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Chapter 1

THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Historical and Contextual Background of the Problem

The Souvenir shop offers a variety of customized items such as; t-shirts,

jackets, bags, pens, button pins, key chains and many more, with a view of

promoting the image and identity of the institution. As a university souvenir shop

its expected that students are aware to these items that shows their loyalty and

to be proud of their University.

This study attempted to gain knowledge about the consumer attitude

towards university souvenir items consumption looking on to the service provided

by University of the East souvenir shop focusing on their products, the

effectiveness of their service and the benefits they offer for the students. The

respondents attitude, perception towards souvenir items, willingness to pay for

University souvenir items and intention to purchase souvenir items will be

determine that may help on the recommendations that will lead to promote the

institution.

With the availability of data the research aims to know the concepts and

causes of low students level of awareness and productivity of the University

souvenirs.

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Statement of the Problem

The study aims to understand the attitude of University of the East

students toward University souvenir Item consumption.

Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following sub-problems:

1. What is the perception of the students on University Souvenir Shop in

terms of :

1.1 Items Available

1.2 Quality of products

1.3 Price

1.4 Location

2. What is the respondents purchase intention on University Souvenir shops

products in terms of:

1.1 Items Available

1.2 Quality of products

1.3 Price

1.4 Location

3. Is there a significant relationship between University Souvenir shop in

terms of quality products, location, items available, and price and the

respondents purchase intention?

4. What are the problems encountered by the students in buying souvenir

items?

5. Are they aware that buying souvenir items will promote university?

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HYPOTHESIS

There is no significant relationship between the University Souvenir shop

in terms of quality products, location, items available, and price and the

respondents purchase intention. It is also presumed that lack of loyalty of some

students affects the intention of buying the items. Influenced by others especially

friends can be a factor affecting the purchase intention of the students.

Significance of the Study

The ultimate goal was to better understand consumer motivations for

buying souvenir items so that the University Souvenir shop could develop more

effective strategic planning. It can help to ensure that the product continues to

appeal to its core market. It can also be used to measure customer service

satisfaction. This study will help the University to develop their souvenir items in

more suitable to the taste of the students that will leads for the student to be

familiarized in the different Universitys souvenir.

This study will benefit not only the management but also the students

when it comes to promoting the institution. The management of University

souvenir shop will be able to develop better selling strategy to provide students

satisfaction of the products and improve students demand of the souvenirs.

Lastly, this study is beneficial to future researchers. The result of this study can

be used as basis for future studies and improvements.

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Scope and Delimitation

The proposed study is intended to determine the purchase intention of the

students towards buying University souvenir items in University of the East,

Caloocan Campus. The study intends to evaluate the quality of the products,

convenience of location of the shop, availability of the items and price of different

University souvenir items. It is also intended to determine the problems

encountered in buying souvenir items. The research will gather data regarding

the perception of the respondents on the given variables that will be correlated

with their purchase intention to determine any relationship or non relationship

that may lead to any recommendation/s that will be able to promote the

institution.

It is limited since only a descriptive survey research will be conducted to

100 respondents from CBA of University of the East-Caloocan Campus. The

researchers made a questionnaire that will be administered to the respondents

who will be selected through simple random sampling. Respondents are 4 th year

BSA students of UE Caloocan, 2nd semester 2012-2013.

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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

In this chapter, focus is on various relevant literatures and studies

conducted by other researchers and etc. On how they explain the behaviour and

traits of a consumer through buy specific products.

Theory Guiding the Study

The Consumer Behaviour Theory

An understanding of how the theory of consumer behaviour and its

application tools evolved over the years will enable us to appreciate the validity of

the theory and give us guidance in its practical application. Consumer behaviour,

like all human behaviour is very complex. But the consumer behaviour theory,

like all theories is a simplified & abstract representation of reality. The more

simplified picture of consumers provided by the theory helps us enormously to

understand the consumers. It not only helps us to think about consumers, but

also provides us with a language to talk about them. This language is very useful,

because to be effective in an organisation for profit or non-profit one has to

persuade others to accept his ideas. And in fact, lack of this language has been

one of the greatest drawbacks of the modern marketers.

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A. Related Literature

Foreign Literature

(Wicker, 1969; McGuire, 1966) The use of attitudes as predictors of purchase

behaviour has long been a source of some dispute. Several reviews of the

literature on attitudes and behaviour have concluded that attitudes are unrelated

or only slightly related to overt behaviour. Other, however have contended that

certain types of measures of attitudes, and particularly purchase intentions, may

effectively be used as predictors of buying behaviour.

