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TIPS TO BIO-BOTANY TEACHERS

If the students concentrate more on the units1 , 2 & 5 they can score 69 /75 marks. As most of the 5 and 10 marks questions of the above 3 units are already existed in practical syllabus.It is very easy to prepare the above 3 units for theory exam to score maximum marks . Remaining 6 marks out of 69/75 can be easily achieved by studying the frequently asked one mark questions of the chapters 3,4 & 6 . As8 to 13 marksweightage may be given to diagrammatic questions, it is necessary to give importance to the frequently asked diagrammatic questions. If students completely go through this materials they can score maximum marks. For the3 marks questions like ‘Define’, ‘What is’, the students must quote the examples, then only they can be awarded the full marks. For5 and 10 marks questions students must draw the diagram and label the parts where ever necessary, then only they can be awarded full marks. For flowchart questions from plant physiology chapter, the students must write the definitions along with flowchart to score full marks. It is necessary to note that the compulsory 5 marks question mostly asked from the 1 st unit ‘Taxonomy of Angiosperms’. To score high marks more importance should be given to the 3 and 5 marks differentiate questions from the units 1,2,3 and 5. As in Bio-Botany most of the questions were asked from the book back questionnaire, it is necessary to concentrate more on this. Experimental questions given in the 5 th unit PLANT PHYSIOLOGY to be read as it is in the practical book. BIO BOTANY to be completed within 85 minutes. Last 5 minutes to be utilized for checking all the answers.

1

BLUE PRINT BIO – BOTANY

     

Marks

S. no

Units

 

3

5

  • 1 Marks

10

Total

1

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS

 
  • 3 5

6

 

10

24

2

PLANT ANATOMY

 
  • 2 5

6

 

10

23

3

CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

 
  • 2 5

3

 

-

10

4

BIO-TECHNOLOGY

 
  • 2 5

3

 

10

20

5

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

 

9

  • 3 10

10

 

32

6

BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE

 
  • 2 5

3

 

-

10

STAGE - 1 : To score the minimum marks 30 and above

 

Unit

   

Marks / Questions

 
       

Total

No.

Units

3

5

10

  • 1 Marks

1

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS

3(37)

2(20)

1(8)

1(5)

24

2

PLANT ANATOMY

2(30)

2(7)

1(3)

1(7)

23

3

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

3(38)

3(19)

2(8)

1(5)

32

2

As most of the 5 and 10 marks questions of the above 3 units are already existed in practical syllabus , it is very easy to prepare the above 3 units for theory exam to score maximum marks . If students concenrate completely on this study material they can easily succeeded in the public exam. STAGE - 2 : To score 70 marks and above

     

Marks

Unit

Units

         

No.

1

  • 3 10

  • 5 Total

Marks

 

TAXONOMY OF

   
  • 6 10

  • 5 24

 

1

ANGIOSPERMS

3

2

PLANT ANATOMY

2

 
  • 6 10

  • 5 23

 

5

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

3

 
  • 9 10

10

 

32

If the students concentrate more on the units 1 ,2 & 5 they can score

69 /75 marks. As most of the 5 and 10 marks questions of the above 3 units are already existed in practical syllabus , it is very easy to prepare the above 3 units for theory exam to score maximum marks .

Remaining 6 marks out of 69/75 can

be easily achieved by studying the

frequently asked one mark questions of the chapters 3,4 & 6 .

3

1.TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS 3 MARKS

  • 1. What is binomial nomenclature?

Every species is given a name of two words. Eg: Mangifera indica. Here the

first word Mangifera refers species name.

to the genus name and the second word indica to the

  • 2. Write the objectives of classification of plants?

To arrange plants in an orderly sequence based upon their similarities.

To establish phylogenetic relationships among the different groups of plants.

  • 3. What are the aims of biosystematics?

To delimit the naturally occurring biotic community of plants species.

To recognise the various groups as separate biosystematic categories such as ecotypes, ecospecies, cenospecies and comparium.

  • 4. Define biosystematics.

Biosystematics may be defined as taxonomy of living population. The

characteristics and differences from other disciplines of science such as cytology, genetics, Bio chemistry, phytogeography, numerical taxonomy, molecular biology are taken into consideration.

  • 5. What are the three classes of phanerogams?

(1) Dicotyledonae

(2) Gymnospermae (3) Monocotyledonae

  • 6. Define Herbarium.

Herbarium is a collection of pressed, dried plant specimens mounted on specified sheets, identified and arranged in the order of an approved and well

known system of classification. Ex: Herbarium of Botanical survey of India, Coimbatore.

4

7.

Write short notes on monochlamydeae?

Plants having incomplete flowers with single whorl of perianth. The sepals and

petals are not distinguished. Sometimes both the whorls are absent. It includes 8 series and 36 families.

  • 8. Name any three fiber plants of Malvaceae.

1.

Gossypium barbadense (Egyptian cotton)

2.

Gossypium hirsutum (American cotton)

3.

Gossypium harbasium (Cotton)

  • 9. Write the systematic position of Malvaceae

Class

:

Dicotyledonae

 

Sub-class

:

Polypetalae

Series

:

Thalamiflorae

Order

:

Malvales

Family

:

Malvaceae

10. What is Epicalyx? Is it present in Abutilon indicum?

Bracteoles forming a whorl outer to the calyx is called epicalyx.Eg. Malva

 

sylvestris- 3 bracteoles . It is absent in Abutilon indicum.

11. Mention the binomial of any three medicinal plants of Malvaceae.

1.

Abutilon indicum

2.

Malva sylvestris

3.

Althaea rosea

12. What is Atropine?

Roots of Atropa belladona yield powerful alkaloid ‘atropine’. It is used for

relieving muscular pain.

5

13. Write any three medicinal plants of Solanaceae.

  • 1. Atropa belladonna –Roots - relieving muscular pain

  • 2. Solanum trilobatum – Leaves, Flowers, Fruits- To cure cough

  • 3. Withania somnifera – Roots , Leaves –Nervous disorder and diuretic.

  • 4. Datura stramonium –Leaves, Flowers – To cure Asthma & Woophing cough.

14. Name the alkaloids found in tobacco.

(1) Nicotine 2) Nornicotine

3) Anabasine

15. Write the systematic position of Euphorbiaceae.

Class

:

Dicotyledonae

Sub class

:

Monochlamydeae

Series

:

Unisexuales

Family

:

Euphorbiaceae

16. What is Cladode? Give an example

The Stem is modified to perform photosysnthesis . This modified stem is

called Cladode. Eg. Euphorbia tirucalli/ E.antiquorum

17. Write the systematic position of Musaceae

Class

:

Monocotyledonae

Series

:

Epigynae

Family : Musaceae

18. What

is polygamous ?

Staminate flowers , pistillate flowers and bisexual flowers are present in

the same plant. Eg. Musa

19. What

is Monocarpic perennial ?

Musa is a monocarpic perennial , because it produces flowers and fruits

onceduring its life time .

6

20. What is pseudostem ?How it is formed in Musa ?

In Musa the apparent ,unbranched, erect aereal stem is the pseudostem . It

isformed by the long, stiff and sheathy leaf bases which are rolled around one another .

5 MARK QUESTIONS

  • 1. Bring out the significance of Herbarium

Herbarium is a source of knowledge about the flora of a region or a locality or a country.

It is a data store in which the information on plants are available.

The type specimens help in the correct identification of plants.

It provides materials for taxonomic and anatomical Research studies.

Typical pollen characters have been well emphasized in taxonomy.

It is very much useful in the study of cytology , structure of DNA , numerical taxonomy , chemotaxonomy etc . It acts as a reservoir of gene pool studies. 2.Write the salient features of ICBN

  • 1. The generic name is a singular noun. The first letter of generic name is always written in capital. The specific epithet is an adjective and is always written with small letters

  • 2. The name should be short, precise and easy to pronounce.

  • 3. The binomials are printed in italics or underlined. The generic and specific epithets are underlined separately. eg. Abutilon neilgherrense

  • 4. When new names are given to any plant, then the herbariumpreparation of the same specimen with its original description is preservedin any recognized herbarium. This specimen is denoted as type specimen.

  • 5. The person who publishes the description of any plant for the first

time or giving a new name to a plant is considered as author. The name of plant should bear the author’s abbreviated name at the end of specific epithet. This is called author citation. eg. Malva sylvestris Linn.

7

6.

The original description of the plant should accompany the latin

translation.

  • 7. If naming the plant is from a source of error, it is regarded as ambiguous name. It is also called nomen ambiguum and is completely ignored from use.

  • 8. If the generic and specific epithets are the same, it is called tautonym. eg. Sassafras sassafras. Such names are not accepted in the system of nomenclature.

3.Bringout the merits of Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants.

  • 1. Bentham and Hooker’s classification is the most natural system, based on actual examination of specimens.

  • 2. The description of plants is quite accurate and reliable.

  • 3. As it is easy to follow, it is used as a key for the identification of plants in Kew herbarium and several other herbaria of the world.

  • 4. Although this system is natural, most of the aspects of this system show affinity to modern concepts of evolution. For example, Ranales which is the first order in the arrangement of plants, has been given a primitive position in this system.

  • 5. The placement of monocotyledonafter the dicotyledonae also appears to be in accordance with the evolutionary trends.

  • 4. Write different types of inflorescence seen in Euphorbiaceae. Give examples

for each.

S.No

Inflorescence

Examples

1

Panicle

Ricinus communis

2

Simple Raceme

Croton sparsiflorus

3

Catkin

Acalypha indica

4

Solitary axillary cyme

Phyllanthus amarus

5

Cyathium

Euphorbia

8

5.

Given an account of the economic importance of the family Malvaceae.

