majority majority majority majority

Uniti (numr) - la sfritul anului / Units (number) - end of year

Total 615 548 14 53 616 546 13 57 645 543 53 49 643 490 153 626 444 182

Sectorul ntreprinderi 454 390 14 50 455 388 13 54 496 397 53 46 493 342 151 473 294 179
Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 120 120 - - 122 122 - - 109 109 - - 114 113 1 109 107 2
Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt superior 41 38 - 3 39 36 - 3 40 37 - 3 36 35 1 44 43 1
Higher education sector
Salariai (numr) - la sfritul anului / Employees (number) - end of year

Total 105195 100333 2085 2777 104185 98891 2457 2837 92822 82900 6916 3006 89797 77219 12578 76744 62459 14285

Sectorul ntreprinderi 78308 73664 2085 2559 77882 72813 2457 2612 68702 58849 6916 2937 62832 50346 12486 53216 39019 14197
Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 23487 23487 - - 21351 21351 - - 18493 18493 - - 19121 19036 85 17941 17871 70
Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt superior 3400 3182 - 218 4952 4727 - 225 5627 5558 - 69 7844 7837 7 5587 5569 18
Higher education sector
Numr mediu al salariailor pe unitate / Average number of employees by unit

Total 383 183 148 52 420 181 189 50 144 153 130 61 140 158 82 123 141 78

Sectorul ntreprinderi 388 189 148 51 425 188 189 48 139 148 130 64 127 147 83 113 133 79
Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 196 196 - - 175 175 - - 170 170 - - 168 168 85 165 167 35
Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt superior 157 84 - 73 206 131 - 75 141 150 - 23 218 224 7 127 130 18
Higher education sector
Cheltuieli (milioane lei preuri curente) / Expenditures (million lei current prices)

Cheltuieli totale 1783702 1179051 26987 77664 1901862 1810284 51949 39629 3610925 3263542 239489 107894 4669496 4033576 635920 5926696 4903370 1023326
Total expenditures
Sectorul ntreprinderi 1090829 986256 26987 77586 1575057 1483821 51949 39287 2964089 2620437 239489 104163 3585208 2952609 632599 4566229 3549484 1016745
Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 178178 178178 - - 301169 301169 - - 605080 605080 - - 1000614 997531 3083 1205700 1199133 6567
Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt superior 14695 14617 - 78 25636 25294 - 342 41756 38025 - 3731 83674 83436 238 154767 154753 14
Higher education sector

Cheltuieli curente 1224428 1128731 25935 69762 1799921 1715499 47596 36826 3419163 3095407 226277 97479 4444540 3835976 608564 5664423 4690314 974109
Current expenditures
Sectorul ntreprinderi 1045879 950245 25935 69699 1491184 1406951 47596 36637 2812368 2490173 226277 95918 3465901 2860525 605376 4408346 3440818 967528
Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 164886 164886 - - 285904 285904 - - 568936 568936 - - 905951 902973 2978 1153578 1147011 6567
Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt superior 13663 13600 - 63 22833 22644 - 189 37859 36298 - 1561 72688 72478 210 102499 102485 14
Higher education sector

Cheltuieli de capital (investiii) 59274 50320 1052 7902 101941 94785 4353 2803 191762 168135 13212 10415 224956 197600 27356 262273 213056 49217
Capital expenditures (investments)
Sectorul ntreprinderi 44950 36011 1052 7887 83873 76870 4353 2650 151721 130264 13212 8245 119307 92084 27223 157883 108666 49217
Enterprises sector
Sectorul guvernamental 13292 13292 - - 15265 15265 - - 36144 36144 - - 94663 94558 105 52122 52122 -
Government sector
Sectorul nvmnt superior 1032 1017 - 15 2803 2650 - 153 3897 1727 - 2170 10986 10958 28 52268 52268 -
Higher education sector
7.2.3 SALARIAII DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, DUP OCUPAIE I NIVELUL DE PREGTIRE
EMPLOYEES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, BY OCCUPATION AND TRAINING LEVEL

persoane (la sfritul anului) persons (end of year)


1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
din care: din care: din care: din care: din care: din care: din care:
Salariai Salariai Salariai Salariai Salariai Salariai Salariai
femei femei femei femei femei femei femei
total total total total total total total
Employees of which: Employees of which: Employees of which: Employees of which: Employees of which: Employees of which: Employees of which:
women women women women women women women

Total 75648 37878 65422 32380 64138 31780 62297 30786 57714 27893 57125 27055 48113 22803 Total

Salariai dup ocupaie / Employees by occupation

Cercettori 39582 17480 35335 15401 35094 13395 31783 14030 30663 13579 30723 13420 26492 11443 Researchers
din care: of which:
Cercettori atestai 16652 6877 15903 6846 16434 6364 15987 6983 13354 5917 13159 5839 10341 4406 Certified researchers
Tehnicieni i asimilai 18481 11044 15396 9229 15024 7633 14125 8317 12576 7320 12148 7245 9316 5403 Technicians and assimilated
Alte categorii de salariai 17585 9354 14691 7750 14020 10752 16389 8439 14475 6994 14254 6390 12305 5957 Other categories of employees

Salariai dup nivelul de pregtire / Employees by training level

Studii superioare 40210 17730 35963 15651 36761 15369 35523 15666 33039 14574 34243 15006 27781 12173 Higher education
din care: of which:
Doctori 5976 ... 6593 ... 5917 1833 4224 1221 4328 1111 5830 1838 5116 1701 Doctors
Studii postliceale 8380 4942 7046 4100 5572 4023 5652 3203 5060 2716 4837 2822 3193 1807 Post high school
Studii liceale 19102 11918 15751 9826 14335 9633 14653 8985 13447 8159 12546 7068 10746 6205 High school
Alte situaii 7956 3288 6662 2803 7470 2755 6469 2932 6168 2444 5499 2159 6393 2618 Others