According to (Kotler and Armstrong ) Consumers make many buying

decisions every day. Most large companies research consumer buying decisions

in great detail to answer question about what consumers buy, WHERE they buy

HOW and HOW much they buy, WHEN they buy and WHY they buy. But

learning about whys consumer buying behaviour is not so easy.

Students leant about merchandising apparels from many sources, mainly

from friends and classmates, through advertisement and from their own

experience etc. Whether a promotion and advertising hurt or help a brand is

under-researched (Mela, Gupta & Lehman, 1997). In the long-run, advertisement

help brands by making consumer less price sensitive and more loyal. Exposure

of an ad is crucial to be effective in changing consumer knowledge, attitude and

behaviour (Evans, Moutinho & Van Raaj, 1996). And for the ad to be seen, it

must grab the attention of its target audience. Ads originality as defined from

Pietes,Warlop and Wedel, (2002) were easier for customer to remember than

ordinary ads by increasing attention to it. This thus increased attention to

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the brand being advertised. However, regardless of the content, ads for brand

leaders are more successful due to the influence of the brand (Simon, 1970). Ads

for less popular brands may be less successful even though the content may be

good.

Attributes are the characteristic or features that an object may or may not

have and includes both intrinsic and extrinsic (Mowen & Minor, 1998) .Benefits is

the positive outcomes that come from the attributes. People seek products that

have attributes that will solve their problems and fulfil their needs (Mowen &

Minor, 1998). Understanding why a consumer choose a product based upon its

attributes helps marketers to understand why some consumers have preferences

for certain brands (Gwin & Gwin, 2003). In the study by Gwin and Gwin (2003),

the Lancaster model of consumer demand (1966, 1979), also referred to as the

product attributes model, was used to evaluate brand positioning. This model

assumes that consumer choice is based on the characteristics (or attributes) of

a brand. Each product is a bundle of attributes and that choice is based on

maximizing utility/satisfaction from the attributes subject to budget constraints.

According to Douglas (1971), Behavioral intentions may effectively be

used to predict purchase intentions. In addition, they suggest that simple

measures, such as the 5 or 7 point scales currently used by various firms, and

behavioral measures of intention to buy, may be the most appropriate types of

measures. Further research on a larger sample under more controlled conditions

is, however, needed before more definite conclusions can be reached.

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University promotional products do one thing better than any other-they

build loyalty to a brand. In the academic environment, the school is the brand. By

engraving school symbols, logos and themes onto the products used by the

students and faculty, everyone at college cant help but get caught up in the swirl

of excitement. Promotional products keep the school squarely in the minds of the

people that matter most.

(http://www.bluedragonflymarketing.com/UniversityPromoProducts.html, )

Local Literature

According to Marjorie Gorospe (2010), a business establishment was built

inside the University of the Philippines. Diliman campus, promoting and selling t-

shirts designed primarily for UP students. Diliman Republic was started by

Monching Romano who does not want to sell the products to students only, but

as of the moment, takes pride serving his alma mater. So far, Romano said

students are responding positively to the UP-themed designs. We try to live up

to our mission of bringing pride to UP students through the apparels we create,

he said.

B. Related Studies

Foreign Studies

Past researches suggest that message source characteristics affect the

consumers attitude towards the advertisement which in turn affects their attitude

towards the brand (Goldsmith et al., 2000; Shimp & Gresham, 1985). Emotions

and attitudes formed towards an advertisement predict brand attitudes (Yoo &
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MacInnis, 2005). In addition, Brown and Stayman (1992) claimed that there is a

consistent relationship between attitude towards the advertisement and attitude

towards the brand and purchase intentions. McKenzie et al. (1986) stated that

consumers are said to have a tendency to purchase products from brands where

they develop positive attitudes (Goldsmith et al., 2000). There is a consistent

pattern showing the effect of attitude towards the brand on purchase intentions.