   

Economically

 

S.No

Binomial Name

useful part

Uses

   

Fibres obtained

 

1

Fibre plants

Gossypium barbadense

from surface of seeds

Used in textile industry

 

Food plants

   

2

Abelmoschus

Fruits

Edible

esculentus

 

Timber plants

 

To make Boat ,furniture ,and agriculture

3

Thespesia populnea

Timber

implements

 

Medicinal plants

   

4

Abutilon indicum and

Malva sylvestris

Roots

Leaf

To cure fever and Whooping Cough

 

Ornamental Plants

   

5

Althaea rosea

Entire Plant

Ornamental plant

  • 6. Given an account of the economic importance of the family Euphorbiaceae

   

Economically

 

S.No

Binomial Name

useful part

Uses

1

Food plants

Fruits

Vitamin C rich food

Phyllanthus embilica

 

Oil plants

 

Lubricant , purgative vegetable

2

Ricinus communis

Seeds

oil

3

Medicinal plants

Entire shoot

 

Phyllanthus amarus

system

To treat jaundice

 

Rubber plants

  • 4 Latex

Hevea brasiliensis

   

Para rubber

 

Ornamental Plants

   
  • 5 Entire Plant

Ornamental plant

Euphorbia pulcherrima

9

7.

Write the differences between Musa and Ravenala.

S.No

Musa

Ravenala

1

Monocorpic perennial herb

Tree

2

The real stem is underground rhizome

The real stem is aerial and woody

3

Spiral phyllotaxy

Distichous phyllotaxy

 

Branchedspadix

Compound cyme

4

inflorescence

inflorescence

5

Among 6stamens Only 5 are fertile

All the 6stamens are fertile

6

Berry fruit

Capsulefruit

  • 8. Write the economic importance of Musaceae.

   

Economically

 

S.No

Binomial Name

useful part

Uses

   

Tender green

Vegetables

1

Food plants

Musa paradisiaca (Banana)

fruit, Pseudo

stem, flowers

   

Sheathy leaf

To make abaca

2

Fiber plants

bases

cloth

Musa textilis(Manila hemp)

 

Oranamental plants

Entire plant

Ornamental

Strelitzia reginae(The bird

3

of paradise flower) Ravenala madagascariensis (Traveller’s palm)

plants

10

10 MARKS QUESTIONS

  • 1. Discuss the outline of Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants?

Sub – Class 1 Polypetalae
Sub – Class 1
Polypetalae
  • 2. Describe Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in botanical terms.

Habit

:

Perennial shrub.

 

Root

:

Tap root system.

Stem

:

Aerial, erect, cylindrical, woody and branched.

Leaf

:

Simple, Alternate, petiolate,

Inflorescence :

with multicostate reticulate venation. Solitaryaxillary cyme.

Flower

:

Bracteate,

bracteolate,

 

bisexual,actinomorphic,dichlamydeous,pentamerous, complete and hypogynous .

Epicalyx

:

5 to 8 bracteoles outer to the calyxform epicalyx.

Calyx

:

Sepals 5, green, gamosepalous showing valvate aestivation and oddsepal is posterior in position.

Corolla

:

Petals 5, polypetalous, twisted

aestivation.

Androecium:

Numerous stamens, monadelphous, filaments arefused to form a staminal tube, anthers are monothecous, reniform.

Gynoecium :

Ovary superior, pentacarpellary and syncarpous.

 

11

Pentalocularwith axile placentation.

Pentalocularwith axile placentation.
Pentalocularwith axile placentation. Floral Diagram 3. Explain Datura metel in botanical terms. Habit : Large, erect

Floral Diagram

  • 3. Explain Datura metel in botanical terms.

Habit

:

Large, erect and stout herb.

Root

:

Branched tap root system.

Stem

:

The stem is hollow, green and herbaceous with strong odour.

Leaf

:

Simple, alternate, petiolate, entire or deeply lobed,

unicostate reticulate venation and exstipulate.

Inflorescence:

Solitary axillary cyme.

position.

Flowe r

:

Bracteate, ebracteolate,

Calyx

:

pedicellate,complete, dichlamydeous, pentamerous, regular, actinomorphic, bisexualand hypogynous. Sepals 5, green, gamosepalous valvate aestivation.

Corolla

:

Calyx ismostly persistent and odd sepal is posterior in

Petals 5, gamopetalous, plicate (folded like a

Androecium :

fan) twisted aestivation, funnel shaped with wide mouth and 10 lobed. Stamens 5, free from one another epipetalous, Anthers are basifixed,dithecous, introrse and longitudinally dehiscent.

12

Gynoecium:

Ovary superior, bicarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary basically bilocularbut tetralocular due to the formation of false septa. Carpels are obliquelyplaced and ovules on swollen axile placentation.

Fruit

:

Spinescent capsule with persistent calyx.

Seed

:

Endospermous.

Floral Formula

Gynoecium: Ovary superior, bicarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary basically bilocularbut tetralocular due to the formation of false

Floral Digram of Datura metal

Gynoecium: Ovary superior, bicarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary basically bilocularbut tetralocular due to the formation of false
  • 4. Describe Ricinus communis in botanical terms.

Habit

:

Perennial shrub.

Root

:

Branched tap root system.

Stem

:

Aerial, erect, herbaceaous but woody below, branched and

Leaf

:

hollow. Latex is present. Petiolate, alternate. Venation is palmately

Inflorescence:

reticulate divergent. Compound raceme or panicle.

13

Male Flower:

Bracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, actinomorphic and Incomplete.

Perianth

:

Tepals 5, arranged in single whorl, gamophyllous, valvate

aestivation and odd tepal is posterior in position. Androecium : Stamens many, polyadelphous, filaments branched and

Gynoecium :

united to form five branches. Anthers are dithecous. Absent or pistillode is present.

Floral Formula

Male Flower: Bracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, actinomorphic and Incomplete. Perianth : Tepals 5, arranged in single whorl,

Female Flower

Flower

:

Bracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, actinomorphic,

Perianth

:

incomplete andhypogynous. Tepals 3, gamophyllous,valvate aestivation.

Androecium :

 

Absent or staminode is present.

Gynoecium :

Ovary superior, tricarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary trilocular withaxile placentation.

Fruit

:

Regma.

Seed

:

Endospermous.

Floral Formula :

Male Flower: Bracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, actinomorphic and Incomplete. Perianth : Tepals 5, arranged in single whorl,
Male Flower: Bracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, actinomorphic and Incomplete. Perianth : Tepals 5, arranged in single whorl,

Male Flower

Male Flower: Bracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, actinomorphic and Incomplete. Perianth : Tepals 5, arranged in single whorl,

Female Flower

14

5.

Describe Musa paradisiaca in technical terms

Habit

:

Gigantic monocorpic perennial herb.

Root

:

Fibrous adventitious root system

Stem

:

The real stem is underground called rhizome. The apparent,

Leaf

:

unbranched, erect and areal pseudostem is formed by the long, stiffand sheathy leaf bases which are rolled around one another to form an aerial pseudostem. Simple with a long and strong petiole, pinnately parallel

Inflorescence:

venation , phyllotaxy is spiral. It is branced spadix.

Flowers :

 

Brateate, ebractiolate, sessile, trimerous, unisexual or

Perianth :

bisexual,zygomorphic and epigynous. Tepals 6, arranged in two whorls of 3 each. The three tepals

Androecium:

ofthe outer whorl and the two lateral tepals of the inner whorl are fusedby valvate aestivation to form 5 toothed tube like structure. The innerposterior tepal is alone free. It is distinctly broad and membranous. Stamens 6, in two whorls of 3 each, Only 5 stamens are

Gynoecium :

fertile Anthers are dithecous Ovary inferior, tricarpellary, syncarpous, trilocular, numerousovules on axile placentation.

Fruit

:

An elongated fleshy berry

5. Describe Musa paradisiaca in technical terms Habit : Gigantic monocorpic perennial herb. Root : Fibrous

Br, Ebrl,

%,

Br, Ebrl, %, P , A , G

P (3+2)+1 , A 3+3 , G (3)

 

15

2. PLANT ANATOMY

3MARKS QUESTIONS

  • 1. What are called passage cells?

In roots the endodermal cells which are located opposite to the protoxylem are

thin walled without casparian strips are called passage cells. They conduct water and mineral salts from cortex to the xylem elements.

  • 2. What is a protoxylem lacuna?

In monocot stem the lowest protoxylem of mature vascular bundle disintegrates and forms a cavity. This cavity is known as protoxylem lacuna.

  • 3. What is an eustele? In dicot stem vascular bundles are arranged in the form of ring around the pith. This stele is known as eustele.

  • 4. Differentiate palisade parenchyma from spongy parenchyma.

S.No

Palisade parenchyma

Spongy parenchyma

   

They are very loosely

1

They are compactly arranged without intercellular spaces .

arranged wih numerous airspaces.

2

They contain more chloroplast.

Less number of chloroplast is seen.

3

It involved in photosynthesis.

Ithelps in the exchange of gases.

  • 5. What is a bundle sheath or border parenchyma in a leaf?

In leaf vascular bundles are surrounded by a compact layer of parenchymatous

cells. This is known as bundle sheath.

16

6.

Differentiate sclereids from fibres.

 

S.No

Sclereids

Fibres

1

They are shorter

They are longer

2

Theypossess numerous pits.

They have less number of pits.

3

It is responsible for hardness of the seed coat.

They are supporting tissues.

7.

Differentiate bundle sheath from bundle cap.

 
 

S.No

Bundle sheath

 

Bundle cap

1

A compact layer of sclerenchyma cells surrounds the vascular bundle .

 

A patch of sclerenchyma present above the phloem is bundle cap.

2

Eg. Monocot stem

 

Eg. Dicot stem .

5MARK QUESTIONS

1. Explain different types of meristems based on their positions.

Based on its position, the meristem is divided into three types apical meristem, intercalary meristem and lateral meristem.

Apical meristem:

  • 1. Apical meristem is found at the tips of roots,

stem and branches.

