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A research paper

Submitted to the Senior High School Department

Davao Doctors College, Inc.

In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements

for Research in Daily Life


Arieta, Kaye Marie D.

Gementiza, Roda C.

Saco, Cielo Jabe D.

March 2017

The researchers greatly acknowledged the following whose continuous support and

valuable efforts have contributed a lot in the realization of this study:

Ms. January Santiago, the practical research teacher, for her continuous encouragement

which inspired the researchers to finish the thesis and for her efforts in checking the preliminary

versions of the paper;

The faculty and the administration for their willingness to strengthen the research

program of the school through encouragement and guidance they offer to the researchers which

made this study possible;

The families of the researchers for their inspiration and extended support; and,

The Almighty God for the gift of life, wisdom, good health, and the guidance that He

gave to the researchers from the start up to finish of this study.


The study entitled, Factors affecting the Study Habits on the Academic Performance, is

conducted to the Senior High School Students of Davao Doctors College during the second

semester of School Year 2016-2017. Study habits play a very important role in the life of

students. Success or failure of each student depends upon his own study habits. Of course, study

is an art and as such it requires practice. Some students study more but they fail to achieve more.

Others study less but achieve more. Success of each student definitely depends upon ability,

intelligence and effort of students. The qualitative method is used in the study, in which

objectives are to name the factors which affect study habits of the Senior High School students of

Davao Doctors College, how study habits affect the academic performance of the said students,

and investigate the relationship between the two variables. For this study, the researchers design

a self-administered questionnaire for the data gathering process to achieve the main objective of

the study. The primary aim of the questionnaire is to determine the respondents profile

according to the factors which affect the study habits, including time management, study

environment, and use of social media. Results imply that most of the respondents believe that

their study habits are affected by their time management, study environment, and use of social

media, and that these factors impact their academic performance. Another important finding

shows a high-level of Senior High School Students academic performance is greatly influenced

by their use of social media, which is a said factor that affects the students academic

performance. However, gender does not significantly impact the factors that affect the study

habits of the respondents. Generally, all of the said factors tend to significantly affect the

academic performance of the respondents.

Table of Contents

Chapter Page

1. The Problem and Its Background

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Scope and Delimitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2. Theoretical Framework

Review of Related Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Review of Related Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Conceptual /Theoretical Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3. Research Methodology

Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Respondents of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Instrument of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20




A students level of intelligence is said to be reflected by the grades that one attains.

When a student gets a high grade, it is concluded that one has learned a lot, and if not, the

student would most likely have attained lesser learning. Nevertheless, there are numerous factors

that greatly affect the grades of every students such as the intelligence quotient, study habits, age,

year, social status, etc. But, it has long been recognized that in the process of learning the study

habits of the students play an important role in their performance academically.

The study will be conducted inside the Caduceus Hall, the Senior High School building

of the Davao Doctors College. The school is known for excellence in offering medical related

courses recently welcome Senior High School students. Seemingly, the Senior High School

students take a quarterly examination as part of school curriculum. The students have ample time

in hand to study and master the lessons he or she acquired during the course of time. The

learning environment in the edifice generates various effects towards the participants. Therefore,

resulting to how the participants scope up with their studies.

At this point in time, the researchers would like to investigate the possible relationship of

study habits and the factors affecting to it to the academic performance of the Senior High

School students of Davao Doctors College. The research findings of the study will provide basis

and awareness not just for students but as well as the teachers and school administration

Earlier studies reveal that most of the problem that contributes to poor performance in

tests and examination were lack of proper study. Most students are devoting less time to their

studies because of many factors that could be taken account for.

Recently, the popular trend of social media occupies greater fraction to these factors. In

the Philippines, there are now 47 million Facebook users according to Internet Society. This

means that students spend more time on it rather than studying or revising their lesson. Thus,

technology greatly influences the students desire to learn.

According to Hussain (2000) study habit refers to predispositions which students have

developed towards private readings through a period of time. According to him, study habit is a

gateway to successful achievement in studies.

A great deal of research provides evidence that study habits and study attitudes are both

significant variables, which determine the academic performance of students. Yet, in spite of the

perceived importance of study habits and study attitudes to academic achievement, it seems that

education institution still pay little attention to understanding these factors (Baquiran, 2011).

On Gudagavanar and Halayannavars research, Influence of Study Habits on Academic

Performance of Higher Primary Students, study habits play a very important role in the life of

students. Success or failure of each student depends upon his own study habits. Of course, study

is an art and as such it requires practice. Some students study more but they fail to achieve more.

