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S DNG PHNG PHP QUY HOCH THC NGHIM XC NH CP PHI B TNG

M LN THA MN 3 YU CU CNG , CHNG THM V NHIT


TS. Nguyn Nh Oanh

Tm tt: i vi b tng thng (CVC), quy trnh thit k cp phi b tng tng i n gin,
thng thung ch cn th nghim 3-4 cp phi vi t l xi mng khc nhau, chi ph mt t th
nghim ch cn vi triu ng. Trong khi thit k cp phi b tng m ln (RCC), do phi
xc nh cp phi sao cho tha mn ng thi cc yu cu k thut, trong quan trng nht vi
cc p RCC l yu cu v cng , chng thm v nhit trong RCC khng ch nt n. Cc
nh T vn Vit Nam hin thng ang phi tn rt nhiu cng sc, kinh ph lm th nghim
(thng th nghim n vi ba trm cp phi, kinh ph ln n vi ba t ng cha k th nghim
hin trng)
Bi vit ny, tc gi s dng bi ton quy hoch thc nghim tm ra cp phi BTL ban u
cho 2 mc b tng thit k khc nhau, tha mn 3 yu cu k trn m s th nghim phi lm t nht. Kt
qu c th tham kho trong quy trnh thit k cp phi BTL nhm gim kinh ph lm th nghim.

Xc nh cp phi BTL ti u bng Bng 1. Gi tr v khong bin thin ca cc


phng php quy hoch thc nghim: yu t nh hng
1) Chn thng s nghin cu (chn cc Gi tr Z1 ( kg) Z2 (%)
ch tiu v cc yu t nh hng): Khong bin 80 Z1 30 Z1
a) La chn hm mc tiu: thin 120 70
ti p dng bi ton quy hoch thc nghim 0j 100 50
tnh ton da trn k hoch thc nghim c Zj 20 20
khoa hc la chn thnh phn BTL ti u
nhm tha mn 2 hm mc tiu l: Cng tin tnh cc h s thc nghim ca m
chu nn v H s thm ca BTL sao cho nhit hnh ton hi quy v tin hnh cc bc x l s
liu khc, ta chuyn sang gi tr m ha khng
thy ha ca BTL l nh nht.
th nguyn, vi gi tr cn trn v cn di l
b) La chn cc yu t nh hng: Cc yu
+1 v -1, gi tr trung bnh: x 0j = 0 (gc ta ),
t nh hng n cng chu nn v h s
thm ca BTL bao gm nhiu yu t, nhng j 0j
Nh vy ta c: xj =
gim thiu s th nghim, cn thit phi gi Z j
thit mt s yu t gi nguyn khng thay i
vi j = 1, 2, 3,..., k
nh: hm lng nc, ct liu (ct, ) tnh
ton c s b ban u, trong k hoch thc V khng c thng tin tin nghim nn phi
xut pht t m t tuyn tnh. Cc kt qu thc
nghim khng thay i. Nh vy nh hng r
nghim theo k hoch bc mt Box Wilson
rt nht n 2 hm mc trn tiu gm 2 yu t: th hin trong bng 2 di y.
- Z1: Lng dng xi mng trong 1 m3 b tng Phng trnh hi quy m t c dng nh sau:
(kg) y = b0 + b1 x1+ b2 x2 + b12x1 x2
- Z2: Hm lng Ph gia khong (tro bay) so T bng 4.1 Vi: 10 = 100 ; 02 = 50 ;
vi tng lng CKD (%) .
30 = 0,4, Lp bng k hoch thc nghim
Da vo cp phi BTL ca mt s nc v
tng quan gia m thc v bin m ha nh
bng 2.4 kho st c ca mt s cng trnh ti
sau:
Vit Nam, ti chn gi tr bin thin ca 2
yu t nh hng, nh bng 1

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Bng 2. Bng k hoch thc nghim tng quan gia m thc v bin m ha

TT Bin thc Bin m ha y2


y1
PA th x10-8
Z1(kg) Z2(%) x0 x1 x2 x1 x2 (MPa)
nghim (cm/s)
1 80 30 + - - + 10,5 1,989
2 120 30 + + - - 17,0 0,125
3 80 70 + - + - 10,4 1,245
4 120 70 + + + + 16,0 0,158

Cc tham s b ca m t c xc nh theo b1 = +2,775; b2 = -0,275; b12 = -0,225.


cc cng thc: ng vi y2, kt qu tnh ton l: b0 = 0,88;
4 4 b1 = -0,74; b2 = -0,18; b12 = +0,194.
x ji yi x 1i x 2i y i
kim tra tnh c ngha ca cc tham s,
bj = i 1
; b12 = i1
4 4 chng ta cn lm cc th nghim lp ti tm k
ng vi y1, kt qu tnh ton l: b0 = 12,50; hoch, nh bng 3 di y:
Bng 3. K hoch thc nghim ti tm

