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LTE Air Interface

Frame 1 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text (OST) Visual description for
media developer
INTRODUCTION
1m1 In this module, you will In this module, you will learn GLOBAL: All visuals
learn about: about: provided are just for
reference and should be
re-created.

1m2 Channel coding, Channel coding, Sync OST with VO


multiplexing and multiplexing and
interleaving processes interleaving
<pause> processes
1m3 Concepts of channel Concepts of channel Sync OST with VO
coding and Forward Error coding and FEC
Correction <pause> (Forward Error
Correction)
1m4 Radio Interface Structure Radio Interface Sync OST with VO
<pause> Structure
1m5 Physical Layer Structure Physical Layer Sync OST with VO
<pause> Structure
1m6 Modulation Schemes in Modulation Schemes Sync OST with VO
Long Term Evolution in LTE
<pause>
1m7 Long Term Evolution Radio LTE Radio Interface Sync OST with VO
Interface Protocol Stack Protocol Stack
<pause>
Frame 2 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text Visual description for media developer
(OST)
IMPORTANCE OF DATA PROTECTION
2m1 For any For any
communication communication
method to work method to
properly, data work properly,
transmitted by a data
transmitter should transmitted by
reach the receiver, a transmitter
without any error. should reach
the receiver,
without any
error.
Please show data moving from A to B. Make an
animation.
2m2 To ensure this, all To ensure this, Keep same visual as 2m1 and show a lock in between.
communication all That lock should appear when the VO is data
standards use communication protection.
some concept of standards use
data protection. some concept
of data
protection.

2m3 You will learn


different
mechanisms used
by the LTE
technology
standard for the
error correction
over noisy or
unreliable data
transmission
medium such as
air. Make an animation by first making all the objects
visible on screen and then, showing transmission
between them.
Frame Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text (OST) Visual description for media developer
3
CONCEPT OF CHANNEL CODING
3m1 Lets start with Concept of Channel Sync OST with VO.
the concept of Coding
channel coding.
3m2 Channel coding Channel coding technique
technique is a is a process which is
process which is followed at both ends of
followed at both the transmission system
ends of the in any digital
transmission communication
system in any technology.
digital
communication Keep the image static and highlight both A and
technology. B when VO says both ends of the
transmission system in any digital
communication technology.
3m3 The basic
methodology
behind the
channel coding
technique is to
add extra parity
bits to be
compared with
the original
digital data.
3m4 These parity bits
are used to
identify the
errors that occur
during the
transmission of Update text in diagram, Single Bit Changed
data from one During Transmission and Calculated Parity
node to another. Bits Disagree, Indicating the Row and Column
of the Error
3m5 There are two There are two types of Sync with OST.
types of coding coding algorithms:
algorithms:
3m6 Block codes, Block Codes
which adds fixed
parity bits
known to both
the transmitter
and the receiver.
Separate
registers are
there for the
original data and
the parity bits.
3m7 Convolutional Convolutional
codes, which Codes
uses memory
and the original
data as parity
bit, keeping
same register for
both data and
parity bits.
3m8 This is similar to
taking few
additional
pictures,
thinking that
some of them
might be of bad
quality.

Show 4-5 pictures and then cross any 2 of


them.

Frame 4 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text (OST) Visual description for media
developer
CHANNEL CODING TECHNIQUIES
4m1 There are two different There are two different
policies to make use of policies to make use of
channel coding for the channel coding:
improvement of any
communication system,

4m2 Automatic Repeat Automatic Repeat


Request or ARQ Request (ARQ)
4m3 In ARQ, the system will ARQ
ask for a re-
transmission of data, in System will ask for a re-
case any error is transmission of data, in
identified in the case any error is identified
received data. in the received data.
4m4 Forward Error Forward Error
Correction or FEC Correction (FEC)

4m5 In FEC, the system will FEC Keep same visual as 4m4.
fix the error prone data,
if the errors are System will fix the error
identified at the time of prone data, if the errors are
reception of digital identified at the time of
data. reception of digital data.
4m6 Lets study FEC in detail.