Salariai din activitatea Employees from


de cercetare-dezvoltare research-development activity
la 10000 persoane ocupate 75,18 ... 64,70 ... 67,56 ... 66,42 ... 63,97 ... 58,07 ... 50,38 per 10000 employed persons
7.2.4 SALARIAII DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE DIN SECTORUL NTREPRINDERI, DUP OCUPAIE I ACTIVITI
EMPLOYEES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY IN ENTERPRISES SECTOR, BY OCCUPATION AND ACTIVITIES

numr persoane n echivalent norm ntreag number of persons in full-time equivalent


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
din care: / of which din care: / of which din care: / of which din care: / of which din care: / of which
Salariai Tehnicieni Alte categorii Salariai Tehnicieni Alte categorii Salariai Tehnicieni Alte categorii Salariai Tehnicieni Alte categorii Salariai Tehnicieni Alte categorii
total Cercettori i asimilai de salariai total Cercettori i asimilai de salariai total Cercettori i asimilai de salariai total Cercettori i asimilai de salariai total Cercettori i asimilai de salariai
Employees Researchers Tehnicians and Other categories Employees Researchers Tehnicians and Other categories Employees Researchers Tehnicians and Other categories Employees Researchers Tehnicians and Other categories Employees Researchers Tehnicians and Other categories
assimilated of employees assimilated of employees assimilated of employees assimilated of employees assimilated of employees

Sectorul ntreprinderi - total 44782 22545 11415 10822 42598 20343 10622 11633 39569 19339 9243 10987 36141 18499 8815 8827 32013 15436 6767 9810 Enterprises sector - total
din care: of which:
Pe activiti: By activity:

Agricultur, silvicultur i piscicultur 6933 2326 1553 3054 6773 2390 1464 2919 7117 2369 1276 3472 5849 1955 1032 2862 3912 1496 759 1657 Agriculture, sylviculture and pisciculture
Industrie extractiv 2422 1283 693 446 2359 1161 698 500 1672 911 386 375 1382 793 348 241 1104 709 290 105 Mining and quarrying
Industrie prelucrtoare 26540 13952 6701 5887 26051 12864 6561 6626 25337 13146 6230 5961 23732 12946 6244 4542 23297 11093 4873 7331 Manufacturing
Alimentar, buturi i produse din tutun 342 109 57 176 312 98 57 157 255 115 50 90 257 106 52 99 27 21 5 1 Food, beverages and tobaco
Textil, produse textile, confecii de mbrcminte, Textiles, textile products, ready-made clothes,
pielrie i nclminte 1242 687 252 303 1220 484 337 399 1151 365 257 529 1018 350 276 392 2507 312 281 1914 leather goods and footwear
Prelucrarea lemnului (exclusiv mobil) 36 16 5 15 30 13 4 13 79 39 9 31 130 69 18 43 490 25 33 432 Wood processing (excluding furniture)
Celuloz, hrtie i carton 235 136 44 55 190 113 68 9 183 131 31 21 166 125 35 6 122 99 21 2 Pulp, paper and cardboard
Prelucrarea ieiului, cocsificarea crbunelui i Crude oil processing, coal coking and
tratarea combustibililor nucleari 567 292 97 178 208 74 39 95 331 129 29 173 319 127 64 128 172 66 34 72 nuclear fuel treatment
Chimie i fibre sintetice i artificiale 4491 2426 1061 1004 4287 2250 908 1129 3558 2037 794 727 2708 1533 807 368 2379 1363 792 224 Chemistry and synthetic and man made fibres
Prelucrarea cauciucului i a maselor plastice 209 69 44 96 371 155 80 136 292 178 65 49 277 170 72 35 190 136 34 20 Rubber and plastics processing
Alte produse din minerale nemetalice 937 466 196 275 927 279 187 461 913 258 184 471 824 348 234 242 664 265 145 254 Other nonmetallic mineral products
Metalurgie 2216 1161 507 548 2329 1249 679 401 2212 1188 702 322 1940 1061 610 269 1446 818 397 231 Metallurgy
Construcii metalice, maini i echipamente 15947 8455 4335 3157 15851 7961 4104 3786 15960 8494 4021 3445 15711 8817 3988 2906 14835 7739 2978 4118 Metallic construction, machinery and equipment
Mobilier i alte activiti neclasificate 318 135 103 80 326 188 98 40 403 212 88 103 382 240 88 54 465 249 153 63 Furniture and other nonclassified activities
Energie electric i termic, gaze i ap 3130 1967 702 461 2663 1579 531 553 1980 1161 354 465 2396 1278 530 588 1406 873 290 243 Electric and thermal energy, gas and water
Construcii 889 507 171 211 918 465 242 211 710 455 118 137 552 309 214 29 512 293 136 83 Construction
Alte activiti 4868 2510 1595 763 3834 1884 1126 824 2753 1297 879 577 2230 1218 447 565 1782 972 419 391 Other activities
din care: of which:
Cercetare-dezvoltare 1117 581 265 271 784 447 176 161 719 356 157 206 798 429 161 208 602 327 107 168 Research-development
7.2.5 SALARIAII DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE
I OCUPAII
EMPLOYEES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, BY EXECUTION SECTORS
AND OCCUPATIONS

numr persoane n echivalent norm ntreag / number of persons in full-time equivalent


1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Total salariai 73611 62724 60939 59907 54436 52454 44091


Total - employees

Cercettori 38612 33751 32780 30303 28431 27494 23473


Researchers

Tehnicieni i asimilai 18067 14720 14341 13857 12114 11511 8843


Technicians and assimilated

Alte categorii de salariai 16932 14253 13818 15747 13891 13449 11775
Other categories of employees

Sectorul ntreprinderi 55182 46751 44782 42598 39569 36141 32013


Enterprises sector

Cercettori 27375 23841 22545 20343 19339 18499 15436


Researchers

Tehnicieni i asimilai 14718 11717 11415 10622 9243 8815 6767


Technicians and assimilated

Alte categorii de salariai 13089 11193 10822 11633 10987 8827 9810
Other categories of employees