  • 2. It is responsible for increase in length of plant.

  • 3. It is divided into three zones –protoderm, procambium and ground meristem. Protoderm gives riseto epidermal tissue;

procambium gives rise to primary vascular tissuesand ground meristem gives rise to cortex and pith.

6. Differentiate sclereids from fibres. S.No Sclereids Fibres 1 They are shorter They are longer 2

L.S of shoot- Showing the positions of meristems

17

Intercalary meristem:

  • 1. It is present in the nodal region and is prominently found in

Monocotyledons, eg. grasses.

  • 2. It is present in between the permanent tissues.

  • 3. Itis responsible for the elongation of internodes.

Lateral meristem:

1.The meristem that is present along the longitudinal axis of stem and

root .

2.Eg. Vascular cambium and cork cambium (phellogen).

  • 3. It produces secondary permanent tissues, which result in the thickening of

stem and root.

  • 2. Functions of epidermal tissue system.

    • 1. In the shoot checks excessive loss of water due

to the presence of cuticle.

  • 2. It protects the underlying tissues.

  • 3. Stomata involve in transpiration and gaseous exchange.

  • 4. Trichomes are also helpful in the dispersal of seeds and fruits.

  • 5. Root hairs absorb water and mineral salts from the soil.

  • 3. Distinguish the anatomy of dicot roots from monocot roots.

S.No

Monocot roots

Dicot roots

1

Xylem is polyarch.

Xylem is tetrarch.

2

Pith is large at the centre

Pith is absent.

3

Metaxylem vessels are circular in cross section.

Metaxylem vessels are polygonal in cross section.

4

Conjunctive tissue is sclerenchymatous.

Conjunctive tissue is parenchymatous.

5

There is no secondary growth.

Secondary growth is present.

18

10 MARKS QUESTIONS

  • 1. Describe the vascular tissue system.

10 MARKS QUESTIONS 1. Describe the vascular tissue system . • The elements of xylem and

The elements of xylem and phloem are always organized in groups. They are

called vascular bundles. OPEN VASCULAR BUNDLE- If cambial tissue is present between xylem and

phloem is known as open vascular bundle. Eg.Dicot stem. CLOSED VASCULAR BUNDLE- If cambial tissue is absent between xylem and

phloem is known as closed vascular bundle. Eg. Monocot stem.

RADIAL ARRANGEMENT- xylem and phloem are arranged in an alternate

manner on different radii.Eg. roots

CONJOINT VASCULAR BUNDLE- xylem and phloem are arranged at the same

radius and form a vascular bundle together.

They are divided into three types.

1.COLLATERAL VASCULAR BUNDLE- If xylem and phloem in a vascular

bundle are arranged along the same radius with phloem towards the outside.Eg.stem

and leaf.

19

2.BICOLLATERAL VASCULAR BUNDLE- If phloem occurs on both the

outer andinner sides of xylem, the bundle is called bicollateral.Eg. Cucurbitaceae.

3.CONCENTRIC VASCULAR BUNDLE- The bundle in which either

phloem surrounds the xylem or xylem surrounds the phloem completely.

a)Amphicribral- the phloem completely surrounds the xylem. eg. Polypodium.

b)Amphivasal- the xylem completely surrounds the phloem. eg. Acorus

EXARCH XYLEM- protoxylem vesselpoints towards the periphery and the

metaxylem vessels towards the centre.Ex: roots

ENDARCH XYLEM- protoxylem vessels point towards the centre, while

metaxylem towards the periphery.Ex:stem.

2.Describe the primary structure of a Monocot root. Rhizodermis or epiblema

  • 1. It is the outermost layer. It consists of a single

2. BICOLLATERAL VASCULAR BUNDLE- If phloem occurs on both the outer andinner sides of xylem, the

layer ofthin-walled parenchymatous cells. 2.Stomata and cuticle are absent.

  • 3. Root hairs are unicellular. They absorb water andmineral salts from the soil.

4.It protects the inner tissues.

20

Cortex:

  • 1. Many layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells.

  • 2. Generally oval or rounded in shape.Chloroplasts are absent in the cortical

cells.Leucoplasts store starch grains. 3.The inner most layer of the cortex is endodermis. It is composed of single layer of barrel shaped parenchymatous cells. 4.There is a band like structure made of suberin present in the radial and transverse

walls of the endodermal cells. They are called Casparian strips.It prevent the re-entry of water into the cortex. 5.The endodermal cells, opposite to the protoxylem are thin-walled without casparian strips called passage cells.It transport water and salts from the cortex to the xylem. Stele: All the tissues inside the endodermis comprise the stele. This includes pericycle, vascular system and pith. Pericycle:outermost layer of the stele. It consists of a single layer of parenchymatous cells. Vascular System:radial arrangement, polyarch, exarch, conjunctive tissue is sclerenchymatous. Pith:parenchymatous , store starch grains.

3.Describe the primary structure of a Dicot root. Rhizodermis or epiblema

1.It is the outermost layer. It consists of a single row ofthin-walled parenchymatous cells. 2.Stomata and cuticle are absent.

  • 3. Root hairs are unicellular. They absorb

water and mineral salts from the soil.

4.It protects the inner tissues.

21

Cortex: 1. Many layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells. 2. Generally oval or rounded in shape.Chloroplasts are

Cortex:

1.Many layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells. 2.Generally oval or rounded in shape. Chloroplasts are absent in the cortical cells.Leucoplasts store starch grains. 3.The inner most layer of the cortex is endodermis. It is composed of single layer of barrel shaped parenchymatous cells. 4.The radial and transverse wall of the endodermal cells have suberin called Casparian strips.It prevents the re-entry of water into the cortex. 5.The endodermal cells, opposite to the protoxylem are thin-walled without casparian strips called passage cells.It transports water and salts from the cortex to the xylem. Stele: All the tissues inside the endodermis comprise the stele. This includespericycle, vascular system and pith.

Pericycle:outermost layer of the stele. It consists of a single layer of parenchymatous cells. Vascular System:Radial arrangement, tetrarch, exarch, conjunctive tissue is parenchymatous. Pith:pith is absent.

4.Describe the primary structure of a monocot stem.

Cortex: 1.Many layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells. 2.Generally oval or rounded in shape. Chloroplasts are absent

22

Epidermis:

1.It is the outermost layer. It is made up of single layer oftightly packed

parenchymatous cells.

2.Cuticle and stomata are present.

  • 3. It protects inner most tissues.

Ground tissue:

1.There is no distinction into cortex, endodermis, pericycle and pith.

  • 2. It is made of many layered parenchymatous cells.

  • 3. Vascular bundles are scattered in the parenchymatous ground tissue.The ground

tissue stores food and performsgaseous exchange.

Vascular bundles:

1.skull shaped, conjoint, collateral,endarch and closed.

  • 2. vascular bundle is surrounded by a sheath of sclerenchymatous fibres

Phloem:1.It consists of sieve tubes and companion cells. Xylem:Y’ shaped, in mature vascular bundle, the lowest protoxylem disintegrates and forms a cavity known as protoxylem lacuna.

5.Describe the primary structure of a Dicot stem. Epidermis:

1.It is the outermost layer. It is made up of single layer oftightly packed

parenchymatous cells.

  • 2. Epidermal hair,Cuticle and stomata are present.

  • 3. It protects inner most tissues.

Epidermis: 1.It is the outermost layer. It is made up of single layer oftightly packed parenchymatous

23

Cortex:

cortex is differentiated into three zones. 1. hypodermis is collenchymatous gives mechanical strength tothe stem. 2.chlorenchyma cells performs photosynthesis. 3.Parenchyma cells store food materials. starch sheath:The innermost layer of the cortex, barrel shaped Parenchymatous layer. Starch grains are abundant, hence morphologically homologous to the endodermis found in the root. Stele:The central part of the stem inner to the endodermis is known as stele. vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the pith.So it is called eustele. Pericycle:Made ofParenchyma and sclerenchyma.A patch of sclerenchyma cells on top of the phloem is called as bundle cap or hardbast. Vascular bundles: wedge shaped conjoint, collateral, open and endarch. Phloem: It consists of sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma. Cambium: It is made of two or three layered brick shaped cells. Xylem:It consists of xylem fibres, xylem parenchyma, vessels and tracheids. Pith: It is composed of parenchyma cells with intercellular spaces. Function of the pith is storage of food.Primary pith rays present.

6. Write anatomical differences between dicot stem and monocot stem.

Cortex: cortex is differentiated into three zones. 1. hypodermis is collenchymatous gives mechanical strength tothe stem.

24

7.Describe the internal structure of a dicot leaf. Epidermis:1.It has upper and lower epidermis.It is made up of a single layer of cells that are closely packed. 2.Stomata are more in number on the lower epidermis than on the upper epidermis.

  • 3. The cuticle on the upper epidermis is thicker than that of lower epidermis.

4.It gives protection to the inner tissues called mesophyll.

7.Describe the internal structure of a dicot leaf. Epidermis: 1 . It has upper and lower

Mesophyll: The entire tissue between the upper and lower epidermis is called the Mesophyll. There are two regions in the mesophyll.

  • 1. Palisade parenchyma: 1.Cells seen beneath the upper epidermis. vertically

elongated cylindrical cells in one or more layers.It contain more chloroplasts. Function

is photosynthesis.

  • 2. Spongy parenchyma:Lies below the palisade parenchyma, irregularly shaped,very

loosely arranged with numerous airspaces.It contains lesser number of chloroplasts. It helps in the exchange of gases. Respiratory cavity: The air space that is found next to the stoma is called respiratory cavity or sub-stomatal cavity. Bundle sheath or border parenchyma: Vascular bundles are surrounded by a compact layer of parenchymatous cells called bundle sheath or border parenchyma. Vascular bundle: conjoint, collateral and closed . Protoxylem vessels are present towards the upper epidermis. Metaxylem vessels are present towards the lower epidermis.