Bin thc Bin m y1 y2 x 10-8


TT
Z01(kg) Z02(%) x01 x02 (MPa) (cm/s)
1 100 50 0 0 13,2 0,442
2 100 50 0 0 13,0 0,486

Phng sai lp c tnh theo cng thc: 2 2


= (0,442 0,464) (0,486 0,464) = 0,0968
1 m 0 0 2 1
2
S 11 ( y a y )2
m 1 a 1 lch chun ca phn b b l:
0, 5 0, 5
Trong : y 0 : Gi tr trung bnh ca cc th S2 0,00968
S b ll = = 0,0491
nghim lp ti tm k hoch N 4
Vi y1: Chun s Student tra bng vi mc c ngha
2
y a0 p = 0,05 vi bc t do lp f2 = m -1 = 2-1 l:
0 1 y10 y 20 13,8 13,2 t0,05; 1 = 12,71 (Tra ph lc s 5 Sch Quy
y = = = = 13,5
m 2 2 hoch thc nghim ca GS.TSKH Nguyn
Thay s ta c: Minh Tuyn).
1 2 0 Mun cc h s c ngha th phi tha mn
2
S 11 ( y a0 y )2 = 0,18
2 1 a 1 iu kin:
lch chun ca phn b b l: Vi y1:
0 ,5 0, 5 b t0,05; 1 .Sb = 12,71. 0,212 = 2,696
S2 0,18 Vi y2:
S b ll = = 0,212
N 4 b t0,05; 1 .Sb = 12,71. 0,0491 = 0,625
Vi y2 : Nh vy:
2 ng vi y1, ch c:
y a0
= y1 y 2 = 0,442 0,486 = 0,464
0 0
y0 = 1 b0 = 12,5; b1 = +2,775; l c ngha
m 2 2 ng vi y2, ch c:
2
1 0 b0 = 0,88; b1 = -0,74 l c ngha.
2
S 11 ( y a0 y )2
2 1 a 1 Phng trnh m t c th c dng sau y:

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y1 = 12,50 + 2,775x1 Chun s Fisher mc c ngha p = 0,05, bc
y2 = 0,88 - 0,74x1 t do lp f2 = 1 v bc t do d f1 = 1 l :
kim tra tnh tng hp ca m hnh, ta F0,05;1;1 = 164,4; Nh vy : F1 > F0,05;1;1 = 164,4,
phi tnh gi tr ca phng sai d : nn m hnh ny khng tng hp.
Vi y1: F2 < F0,05;1;1 = 164,4, nn m hnh th 2
S 2d = = 1
4
2
= 328,58 tng hp.
1 N
( y i y)
2

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(y i y)
N l 1 1 Mt khc ta c : b0 - y 0 = 12,50 -13,5 = -1,0
Vi y2 : v 0,88 0,464 = 0,416 l lch nhau ng k,
S 2d = 1 N
2 = 1 4
( yi y)
2
= 1,411 nn c th tin rng m hnh l phi tuyn v c
N l
(y i y)
42 1
1
dng nh sau :
Trong : k k k
N: s th nghim; l : S h s c ngha trong y = b0 + bj x j + b ju xu x j + b jj x 2j
phng trnh , l =2 j 1 u , j 1
j u
j 1

Chun s Fisher c gi tr: Vi y1 : C th phng trnh hi quy c dng nh


S2 328,58 sau :
F1 = d2 = = 1825,4
S ll 0,18 y = b0 + b1x1 +b2x2 +b12x1 x2 +b11x 12 +b22x 22
S d2 1,411 Tin hnh lm thm cc th nghim theo ma
Vi y2 : F2 = 2
= = 14,57 trn k hoch thc nghm trc giao bc 2 (bng
S ll 0,0968
4), xc nh cc thng s ca m hnh.
Bng 4. Ma trn k hoch thc nghim b xung

Bin thc Bin m Hm


S TT mc tiu
Z1 Z2 x0 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2
y1 (MPa)
1 80 30 + - - + +1/3 +1/3 10,5
2 120 30 + + - - +1/3 +1/3 17,0
3 80 70 + - + - +1/3 +1/3 10,4
4 120 70 + + + + +1/3 +1/3 16,0
5 80 50 + - 0 0 +1/3 -2/3 8,7
6 120 50 + + 0 0 +1/3 -2/3 16,5
7 100 30 + 0 - 0 -2/3 +1/3 15,8
8 100 70 + 0 + 0 -2/3 +1/3 14,5
9 100 50 + 0 0 0 -2/3 -2/3 15,2