Sectorul guvernamental 16438 14218 13808 13755 10549 10487 8763


Government sector

Cercettori 9828 8690 8431 7496 6356 6592 5703


Researchers

Tehnicieni i asimilai 3095 2754 2674 2795 2072 2292 1707


Technicians and assimilated

Alte categorii de salariai 3515 2774 2703 3464 2121 1603 1353
Other categories of employees

Sectorul nvmnt superior 1991 1755 2349 3554 4318 5826 3315
Higher education sector

Cercettori 1409 1220 1804 2464 2736 2403 2334


Researchers

Tehnicieni i asimilai 254 249 252 440 799 404 369


Technicians and assimilated

Alte categorii de salariai 328 286 293 650 783 3019 612
Other categories of employees
7.2.6 CERCETTORII DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE DOMENII TIINIFICE
I GRUPE DE VRST
RESEARCHERS FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, BY SCIENTIFIC FIELDS
AND AGE GROUPS

numr persoane (la sfritul anului) number of persons (end of year)


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Total 35094 31783 30663 30723 26492 Total

Cercettori pe domenii tiinifice Researchers by scientific fields


tiine naturale i exacte 5180 5911 5968 5327 4177 Natural and exact sciences
tiine inginereti i tehnologice 22024 20496 19667 19547 17317 Engineering and technological sciences
tiine medicale 2770 1227 1213 1151 1288 Medical sciences
tiine agricole 2339 1800 1664 2151 1341 Agricultural sciences
tiine sociale 904 834 998 953 1095 Social sciences
tiine umaniste 1877 1515 1153 1594 1274 Humanisties

Cercettori pe grupe de vrst Researchers by age groups


Pn la 30 ani 5032 4647 3896 4070 3425 Up to 30 years
30 - 39 ani 9062 8201 7808 7817 6690 30 - 39 years
40 - 49 ani 11411 10699 10884 10735 9182 40 - 49 years
50 - 59 ani 7653 6575 6259 6490 5907 50 - 59 years
60 ani i peste 1936 1661 1816 1611 1288 60 years and over

Cercettori la 10000 persoane Researchers per 10000 employed


ocupate 36,97 33,89 33,98 31,23 27,74 persons
7.2.7 SALARIAII DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE
I NIVELUL DE PREGTIRE
EMPLOYEES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, BY EXECUTION SECTORS
AND TRAINING LEVEL

numr persoane n echivalent norm ntreag / number of persons in full-time equivalent


1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Total salariai 73611 62724 60939 59907 54436 52454 44091


Employees - total

Studii superioare 39223 34362 34142 33840 30779 31074 24683


Higher education
Studii postliceale 8544 6708 5431 5565 4854 4425 3097
Post high school
Studii liceale 18332 15149 14019 14222 12975 11966 10112
High school
Alte situaii 7512 6505 7347 6280 5828 4989 6199
Others

Sectorul ntreprinderi 55182 46751 44782 42598 39569 36141 32013


Enterprises sector

Studii superioare 27666 24132 23130 22433 20384 19266 16058


Higher education
Studii postliceale 7338 5706 4255 4506 3895 3622 2375
Post high school
Studii liceale 14347 11619 11185 10639 10399 9123 7906
High school
Alte situaii 5831 5294 6212 5020 4891 4130 5674
Others

Sectorul guvernamental 16438 14218 13808 13755 10549 10487 8763


Government sector

Studii superioare 10148 9010 9126 8458 6937 6961 5898


Higher education
Studii postliceale 1169 971 1161 1003 713 712 624
Post high school
Studii liceale 3592 3127 2670 3198 2238 2092 1762
High school
Alte situaii 1529 1110 851 1096 661 722 479
Others

Sectorul nvmnt superior 1991 1755 2349 3554 4318 5826 3315
Higher education sector

Studii superioare 1409 1220 1886 2949 3458 4847 2727


Higher education
Studii postliceale 37 31 15 56 246 91 98
Post high school
Studii liceale 393 403 164 385 338 751 444
High school
Alte situaii 152 101 284 164 276 137 46
Others
7.2.8 SALARIAII DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE DIN SECTORUL NTREPRINDERI, DUP NIVELUL DE PREGTIRE I ACTIVITI
EMPLOYEES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY IN ENTERPRISES SECTOR, BY TRAINING LEVEL AND ACTIVITY

numr persoane n echivalent norm ntreag number of persons in full-time equivalent


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which:
Salariai Studii Studii Studii Alte Salariai Studii Studii Studii Alte Salariai Studii Studii Studii Alte Salariai Studii Studii Studii Alte Salariai Studii Studii Studii Alte
total superioare postliceale liceale situaii total superioare postliceale liceale situaii total superioare postliceale liceale situaii total superioare postliceale liceale situaii total superioare postliceale liceale situaii
Employees Higher Post high High Others Employees Higher Post high High Others Employees Higher Post high High Others Employees Higher Post high High Others Employees Higher Post high High Others
education school school education school school education school school education school school education school school

Sectorul ntreprinderi - total 44782 23130 4255 11185 6212 42598 22433 4506 10639 5020 39569 20384 3895 10399 4891 36141 19266 3622 9123 4130 32013 16058 2375 7906 5674 Enterprises sector - total

din care: of which:


