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EXPERIMENT 5

FIELD DENSITY DETERMINATION


1. Purpose:

This lab was performed to determine the field density of soil by using sand replacing method. The density
of a soil sample was the mass per unit volume. It was easy to determine the mass of soil it was rather
difficult to determine the volume of soil sample accurately. Bulk density of soil sample can be determined
by using the dry density of soil sample. The volume of the specimens used in various test can be
computed from the measured dimensions, as they have regular shapes, such as a cylinder or cube.
However precise measurements are not possible. If the sample was made in a container of known
dimensions much more accurate measurements are possible. The following methods are generally used
for the determination of mass density:
1. Water displacement method
2. Submerged mass density method
3. Core cutter method
4. Sand replacement method
5. Water ballon method
6. Radiation method

2. Standard Reference:

ASTM D Standard Test for Field Density of Soil by Sand replacement method.

3. Significance:

The field density a soil was used to determine various index and engineering properties of soil.

4. Equipment:

Clean uniform sand, Sand pouring cylinder, Soil cutting and excavation tools, Glass plate, Metal tray
Weighting balance, Metal container to collect the excavated soil, Moisture containing cans, Oven.

5. Test Procedure:

1. The sand jar was filled with standard sand and weighted, W1.
2. A standard mould was taken whose volume was known.
3. The sand jar cone was placed on the mould and the valve was opened. When the sand ceases to
pour, the valve was closed and the jar was removed, the sand cone jar weighted, W2. The weight
of the sand in the mould and in the cone was equal to the difference of the two observations (W1-
W2).

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4. The sand jar was again filled. The sand cone apparatus was placed on a paper on a horizontal
table.
5. The valve was opened until flow of sand stopped. The sand filling the cone was collected and
weighted (W3).
6. The mass of sand in mould will be equal to {(W1-W2)-W3}.
W1 W2 W3
7. The density of sand was measured as sand
Vmould
8. The selected site was smoothened carefully. A tray with a central hole was placed on the prepared
ground surface.
9. A hole about 100 mm dia and 150 mm deep was excavated in the ground, using the hole in the
tray as a pattern.
10. The excavated soil was carefully collected and weighted (W4)
11. The sand jar was again filled with sand to the initial mass W1 and then placed over the excavated
hole.
12. The valve was opened and the sand was filled in the hole and cone.
13. When the sand ceased to drop, the valve was closed and sand jar cone was removed.
14. The sand jar was then weighted (W5).
W1 W5 W3
15. The volume of excavated hole was found as Vhole
sand
16. The dry density of soil was determined by dividing the excavated soil by the volume of the hole.

6. Data Analysis:

W1 W2 W3
Density of the sand, sand
Vmould

W1 W5 W3
Volume of hole=volume of soil in the hole, Vhole
sand
W4
Density of soil, soil
Vhole

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DEPARTMENT OF
CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
SHAHJALAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

FIELD DENSITY DETERMINATION

Project:..Job No.:
Location of Project:..Boring No.:..Sample No.:.
Description of Soil:.Depth of Sample:...
Tested by:..Date of Testing: 03-05-17
Group No: 01 Registration No: 2013333002

7. DATA SHEET
Weight of sand jar with sand, W1, gm 8.115
Weight of sand jar with sand after filling mould and cone, W2, gm 3.349
Weight of sand in cone, W3, gm 1.017
Density of sand, sand , gm/cm3 1.802
Weight of excavated soil in hole, W4, gm 3.530
Weight of sand jar with sand after filling hole and cone, W5, gm 3.082
The volume of excavated hole, Vhole , cm3 2228.635

Final result:

Density of soil, soil , gm/cm3: 1.584 gm/cm3

Signature of the Teacher:

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8. Sample Calculation:
Weight of sand in mould = (8.115-3.349-1.017)
= 3.749
Vmould = 2080 cm3
sand = (3.749*1000) /2080
=1.802 gm/cm3
W1 W5 W3
Vhole = 2228.635 gm/cm3
sand

soil = W4/ Vhole

= (3.530*1000)/ 2228.635
= 1.584 gm/cm3

9. Discussion:
Field density of soil of the site was 1.584 gm/cm3. So this soil was low dense soil which may have low
bearing capacity. Probability to have organic compound may cause the low density of this soil.

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