25

5 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

3 MARKS QUESTIONS

  • 1. What is photolysis of water ?

When the PS II is in oxidised state, it creates a potential to splitwater molecules

to protons, electrons and oxygen. This light dependentsplitting of water molecules is called photolysis of water.(Manganese, Calcium, Chloride)

  • 2. Define photophosphorylation .

The process of ATP formation from ADP in the presence of light in chloroplast

is calledphotophosphorylation.

  • 3. State the conditions underwhich cyclic photophosphorylation occurs .

    • (i) PS I only remains active (ii) photolysis of water does not take place (iii) requirement of ATP is more and (iv)nonavailability of NADP+

  • 4. Why are chloroplasts in C4 plants called dimorphic chloroplasts?

The C4 plants contain dimorphic chloroplasts i.e. chloroplasts in mesophyll cells are granal (with grana) whereas in bundle sheath chloroplasts are agranal (without grana).

  • 5. Write the differences between photo respiration and dark respiration.

Sno

Photo respiration

Dark respiration.

1

It takes place only in photo synthetic cells in the presence of light.

It takes place in all living cells in the mitochondria.

2

It is light dependent

It takes place in the presence and in the absence of light.

3.

It is the function of chloroplast, peroxisomes and mitochondria.

It is the function of mitochondria alone.

  • 6. Define chemosynthesis.

Chemosynthesis is a process by which certain organisms synthesize carbohydrates by using energy obtained by the oxidation of inorganic

substances. Eg. Beggiatoa , Nitrosomonas.

26

7.

Define respiratory quotient.

Respiratory quotient may be defined as “the ratio between the volume

of carbondioxide given out and oxygen consumed during respiration

  • 8. Draw the structure of ATP ?

7. Define respiratory quotient. Respiratory quotient may be defined as “the ratio between the volume of
  • 9. What is compensation point ? The concentration of CO 2 at which photosynthesis just compensates the respiration is referredto as carbondioxide compensation point.

    • 10. What is fermentation? Fermentation literally means a chemical change accompanied by effervescence. The anaerobic breakdown of glucose to carbondioxide and ethanol is a form of respiration referred to fermentation.

    • 11. What is apical dominance?

Suppression of growth in lateral bud by apical bud due to auxinproduced by

apical bud is termed as apical dominance.

  • 12. Define Bolting.

Rosette plants exhibit excessive internodal growth when they are treated withgibberellin. This sudden elongation of stem followed by flowering is called

bolting.

  • 13. What is Richmond Lang effect ?

Application of cytokinin delays the process of ageing in plants. This

is known as Richmond Lang effect.

  • 14. What is Sigmoid Curve ?

The growth in size or increase in number of cells if plotted against time the

graph shows ‘S’shaped curve known as sigmoid growth curve.

27

15. Define photoperiodism.

The response of a plant to the relative lengths of light and dark periods

is known as photoperiodism. Eg: Tobacco.3

16. Define vernalization.

Many species, especially biennials and perennials are induced to flower at

low temperature range of 1 o C to 10 o C. This is known as vernalization. 17. Write the advantages of vernalization ?

(1) Crops can be produced earlier by vernalization. (2) They can be cultivatedin places where they naturally do not grow. (3) Vernalization helps to accelerate the plant breeding.

18. Write the different phases of growth with sigmoid curve.

(1) Lag phase (2) Log phase (3) Steady state phase

19. Write the over all equations of respiration and glycolysis. Respiration

15. Define photoperiodism. The response of a plant to the relative lengths of light and dark

Glycolysis

15. Define photoperiodism. The response of a plant to the relative lengths of light and dark

5 MARKS QUESTIONS

  • 1. Write the difference between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation.

15. Define photoperiodism. The response of a plant to the relative lengths of light and dark

28

2.

What are the differences between C 3 and C 4 path way ?

2. What are the differences between C and C path way ? 3. Write the Significance

3. Write the Significance of pentose phosphate pathway

2. What are the differences between C and C path way ? 3. Write the Significance
  • 3. Bring out the physiological effects of auxin.

Auxins are well known to promote elongation of stem and coleoptile.

It promotes the growth by cell enlargement in stems.

Suppression of growth in lateral bud by apical bud due to auxin

produced by apical bud is termed as apical dominance.

It is responsible for initiation and promotion of cell division in

cambium, which is responsible for the secondary growth and for the formation

of callus.

It promotes growth of root only at extremely low concentrations.

29

At higher concentrations, it always inhibits growth of root.

It prevents abscission.

Seedless fruits are produced in tomato and apple, by externalapplication of

auxin on flowers.

2,4 – Dichlorophenoxy aceticacid, a synthetic auxin is used to eradicate

weeds in the field.

4.Write the physiological effects of Gibberellin. Gibberellins produce extraordinary elongation of stem.

Rossette plantsexhibit excessive internodal growth when they are treated withgibberellin. This sudden elongation of stem followed by flowering iscalledbolting. Biennial plants could be made to flower without exposure tocold season in the first year itself, when they are treated withgibberellins. Formation of seedless fruits without fertilization can also be induced by gibberellin treatment in many plants. eg. Tomatoes, apples,cucumbers, etc., Some of the light sensitive seeds can germinate by the treatment ofgibberellic acid even in complete darkness. eg. barley, Gibberellin breaks dormancy in potato tubers.

5.Write the physiological effects of Cytokinin. It promotes the celldivision. In association with IAA, cytokinin initiates bud and root formation incallus tissue. External application of cytokinin promotes the growth of lateral budseven if the apical bud is intact. It breaks the dormancy of many seeds and also promotesgermination.

30

Application of cytokinin delays the process of ageing in plants. Thisis Richmond Lang effect. 6.Write the physiological effects of Ethylene. It prevents elongation of stem and root in longitudinal direction. It promotes positive geotropic growth of roots. It inhibits the growth of lateral buds in pea seedlings. It is involved in the ripening of fruits. It stimulates the formation of abscission zone in leaves, flowersand fruits. This causes leaves, flowers and fruits to shed prematurely. Flowering can be induced by application of ethylene in plants likepineapple and mango. It stimulates rooting of cuttings, initiation of lateral roots andgrowth of root hair. It is responsible for breaking the dormancy of buds and seeds. 7.Write short notes on vernalization . The term vernalization was first introduced by a Russian scientistT.D. Lysenko in 1920. Many species, especially biennials and perennialsare induced to flower at low temperature range of 1 o C to 10 o C. This isknown as vernalization. Techniques of vernalization

Seeds are allowed to germinate and subjected to cold treatment for varying periodof time depending on the species. Germinated seeds after this treatment are allowed to dry for sometime and then sown.

Devernalization

Reversal of the effect of vernalization is called Devernalization.Subjecting the plants to higher temperature after a cold treatment bringsabout devernalization.

Advantages

(1) Crops can be produced earlier by vernalization. (2) They can be cultivatedin places where they naturally do not grow. (3) Vernalization helps to accelerate the plant breeding.

31

10 MARKS QUESTIONS

  • 1. Explain Darkreaction or Calvin Cycle or C 3 Cycle .

The reactions that catalyze the reduction of CO2 to carbohydrates with the help of the ATP and NADPH 2 generated by the light reactions are called the dark reactions.

10 MARKS QUESTIONS 1. Explain Darkreaction or Calvin Cycle or C Cycle . The reactions that

32

2.

Explain C 4 pa th way or Hatch and Slack path way. In C4 Plants like sugarcane the first formed stable produc t is a 4 carbon compou nd namely OAA. So it is called as C 4 C ycle.

t

t

y

2. Explain C pa th way or Hatch and Slack path way. In C4 Plants like
  • 3. Explain Photo respiration or C 2 cycle ?

Respiration tha t occurs in photosynthetic tissues in the presence of light and results in increase d rate of carbondioxide evolution is calle d photorespiration

or light respiration. P hotorespiration involves three organell es – chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mito chondria.

2. Explain C pa th way or Hatch and Slack path way. In C4 Plants like

33

4.

What is Glycolysis ? Explain the steps involved in Glycolysis (Draw

flowchart Only)

The process by which the glucose (6C compound) is split into twomolecules of

pyruvic acid (3C compound) is called glycolysis.

4. What is Glycolysis ? Explain the steps involved in Glycolysis (Draw flowchart Only) The process

34

5. Describe the sequences of Cycle ?

reactions of Kreb’s Cycle

or

TCA Cycle or Citric acid

The

series

of

cyclic

reactions

involved

in

converting

pyruvic

acid

to

carbondioxide and water in mitochondria is called Krebs cycle.

5. Describe the sequences of Cycle ? reactions of Kreb’s Cycle or TCA Cycle or Citric

35

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS

ONE MARK QUESTIONS 1.Artificial system of classification of plants was proposed by a Swedish botanist.

  • 2. Which of the following classification is a sexual system of classification

Artificialsystem.

  • 3. The botanist who introduced binomial system is Gaspard Bauhin.

  • 4. The botanist who first followed binomial system is Carolus Linnaeus.

  • 5. The standard size of herbarium sheets is 41 cm X 29 cm.

  • 6. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature was adapted from 1978.

7.Genera plantarum of Bentham and Hooker was published in three volumes.

  • 8. In Bentham and Hooker classification of plants, the present day ‘orders’ were

referred to by them as cohorts. 9.How many families were described by Bentham and Hooker in their classification? 202. 10.Plants having flowers with free petals come under polypetalae.

  • 11. Inferae includes

_____

orders and

families. 3 and 9

_____

  • 12. Thalamiflorae includes 6 orders and 34 families.

  • 13. Which one of the following series includes the epigynous flowers? Inferae.

  • 14. Thespesia populnea belongs to Malvaceae.

  • 15. The family included under the series Unisexuales is Euphorbiaceae.