Pe activiti: By activities:
Agricultur, silvicultur i piscicultur 6933 2475 164 2809 1485 6773 2456 206 2551 1560 7117 2558 437 2428 1694 5849 2057 191 1984 1617 3912 1548 89 1456 819 Agriculture, sylviculture and pisciculture
Industrie extractiv 2422 1396 306 563 157 2359 1200 346 727 86 1672 962 220 436 54 1382 793 162 309 118 1104 710 102 249 43 Mining and quarrying
Industrie prelucrtoare 26540 14250 2534 5837 3919 26051 14463 2924 6121 2543 25337 13860 2692 6160 2625 23732 13482 2572 5789 1889 23297 11477 1801 5510 4509 Manufacturing
Alimentar, buturi i produse din tutun 342 120 26 110 86 312 167 6 81 58 255 160 11 55 29 257 151 58 44 4 27 21 - 6 - Food, beverages and tobacco
Textil, produse textile, confecii de mbrcminte, Textiles, textile products, ready-made clothes,
pielrie i nclminte 1242 687 106 338 111 1220 645 89 383 103 1151 377 101 363 310 1018 372 105 355 186 2507 325 72 1132 978 leather goods and footwear
Prelucrarea lemnului (exclusiv mobil) 36 16 19 1 - 30 13 16 1 - 79 39 8 3 29 130 69 6 16 39 490 25 31 168 266 Wood processing (excluding furniture)
Celuloz, hrtie i carton 235 144 40 42 9 190 110 51 28 1 183 131 13 31 8 166 125 13 24 4 122 85 19 14 4 Pulp, paper and cardboard
Prelucrarea ieiului, cocsificarea crbunelui Crude oil processing, coal coking and nuclear
i tratarea combustibililor nucleari 567 292 54 179 42 208 77 6 80 45 331 134 14 120 63 319 128 7 141 43 172 68 5 62 37 fuel treatment
Chimie i fibre sintetice i artificiale 4491 2465 640 1076 310 4287 2336 353 1153 445 3558 2037 334 893 294 2708 1669 202 706 131 2379 1485 190 642 62 Chemistry and synthetic and man made fibres
Prelucrarea cauciucului i a maselor plastice 209 69 24 95 21 371 167 48 96 60 292 178 24 62 28 277 170 11 70 26 190 136 8 39 7 Rubber and plastics processing
Alte produse din minerale nemetalice 937 467 124 270 76 927 421 75 292 139 913 423 79 277 134 824 477 72 168 107 664 382 55 97 130 Other nonmetallic mineral products
Metalurgie 2216 1226 317 557 116 2329 1305 412 483 129 2212 1254 350 509 99 1940 1076 314 437 113 1446 822 220 273 131 Metallurgy
Construcii metalice, maini i echipamente 15947 8569 1155 3096 3127 15851 9032 1840 3456 1523 15960 8917 1724 3778 1541 15711 9028 1747 3743 1193 14835 7879 1150 2968 2838 Metallic construction, machinery and equipment
Mobilier i alte activiti neclasificate 318 195 29 73 21 326 190 28 68 40 403 210 34 69 90 382 217 37 85 43 465 249 51 109 56 Furniture and other nonclassified activities
Energie electric i termic, gaze i ap 3130 1977 329 561 263 2663 1709 276 253 425 1980 1191 137 481 171 2396 1389 216 477 314 1406 944 83 212 167 Electric and thermal energy, gas and water
Construcii 889 510 47 309 23 918 476 66 181 195 710 449 92 99 70 552 309 116 99 28 512 287 104 103 18 Construction
Alte activiti 4868 2522 875 1106 365 3834 2129 688 806 211 2753 1364 317 795 277 2230 1236 365 465 164 1782 1092 196 376 118 Others activities
din care: of which:
Cercetare-dezvoltare 1117 594 100 302 121 784 502 87 152 43 719 373 56 241 49 798 466 57 197 78 602 346 50 159 47 Research-development
7.2.9 CHELTUIELILE CURENTE DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE I TIPURI DE CERCETARE
CURRENT EXPENDITURES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, BY EXECUTION SECTORS AND BY TYPE OF RESEARCH

milioane lei preuri curente million lei current prices


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Total 543556 712910 1362229 1739057 2071431 Total


Cercetare fundamental 72540 107600 189854 310327 372254 Fundamental research
Cercetare aplicativ 374510 490972 909184 1118216 1313353 Applicative research
Dezvoltare experimental 96506 114338 263191 310514 385824 Experimental development

Sectorul ntreprinderi 420930 519918 1113828 1346490 1578507 Enterprises sector


Cercetare fundamental 21075 32296 59912 89239 105338 Fundamental research
Cercetare aplicativ 308731 411596 796651 961583 1106060 Applicative research
Dezvoltare experimental 91124 76026 257265 295668 367109 Experimental development

Sectorul guvernamental 108964 170158 210542 319879 390425 Government sector


Cercetare fundamental 42407 59338 100238 165282 185813 Fundamental research
Cercetare aplicativ 61325 72886 104860 140468 187354 Applicative research
Dezvoltare experimental 5232 37934 5444 14129 17258 Experimental development

Sectorul nvmnt superior 13662 22834 37859 72688 102499 Higher education sector
Cercetare fundamental 9058 15966 29704 55806 81103 Fundamental research
Cercetare aplicativ 4454 6490 7673 16165 19939 Applicative research
Dezvoltare experimental 150 378 482 717 1457 Experimental development
7.2.10 CHELTUIELILE TOTALE DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE I CATEGORII DE CHELTUIELI
TOTAL EXPENDITURES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, BY EXECUTION SECTORS AND EXPENDITURES CATEGORY

milioane lei preuri curente million lei current prices


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Total 577148 768349 1465004 1833389 2195810 Total


Pe categorii de cheltuieli By categories of expenditures
Cheltuieli curente 543556 712910 1362229 1739057 2071431 Current expenditures
din care: of which:
Cheltuieli de personal 332868 434223 798318 1007054 1200363 Staff
Cheltuieli materiale 117929 144514 259598 362324 379776 Material
Alte cheltuieli 92759 134173 304313 369679 491292 Others
Cheltuieli de capital 33592 55439 102775 94332 124379 Capital expenditures
din care: of which:
Terenuri i construcii 1994 11931 4553 13066 12243 Lands and construction
Echipamente i aparatur 28669 37832 81756 62654 95370 Equipment and apparatus
Alte cheltuieli (inclusiv mijloace Others (including transport
de transport) 2929 5676 16466 18612 16766 means)