Local Studies

Based on the study made by Karina Rodriguez, data can be concluded

that an endorser with a high celebrity status more positively influences the

consumers attitude towards the advertisement and purchase intentions. With

respect to endorser credibility, the only qualities which influence attitude towards

the advertisement and purchase intentions are: Experienced, Knowledgeable,

Qualified, and Trustworthy. Spokespersons who possess these qualities are

more persuasive and are attitude towards the advertisement and intentions to

buy. The results indicate however, that attitude towards the brand does not

influence purchase intentions, contrary to what might be expected. A possible

explanation for this is that the brand name used in the study is a fictitious one.

that attitude towards the brand does not influence purchase intentions, contrary

to what might be expected. A possible explanation for this is that the brand name

used in the study is a fictitious one.

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C. Research Paradigm

Inputs Process Outputs

I Items Available U University Students


Quality Souvenir Shop Purchase
Price Services and Intention
Location Products

Figure 1: Paradigm for Students Purchase Intention towards

University Souvenir Items

The paradigm above shows the purchase intention of the 4 th year

Bachelor of Science in Accountancy on buying from the University Souvenir

Shop in terms of Items available, Quality of Products, Price and Shop

Location

Research Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between the items available,

quality of products; price offered and location to the students purchase intention,

Operational Definition of Variables

ITEMS AVAILABLE -the shop carries a wide assortment to choose from and the

items the shop carries are always available.

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QUALITY- the items for sale are in good quality ;

PRICE - the price offered in terms of being affordable and its being suitable to

quality.

LOCATION- the location of shop, where convenience and accessibility

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Chapter 3

RESEARCH DESIGN

Research Method

This study made an assessment on the Students Purchase Intentions

toward University Souvenir Items. The descriptive-survey method of

research was used in this study. As widely accepted, the descriptive method

of research is a fact-finding study that involves adequate and accurate

interpretation of findings. Descriptive research describes a certain present

condition. The main objective of the study is to describe the nature of a situation

as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the causes of particular

condition. The researchers decided to use this kind of research considering the

desire to acquire first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate

reasonable conclusions and recommendations for the study.

In terms of approach, the study employed quantitative approach. The

quantitative approach focused on obtaining numerical findings was used with the

survey method.

Research Locale

The research was conducted on a group of students, particularly the BSA BSA1H

and BSA2H students at the University Of The East-Caloocan. Herein, there were

100 respondents for the questionnaire survey. The students were given the said

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survey questionnaire and have answered truthfully. Inside the campus, within a

short period of time, during their free time, the respondents would give back the

answered survey questionnaire that will be later analyzed to find out the results.

Sources of Data and Sample

Two types of data were used: the primary and the secondary data. The

primary data were derived from the answers of the respondents in the

administered questionnaire prepared by the researchers. The secondary data on

the other hand, were derived from the findings stated in published documents

and literatures related to the research problem.

The study will have 100 respondents from BSA, block section who were

selected through simple random sampling. This sampling method is conducted

where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of

the sample. As all members of the population have an equal chance of becoming

a research participant, this is said to be the most efficient sampling procedure. In

order to conduct this sampling strategy, the researchers defined the population

first, listed down all the members of the population, and then selected members

to make the sample.

Instrument for Gathering Data and Validation

In this study, the researchers used survey questionnaire for gathering data

from different respondents belongs to block section of Bachelor of Science in

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Accountancy. This survey forms have eight questions, wherein it needed a

majority answer of respondents.

Respondents were given enough time to respond to the questions to avoid

errors and inaccuracies in their answers. The respondents' cooperation was

eagerly sought after, and they were assured that the data gathered from them

would be treated with the strictest confidence, so that they would be more open.

Data obtained from the questionnaire enabled the researchers to answer the

defined problem of the study. The survey questionnaire contained the pertinent

questions asked, request for cooperation, and expressed thanks to the

respondents for their time and assistance.

Procedure for Gathering Data

The data were drawn from 100 4th year BSA students of the College of

Business Administration of the University of the East Caloocan who were

interviewed by the researchers. The researchers distributed the questionnaires to

the respondents on their classes where permission to conduct a survey was

asked from their professors. After answering the questionnaire, these were

retrieved by the assigned researcher.

Statistics for Analyzing Data

After retrieving the accomplished copies of the questionnaire, the

researcher recorded the answers of the individual respondents in a tally sheet.

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Then the data were transferred to table for the statistical treatment and

interpretation. Percentage was utilized to quantify the data gathered.