Others study less but achieve more. Success of each student definitely depends upon ability,

intelligence and effort of students. No doubt, regular study habits bring their own rewards in the

sense of achievement of success.


Statement of the Problem

The study intended to find out the factors affecting the study habits of the Senior High

School Students of Davao Doctors College and how these factors influence the academic

performance of the said students.

This will be answered by the following questions:

1. What are the factors affecting the study habits of the Senior High School students of

Davao Doctors College?

2. How do these factors affect their academic performance?

Scope and Delimitation

This study limits its coverage only to the Senior High School students of Davao Doctors

College for the School Year 2016-2017. The study will focus on the factors affecting the study

habits on the academic performance of the students. The primary data will be descriptive in

nature to determine an actual representation of the students perspective in the study. The

respondents will be randomly selected, which compromises 20 percent of the total population.

Significance of the Study

This research aims to benefit students, specifically Senior High School students, and also

the administration of Davao Doctors College in a way for them to be able to understand the

factors in the students study habits which affect their academic performance. It is important to

have a clear understanding on what hinders and improves ones educational achievement. Hence,

this assimilation will provide deeper awareness for the beneficiaries on how the relationships of

these variables affect one another. Results concluded in this research can aid the school

administration in enhancing the curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of

learning. Teachers will also be help in understanding better diversity of learning of their students

and develop more effective teaching strategies, and teacher-student relationship in the

educational institution.



Review of Related Literature

This chapter aims to provide strong foundation to this study which contains gathered

research works of different literature and references by the researchers. It covers the review of

relevant literatures which is explained accordingly. These are presented to determine the

connection of various findings and theories in relation to the independent and dependent


Study habits are termed as the methods of study of students. Study habits are students

ways of studying whether systematic, efficient or inefficient (Ayodele & Adebiyi, 2013)

implying that efficient study habits produces positive academic performance while inefficient

study habits leads to academic failure. Marquez (2009) also pointed out that a student who is

successful in his desired career has good study habits. In line with this, she stated that students

should apply these habits to all of their classes. She also suggested that the students should not

try to study all the subjects in a single period. However, every students has his own study habits

depending on his preferences with regards to the duration of time devoted in studying , what

place or environment would be the best venue to study , the study skills and techniques will the

student utilizes during his study and more. It will depend upon the person if he is voluntarily

interested in studying or be prompted by the distraction of the social networking sites such as

facebook , twitter , instagram, tumblr, etc. which all of these can be easiliy accessed through

their phones and majority of the students possesses a smartphone as what theyve called

it. Studying is the key to excel in ones academic performance, because it not only prepares a

student to excel in class but reinforces the lessons that already been taught.

Academic excellence or achievement plays an important role in an individual

placement, be it in the academic institutions or job placement. Due to this, many people are

concerned with the ways they can enhance their academic achievement. The emphasis on

academic excellence which is also prevalent worldwide has encouraged many studies about the

conditions promoting it. The role of academic achievement as one of the predictors of ones life

success and also in the aspect of academic placement in schools to higher institutions as well as

the level of employability in ones career is inevitable (Kyoshaba, 2009).

Academic performance, which is measured by the examination results, is one of the

major goals of a school. Hoyle (1986) argued that schools are established with the aim of

imparting knowledge and skills to those who go through them and behind all this is the idea of

enhancing good academic performance. Academic performance or achievement is the outcome

of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational

goals. Academic performance is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment

but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important,

procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts (Annie, Howard &

Mildred, 1996).

Time management has been referred to as a set of techniques for managing, planning and

appropriate using of time. According to Steel (2007) procrastination consists of the intentional

delay of an intended course of action, in spite of an awareness of negative outcomes, and

according Ferrari, OCallaghan and Newbegin, (2005) it often results in unsatisfactory

performance (Klassen, Krawchuk & Rajani, 2008). Academic procrastination also was defined as

leaving academic tasks, such as preparing for exams and doing homework to the last minute and

to feel discomfort out of this (apan, 2010). Anecdotally, it has been suggested that

approximately 95% of all college students procrastinate (Ellis & Knaus, 1977). Other researchers

have estimated the prevalence of procrastination among college students to vary between 25%

and 50% depending on the type of academic tasks being completed (Solomon & Rothblum,

1984). Furthermore, several studies have found a moderate to strong negative correlation

between academic procrastination and academic performance (Van Eerde, 2003). For college

students particularly, academic procrastination has been associated with guilt, stress,

neuroticism, low self-esteem and low grades (Fritzsche, Young & Hickson, 2003).