Sectorul ntreprinderi 447605 564817 1192210 1406739 1633443 Enterprises sector


Pe categorii de cheltuieli By categories of expenditures
Cheltuieli curente 420930 519918 1113828 1346490 1578507 Current expenditures
din care: of which:
Cheltuieli de personal 253561 322653 643183 753974 879257 Staff
Cheltuieli materiale 90725 88982 211893 272627 275447 Material
Alte cheltuieli 76644 108283 258752 319889 423803 Others
Cheltuieli de capital 26675 44899 78382 60249 54936 Capital expenditures
din care: of which:
Terenuri i construcii 1059 10943 2678 12899 8063 Lands and construction
Echipamente i aparatur 23309 29684 68543 41537 33061 Equipment and apparatus
Alte cheltuieli (inclusiv mijloace Others (including transport
de transport) 2307 4272 7161 5813 13812 means)

Sectorul guvernamental 114849 177896 231038 342976 407600 Government sector


Pe categorii de cheltuieli By categories of expenditures
Cheltuieli curente 108964 170158 210542 319879 390425 Current expenditures
din care: of which:
Cheltuieli de personal 70706 96914 131270 212769 261261 Staff
Cheltuieli materiale 23223 48873 38462 63511 63695 Material
Alte cheltuieli 15035 24371 40810 43599 65469 Others
Cheltuieli de capital 5885 7738 20496 23097 17175 Capital expenditures
din care: of which:
Terenuri i construcii 935 973 1066 167 2486 Lands and construction
Echipamente i aparatur 4576 5459 10188 10261 11807 Equipment and apparatus
Alte cheltuieli (inclusiv mijloace Others (including transport
de transport) 374 1306 9242 12669 2882 means)

Sectorul nvmnt superior 14694 25636 41756 83674 154767 Higher education sector
Pe categorii de cheltuieli By categories of expenditures
Cheltuieli curente 13662 22834 37859 72688 102499 Current expenditures
din care: of which:
Cheltuieli de personal 8601 14656 23865 40311 59845 Staff
Cheltuieli materiale 3981 6659 9243 26186 40634 Material
Alte cheltuieli 1080 1519 4751 6191 2020 Others
Cheltuieli de capital 1032 2802 3897 10986 52268 Capital expenditures
din care: of which:
Terenuri i construcii - 15 809 - 1694 Lands and construction
Echipamente i aparatur 784 2689 3025 10856 50502 Equipment and apparatus
Alte cheltuieli (inclusiv mijloace Others (including transport
de transport) 248 98 63 130 72 means)
7.2.11 CHELTUIELILE TOTALE DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE DIN SECTORUL NTREPRINDERI, PE CATEGORII DE CHELTUIELI I ACTIVITI
TOTAL EXPENDITURES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY IN ENTERPRISES SECTOR, BY EXPENDITURES CATEGORY AND ACTIVITY

milioane lei preuri curente / million lei current prices


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which:
Cheltuieli Cheltuieli Cheltuieli Cheltuieli Cheltuieli
Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de
totale totale totale totale totale
curente capital curente capital curente capital curente capital curente capital
Total Total Total Total Total
expenditures Current Capital expenditures Current Capital expenditures Current Capital expenditures Current Capital expenditures Current Capital
expenditures expenditures expenditures expenditures expenditures expenditures expenditures expenditures expenditures expenditures

Sectorul ntreprinderi - total 447605 420930 26675 564817 519918 44899 1192210 1113828 78382 1406739 1346490 60249 1633443 1578507 54936
Enterprises sector - total

din care: / of which:


Pe activiti:
By activities:

Agricultur, silvicultur i piscicultur 56033 54590 1443 77399 75957 1442 155589 151118 4471 173832 170445 3387 180470 174624 5846
Agriculture, sylviculture and pisciculture
Industrie extractiv 25646 21713 3933 33807 29306 4501 60752 60015 737 81259 73100 8159 109981 109120 861
Mining and quarrying
Industrie prelucrtoare 262659 243028 19631 338209 302003 36206 745958 676258 69700 936384 895859 40525 1095429 1055409 40020
Manufacturing
Alimentar, buturi i produse din tutun 3136 3030 106 4776 3742 1034 9840 8543 1297 13205 12740 465 2109 2109 -
Food, beverages and tobacco
Textil, produse textile, confecii de mbrcminte,
pielrie i nclminte 6770 6650 120 10482 10078 404 25324 24913 411 39880 39298 582 32383 32186 197
Textiles, textile products, ready-made clothes,
leather goods and footwear
Prelucrarea lemnului (exclusiv mobil) 365 160 205 726 175 551 2813 1936 877 2689 2645 44 1904 1882 22
Wood processing (excluding furniture)
Celuloz, hrtie i carton 2943 2717 226 3071 2938 133 8816 7854 962 9050 8714 336 10130 9230 900
Pulp, paper and cardboard
Prelucrarea ieiului, cocsificarea crbunelui i tratarea
combustibililor nucleari 4342 4055 287 1883 1810 73 10391 9650 741 12393 12114 279 2553 2530 23
Crude oil processing, coal coking
and nuclear fuel treatment
Chimie i fibre sintetice i artificiale 45689 43075 2614 45459 43523 1936 96495 93998 2497 86937 85249 1688 111542 109391 2151
Chemistry and synthetic and man made fibres
Prelucrarea cauciucului i a maselor plastice 1710 1688 22 3216 3153 63 7445 7214 231 8451 7320 1131 19784 18563 1221
Rubber and plastics processing
Alte produse din minerale nemetalice 7469 7017 452 14486 13385 1101 29482 27673 1809 27349 27039 310 49885 46940 2945
Other nonmetallic mineral products
Metalurgie 22312 21356 956 27164 25368 1796 59614 54191 5423 86132 84591 1541 108627 103209 5418
Metallurgy
Construcii metalice, maini i echipamente 164355 149712 14643 222583 193536 29047 484514 429172 55342 637361 605002 32359 743108 716284 26824
Metallic construction, machinery and equipment
Mobilier i alte activiti neclasificate 3568 3568 - 4363 4295 68 11224 11114 110 12937 11147 1790 13404 13085 319
Furniture and other nonclassified activities
Energie electric i termic, gaze i ap 50147 49139 1008 68567 66973 1594 166324 164969 1355 138401 132777 5624 159998 153506 6492
Electric and thermal energy, gas and water
Construcii 10838 10786 52 12810 12143 667 20937 20076 861 17387 17387 - 26359 25153 1206
Construction
Alte activiti 42282 41674 608 34025 33536 489 42650 41392 1258 59476 56922 2554 61206 60695 511

din care: / of which:


Cercetare-dezvoltare 8381 8302 79 8316 8028 288 12495 11812 683 23097 21206 1891 22519 22420 99
Research-development
7.2.12 CHELTUIELILE CURENTE DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE DIN SECTORUL NTREPRINDERI, PE ELEMENTE COMPONENTE I ACTIVITI
CURRENT EXPENDITURES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY IN ENTERPRISES SECTOR, BY COMPONENT ELEMENTS AND ACTIVITY

milioane lei preuri curente / million lei current prices


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Cheltuieli din care: / of which: Cheltuieli din care: / of which: Cheltuieli din care: / of which: Cheltuieli din care: / of which: Cheltuieli din care: / of which:
curente-total Cheltuieli Alte cheltuieli curente-total Cheltuieli Alte cheltuieli curente-total Cheltuieli Alte cheltuieli curente-total Cheltuieli Alte cheltuieli curente-total Cheltuieli Alte cheltuieli
Current de personal curente 1) Current de personal curente 1) Current de personal curente 1) Current de personal curente 1) Current de personal curente 1)
expenditures- Current staff Other current expenditures- Current staff Other current expenditures- Current staff Other current expenditures- Current staff Other current expenditures- Current staff Other current
total expenditures expenditures 1) total expenditures expenditures 1) total expenditures expenditures 1) total expenditures expenditures 1) total expenditures expenditures 1)

Sectorul ntreprinderi - total 420930 253561 167369 519918 322653 197265 1113828 643183 470645 1346490 753974 592516 1578507 879257 699250
Enterprises sector - total

din care: / of which:


Pe activiti: / By activity:

Agricultur, silvicultur i piscicultur 54590 26767 27823 75957 40551 35406 151118 76486 74632 170445 91317 79128 174624 94695 79929
Agriculture, sylviculture and pisciculture
Industrie extractiv 21713 15145 6568 29306 16900 12406 60015 42267 17748 73100 37347 35753 109120 68924 40196
Mining and quarrying
Industrie prelucrtoare 243028 139730 103298 302003 194485 107518 676258 383504 292754 895859 487108 408751 1055409 553689 501720
Manufacturing
Alimentar, buturi i produse din tutun 3030 1930 1100 3742 1992 1750 8543 5157 3386 12740 7861 4879 2109 745 1364
Food, beverages and tobacco
Textil, produse textile, confecii de
mbrcminte, pielrie i nclminte 6650 4144 2506 10078 5846 4232 24913 13726 11187 39298 19410 19888 32186 17649 14537
Textiles, textile products, ready-made clothes,
leather goods and footwear
Prelucrarea lemnului (exclusiv mobil) 160 116 44 175 159 16 1936 1017 919 2645 2166 479 1882 1293 589
Wood processing (excluding furniture)
Celuloz, hrtie i carton
Pulp, paper and cardboard 2717 1657 1060 2938 2280 658 7854 5653 2201 8714 6304 2410 9230 5374 3856
Prelucrarea ieiului, cocsificarea crbunelui
i tratarea combustibililor nucleari 4055 1978 2077 1810 1488 322 9650 5130 4520 12114 7513 4601 2530 1445 1085
Crude oil processing, coal coking
and nuclear fuel treatment
Chimie i fibre sintetice i artificiale 43075 23340 19735 43523 28351 15172 93998 54887 39111 85249 54190 31059 109391 69873 39518
Chemistry and synthetic and man made fibres
Prelucrarea cauciucului i a maselor plastice 1688 1010 678 3153 2258 895 7214 4146 3068 7320 4802 2518 18563 13443 5120
Rubber and plastics processing
Alte produse din minerale nemetalice 7017 4900 2117 13385 9382 4003 27673 14602 13071 27039 18304 8735 46940 22891 24049
Other nonmetallic mineral products
Metalurgie 21356 14507 6849 25369 17638 7731 54191 36353 17838 84591 48566 36025 103209 65504 37705
Metallurgy
Construcii metalice, maini i echipamente 149712 84870 64842 193536 122938 70598 429172 235536 193636 605002 311257 293745 716284 348452 367832
Metallic construction, machinery and equipment
Mobilier i alte activiti neclasificate 3568 1278 2290 4294 2153 2141 11114 7297 3817 11147 6735 4412 13085 7020 6065
Furniture and other nonclassified activities
Energie electric i termic, gaze i ap 49139 33426 15713 66973 41935 25038 164969 103467 61502 132777 91760 41017 153506 110835 42671
Electric and thermal energy, gas and water
Construcii 10786 9518 1268 12143 7587 4556 20076 13053 7023 17387 12550 4837 25153 16213 8940
Construction
Alte activiti 41674 28975 12699 33536 21195 12341 41392 24406 16986 56922 33892 23030 60695 34901 25794
Other activities

din care: / of which:


Cercetare-dezvoltare 8302 3873 4429 8027 4609 3418 11812 6053 5759 21206 10470 10736 22420 9114 13306
Research-development

1)
Cuprind cheltuielile materiale i alte cheltuieli. / Include material expenditures and other expenditures.
7.2.13 CHELTUIELILE DE CAPITAL DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE DIN SECTORUL NTREPRINDERI, PE ELEMENTE COMPONENTE I ACTIVITI
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY IN ENTERPRISES SECTOR, BY COMPONENT ELEMENTS AND ACTIVITY

milioane lei preuri curente / million lei current prices


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which: din care: / of which:
Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli Cheltuieli de Cheltuieli
capital-total pentru terenuri Alte cheltuieli capital-total pentru terenuri Alte cheltuieli capital-total pentru terenuri Alte cheltuieli capital-total pentru terenuri Alte cheltuieli capital-total pentru terenuri Alte cheltuieli
Capital i construcii de capital 1) Capital i construcii de capital 1) Capital i construcii de capital 1) Capital i construcii de capital 1) Capital i construcii de capital 1)
expenditures- Expenditures Other capital expenditures- Expenditures Other capital expenditures- Expenditures Other capital expenditures- Expenditures Other capital expenditures- Expenditures Other capital
total for lands and expenditures 1) total for lands and expenditures 1) total for lands and expenditures 1) total for lands and expenditures 1) total for lands and expenditures 1)
construction construction construction construction construction