  • 16. Anthers are monothecous in Malvaceae.

  • 17. Binomial of lady’s finger is Abelmoschus esculentus.

  • 18. Malvaceae is placed in the series Thalamiflorae.

  • 19. In Abelmoschus esculentus, the fruit is loculicidal capsule.

  • 20. Solanaceae is placed under Polemoniales.

  • 21. In which of the following plants the midrib and veins are found with

yellowish spinesSolanum xanthocarpum.

  • 22. The carpels are obliquely placed in the members of Solanaceae.

  • 23. Ricinus communis is a shrub.

36

24.

Euphorbiaceae includes about 300 genera.

  • 25. An example of cladode is Euphorbia tirucalli and E.antiquoram.

  • 26. In Hevea brasiliensis, the leaves are trifoliately compound.

  • 27. The leaves and roots of __________

are

used in the treatment of leprosy

Jatropha gossypifolia.

  • 28. The binomial name of ‘Eli amanakku’ is Croton sparsiflorus.

  • 29. The characteristic inflorescence of Euphorbiaceae is cyathium.

  • 30. “The bird of paradise flower” refers to Strelitzia reginae.

  • 31. The binomial name of

Traveller’s palm is Ravenala madagascariensis.

  • 32. The phyllotaxy in Musa is spiral.

  • 33. In inflorescence in Ravenala madagascariensis is compound cyme.

  • 34. The number of fertile stamens in Ravenala madagascariensis is six.

  • 35. Musaceae is placed in the series Epigynae.

  • 36. According to phylogenetic system, members of Orchidaceaeof

monocotyledons were highly advanced .

  • 37. In Musa the fruit is Berry.

PLANT ANATOMY

ONE MARK QUESTIONS 1.The change from meristematic tissue to permanent tissue is called differentiation.

  • 2. The type of tissue presents in the petioles of banana and Cana, is stellate

parenchyma.

  • 3. The tissue generally present in all organs of plant is parenchyma.

  • 4. The lamellar collenchyma is seen in the hypodermis of Helianthus.

  • 5. The root hairs are produced from trichoblasts or short cells.

  • 6. The osteosclereids are seen in seed coat of Pisum.

  • 7. Bicollateral vascular bundles are seen in the members of Cucurbitaceae.

  • 8. In xylem vessels, simple perforation plate is seen in the plant

______

Mangifera

  • 9. The polyarch condition is found in monocot root.

37

10.

The inner most layer of the cortex is endodermis.

  • 11. When the xylem and the phloem lie in the same radius, the vascular bundle is

called Conjoint

  • 12. The vascular bundles are skull shaped in monocot stem.

  • 13. The protoxylem lacuna is present in the vascular bundles of monocot stem.

  • 14. The tetrarch condition is found in Dicot root.

  • 15. Isobilateral leaf is present in grass or monocot leaf.

  • 16. The vascular bundle in the leaf is collateral and closed.

  • 17. It is a group of identical cells that are in a continuous state of division

Meristematic tissue.

  • 18. Which collenchyma is seen in the hypodermis of Helianthus.lamellar

  • 19. Angular collenchyma is seen in the hypodermis of Datura and Nicotiana

  • 20. Lacunate collenchyma is seen in the hypodermisIpomoea.

  • 21. The xylem fibres are also called libriform fibres.

  • 22. The phloem fibres are also called Bast fibres.

  • 23. Usually phloem parenchyma is absent in Monocots.

  • 24. Rhizodermis or epiblemais the outer most layer of root.

  • 25. The Casparian strips are found in the endodermis of dicot root and monocot

root.

  • 26. The passage cells are found in endodermis of dicot root and monocot root.

  • 27. In stem, protoxylem vessels are towards the center. This condition is known as

endarch.

5. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

ONE MARK QUESTIONS 1.Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts

  • 2. During cyclic electron transport, which one of the following is produced ATP only

  • 3. Which one of the following is a five carbon compound? Ribose, RUBP, Xylulose.

  • 4. Which one of the following is a C4 plant? Sugarcane,Maize,Tribulus, Amaranthus.

5. The essential component for the formation of chlorophyll isMagnesium (Mg).

  • 6. The pigment which is highly efficient in absorbing solar energy is chlorophyll.

38

7.

Which of the following bacterium oxidizes ammonia to nitrate Nitrosomonas.

  • 8. Which of the following is a total Root parasite Cuscuta.

  • 9. Which of the following wavelengths of light is most effective for Photosynthesis

400 nm to 700 nm.

  • 10. Dark respiration is the function of mitochondria.

  • 11. The gas evolved during photosynthesis is Oxygen (O2).

  • 12. Dark reaction is also known as Calvin cycle.

  • 13. C4 pathway is otherwise known as Hatch-Slack pathway.

  • 14. Photorespiration is otherwise called as. C2 cycle or Photosynthetic Carbon Oxidation Cycle.

  • 15. An example for insectivorous plant is Drosera.

  • 16. Which of the following is regarded as primary pigment? Chlorophyll –a.

  • 17. The dark reactions of photosynthesis were discovered by Melvin Calvin.

  • 18. In C3 plants light reactions and dark reactions occur in mesophyll cells.

  • 19. In C3 pathway acceptor molecule of CO 2 is RuBP.

  • 20. Vanda plant is anepiphyte.

  • 21. The photosynthetic pigments are located in Thylakkoid.

  • 22. Which of the following is the common respiratory substrate? Carbohydrates.

  • 23. Complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose yields 38 ATP.

  • 24. Respiratory quotient of glucose is One.

  • 25. Formation of ATP during electron transport chain is known as oxidative

Phosphorylation.

26. The total amount of energy released from one molecule of glucose on oxidation is

about 2900 kJ.

  • 27. Which one of the following plant hormones was first discovered? Auxin.

  • 28. An example for synthetic auxin is NAA, 2,4-D.

  • 29. Apical dominance is due to auxin.

  • 30. In sigmoid curve the rapid growth phase is designated as log phase.

  • 31. Abscission is prevented by Auxin.

  • 32. Bakanae disease in paddy is caused by gibberellic acid.

39

33.

Closure of stomata is caused by abscisic acid (ABA).

  • 34. Which is a gaseous hormone Ethylene.

  • 35. The chemical used in the field to eradicate weeds is 2, 4 – D.

  • 36. Which is the natural auxin found in higher plants? IAA, PAA.

  • 37. The response of a plant to the relative lengths of light and dark periods is known as

Photoperiodism.

  • 38. Which of the following is a long day plant? Wheat and Oats.

  • 39. Which of the following is a short day plant? Tobacco and Chrysanthamum.

40.The term vernalization was first introduced by T.D. Lysenko

UNIT 3 CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

  • 1. RNA is universally present in all organisms except in DNA viruses

  • 2. m-RNA is about 3 - 5% of the RNA content of the cell

  • 3. In bacterial cell, there are more than

70

tRNAs

  • 4. Double helix DNA model was proposed by

Watson and Crick

  • 5. The width of DNA molecule is 20 Å

  • 6. The gametes of Drosophila melanogaster carry four chromosomes

  • 7. Nullisomy is represented by 2n – 2.

  • 8. Hugo de Vries first used the term mutation based on his

observation on Oenothera lamarckiana

  • 9. Biochemical mutants of

Neurospora failed to synthesize certain aminoAcids .

10. Recombination of chromosome takes place in pachytene stage of prophase I of meiosis.

11. The coupling test cross ratio is 7:1:1:7

12. The term chromosome was introduced by Waldeyer 13. Who had first proved that the genes are carried by the Chromosome? Bridges

40

  • 1. Define Genome.

3 MARKS QUESTIONS

Genome may be defined as the totality of the DNA sequences of an

organism including DNAs present in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

  • 2. What is crossing over.

The process which produces recombination of genes by interchanging the corresponding segments between nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes is called crossing over. It occurs in pachytene stage of meiosis – I.

  • 3. What is a genetic map?

The diagrammatic representation of location and arrangement of genes and relative distance between linked genes of a chromosome is called genetic map.

The unit of genetic map is Morgan or Centimorgan.

  • 4. What are the uses of gene mapping?

    • (i) To determine the location, arrangement and linkage of genes in a

(ii)

chromosome. To predict the results of dihybrid and trihybrid crosses .

  • 5. Define mutation.

Sudden change in the genetical set up of an organism is defined as mutation.

  • 6. Define point (or) gene mutation.

A sudden change in small segment of DNA either a single nucleotide (or) a

nucleotide pair.

  • 7. State the functions of DNA .

  • (i) It controls all the biochemical activities of the cell. It carries genetic information from one generation to other .

(ii)

(iii)

It controls protein synthesis and synthesize RNAs.

8.Write the significance of crossing over :

(i) Crossing over leads to the production of new combination of genes and provides basis for obtaining new varieties of plants. (ii) It plays an important role in the process of evolution.

41

(iii) The crossing over frequency helps in the construction of genetic maps of the chromosomes. (iv) It gives us the evidence for linear arrangement of linked genes in a chromosome. 9. Draw the types of chromosomes.

(iii) The crossing over frequency helps in the construction of genetic maps of the chromosomes. (iv)

Four Morphogenic types of chromosomes

10. Draw the structure of chromosome

(iii) The crossing over frequency helps in the construction of genetic maps of the chromosomes. (iv)

11.Structure of polytene, lamp brush chromosomes

(iii) The crossing over frequency helps in the construction of genetic maps of the chromosomes. (iv)

42

5 MARKS QUESTIONS

  • 1. What are the significance of mutation?

    • 1. Mutations play an important role in the origin of new species and

serves as a tool for evolution.

  • 2. Induced mutations are useful in agriculture, animal husbandry and

biotechnology to produce new strains. For example, mutant strains of Penicillium produces more penicillin.

  • 3. It is one of the best approaches for improvement of crops.