The formula for percentage is:


= 100

where: p =percentage

f= frequency

N = total number of respondents

The researchers used survey questionnaire to determine the respondents view

on Students Perception and Purchase Intention . The four-point Modified Likert

Scale was used in this study to obtain user satisfaction levels from the

respondents. Below was the Modified Likert Scale applied:

4 Totally Agree/Very Much (3.26 - 4.00)

3 Agree /Much (2.50 - 3.25)

2 Disagree/ Not Much (1.76 2.49)

1 Totally Disagree / Not Really (1.00 1.75)

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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Table 1

Male Female
33 67
f % f %
Yes 28 85% 63 94%
No 5 15% 4 6%
Figure 1: Respondents awareness of the University Souvenir Shop

70

60

50

40 Male

30 Female

20

10

0
Yes No

Figure 1 shows that out of 67 female respondents, 94% were aware that

there is University Souvenir Shop, and 6% were not aware. For the male

respondents, 85% were aware while 15% were not aware of the University

Souvenir Shop. Based on the figure, the dominated gender among the

respondents is female. This shows that there are mostly female who are aware of

the University Souvenir Shop.

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Table 2

Male Female
28 63
f % f %
Yes 7 25% 28 44%
No 21 75% 35 56%

Figure 2: Respondents who experienced buying on the Souvenir Shop

30

25

20
Male
15
Female

10

0
Yes No

Figure 2 shows that among 63 female respondents, 44% have

experienced buying on the Souvenir shop while 56% did not try to buy any

souvenir items. For the male respondents 25% have experienced buying on the

Souvenir shop while 75% did not try to buy any souvenir items.

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Table 3.1

The shop carries wide The Items that the shop carries
assortment to choose from are always available
Totally
Disagree 3 2
Disagree 10 16
Agree 18 15
Totally
Agree 4 2

Figure 3.1 Items Available

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16
14
12
10 The shop carries wide
assortment to choose from.
8
The Items that the shop
6 carries are always available
4
2
0
Totally Disagree Agree Totally
Disagree Agree

Figure 3.1 shows that most of the respondents agree that the University

Souvenir shop carries wide assortment to choose from, but for the availability of

the items that the shop carries, 16 respondents disagree and15 respondents

agree.

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Table 3.2

The shop location is The shop location is very


accessible convenient
Totally
Disagree 8 3
Disagree 12 11
Agree 15 16
Totally Agree 0 5

Figure 3.2: Location

16

14

12

10
The shop location is
8 accessible

6 The shop location is very


convenient
4

0
Totally Disagree Agree Totally
Disagree Agree

Figure 3.2 shows that most of the respondents agree that the shop

location is accessible and very convenient which got a frequency of 15 and 16

respectively but it followed with a close frequency for disagree which is 12 and 11

respectively.

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Table 3.3

The price of the products are The price offered to the products
affordable enough are suitable to its quality
Totally
Disagree 6 6
Disagree 23 15
Agree 6 14
Totally
Agree 0 0

Figure 3.3: Price

25

20

The price of the products is


15 affordable enough

10 The price offered to the


products are suitable to its
quality
5

0
Totally Disagree Agree Totally
Disagree Agree

Figure 3.3 shows that most respondents disagree that the price of the

products is affordable enough and suitable to its quality because the price was

too expensive but still doesnt suit to the quality.

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Table 3.4

The items for sale are in good quality The items are durable
and unique enough enough to last
Totally
Disagree 2 2
Disagree 13 10
Agree 13 19
Totally
Agree 10 4

Figure 3.4: Quality of Products

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18
16
14
The items for sale are in
12 good quality and unique
10 enough
8 The items are durable
6 enough to last
4
2
0
Totally Disagree Agree Totally
Disagree Agree

Figure 3.4 shows that most of the respondents agree that the University

souvenir items are durable enough to last but if the items for sale are in good

quality and unique, respondents answered agree and disagree which got the

same frequency of 13.

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Table 4

Not Not Much Very


Really Much Much
Items availability 5 12 15 3
Quality of products 4 12 14 5
Price offered 0 5 26 4
Shop Location 0 7 24 4

Figure 4: Considerations made by the respondents on their purchase intentions

on the university shop items

30

25

20
Items availability
Quality of products
15
Price offered
10 Shop Location

0
Not Really Not Much Much Very Much

Figure 4 shows that most of the respondents were after the price of the

items which really affects their purchase intention. Next to it is the location which

also got high frequency, followed by the availability of the items and quality of

products.