Sectorul ntreprinderi - total 26675 1059 25616 44899 10943 33956 78382 2678 75704 60249 12899 47350 54936 8063 46873
Enterprises sector - total

din care: / of which:


Pe activiti: / By activity:

Agricultur, silvicultur i piscicultur 1443 82 1361 1442 311 1131 4471 79 4392 3387 710 2677 5846 304 5542
Agriculture, sylviculture and pisciculture
Industrie extractiv 3932 51 3881 4501 179 4322 737 8 729 8159 6673 1486 861 352 509
Mining and quarrying
Industrie prelucrtoare 19631 920 18711 36206 10165 26041 69700 2478 67222 40525 4717 35808 40020 6833 33187
Manufacturing
Alimentar, buturi i produse din tutun 106 60 46 1034 - 1034 1297 - 1297 465 - 465 - - -
Food, beverages and tobacco
Textil, produse textile, confecii de
mbrcminte, pielrie i nclminte 120 51 69 404 16 388 411 3 408 582 215 367 197 131 66
Textiles, textile products, ready-made clothes,
leather goods and footwear
Prelucrarea lemnului (exclusiv mobil) 205 - 205 551 - 551 877 - 877 44 - 44 22 - 22
Wood processing (excluding furniture)
Celuloz, hrtie i carton 226 - 226 133 - 133 962 - 962 336 - 336 900 - 900
Pulp, paper and cardboard
Prelucrarea ieiului, cocsificarea crbunelui
i tratarea combustibililor nucleari 287 7 280 73 8 65 741 - 741 279 - 279 23 5 18
Crude oil processing, coal coking
and nuclear fuel treatment
Chimie i fibre sintetice i artificiale 2614 101 2513 1936 5 1931 2497 222 2275 1688 40 1648 2151 63 2088
Chemistry and synthetic and man made fibres
Prelucrarea cauciucului i a maselor plastice 22 - 22 63 - 63 231 - 231 1131 - 1131 1221 - 1221
Rubber and plastics processing
Alte produse din minerale nemetalice 452 182 270 1101 2 1099 1809 - 1809 310 - 310 2945 - 2945
Other nonmetallic mineral products
Metalurgie 956 21 935 1796 46 1750 5423 97 5326 1541 1 1540 5418 1809 3609
Metallurgy
Construcii metalice, maini i echipamente 14643 498 14145 29047 10088 18959 55342 2156 53186 32359 3168 29191 26824 4825 21999
Metallic construction, machinery and equipment
Mobilier i alte activiti neclasificate - - - 68 - 68 110 - 110 1790 1293 497 319 - 319
Furniture and other nonclassified activities
Energie electric i termic, gaze i ap 1008 - 1008 1594 - 1594 1355 89 1266 5624 - 5624 6492 541 5951
Electric and thermal energy, gas and water
Construcii 52 2 50 667 287 380 861 - 861 - - - 1206 - 1206
Construction
Alte activiti 609 4 605 489 1 488 1258 24 1234 2554 799 1755 511 33 478
Other activities

din care: / of which:


Cercetare-dezvoltare 80 - 80 288 - 288 683 24 659 1891 796 1095 99 - 99
Research-development

1)
Cuprind cheltuielile pentru echipamente i aparatur i alte cheltuieli de capital (inclusiv mijloacele de transport).
1)
Include expenditures for equipment and apparatus and other capital expenditures (including means of transport).
7.2.14 CHELTUIELILE TOTALE DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE SECTOARE DE EXECUIE I SURSE DE FINANARE
TOTAL EXPENDITURES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, BY EXECUTION SECTORS AND FINANCING SOURCES

milioane lei preuri curente million lei current prices


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Total 577148 768349 1465004 1833389 2195810 Total


Pe surse de finanare By financing sources
Fonduri din ar 559405 747918 1422056 1801573 2141902 Domestic funds
de la: from:
Fonduri publice 331370 421612 621106 969987 1024642 Public funds
Ageni economici 131790 174311 249493 246435 422017 Economic units
Uniti din nvmntul superior 2142 1418 22167 52087 1140 Higher education units
Asociaii cu scop nelucrativ 76 2049 8 - - Non-lucrative associations
Surse proprii 75279 127055 484251 503208 588923 Own sources
Alte fonduri 18748 21473 45031 29856 105180 Other funds
Fonduri din strintate 17743 20431 42948 31816 53908 External funds

Sectorul ntreprinderi 447605 564817 1192210 1406739 1633443 Enterprises sector


Pe surse de finanare By financing sources
Fonduri din ar 432097 547267 1157957 1387047 1601635 Domestic funds
de la: from:
Fonduri publice 220449 257941 409919 612261 616953 Public funds
Ageni economici 121997 151138 216717 215046 354823 Economic units
Uniti din nvmntul superior 248 1288 21832 51532 781 Higher education units
Asociaii cu scop nelucrativ - 2022 8 - - Non-lucrative associations
Surse proprii 73740 114495 472324 485797 574244 Own sources
Alte fonduri 15663 20383 37157 22411 54834 Other funds
Fonduri din strintate 15508 17550 34253 19692 31808 External funds

Sectorul guvernamental 114849 177896 231038 342976 407600 Government sector


Pe surse de finanare By financing sources
Fonduri din ar 112772 175116 222609 338904 393565 Domestic funds
de la: from:
Fonduri publice 101897 145956 182589 295805 300756 Public funds
Ageni economici 7057 19019 25110 21149 41383 Economic units
Uniti din nvmntul superior - 9 89 92 94 Higher education units
Asociaii cu scop nelucrativ - 3 - - - Non-lucrative associations
Surse proprii 1268 9079 6978 15010 8559 Own sources
Alte fonduri 2550 1050 7843 6848 42773 Other funds
Fonduri din strintate 2077 2780 8429 4072 14035 External funds