Cn c vo cc s liu ma trn thc Kt qu l: b0 = 13,84; b1 = 9,95 ; b2 = -1,20;


nghim ta tnh c cc h s b theo cc cng b12 = -0,40 ; b11 = -1,983 ; b22 = 0,567
thc sau y: Gi tr ca b0 = b0 + (-b11 - b22).2/3 = 13,84
N
+ (1,983 -0,567).2/3 = 14,78
N N
x 1i y 2i yi V cc phng sai ca cc h s bng:
bj = ;bjj=
x ji yi x' ji yi i 1
; b12 = 2
S b20 S ll = 0,18 = 0,02 Sb0 = 0,141
j 1 i 1 N
N 2
x 2
ji ( x' ji )2 (xi 1
1i x2i ) N 9
i 1
tb0 = 14,78 = 104,82
0,141

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2
S b21 S ll = 0,18 0,09 Sb1 = 0,30 Gi tr ca chun s Fisher l:
9 2
2 S2 40,45
x 1i F = d2 = = 224,72
i 1
S ll 0,18
9,95
tb1 =
= 33,17 Chun s Fisher tra bng vi mc c ngha p
0,30
= 0,05; bc t do d f1 = 7 v bc t do lp
2 S ll2 0,18
S b2 9 = 0,09 Sb2 = 0,30 f2 = 1 nhn gi tr: F0,05;7;1 = 240; R rng F =
2 2
x2i i 1
224,72 < F0,05;7;1 = 240, nh vy m hnh thng
k (4.3) tng hp vi bc tranh thc nghim.
1,20
tb2 = =4 Z 100
0,30 Thay x1 = 1 vo phng trnh (4.3)
20
Sb 2 S ll2 = 0,18 0,03 Sb12 = 0,173
12 9 6 ta c 2 phng trnh hi quy:
2
x 1i x 22i
i 1
y1 = 0,497Z1 34,97
0,4 v y2 = 4,58 0,037Z1
tb12 = = 2,31
0,173 Nhn xt: Nhn vo 2 phng trnh trn, ta
Sb 2 S ll2 = 0,18 0,09 Sb11 = 0,3 thy x2 = 0 vi c 2 m hnh , c ngha l Z2 =
11 9 2
x' 2
1i 50% l tt nht, Z1 cng tng, th cng
i 1
BTL cng tng , h s thm cng gim (theo
1,983
tb11 =
= 6,61 quy lut tuyn tnh).
0,3
Vi ni dung ca ti, tnh th vi 2 mc
2 0,18
Sb 2 S ll = 0,09 Sb22 = 0,3 BT yu cu: l R90yc = 18,9 v 24,6 (MPa)
22 9
2
2
x'
i 1
2i Vi R90yc = 18,9 MPa tnh c Z1 = 108 kg,
0,567 th c h s thm l : 0,584.10-8 cm/s
tb22 = = 1,89
0,3 R90yc = 24,6 MPa tnh c Z1 = 119,8 kg, th
Theo Tiu chun Student khi: c h s thm l : 0,147.10-8 cm/s
bj Nh vy, vi 2 mc BTL thit k l M15
tj = t p f 2 th h s bj c ngha
Sb j v M20, ta la chn c gi tr ti u ca cc
yu t nh hng nh sau:
Chun s Student: tpf2 tra bng vi mc c
ngha p =0,05 v bc t do lp f2 = 1 l: 12,71 Bng 5. Gi tr cc yu t nh hng ti u
R rng ch c b0 v b1 l c ngha, nh vy TT Mc b tng thit Z1 (kg) Z2 (%)
m t thng k c th biu din c l: k - R TK
90 (MPa)

y = 14,78 + 9,95x1 (4.3) 1 M15 108 50


T phng trnh (4.3) ta tnh c: y1 = 4,83;
y2 = 24,73; y3 = 4,83; y4 = 24,73; y5 = 4,83; 2 M20 120 50
y6 = 24,73; y7 = 14,78; y8 = 14,78; y9 =
14,78. Da vo kt qu tnh cc yu t nh hng
ti u, dng phng php tnh ton cp phi ca
kim tra tnh tng hp ca m hnh ta Trung Quc (Tiu chun SL 48-94) ta c kt
cn tnh gi tr ca phng sai d: qu trong bng 6:
1 N 9
S 2d = (yi yi )
2
= 1 ( y y ) = 40,45
i i
N 1 1 92 1

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Bng 6. Cp phi BTL ti u ca 2 mc BTL thit k

Kt
R90yc T CKD N N C PG ha VC R28
X (kg) x10-8
(MPa) (kg) (kg) (lt) CKD (kg) (kg) (kg) (s) (MPa)
(cm/s)

18,9 108 108 216 105 0,49 739 1373 0,86 16 16,4 0,597

24,6 120 120 240 110 0,46 785 1349 0,96 14 21,4 0,134

Ghi ch: Trong cp phi BTL ni trn, hm lng ph gia ha do c chn bng 0,4lt/100kg
cht kt dnh. Tin hnh th nghim th i chng, kt qu gi tr VC v R28 nh trong bng 4.5.