  • 4. Induced mutants are reported in paddy, wheat, soyabeans, tomatoes,

oats, and barley. Mutant varieties of wheat are early maturing, disease resistance and they are enriched with protein. Mutant varieties of

paddy produce many tillers with long grains.

  • 5. The study of mutant strains of viruses helps us to know the fine

structure of gene. The genes are made up of small functional units such as cistron, recon and muton. Cistron is an unit of function, recon is the unit of recombination and muton is the unit of mutation.

  • 6. Many types of mutations cause heritable diseases and cancer in human beings.

  • 2. Write the significance of ploidy.

(i)

Polyploidy plays an important role in plant breeding and horticulture.

Polyploids are vigorous invaders of new habitats.

(ii)

Polyploidy has more vigorous effect than the diploids and results in

(iii)

the production of large sized flowers and fruits. Hence, it has economical significance. It plays significant role in the evolution of new species.

(iv)

Polyploidy results in the changes in the season of flowering and

(v)

fruiting.

(vi)

It leads to the formation of new varieties which show high resistance to disease and increase in yield.

43

(vii)

Tetraploid cabbages and tomatoes contain more ascorbic acid whereas

(viii)

tetraploid corn contains more vitamin A. Both euploidy and aneuploidy in man cause congenital diseases.

(ix)

Polyploidy varieties like apple, pear, grape and watermelons are cultivated because of their large size.

  • 3. Explain the structure of t-RNA

(vii) Tetraploid cabbages and tomatoes contain more ascorbic acid whereas (viii) tetraploid corn contains more vitamin
  • 1. The tRNA has a cloverleaf like structure.

  • 2. In 1965, R.W. Holley suggested the cloverleaf model of tRNA.

  • 3. It has four arms namely anticodon arm, D arm,

(vii) Tetraploid cabbages and tomatoes contain more ascorbic acid whereas (viii) tetraploid corn contains more vitamin

arm and aminoacid acceptor arm.

  • 4. The tRNA molecules are made up of 73 to 93 ribonucleotides.

  • 5. In certain tRNAs in addition to these four arms an extra arm called variable arm.

5.Write the differences between DNA and RNA.

(vii) Tetraploid cabbages and tomatoes contain more ascorbic acid whereas (viii) tetraploid corn contains more vitamin

44

6. Write an essay on SCP (Single Cell Protein)

  • 1. The dried cells of microorganisms used as food or feed for animals and they are collectively known as Microbial proteins or Single Cell Protein.

  • 2. Organisms used for SCP production

Algae

Chlorella, Spirulina and Chlamydomonas.

Fungi

Saccharomyces cereviseae, Volvoriella andAgaricus campestris

Bacteria

Pseudomonas and Alkaligenes

  • 3. Uses of SCP

    • 1. It is a rich source of protein (60 to 72 per cent), vitamins, amino acids, minerals and

crude fibres.

  • 2. It is a popular health food. Nowadays, Spirulina tablets are prescribed

as enriched vitamin for most people.

  • 3. It provides valuable protein-rich supplement in human diet.

  • 4. It lowers blood sugar level of diabetics due to the presence of gammalinolenicacid

and prevents the accumulation of cholesterol in human body.

UNIT 4 BIOTECHNOLOGY

Choose and write the correct options.

  • 1. The inherent potential of any living plant cell to develop into

entire organism is called

totipotency.

  • 2. The function of cytokinin is to increase cell division.

  • 3. By the application of tissue culture, one important product formed is artificial

synthetic seeds.

  • 4. The two protoplasts are fused with a fusogen called polyethylene glycol (PEG)

  • 5. Somatic hybrids are produced through Protoplasmic fusion

  • 6. Enriched vitamin tablets are produced from Spirulina

  • 7. One of the following process is employed to introduce a foreign

gene into a cell electroporation

  • 8. The number of transgenic plants available today are approximately fifty

  • 9. A toxic protein called delta endotoxin is insecticidal and it is

produced by Bacillus thuringiensis

45

10.Pseudomonas putida is a engineered bacterium that can digest crude oil slick 11. Restriction enzymes are synthesized by bacteria only 12. Each restriction enzyme cleaves a molecule only at nucleotide sequence

10 MARKS QUESTIONS 1.Write an essay on DNA recombinant technology. Definition:

Altering the genome of an organism by introducing genes of interest is known as gene

manipulation or DNA recombinant technology.

Basic Tools :

Restriction endonuclease and the DNA ligase.

The events of recombinant DNA technology are as follows:

1. The DNA of donor organism or gene of interest is isolated and cut into

fragments using restriction endonucleases. 2. They are attached to a suitable replicon. Such replicon is known as vector or cloning vehicle, which is nothing but the extra chromosomal circular DNA found in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli is called plasmid. The plasmids are the most suitable vectors. 3. The DNA of the vector is cut into fragments using the same restriction endonucleases. Using the enzyme DNA ligase, the DNA fragments of donor and vector

are joined together. This process is called splicing. As a result of splicing hybrid DNA or recombinant DNA (rDNA) is obtained.

  • 4. The rDNA is introduced into the host cells such as E.coli,

Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces sp. etc.,

  • 5. For this the host cells are treated with the enzyme cellulase. So

that the cell wall of host becomes permeable to the entry of rDNA. The host organism follows the instructions of “foreign rDNA”.It continues to multiply with the foreign DNA or gene of interest.Each colony is grown separately to obtain multiplication of rDNA fragments. At the end we get a number of colonies havingidentical copies of rDNA fragments. This is called molecular coloning

or gene coloning.

46

2. Write an essay on plant tissue culture. Basic techniques of plant tissue culture 1. Culture
  • 2. Write an essay on plant tissue culture.

Basic techniques of plant tissue culture

1. Culture vessels : Erylenmayer flask (conical flask),petri plates and culture tubes

(25 x150mm).

2. Culture medium

Murashige and Skoog medium(MS medium), Gamborg medium(B5 medium), White

medium(W medium) and Nitsch medium. The pH of the medium isadjusted to 5.8

(acidic range).

3. SterilizationSterilization is the techniqueemployed to get rid of the microbessuch

as bacteria and fungi in theculture medium and plant tissues.

47

The culture medium can be sterilised by keeping it in an autoclave andmaintaining

the temperature of 121°C for 15 minutes.

Chemical sterilization

By treating the inoculum in any one of the chemical sterilizant such

as Sodium hypochlorite, Calcium hypochlorite, Mercury chloride for 15 to

20 minutes.

4. Inoculation

Transfer of explant (root, stem, leaf, etc.) on to a culture medium is

called inoculation by flamed and cooled forceps . The inoculation is carried out under

aseptic conditionfor which an apparatus called laminar air flow chamber is used.

  • 5. Incubation

The culture medium with the inoculum is incubated at 26 ± 2 o C with

the light intensity at 2000 to 4000 lux andallowing photoperiod of 16 hour of light

and 8 hours of darkness.

  • 6. Induction of callus

Due to activity of auxins and cytokinins, the explant is induced to

form callus. The callus is an unorganized mass of undifferentiated tissue.

The mechanism of callus formation is that auxin induce cell elongation

and cytokinin induces cell division .

  • 7. Morphogenesis

Formation of new organs from the callus under the influence of auxin

and cytokinin is called morphogenesis. There are two types of morphogenesis

48

  • a. Organogenesis

Formation of new organs such as shoot and root is known as

organogenesis. The development of shoot from the callus is called

caulogenesis and formation of root is called rhizogenesis respectively.

  • b. Embryogenesis

Formation of embryos from the callus is called embryogenesis. These embryos arise

from somaticcallus tissue and are called somatic embryos or embryoids or

somaclonalembryos.

8. Hardening

Exposing the plantlets to the natural environment in a stepwise manner

is known as hardening.

a. Organogenesis Formation of new organs such as shoot and root is known as organogenesis. The

49

6 . BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE

  • 1. Which pathogen causes the blast disease of rice Pyricularia oryzae

  • 2. What is the collateral host plant of Pyricularia oryzae? Digitaria marginata

  • 3. Which pathogen causes Tikka disease of groundnut? Cercospora personata

4

..

Acalyphine

is extracted from Acalypha indica

  • 5. Binomial of ‘vilvum’ is Aegle marmelos

  • 6. Polyploidy can be induced by the chemicalColchicine.

  • 7. Atomita 2 rice which has saline tolerance and pest resistance.

8.Pseudomonas striata used as seed inoculants as bio fertilizer coats for cereals.

  • 9. Azolla pinnata is widely employed as a successful bio fertilizer in Indian rice

fields.

  • 10. Bordeaux mixture is used to control Blast disease of rice.

  • 11. Xanthomonas citri is a Bacteriumwhich causes Citrus canker.

  • 12. Pyrethrum extracted from the inflorescence of chrysanthemum.

13.Catharanthus roseus(Vinca) which has anticancerous properties.

  • 14. Brazzein is a protein which is several hundred times as sweet as sugar.

  • 15. Leaves of Ilex paraguriensis which can be a substitute for tea .

  • 16. Powdered seeds of Cola nitidawhich can be a substitute for coffee.

  • 17. Morphine is the strongest pain killer which obtained from Opium poppy .

  • 18. Quinine, antimalarian drug which derived from Cinchona officinalis.

  • 19. Digoxin used to treat heart diseases.

20. Panax ginseng relaxing mental and physical stress .

3 MARKS QUESTIONS

  • 1. Define Heterosis The superiority of the F1 hybrid in performance over its parents is called

heterosis or hybrid vigour. Vigour refers to increase in growth, yield, resistance to diseases, pests and drought.

50

2.

What are biofertilizers?

The term ‘biofertilizer’ denotes all the nutrient inputs of biological origin for plant growth. Eg. Azetobacter, Bacillus and Rhizobium

  • 3. What are Biopesticides?

Biological agents that are used for control of insects, weeds and

pathogens produced from living organisms are called biopesticides. Eg.viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and mites.