Frame 5 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text (OST) Visual description for media
developer
FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION OR FEC
5m1 The concept of FEC was The concept of FEC was
brought in by the brought in by the American
American mathematician Richard
mathematician Richard Hamming, who invented
Hamming, who invented the first FEC code in 1950
the first FEC code in and was named as
1950 and was named as Hamming (7, 4) codes.
Hamming (7, 4) codes.
5m2 This technique is used FEC Technique:
for controlling and
correcting the data Used for controlling and
transmitted over any correcting the data
unreliable medium or transmitted over any
on a noisy channel like unreliable medium or on a
wireless medium. noisy channel like wireless
medium.
5m3 FEC follows the
mechanism in which
some error correction
bits are added along
with digital data and the
redundant copies of the
same are transmitted
simultaneously over the
noisy channel.
5m4 Since the parity bits are Keep same visual as 5m4 and
known to both, highlight errors.
transmitter as well as
the receiver, the errors
in the original data can
be easily identified and
corrected.
5m5 The main advantage of Advantage: Sync OST with VO.
using FEC method is that
it removes the need of a Removes call for a
reverse channel for the reverse channel for
re-transmission of data, data re-
in case of an error transmission.
during the data
transmission.
5m6 The disadvantage of Disadvantage: Sync OST with VO.
using FEC is that it is an
overhead to the An overhead to the
available bandwidth, available
since the same amount bandwidth.
of bandwidth which was
used to transmit the
parity bits and the
redundant codes, can be
used to transmit the
original data.

Frame 6 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text (OST) Visual description for media
developer
DIFFERENT METHODS OF FEC: CONVOLUTIONAL CODES
6m1 Different types of FEC Different types of FEC Sync OST with VO.
methods used in LTE are: methods used in LTE are:
6m2 Convolution coding for 1. Convolution coding Sync OST with VO.
the signaling data for the signaling data
2. Interleaving
Interleaving 3. Turbo coding for the
user data
Turbo coding for the user 4. HARQ
data

HARQ
6m3 Convolutional codes are Convolutional Codes
used to map the
signaling data in LTE They are used to map the
along with some codes, signaling data in LTE along
defined by the DSP with some codes, defined by
circuits. the DSP circuits.
6m4 They make use of some Keep same visual as 6m2.
shift registers with a pre-
defined algorithm and
add patterns of
redundancy to the data.
6m5 Lets take an example to
better understand this
concept.
6m6 Suppose you need to 1101 XOR 1 = 0010 Sync OST with VO.
transmit one one zero
one. For this, you take a
parity bit one, which will Parity Bit
be compared with the
original data and
Exclusive OR operation 0010 will be transmitted
and the combination of three times as
both will be sent 3 times. 0010 0010 0010
1 2 3

6m7 Due to unreliable noisy You received Sync OST with VO.
channel at the receivers 0010 1010 0010
end, you received 0010
1010 0010
6m8 By comparing the parity 0010 0010 0010 Sent Sync OST with VO.
bit at the receiver end,
the system can very 0010 1010 0010 Received
easily identify that an
error has occurred on
the fifth bit and will Error
rectify the same by
averaging out the three
versions.

Frame Voice Over On-Screen Visual description for media developer


7 (VO) Text (OST)
DIFFERENT METHODS OF FEC: INTERLEAVING
7m1 Interleaving Interleaving Sync OST with VO
is a very
powerful FEC A very
method powerful
which FEC method,
increases the which
reliability of increases
the signal the
without reliability of
adding any the signal
overhead on without
the adding any
transmission overhead on
bandwidth. the
transmission
bandwidth.
7m2 Lets take an Transmitter: Suppose we need to transmit 16-bit data.
example to
understand
the concept
of
interleaving.
Suppose we
need to
transmit 16-
bit data.
7m3 The data is
read in by
rows and
read out by
columns. We
first read
them into a 4
by 4 matrix.
7m4 Now, we After
perform Interleaving:
interleaving
on this data
stream.

