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CIP

/PriestG..2013.5

LogicA Very Short Introduction

ISBN 978-7-5447-2983-3

. . . . B81

CIP2012133401

Copyright Graham Priest 2000


Logic was originally published in English in 2000.
This Bilingual Edition is published by arrangement with Oxford University
Press and is for sale in the People's Republic of China onlyexcluding Hong Kong SARMacau
SAR and Taiwanand may not be bought for ex-export therefrom.
Chinese and English edition copyright 2013by Yilin PressLtd
10-2007-046

Oxford University Press2000

1A210009

http://www.ppm.cn

1A210009

yilin@yilin.com

http://www.yilin.com

201351 201351
ISBN 978-7-5447-2983-3


4
192050


Scholz
1977
Aristotle14
1662Lambert1764

1013
HegelKant

FregeRussell

Azande

Wittgenstein

20066

1953

1212-8
8
11-13
2

Hintikka
SanduBenthem

2-3


19Boole
20Hilbert
Turing
20Fodor

20

20101



[1]
TweedledumTweedledee

Tweedledum
Tweedledee

Tweedledee

1.

2.

1TweedledumTweedledee

1.

2.

3.

Tweedledee


This is a chair
A chair is is a

[1] 18321898
18651872


pq

qpqVp

qqq
qpq&pqp
qp

TF
aa
a

aFaT

aTaF

aa

V
a V bab

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a V b
218481925

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a&b35
35

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TF

rpTpTp&r V
q3-6+2
rTrFqF
r V qFpTp&r V qF
&V


TF
TFq/q V p
qp

qp

qq V p

q V pq/p

qq/p


aa
a V ba&bab
orand

abbaab

1.

2.

orab
a or b

TF

aFaT

abTa V bT

abTa&bT


orit is not the case that

1.

2.

3.

4.

nobodysomeoneeveryone


m
mHis happymH
mH
HmmH

Someone is happy
xx
xxx x
Hx xHx


xxxxx
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x xH


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yyy
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17
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a&ba&bs

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aba b


modus ponens

ab

ab
asbs
a b

ab
ba

a b

a ba b
a bsa bsas
bba

ab

1a b

2 a b

ab
21

1066
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100
100
pp


asas

asas



acaca
c
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aca&cac

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acac

csaacs
csa


sss
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acs
sac
acs


g&m
gm
g
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g&mg

gmmg
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x105
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[1]

[1]

20

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h


s0
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s-3 s-2 s-1 s0 s1 s2 s3

sT
FasPas
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asHasGH
FP

rs0s0
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s0h
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8