  • 4. Define Bio-war. Microbes are misused as biological weapons called bio-war.Eg: Smallpox, Anthrax.

  • 5. What is Bio – piracy ?

The clandestine exploitation and utilization of bio resources from a country by

several organizations and multinational companies without proper authorization is known as bio – piracy.

  • 6. What are bio- medicines?

Medicinally valuable compound obtained from the medicinal plants are called

bio- medicines.

  • 7. What is humulin?

Through genetic manipulation, and introduction of human gene for insulin production, the Bacterium E. coli is articulated to produce human insulin called

humulin.

5 MarkQuestions

  • 1. Write the aims of plant breeding?

Bringing wild food crops to cultivation.

Obtaining genes from desirable plants or related species.

Introduction of plants from nearby regions or even from other countries for improvement of the crop. (eg. cauliflower, tomato).

By employing certain plant breeding techniques, new varieties are

51

developed. eg. Maize. Auto and Allopolyploid breeding.

By inducing mutations using physical and chemical mutagens.

Production of haploids by the application of plant tissue culture of anther and ovary.

Improvement of nutritional quality by genetic engineering (eg.

Fortified rice - iron rich rice and carotene rich rice).

Development of disease, drought and environmental stress resistant varieties.

  • 2. Bring out the Economic importance of Cotton .

It is a cash crop.

It gives three important products: fibre, food and cattle feed.

Lint fibre is for clothing which is very much useful in the textile industries.

Seed is used for extracting oil. This is also used as vanaspathi. Cotton flour prepared from the seed is used for bread and biscuit making.

Cotton seed cake is used as a good organic manure.

Fatty acids obtained from oil is used in the preparation of insecticides, fungicidies and plastics, etc.

  • 3. Bring out the Economic importance of Groundnut

Groundnut oil is one of the important edible oils. It is extensively used in cookery as a salad oil. It is used for the manufacture of vanaspathi.

Groundnut kernel is rich and cheap source of vegetable protein.

Kernels are eaten, fried and salted and added to a number of dishes.

Peanut butter is prepared by grinding roasted and blanched kernels. It is nutritious.

52

Groundnut oil is used to a limited extent in soap making.

Oil is used as illuminant, lubricant.

Oil cake is used as animal feed and organic manure.

Groundnut shell is used in the manufacture of activated carbon.

The groundnut cake is a good cattle feed. The plant after removing the pod, both dried and fresh is a good cattle feed.

  • 4. Bring out the Economic importance of Rice .

Parched rice (pori) is crisp to eat. It is sold either salted or unsalted.

The flattened parboiled rice is known as flaked rice. Like corn flakes,

it is a very good break fast food. Flaked rice is also used for preparing

different kinds of food items.

Sake is an important alcoholic beverage in Japan. Sake is prepared by the fermentation of rice.

Bran is an important by-product of rice milling industry. It is used as a cattle feed.

Bran oil is extracted either by expression in a hydraulic press or extra-ction with solvents. Bran oil is used as edible oil and for

preparation of vanaspathi, making soaps. It is also used in the textile industry, leather industry.

Bran wax is a by-product in bran-oil extraction. It is used in chocolate industry and in the manufacture of lip-sticks.

Paddy husk is used as fuel, in brick kilns. It is also used in brick making.

Straw is used as cattle feed, in the manufacture of straw-boards and for making hats, ropes, mats, etc.

53

5.

Bring out the Economic importance of Teak .

Teak wood is durable and it is an important timber in the tropics. As the seasoned teak, timber does not shrink, crack or alter its shape. It is extensively used in making household furnitures.

It is also used in ship building, boats, etc.

It is used for interior decoration.

It is used for the manufacture of boards.

 

6.

Explain the benefits of Biofertilizers?

Biofertilizers are easy to produce in abundance and are available at low cost to the marginal farmers.

It increases soil fertility without causing any damage to the soil.

Application of biofertilizers increases yield upto 45 per cent and

the left over biofertilizers in the soil increases yield as long as the biofertilizer remains in the soil up to 3 to 4 years. Azolla, which is a biofertilizer amends the soil with organic matter. Cyanobacteria grow well both in acidic as well as in alkaline soils.The process of converting untenable, fallow land to cultivable soil is termed as soilreclamation. Blue green algae play a vital role in this conversion. Symbiotic nitrogen fixing Rhizobium is a biofertilizer. It adds 50 to 150 Kg of nitrogen to soil per hectare. Azatobacter andAzospirillum secrete antibiotics which act as biopesticides.

Ectotrophic mycorrhiza, which acts as a biofertilizer, increases

the surface area of the roots of host plants, so that more absorption of nutrients by the roots is made possible.

54

7.

Write short notes on microbes in medicine

Microbes

Antibiotics extracted

Uses

Penicillium notatum

Penicillin

It is effective against gram positive bacteria like pneumonia .

Streptomyces griseus

Streptomycin

It cures urinary infections, tuberculosis , meningitis and pneumonia.

Streptomyces aureofaciens

Aureomycin

It cures osteomyelitis , whooping cough and eye infections.

Streptomyces venezuelae

Chloromycetin

It kills bacillus bacteria and cures typhoid fever.

Aspergillus fumigatus

Antibiotic

It cures Typhoid and Dysentery

Bacillus subtilis

60 different antibiotic

-

Bacillus licheniformis

Bacitracin

To treat syphilis

`

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

55

B I O ZO O L O G Y

(BLUE PRINT)

UNIT

SUBJECT

 

MARKS

 

TOTAL

1

3

 
  • 5 10

1

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

4

6

 
  • 5 20

35

2

MICROBIOLOGY

3

3

 
  • 5 -

11

3

IMMUNOLOGY

1

6

 
  • 5 -

12

4

MODERN GENETICS

2

9

 
  • 5 -

16

 

ENVIRONMENTAL

2

3

 

10

15

5

SCIENCE

-

6

APPLIED BIOLOGY

3

6

-

10

19

 

THEORIES

OF

1

3

5

 

9

7

EVOLUTION

-

 

TOTAL

16

36

25

40

117

56

STAGE -I

BIOZOOLOGY

To Score 20 Marks

         

10-

TOTAL

UNIT

SUBJECT

1- MARK

3- MARK

5- MARK

MARK

MARKS

2

MICROBIOLOGY

3

1

1

-

11

3

IMMUNOLOGY

1

  • 2 1

 

-

12

4

MODERN GENETICS

2

  • 3 1

 

-

16

 

TOTAL

6

     

39

1. A study of modern Genetics with its 29 fetch 9 marks.

Three marks questions would

2. By learning be answered.

28 question in Immunology 2 Three marks questions could

3. A study of Microbiology fetch 3*1=3,5*1=5) and 41 three mark questions

15- five

marks on the whole

(1*3=3,

. Five marks questions also figure or find place in 3 mark questions in which case one could score three marks by writing any valid three points.

57

STAGE - II

BIOZOOLOGY

To score 40 marks

UNIT

SUBJECT

1 MARK

3 MARK

5 MARK

10 MARK

TOTAL

 

ENVIRONMENTAL

  • 5 2

   
  • 1 -

1

15

SCIENCE

 
  • 6 APPLIED

3

 
  • 2 -

1

19

BIOLOGY

 

TOTAL

       

34

 

39+34

73

1. The lesson on Environment with 31 pages carries 10 mark(1), three marks (1), and one mark (2). This being a topic of human interest students could easily score marks by their own study.

2. Applied Biology carries two 3 mark questions. The lesson Applied biology carries one 10 mark, two 3 marks and three 1 marks. Student have to learn thoroughly and Concentrate on milk production, lactation periods, and names of cattles , poultary breeds , fishes.

58

STAGE III BIOZOOLOGY To score 75 marks

UNIT

SUBJECT

1 MARK

3 MARK

5 MARK

10 MARK

TOTAL

 

HUMAN

  • 1 PHYSIOLOGY

4

2

1

2

35

 

THEORIES

  • 7 EVOLUTION

OF

1

1

1

-

9

 

TOTAL

       

44

1. Those willing to study Evolution instead of MicroBiology could do so. Those who aim to sure centum (75/75) should concentrate on Lessons from 2 to 6. However 1 mark questions in Lessons 1 and 2 do count.

  • 2. As per the blue print, from the first unit human physiology questions are take for 35 marks. So the students should concentrate more in this part. To learn human physiology in an easy way with cohesion and coherence knowledge of human anatomy is must. So recall the human anatomy studied in eleventh standard and then start to read human physiology in twelfth standard. This unit is biggest one with 92 pages. It is suggested to divide this into sub units 1. Nutrition and Digestion 2. Bones and Joints 3. Muscles 4.Respiration 5. Circulation 6. Nervous co-ordination 7. Chemical Co-ordination 8. Receptor organs 9. Excretion 10. Reproduction. In this module questions are given to practice. It will be very convenient to concentrate, recall and to reproduce.

  • 3. Students have to learn deeply similar questions with different answers. For eg. Diabetes mellitus occur in Endocrine system and in Excretion. Oestrogen, Progestrone and Testosterone in Endocrine gland and in reproductive system.

59

STAGE I 3- Marks Questions and Answers 2. MICROBIOLOGY

  • 1. Define Micro Biology.

It is science that deals with the structure, shape, reproductive methods, culture technics of micro organisms and bacteria and virus.

  • 2. What is the use of pure culture?

1.To separate out single cells of a strain of bacteria.

2.Used in fermentation of alcohol and fixation of N 2 in soil by bacteria. 3.It is bases of modern micro biology.

  • 3. What is diploid cell culture?

Diploid cells are derived from lungs, kidney of embryonic cells. Used in the manufacture of vaccine as host cells.

  • 4. What is Amoebiosis ?

 

(i)

An internal protozovan parasite of the class sarcodina

(ii)

It is caused by Endomoeba histolitica

(iii)

It causes Amoebic dysentry.