Sectorul nvmnt superior 14694 25636 41756 83674 154767 Higher education sector
Pe surse de finanare By financing sources
Fonduri din ar 14536 25535 41490 75622 146702 Domestic funds
de la: from:
Fonduri publice 9024 17715 28598 61921 106933 Public funds
Ageni economici 2736 4154 7666 10240 25811 Economic units
Uniti din nvmntul superior 1894 121 246 463 265 Higher education units
Asociaii cu scop nelucrativ 76 24 - - - Non-lucrative associations
Surse proprii 271 3481 4949 2401 6120 Own sources
Alte fonduri 535 40 31 597 7573 Other funds
Fonduri din strintate 158 101 266 8052 8065 External funds

Ponderea cheltuielilor totale de Weight of total research-


cercetare-dezvoltare n development expenditures
produsul intern brut (PIB) - % - 0,80 0,71 0,58 0,50 0,41 in GDP - % -

Sectorul ntreprinderi - % n PIB 0,62 0,52 0,47 0,38 0,30 Enterprises sector - % in GDP

Sectorul guvernamental - % n PIB 0,16 0,17 0,09 0,10 0,08 Government sector - % in GDP

Sectorul nvmnt superior - % n PIB 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,03 Higher education sector - % in GDP
7.2.15 CHELTUIELILE TOTALE DIN ACTIVITATEA DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE TIPURI DE PROGRAME
DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE CONFORM NABS 1) I SURSE DE FINANARE, N 1999
TOTAL EXPENDITURES FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY, BY TYPE OF RESEARCH-
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES ACCORDING TO NABS 1) AND FINANCING SOURCES, IN 1999
milioane lei preuri curente / million lei current prices
Surse de finanare
Financing sources
Total
Fonduri publice Alte surse
Public punds Other sources

Total 2195810 1024642 1171168


din care: / of which:

Pe programe internaionale 52155


International programmes
din acestea: / of which:

Pe programe ale Uniunii Europene 26839


E.U. programmes

din total, pe programe NABS:


of total, NABS programmes:

Explorarea i exploatarea mediului terestru 21089 13691 7398


Land exploration and exploitation

Infrastructura i amenajarea teritoriului 8915 6846 2069


Territory planning and infrastructure

Poluarea i protecia mediului 96993 38797 58196


Environmental pollution and protection

Sntate public. Medicin 60536 38963 21573


Public health. Medicine

Producia, distribuirea i utilizarea energiei 226334 85981 140353


Energy production, distribution and use

Producia i tehnologia agricol 193466 109303 84163


Agricultural production and technology

Producia i tehnologia industrial 1062081 355287 706794


Industrial production and technology

Structuri i relaii sociale 16685 10860 5825


Social structures and relations

Explorarea i exploatarea spaiului 17683 17661 22


Space exploration and exploitation

Cercetri din fondurile generale pentru


nvmntul superior 47770 32377 15393
Research from general funds for
higher education

Cercetri fundamentale 219244 172554 46690


Fundamental researches

Alte cercetri civice 170501 96568 73933


Other civic researches

1)
Nomenclatorul pentru analiza i comparaia bugetelor i programelor tiinifice.
1)
Nomenclature for analysis and comparison of budgets and scientific programmes.
7.2.16 NUMRUL DE BREVETE DE INVENII I LUCRRI PUBLICATE DE PERSONALUL DE SPECIALITATE DIN
UNITILE CU ACTIVITATE DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE, PE TIPURI DE PROGRAME DE CERCETARE
CONFORM NABS 1), N 1999
NUMBER OF PATENTS AND PAPERS ISSUED BY SPECIALIZED STAFF FROM RESEARCH-DEVELOPMENT
ACTIVITY UNITS, BY TYPE OF RESEARCH PROGRAMMES ACCORDING TO NABS 1), IN 1999

numr / number
Brevete de Brevete de invenii din care: / of which:
invenii eliberate Lucrri publicate
solicitate Letters patents Issued papers Cri Articole
- total released Books Articles
Letters
n n n n
patents n ar n ar n ar n ar
strintate strintate strintate strintate
requested Domestic Domestic Domestic Domestic
Abroad Abroad Abroad Abroad
- total
Total 925 651 146 15419 4566 1974 119 12838 4272
din total,
pe programe NABS:
of total,
NABS programmes:
Explorarea i exploatarea
mediului terestru 3 7 - 578 106 57 - 521 106
Land exploration and
exploitation
Infrastructura i amenajarea
teritoriului 15 - 6 20 9 3 - 17 9
Territory planning and
infrastructure
Poluarea i protecia mediului 18 14 73 407 101 39 7 366 92
Environmental pollution and
protection
Sntate public. Medicin 5 1 - 683 132 30 9 517 93
Public health. Medicine
Producia, distribuirea i
utilizarea energiei 41 34 - 173 37 14 1 159 36
Energy production,
distribution and use
Producia i tehnologia
agricol 91 56 - 3069 275 222 5 2573 219
Agricultural production and
technology
Producia i tehnologia
industrial 317 285 17 3109 814 554 11 2512 778
Industrial production and
technology
Structuri i relaii sociale 5 1 - 1324 133 190 7 1134 126
Social structures and relations
Explorarea i exploatarea
spaiului - 2 - 8 6 - - 8 6
Space exploration and
exploitation
Cercetri din fondurile
generale pentru
nvmntul superior 129 2 - 1618 672 364 12 1246 660
Research from general funds
for higher education
Cercetri fundamentale 262 221 49 3758 2087 440 59 3180 1962
Fundamental researches
Alte cercetri civice 37 26 1 668 194 61 8 601 185
Other civic researches

1)
Nomenclatorul pentru analiza i comparaia bugetelor i programelor tiinifice.
1)
Nomenclature for analysis and comparison of budgets and scientific programmes.