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[1] 354430
396430

to be
isam

isisis
isJohn is red
jRRj
is= j
= ww

xyx = yxy

m = nm
nm

x
+ yx-y= x2-y2x2-y2 =3
x + yx-y=3




916461716

x = yxyxx

t
dt = d
td

td

Gx
x = xxx

Gx = x

yx

xy
xxy

ABCBCAB = C
BCB = C

x
x

BAA
BABA

BC
AB = C
BA
CBA
AB
AC

A
BAC

mnm = n

5
//
630720000//25

10

soros

5
a0a1n
annk630
720000an5n
an an+1

akak

10
10


a1a
a|a|
|a|=1-|a|



a&b|a||b|

|a&b| = Min|a||b|

ab
a&b|a&b||a|= 0.25|b| = 0.5

|a V b| = Max|a||b|

&V
a&bab01
TF1T0F
10

|a||b||a b| = 1
|b||a||a b| = 1-|a|-|b|

ab

0.9

01
1

an
n

a0 a10.75=1-1-0.75a1 a2
an an+10.75


=1|a| = 1|a b| = 1|a
b| = 1|a||b||b|=1
0.75

1
=0.75a1 a1 a20.75a20.50.75

11

0101

|a| = 1-|a|

|a V b| = Max|a||b|
|a&b| = Min|a||b|

|a||b||a b| = 1|a||b||a b| = 1-|a|-|b|

11


praa01pra=0
apraapra=1a


w
r


4/73/7

prw= 4/7
prr= 3/7
#aaN

pra= #a/N

w
prw= 3/7prwprw1

#w + #w = N

prw+ prw= 1

prw&r= #w&r/N =2/7


prw V r= #w V r/N = 5/7
w V rwr

#w V r= #w + #r #w&r

prw V r= prw+ prrprw&r

01

w V rwr
prw V rprwprr
wrprw=4/7prr= 3/7prw V r=5/7w=4/7r=3/7
w V r4/75/7


3/7
2/4
prrwrw
2/4wr
wr

prrw= #w&r#w

prw&rprw

CPprwr= prw&r/ prw

03/0
prwprwr0
w


cp
c

prcpprcp

prwr= 2/3prwr= 1/3


cp

1
0

pra= 1pra

pra V b= pra+ prbpra&b

prab= pra&b/prb

12


o
ggo
og
ogg

1.progprog

oggo

2.prgoprgo

progprgo

progprgo
21
CP

prab= pra&b/prb

3.prabprb= pra&b

prba= prb&a/pra

4.prbapra= prb&a

pra&b= prb&aa&bb&a34

prabprb= prbapra

prb0

Invprab= prbapra/ prb

baa
b

pro

prgprg

prgprgggo


mmm
mm

AB

3/41/4
A
RRRRB

RB
cfAcf

prfcprfc

prc

prcfprfprcfprf

ffAB
ABB
AA1/2B1/2prf= 1/2prf= 1/2

prcfprcf

cprcf
3/441/4
81/450.079prcf
1/250.0310.079

A
B

N1/N


AB

300
50/100/100/
50/

50
/100/75/75/
75/75/

17[1]