A direct relationship exists between Social media usage and the academic performance of

students in universities. However, the darker side within technological evolution has resulted in

dilemmas such as the setback of real values of life especially among students who form the

majority of users interacting through the use of social networking sites. Online social networking

sites focus on building and reflecting social associations among people who share interests and

or activities. With so many social networking sites displayed on the internet, students are

tempted to abandon their homework and reading times in preference for chatting online with

friends. Many students are now addicted to the online rave of the moment, with Facebook,

Twitter etc. Today most youths and students possess Facebook accounts. The reason most of

them perform badly in school might not be far- fetched. While many minds might be quick to

blame the poor quality of teachers, they might have to think even harder, if they have not heard

of the Facebook frenzy (Oche & Aminu .2010). Olubiyi (2012) noted that these days students

are so engrossed in the social media that they are almost 24 hours online. Even in classrooms and

lecture theatres, it has been observed that some students are always busy pinging, 2going or

Facebooking, while lectures are on. Times that ought be channeled towards learning, academic

research and innovating have been crushed by the passion for meeting new friends online, and

most times busy discussing trivial issues. Hence most students academics suffer setback as a

result of distraction from the social media. In (Obi, Bulus, Adamu &Salaat2012), it was

observed that the use of these sites also affect students use of English and grammar. The

students are used to short forms of writing words in their chat rooms; they forget and use the

same in the classrooms. They use things like 4 in place of for, U in place of You, D in place of

The etc. and this could affect their class assessment. Social networking sites although has been

recognized as an important resource for education today, studies however shows that students

use social networking sites such as Facebook for fun, to kill time, to meet existing friends or to

make new ones (Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe 2007). Although it has been put forward that

students spends much time on participating in social networking activities, with many students

blaming the various social networking sites for their steady decrease in grade point averages

(Kimberly, Jeong and Lee, 2009), it also shows that only few students are aware of the academic

and professional networking opportunities the sites offered. According to Kuppuswamy and

Shankar (2010), social network websites grab attention of the students and then diverts it towards

non-educational and inappropriate actions including useless chatting. Whereas on the other hand,

(Liccardi, Ounnas, Massey, Kinnunen, Midy, & Sakar. 2007) reviewed that the students are

socially connected with each other for sharing their daily learning experiences and do

conversation on several topics.Tinto (1997) argued that extracurricular activities and academic

activities are not enough to satisfy some student those who are suffered by social networking

isolation. This shows that social networks are beneficial for the students as it contributes in their

learning experiences as well as in their academic life. Trusov, Bucklin, & Pauwels (2009) noted

that the Internet is no doubt evolution of technology but specifically social networks are

extremely unsafe for teenagers, social networks become hugely common and well-known in past

few years.

According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008) they said that a student

must have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should not be

cramped. They presupposes that study time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the

start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed chair is usually best, Don't get too

comfortable--a bed is a place to sleep, not to study, as what they said. A student must have

everything close at hand (book, pencils, paper, coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape

recorder,etc.) before starting to study. Students are not suggested to spend on time jumping up

and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also that distracting noise should be minimized

however they said that there are some people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a

learner must find what works for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. Consider a "do not

disturb" sign and turning on your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits

according to the PBBC..Frank Pogue (2000) did a research project to determine why students

fail. What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still

rings true today--students fail because they do not know how to study.

He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good study environment, a good

desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable room temperature and a quiet atmosphere. That

means he/she should eliminate all external and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview

of the assignment before starting the work. Know what skills, facts and ideas that are expected to

master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start with most difficult subject first, while the

mind is freshest and most receptive.


Hence, the study focuses on the factors that affect the study habit of the students. In line

with this, the researchers would like to know the effect of the study habit to their academic


Learning occurs continuously throughout our lives and it is therefore important to

understand that what might work for others do not necessarily have to work for others as well.

However, it is still important that students should be consistent along with their studies.

According to the theories of study habits, there are broadly two types of students. The first

category is of the students who study for a shorter duration, have a good concentration and are

able to get good scores without much effort. The second category includes students who have a

rather poor concentration, and need a lot of hardwork to get good scores. With a regular study

habit you will find that the child will study at a time that it is deemed normal to study.To

conclude, study habits may vary from student to student perspective because not everyone

achieve the style of learning process like what other can achieve for themselves.

There may be a lot of factors that can affect the study habit of one student but its all

depend to him on how he can manage to do his studies without minding the hindrances and

acquire study habits in the end.