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Table 5

Male Female
Expensive products 25 52
Location is difficult to find 14 31
Unattractive design 10 25
Desired Items are not available 4 21
Poor Quality products 1 5
Others 1

Figure 5: Problems encountered by the respondents on the

University Souvenir Shop

60
50
40
30
20
Male
10
Female
0

Figure 5 shows that most female and male respondents answered that,

expensive products is the main problem they encountered on the University

souvenir shop. The second one is location, because it is difficult to find. The third

one is unattractive design; some respondents didnt like the design printed in the

souvenir items. The fourth one is the availability of the desired items because

they have limited design and stock, the fifth one is poor quality products. And one

male respondent said that souvenir item is not necessary.

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Table 6

Male Female
28 63
Yes 24 59
No 4 4

Figure 6: University souvenir helps the institution to promote the University itself

60

50

40
Male
30
Female

20

10

0
Yes No

Figure 6 shows that 59% of female respondents believe that buying

University souvenir item will help to promote the University while 4% did not

believe that it will help the institution. For male respondents, 24% believe that

through buying souvenir item, it will help the University to promote itself while 4%

did not believe.

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Table 7

Male Female
Offer affordable prices 22 47
Change its location 17 29
Update the design 16 23
Advertise through online like facebook 6 13

Figure 7: Recommendation/s of the respondents in order to improve the

University Souvenir shop or to attract more students

50
45
40
35
30
25 Male
20 Female
15
10
5
0
Offer affordable Change its Update the Advertise
prices location design through online

Figure 7 shows that the best recommendation to attract more students is

to offer affordable prices for their products. Next is by changing its location in a

more accessible place. The third one is to update the design of their products.

And lastly, to advertise the UE souvenirs through online like Facebook because

respondents believed that they can easily get updated and have an access on

the University souvenir items.

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Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

1. Majority of BSA Students are aware that there is University Souvenir Shop

and only a few students are not aware that there is University Souvenir

Shop.

2. Majority of the respondents is female, which shows that mostly female are

aware of the University Shop.

3. There are a significant number of BSA students who are aware of the

University Shop and only a small percentage of the students who are not

aware of it.

4. 28 % of female respondents and 7 % of male respondents have

experienced buying on the Souvenir Shop.

5. 35 % of female respondents and 21% of male respondents did not try to

buy any souvenirs item.

6. Most of the students agree that the University Souvenir shop carries wide

assortment to choose from.

7. 16 respondents disagree and15 respondents agree that the availability of

the items that the shop carries.

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8. Respondents answered agree and disagree which got the same

percentage of 13% that most of the respondents agree that the University

souvenir items are durable enough to last but if the items for sale are in

good quality and unique, respondents

9. 59% of female respondents believe that buying University souvenir item

will help to promote the University and while 4% did not believe that it will

help the institution.

10. 24% believe that through buying souvenir item, it will help the University to

promote itself and 4 % did not believe.

11. A great number of students agreed that University Shop must offer

affordable prices for their products to attract more students.

CONCLUSION:

Researchers therefore conclude:

1. That majority of the BSA students are aware about the existing University

Souvenir Shop in the University of the East, Caloocan City.

2. That both groups had the same reason that, expensive products are the

main problem they encountered on the University Shop.

3. That none of the respondents agree that price of the products are

affordable enough.

4. That other problem is location, because it is difficult to find. The third one

is unattractive design; some respondents didnt like the design printed in

the souvenir items. The fourth one is the availability of the desired items

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because they have limited design and stock, the fifth one is poor quality

products. And one male respondent said that souvenir item is not

necessary.

5. That majority believe that that buying University souvenir item will help to

promote the University and only few of them believe that it will not help the

University to promote itself.

6. That majority of the BSA students think that recommendation to attract

more students is to offer affordable prices for their products. Next is by

changing its location in a more accessible place. The third one is to

update the design of their products. And lastly, to advertise the UE

souvenirs through online like Facebook because respondents believed

that they can easily get updated and have an access on the University

souvenir items.

RECOMMENDATION

Based from the findings and conclusion formulated in this research study, the

following recommendations are hereby proposed:

1. For the administration, to attract more students is to offer affordable prices

for their products. Next is by changing its location in a more accessible

place. The third one is to update the design of their products. And lastly, to

advertise the UE souvenirs through online like Face book because

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respondents believed that they can easily get updated and have an

access on the University souvenir items.

2. University should provide what the students want in order for them to

satisfy the students.

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