KT LUN: ph gia khong cng cao th nhit thy ha ca


- Dng thut ton Quy hoch thc nghim BTL cng thp, nhng nu tng lng PGK
tm ra c phng trnh hi quy m t mi cng ln th li lm gim cng ca b tng.
quan h gia cc hm mc tiu: Cng chu - Hai cp phi tm c k trn, dng loi Xi
nn, H s thm,... vi cc yu t nh hng mng hn hp PCB.30, trn sn hm lng
nh: Lng dng xi mng, Hm lng ph gia ph gia khong nht nh, v dng mc thp
khong,...nhm tit kim kinh ph lm th gim nhit thy ha. Nu dng xi mng PC,
nghim m vn cho kt qu tp trung, c mc cao c th gim c lng dng xi mng,
phng hng. 2 phng trnh hi quy : nhng li phi tng hm lng PGK, nhng
y1 = 0,497Z1 34,97 lm tng nhit thy ha ca b tng.
v y2 = 4,58 0,037Z1 - Vi 2 cp phi ti u tm c k trn, tuy
- Hm lng Ph gia khong (tro bay) khng Vit Nam cha c Tiu chun quy nh t h s
xut hin trong phng trnh hi quy, ngha l thm sang mc thm, nhng theo Tiu chun
vi x2 = 0, ng ngha vi Hm lng ph gia ca Trung Quc, th vi h s thm tnh v th
khong trong mi trng hp nn dng bng nghim kim chng c k trn tng ng
50% so vi tng lng CKD l ti u nht. vi mc chng thm CT4.
- Ph gia ha do ko di thi gian ng kt - Thi gian nghin cu b hn ch nn mi
nn chn theo hng dn ca Nh sn xut, ty xt n tui ca RCC l 28 ngy, cn c
thuc vo tnh thi cng ca nh thu m th nghin cu tip cc tui 90, 365 ngy.
nghim chn ra loi ph gia thch hp. - Nghin cu mi p dng bi ton n gin
- V nguyn l, lng dng xi mng trong vi 2 yu t nh hng, Cn nghin cu tip vi
BTL cng thp, mc xi mng thp, hm lng bi ton gm nhiu cc yu t nh hng hn.

TI LIU THAM KHO


A. Ting nc ngoi:
1. Guidelines for Designing and Constructing Roller Compacted Concrete and Conventional
Concret Service Expertise . Report to Association Canadienne du Cement, August 2005.
2. Roller Compacted Concrete Technical Engineering and Design Guides, USACE,1994.
3. 2004.2
4. 1997.6
5.
-. 2005.7:
6.
-. 2006.3:

63
B. Ting Vit:
7. GS.TSKH Nguyn Minh Tuyn. Quy hoch thc nghim Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K
thut, 2004;
8. PGS.TS L Minh v nnc . Nghin cu bin php nng cao chng thm ca b tng m ln
cho cng trnh thy li, 2006 -2007.
9. Phm c Trung. Nghin cu s dng t hp ph gia khong hot tnh v ph gia ha do
nhm nng cao tnh chng thm ca b tng m ln cng trnh thy li Lun vn Thc s k
thut, 2009;
10. 14TCN 164-2006. Quy nh k thut thi cng cm u mi cng trnh thy li h cha nc
nh Bnh, tnh Bnh nh,2006;
11. TS. Nguyn Nh Oanh. Chuyn v cp phi b tng m ln ti tng kt cng tc
thit k thi cng p nh Bnh, tnh Bnh nh, 2008;
12. TS. Nguyn Nh Oanh. Bi ging cao hc ngnh cng trnh v VLXD nng cao, 2008;

Abstract:
Using experimental planning to determine optimum mix propotion
in order to solve togethe strength, permibility and thermal of
roller compacted concrete

For Contiventional Vibrating Concrete (CVC), the process of concrete mix design is relatively
simple, usually just 3-4 test mix with different cement rates, a cost only a few experimental several
million VN dong. While designing mix Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC), the mix must determine
how to simultaneously satisfy the technical requirements, including the most important for the RCC
dam is required strengh, impermebility and heat in the RCC to control cracking. The consultants of
Vietnam is often a lot of effort and funding to do experiments. (usually three to several hundred test
mix, funding up to some three billion not including field experiments)
This article, the authors was planning to use math to find the empirical distribution RCC initial
level 2 label different concrete design, satisfying the above three technical requirements that have
to do some experiments at least. Results can refer to the mix design process to reduce cost RCC
experiments.

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