Review of Related Studies

The study conducted by Marcus Cred and Nathan R. Kuncel (2008) at the University of

Albany reveals that study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival

standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding

substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance. The meta-analysis

examined the construct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college

students.They found that study skill inventories and constructs are largely independent of both

high school grades and scores on standardized admissions tests but moderately related to various

personality constructs; these results were inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation

and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in

individual classes. They also said that Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important

negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific

inventories is shown. Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the most

predictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on the popular depth-of-

processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of the examined criteria. Overall, study

habit and skill measures improve prediction of academic performance more than any other non-

cognitive individual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the third

pillar of academic success.

According to the how-to-study.com (2009), students who are very successful in their

desired career have good study habits. It is stated in the website that students apply these habits

to all of their classes. The website also recommends some tips in improving study habits. The

website also suggests that the student should try not to study all the subjects in just a period. The

website also added that if you try to do too much studying at one time, you will tire and your

studying will not be very effective. Space the work you have to do over shorter periods of time.

Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy.

A study conducted by University of Kentucky was to determine if the college success can

be improved with the Student Attitude Inventory (SAI). The inventory was developed in Britain

and contains 47 items which attempt to identify students in higher education on the basis of: (1)

motivation, (2) study methods, (3) examination technique, and (4) lack of distractions toward

academic work. Students in six Kentucky community colleges were asked to express their

attitudes toward study habits on the Student Attitude Inventory. There were 996 students in the

sample population (413 males and 583 females). A measure of ability (composite American

College Test score) and academic performance (cumula grade-point average) were obtained for

each student sampled. The Student Attitude Inventory did contribute a statistically significant

amount of variance beyond an ability measure for males and females. ( Mark E. Thompson,

2005). According to Mark Crilly (2000), Successful students are able to balance social activities

with good study habits. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from

becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour

after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with a new

acquaintance. For this way, that student will find concentration when he does study, if he plans a

social activity afterwards. He said, To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study

habits. After supper, lug your book sand homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet

niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or

so. Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space

with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Mark said.

Breus (2006) research studies demonstrate that daytime sleepiness from chronic sleep

deprivation and poor quality sleep has significant impacts on daytime behavior and academic

performance, as well as concentration, attention, and mood. Even 20 fewer minutes of needed

sleep may significantly affect behavior in many areas. One study showed that those

students with Cs, Ds and Fs got about 25 fewer minutes of sleep and went to bed an average of

40 minutes later than A and B students. From elementary school through high school and

beyond, a great many of our children are chronically sleep-deprived. With more than 2/3 of all

children having some kind of sleep problem, and most adolescents not getting enough sleep,

many will struggle to meet the barrage of new challenges, demands, and emotions of a new

school year. It is not widely recognized and appreciated just how pervasive and critical quality

sleep is for brain development and how it directly influences daytime functioning, performance,

mood and behavior.

Conceptual Framework


Time Management
Study Environment Study Habits
Use of Social Media

The independent variables of the study, including time management, study environment,

and use of social media, influences the dependent variable which is the study habits.

Gestalt psychology mentions the Law of Proximity which he tends to form groups

according to the way they are spaced, with the nearer once being grouped together (Tria,et Al.

1998). When applied to learning, regular and instantaneous study periods tend to result in a

better performance than inconsistent study periods do.

Thorndikes Law of Exercise further supports this kind of principle stating that, other

things being equal, the more frequent a modifiable connection between a situation and response

is used, the stronger is the connection.


When a connection between a situation and a response is not being used for a period of

time, the connection weakens. As to learning, a student who stimulates regular study periods

tends to develop certain methods in studying to enhance academic performance.

This study focuses on the factors affecting study habits and how it affects the academic

performance of the Senior High School students of Davao Doctors College. In this view, the

researchers want to study the factors which affect the study habits.

Theoretical Framework

This study is based on Gestalts Field theory. The word Gestalt means pattern, it

expresses the idea of perceptual whole, or a total pattern. The Gestalt Theory of Learning was

first formulated in Germany about 1912. Prominent names associated with Gestalt Psychology

include; Werthemeimer Koffka and Kohler.

Gestalt learning principles include the following, among others:

Teachers should try to develop into children an integrated approach to learning and the

solution of problems. Learning will be more meaningful if children can establish a

relationship among different aspects of knowledge.

Children should be encouraged in order to facilitate their interaction with the


The learner should be encouraged to set their own goals for learning.

Divergent as well as convergent thinking should be present among children.

The learner should be presented with the figure ground relations so that we can see the

inter-relatedness among phenomena.