(iv)

Prophoside is the infective stage.

  • 5. What is zoo- Anthroponoses?

 

(i)

Infection from Animals to Human.

(ii)

Man is an important link in the life style.

(iii)

e.g. Taenia soliam

  • 6. Mention important Anti Biotics.

(i)

Amphicilin (i) Erithromicin (iii) Detrocyclin (iv) Streptomycin

  • 7. Dignostic test of Aids?

 

(i)

ELISA test and WESTERN BLOT test.

(ii)

Wester blot test confirms AIDS

  • 8. What is zoonoses?

 

(i)

Parasetic infection from animals to human.

(ii)

E.g. Rabies

  • 9. What is pure culture?

By serial dialution method a single cell separated out from a colony and cultured and isolated.

  • 10. What is Lytic, Lysogenic cycle?

    • (i) In Lytic cycle the bacterial cell walls is desolved

(ii)

In Lysogenic cycle viaral jeeno integrates with bacterial genome

60

11.Mention the inventions of Louie Pasteur?

  • 1. Germ Theory of Disease

  • 2. Vaccination for rabies, chicken pox cholera, Anthrax in Sheep

  • 3. Pasteurization of milk

  • 4. Attenuation of infective agents

12. Mention the contribution of Koch

  • 1 Solidified media

  • 2 Discovered the pathogens of Tuberculosis ,Diphtheria and Tetanus.

  • 3 His finding also lead to immunization theraphy.

13.What is CHICKEN EMBRYO TECHNIQUE?

  • 1. Fertilized eggs of 5-12 days are choosen

    • 2 .Virus is inoculated in to the egg under aseptic conditions and incubated at a temperature of 36 o Celsius

      • 3. The whole is sealed by paraffin

14.Why virus is called an obligate parasite ?

  • 1. virus could not be cultured in artificial media

2.

It

could be

cultured only in live

plant or animal cells and hence are called obligate

parasites

 

15.What is an Oncogenic virus?

Virus that causes cancer is called Oncogenic virus. E.g. Adeno virus, poliyoma virus, Epstein barr virus. RNA virus roves sarcoma .

  • 16. How Rabbis spreads ?

Rabbis infected animals like dogs, bats when they bite normal healthy domestic and wild animals it spreads .

  • 17. What are the symptoms of Rabbis?

    • (i) High fever and headache.

    • (i) Hydrophobia

(iii) Nervoursness (iv)Confused state of mind

(v)Trembling of throat and chest muscels

18.Write short notes on Variola virus

  • (i) It is a smallpox virus .

  • (i) Its spread through dropleds .

(iii) Vaccination by Vaccinia virus.

19.What are the Various shapes of Bacteria?

  • (i) Coccus Round shaped and its kinds.

(ii) Baccillas Rod shaped and its kinds.

(iii) Comma Comma shape (iv)Vibrio - Spiral shaped

61

20.What is a synthetic media?

(i) Synthetic media is a chemical media made of carbohydrates, protein , vitamins, nucleic acid etc.

(ii) Its supports the nutria requirements of micro organisms.

21.What is bacterial tranformation?

o

Bacterial transformation is a process in which ceil free or naked DNA containing

o

the genetic information is transferred from one bacterial cell to another. It was discovered by an English health officer, Griffith in 1928.

22. What is Transduction?

In Transduction ,a bacteriophages act as a vector transfer a portion of DNA from one bacterium(donor) to another(recipient).

23. What is generalized Transduction and specialized Transduction?

o If all fragments of bacterial DNA have a chance to enter a transducing phage, the process is called Generalized transduction. On the contrary if a few restricted genes of the bacterial chromosomes are transduced by bacteriophage, it is called specialized transduction.

o

  • 24. What are the symptoms of cholera?

Symptoms of cholera are vomiting, profuse diarrhoeal stool (rice water stool). Which results in severe dehydration, loss of minerals, increased blood acidity and haemoconcentration.

  • 25. What are the two types of plague?

o

Plague is caused by the bacterial species Yersinia pestis, a non motile

o

gram negative bacilli. There are two types of plagues. They are bubonic plague and pneumonic

o

plague. Bubonic plague is characterized by enlarged and inflamed lymph glands

o

(Bubos). The symptoms are shivering, fever, nausea, vomiting and general weakness. In untreated cases the bubonic plague can cause 58% mortality. Pneumonic plague is a pneumonia characterized by a thin watery sputum with bright red streaks of blood. The mortality is 100% in untreated cases.

26. Write short notes on Syphilis?

o The disease syphilis is a well known and dreadful sexually transmitted disease (STD). It is caused by Treponema pallidium. Syphilis occurs only in humans and is transmitted by direct sexual contact (Venereal syphilis) or through placenta from an infected mother to the foetus (Congenital syphilis). Venereal syphilis progresses in three stages viz., primary, secondary and tertiary stage. The symptoms are very prominent in the tertiary stage. It will lead to blindness, loss of hearing, brain damage, insomnia, headache and delusions and spinal cord damage.

o

o

62

27.

Write short notes on Gonorrhoea?

Gonorrhoea is another sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria

gonorrhoea. In the males the primary site of infection is the urethra.

In the female it is the cervix. It causes pain during urination and a yellowish discharge from the urethra of males.

In females also it causes painful urination and vaginal discharge. Other symptoms are fever, abdominal pain, arthritis, meningitis etc.

  • 28. Give particulars

about other

protozoan desease? Other pathogenic protozoans

  • 1. Trypanosoma gambiens - causes African sleeping sickness

  • 2. Leishmania donovani - causes kala azar

  • 3. Leishmania tropica - skin leishmaniasis

  • 29. Mention the types of Malaria .

(ii)

vivax malaria by plasmodium vivax

(iii)

Quardan malaria by plasmodium malaria

(iv)

Ovale malaria by plasmodium ovale

(v)

Malignant malaria by plasmodium falciparum

  • 30. What is Chemotheraphy?

The control and treatment of infectious diseases with a chemical compound or drug is called chemotherapy.

  • 31. Draw HIV and Label the parts.

27. Write short notes on Gonorrhoea?  Gonorrhoea is another sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria
  • 32. What is Anti Biotic?

The word antibiotic refers to a metabolic product of one microorganism that in very small amounts is detrimental or inhibitory to other microorganisms.

  • 33. What are the two types of Anti Biotics?

Bacteriostatic It controls

bacteria.

.

Bacteriocidal It kills bacteria.

63

34.

Write short notes on Pox virus?

o

Pox viruses are the largest of all viruses and are brick shaped.

o

They contain double stranded DNA, protein and lipid.

o They have a dum bell shaped nucleoid surrounded by two membrane layers.

  • 35. What is primary culture?

Primary cell culture are derived from normal tissue of an animal such as mouse, hamster, chicken and monkey or a human being. When cells from these tissues are processed and cultured the first monolayer is referred to as the primary culture. A monolayer is a confluent layer of cells covering the surface of a culture vessel.

  • 36. Mention the types of Genetic recombination in bacteria?

Bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction.

37 .Define Medical MicroBiology? The Medical microbiology deals with aspects of infection,causative agents of the diseases due to infection.

  • 38. What is black water fever?

infection and

The plasmodium falciparum infection is black water fever.It is characterized by the whole some destruction of patients erychrocytes and the excretion of liberated haemoglobin in the urine.

  • 39. Write short note on Anthroponoses?

Infections with parasites species that are maintained in man alone. Eg ., Malaria and Filaria.

  • 40. Uses of medical Microbiology ? Innumerable infections diseases that haunt the human population where discovered. Drugs

and Vaccines have been found.

3. I M M U N O L O G Y

1.What are interferon?

Certain cells, like WBC, when infected with a virus, respond by releasing anti viral proteins, called interferons.

2. What is Phagocytosis?

o

Phagocytosis is an important mechanism of innate immunity. It is performed by

o

leucocytes. In response to pathogenic infections, the total count of leucocytes will increase

o

sharply. Humans contain wandering phagocytes that circulate throughout the body. The most important phagocytes are the macrophages and the neutrophils. Macrophages are large irregular-shaped cells that engulf microbes, viruses and cellular debris.

64

o In response to an infection, monocytes are liberated at the site of infection.

  • 3. What are the functions of free antibodies? The free antibodies have three main functions viz.,

    • 1. Agglutination of particulate matter, including bacteria and viruses,

    • 2. Opsonisation or coating over bacteria to facilitate recognition and phagocytosis by the phagocytes and

    • 3. Neutralization of toxins released by bacteria.

  • 4. What are the functions of spleen?

    • 1. The spleen serves as the graveyard for effete(aged) red blood cells,

    • 2. 2. It acts as a reserve tank and setting bed for blood and

    • 3. 3. It acts as a systemic filter for trapping circulating blood borne foreign particles.

  • (The immunological function of the spleen is primarily directed against blood borne antigens).

    • 5. What are the functions of Thymus?

    (i) Produces T cells. (ii) Cell mediated immunity.

    • 6. What is antigen?

    A molecule that provokes an immune response(immunogenicity) and hence is called an immunogen. The other describes a molecule which reacts with the antibody produced, or with the activated cellular constituents of cell mediated immunity(antigenicity), and is referred to as an antigen.

    • 7. What are Haptens?

    o

    Haptens are small well defined chemical groups such as dinitrophenol (DNP).

    o

    which are not immunogenic on their own but will react with preformed

    o

    antibodies. To make a hapten immunogenic, it must be linked to a carrier molecule which is itself immunogenic.

    • 8. What are the various types of antibodies?

    IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD.

    • 9. Mention the names of immunosuppressive drugs?

    Cyclosporine and steroids.

    10. What are primary lymphoidal organs?

    o

    Thymus and bone marrow.

    o

    Thymus produces T cells.

    o

    Bone marrow produces B cells.

    o