-4-3-2-10+ 1+ 2+ 3+ 4


+10
-5
-5+10

0.10.9

0.1-5+ 0.910

8.5

ao 1
o 2Vooa
Ea

pro 1 Vo 1 + pro 2 Vo 2

pro 1apro 2a


8.5
1
2

0-1

0.10+ 0.9-1

-0.9
8.5-0.9

aa

0.10.9

102

-10
-106

Eb=0.110 2 + 0.9-10 0

Eb=0.1-10 6 + 0.910 2 -10 5


-106
-

En= 0.910 2 + 0.01-10 6 + 0.01-10 6 -210 4

Eg= 0.9-10+ 0.0110 2 + 0.01-10 9 -10 7

Ea= 0.9-10+ 0.01-10 9 + 0.0110 2 -10 7

1/21-1/23/41-1/22

Ed= 0.510 6 + 0.5-10 6 = 0

Em= 0.7510 6 + 0.25-10 6 = 0.510 6

7/81-
1/23

1-1/21-1/2 2 1-1/2 3 1-1/2 4 1-1/2 n


13

1-1/2 n10 6 + 1/2 n -10 6

106 1-2/2n= 1061-1/2n-1n + 1


n + 1n106 1-1/2n1/2n
1/2n-1


Ea= pro 1Vo 1+ + pro nVo no 1 o na

[1] 16231662


400200
384322

AB
BC
AC


50

300
stoa

1214
126613081285
1349
19
16461716

19
184819251872
1970
20

1975

* * *

1952

C.S.x

19741967

1977
1977


1905

1977


20

40

19941995


C.I.19151930

2060
1996

1974

C.I.
2070
1994
1989


2060
19951908
1981

300

19771971


17
30
2020

19941995
1994


18
2050

1975

18

1989

18 20
1985
1988

17
19
20
1964
* * *

www.oup.co.uk/vsi/logic

0.5

10110
rrr

AB90A
10BAB

1.B
100B

2.BB

1500
300900.05

01

baab

1920

a c/c

ss

01

20

TF

A
acceptabilitylevel of 76ff

Alicein Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass


1f18f21

antecedent 4775111
B
begging the question 29
C
change 63ff

Characterization PrincipleCP 27ff

conclusionsee premisses

conditional 43774ff103106111115

material c. 48112115

conjunction 911f151634f737781f85103104111115

consequent 4775111

conversational implicature 50ff106111


D
decision theory ch.13108111

descriptiondefinite4105111115

disjunction 8111634f747781f85103104111115
E
existence 27ff

expectation 95ff101112115
F
fatalism 3945f

Aristotle's argument for f. 39ff106f

M aster Argumentfor f. 45f106

futuresee past
G
God

Argument tofromDesign for

the existence of G. 86ff92109

Cosmological Argument for the existence of G. 21f108

Ontological Argument for the existence of G. 26ff109

Pascal's Wager for the belief in the existence of G. 94ff97ff

grammar 62056
I
identity 970107115

inference 1ff67f13ff1775ff78ff83ff86102104106107112

interpretation 104

isof identity or predication64107112


L
Leibniz's Law 65ff112

logic

ancient Greek l. 102f105106107

fuzzy l.10112

Indian l. 103

medieval l. 43103104ff

M egarian l. 103106107

modal l.6106107

modern l.104105ff112

Stoic l. 103104106

traditional l. 104113
M
Mbius strip 32f

model 104

modus ponens 4345477276112


N
name 326105112

empty n. 28ff

proper n. 26113

necessity 6112

negation 91634f73f7780f85103104112115

nothingness ch.4
O
object 19ff2628f3063ff

operator

modal o.65659106112115

tense o.867113115
P
paradox 103

liar p.5105112

Russel's p.5113

sorites paradoxes 10107113

past and future 8113

possibility 6112

possible worlds 41ff49f112

predicate 17ff24112

premissesand conclusion 34ff13ff35ff757883113

Principle of Indifference 92f108113

probability 11ch.12ch.13108

conditional p.82ffch.1296111115

frequency interpretation of p. 108

inverse p.12108112

prior p. 93113

property 19ff232663ff
Q
quantifier326105113

particularexistentialq. 2023105112115

universal q. 2023105113115
R
reasoning 1ff

practical r. 94

reference class 84113


S
self-reference 5105f113

Sherlock Holmes 478ff83ff

Ship of Theseus 107

situation 5f121619ff2328ff34f41ff464952ff58f62737577104113

structure 104

subject 17ff24113

syllogism 102113
T
tense 56

compound t. 56ff60

time 55ff636776

flow of t. 5557f61f

McTaggert's argument against the reality of t. 55ff60ff

truth 5

t.conditions 9ff34113

t.and context 75ff

degrees of t. 73ff82

t.and falsity 931ff105f

t.function 2385674104106113

t.table 9ff48113

t.value 9ff34f375873f77113-14115

see also situation


V
vagueness 10113

higher order v.77

validity 1104113

deductively v. 4ff133575104108111

inductively v. 4521191104108112

vacuous v. 14f

valueof a state of affairs 95ff115


A
Anselmof Canterbury 109

AquinasThomas 108

Aristotle 3940102f105106107

Augustine 55
B
BayesT. 108

Bernoullisthe 108
C
Callimachus 47

CarnapR. 108

CarrollL. 1108109104105

ChomskyN. 6

CresswellW. 106
D
DaliS. 61

DescartesR. 109

Diodorus Cronus 106

Dodgson C.see CarrollL.


E
Eubulides 323772103

Euclid 107
F
FregeG. 910104105106107
G
GracelyE. 108

GriceP. 106
H
HaackS. 106

HasleP. 107

HeathP. 105

HickJ. 109

HobbesT. 107

HodgesW. 105106

HowsonC. 108

HughesG. 106
J
JeffreyR. 108
K
KnealeW.&M. 104

KripkeS. 106
L
LaplaceP.de 108

LeibnizG. 416566103106107

LemmonE. 105107

LewisC. 106

LukasiewiczJ. 107
M
M cTaggertJ. 55107

M ellorD. 107
O
OckhamWilliam of 103107

hrstrmP. 107
P
PascalB. 94

PeirceC. 105

Plato 27107

PriorA. 107
R
ReadS. 106107

RussellB. 242534104105106107
S
SainsburyM. 106108

SanfordD. 107

ScotusDuns 103104

SkyrmsB. 108

StrawsonP. 105
U
UrbachP. 108
W
WilliamsonT. 108