Educational relevance of Gestalt theory indicates the need for considering the whole but also

the details with the environment. This implies that in understanding the academic performance of

a students, the environment which stimulates certain study skills, study techniques , use of

instructional materials and teaching method should be considered to know the perception and

understanding of a lesson by student. Hence, appropriate teaching method, good questioning

technique, practical teaching and relevant instructional material are necessary for development of

study techniques and improved performance (Ugboaja, 2004).

Secondly, the role of a teacher to assist the student is emphasized. A teacher collects

academic data on students, they include, students scores on academic achievement, study

techniques, special academic talents, learning, difficulties, class attendance and educational they

may necessary for insight or perceptional process of learning.

Another relevant of gestalt theory is that knowledge should be graded in a hierarchical way

to enable children at least obtain some glimpses of the problem before they mature to figure out

the whole solution.

Learners should be introduced from simple to complex problems to facilitate learning (lyany-

Abia, 2005). Gestalt theory takes into account factors such as motivation, maturation level of

student experience, background of the learners, the learners intelligent and interest.

The above factors explain the degree in which students can be influenced to form study

techniques and improve in academic performance.


Definition of Terms

Academic Performance extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their

educational goals

Senior High School Students the learners of the additional two years of the k to 12 program of

the Department of Education

Social Media are computer-mediated technologies that allow the creating and sharing of

information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and


Study Habits the behaviors used when preparing for tests or learning academic material.

Study Environment the process of organizing and planning how to divide your time between

specific activities.

Time Management the process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount

of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or




Research Design

This study will use the phenomenological design in its attempt to determine, describe,

and analyze relationships between time management, study environment, and use of social media

to the independent variable which is the study habits.

Respondents of the Study

The study will have Senior High School students who are enrolled during the recent

school year at Davao Doctors College. The 20 percent of the total population will be the sample

size of the study. The sample population is 92 taken the total from the 462 Senior High School

students of Davao Doctors College. All of the participants will be selected through simple

stratified random sampling. This sampling method is conducted where each member of a

population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. In order to conduct this

sampling strategy, the researcher will divide first the population into different strata- students

who belong to their respective tracks Accountancy, Business, and Management (ABM),

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Humanities and Social Sciences

(HUMSS) and the General Academic Strand (GAS).

Instrument of the Study

For this study, the researchers design a self-administered questionnaire for the data

gathering process to achieve the main objective of the study. The primary aim of the

questionnaire is to determine the respondents profile according to: (1) Time Management (2)

Study Environment (3) Usage of Social Media. This research will use a mixture of closed

questions and open comments in the questionnaire. A closed question is one that has pre-coded

answers. The simplest is the dichotomous question to which the respondent must answer yes or

no. Through closed questions, the researcher will be able to limit responses that are within the

scope of this study.

Survey Questionnaire

Name: _____________________

Track&Section: ______________

Age: ______Gender: _______ Date: _________


Please put check () on the space that corresponds to what you are actually doing, thinking, and

feeling regarding the statement. There are no right and wrong answers to the following questions.

Rest assured that your answers will be treated in strictest way and will be used only for this


1. What is your average grade?

A _____ A- ______ B______ B- ______ C______ D______

2. How far in advance do you start studying for exam?

One month ____ Two weeks______ One week _____ Days before_____ The night


3. What time of day do you do the most studying?

Morning (6 a.m. to noon _____ Afternoon (noon to 6 p.m.) _____ Evening (6 p.m. to 9 p.m.)

_____ Night (9 p.m. to 12 a.m.) _____ Late night (12 a.m. to 6 a.m.) _____

4. On average, how many hours do you study for exam?

20-24 hours ______ 15-19 hours_______10-14 hours _______ 5-9 hours ________ 1-4 hours


5. What is your favorite way to study?

Repeating points out loud _____ Writing index/flash cards_______ Writing outlines _______

Highlighting text ______ Studying in a group _______ Others (Please Specify) : ___________

6. Where is your favorite place to study?

Dorm room _____ Bedroom _______ Library ______ Coffee shop _______ Parents home

______ Campuspub/bar _____ Students hub _______ Others (Please Specify):_____________

7. What is your favorite study break?

Exercise _______ Watching TV/movie ____Surfing the Internet _______ Napping _________

Socializing ______ Playing video games ______ Praying/meditating ______ Others (Please


8. Which of the following social media tools do you use? (Choose all that apply)


Instagram_____ Others (Please Specify):_______

9. How many hours do you spend in using these social media?

1-2 hours_______ 2-4 hours _______ 5-6 hours __________ 6-10 hours_______ Others(Please


10. Do you believe that your social media habits have negatively influence your study habits?

Yes______ No_________

11. Do you believe that your social media habits have positively influence your study habits?

Yes_______ No _______



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