The data is
read out by
columns.

7m5 As you can Keep same visual as 7m4.


see, the
original data
stream is re-
ordered so
that adjacent
bits are now
separated in
the output
stream. This
re-ordering
of data is
what we call
as
interleaving.
7m6 While its
interesting to
understand
what
interleaving
is, it is more
important to
know how it
increases the
reliability of
the signal.

7m7 When error


occurs during
transmission,
it usually
remains for a
significant
amount time.
Hence, a
series of
consecutive
bits are lost.
Lets assume
in our
example that
this drop in
signal
resulted in
loss of 3
consecutive
bits.
7m8 This is not
good as de-
coder will not
be able to
recover the
original data.

7m9 But, when De-


the receiver interleaving:
de-
interleaves
the incoming
stream of
data, the
errors are no
longer
consecutive.
7m10 Hence, due
to
interleaving,
the
probability of
the de-coder
recovering
the original
data is very
high.

Frame Voice Over On-Screen Visual description for media developer


8 (VO) Text (OST)
DIFFERENT METHODS OF FEC: TURBO CODING
8m1 Turbo coding, Turbo Coding Make an animation showing steps.
another FEC
method, uses Uses two
two different different
convolutional convolutional
coders along coders along
with one with one
interleaver, to interleaver, to
give two give two
different different
versions of versions of
the same the same data
data stream, stream, re-
re-arranged arranged
randomly. randomly.
8m2 The already
available
techniques
like
convolutional
codes and
interleaving
were part of
earlier
standards like
GSM.

8m3 Turbo codes


were used in
3GPP only
after the first
version of
UMTS, R99.

8m4 The type of


turbo coding
used in LTE is
still
unchanged.

8m5 By looking at Same figure as 8m1.


the figure,
one can make
out that
turbo coding
technique
adds
together,
advantages of
both coding
and
interleaving
but put in a
delay in the
transmission
of data.
8m6 Thats the Divide screen into 2 halves and show same figure as 8m1 on
reason why left and below figure on right.
turbo coding
technique is
used for user
data, and not
for signaling
data.

Sync with VO.

Frame 9 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text Visual description for media developer
(OST)
DIFFERENT METHODS OF FEC: RATE MATCHING
9m1 Before going to
HARQ, lets
understand rate
matching.

9m2 Rate Matching is Rate Matching


a very old FEC
technique used
in 2G and 3G.
9m3 Standard and
basics behind
rate matching is
fixed size of the
physical resource
block, for
example PRB
180KHz.
9m4 Hence, data
block needs to
be matched,
after transport
processing is
done on them.
9m5 When
interleaving
coding is done on
users digital
data, available
data rates need
to be matched
with the
available physical
channels and its
capabilities,
according to the
modulation and
coding rates used
and the number
of PRBs available.
9m6 The processes http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6744744-0-
used for rate large.jpg
matching are
puncturing data,
wherein you take
out some least
significant bits
from the
available data
and bit stuffing,
in which you
repeat the
available data, if
it is less than the
transport block
size.

Frame Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text Visual description for media developer
10 (OST)
DIFFERENT METHODS OF FEC: HARQ
10m1 Hybrid Automatic Hybrid Sync OST with VO
Repeat reQuest Automatic
or HARQ Repeat reQuest
technique is used
for the HARQ technique
retransmission of is used for the
data, in case the retransmission
previously of data, in case
received block the previously
hasnt reached received block
the receiver hasnt reached
without any error. the receiver
without any
error.
10m2 Lets consider an Explain this concept by making an animation.
example in which
package [1] is
being
transmitted.
If package [1] is
'OK' then the
receiver sends an
'ACK'.
10m3 The transmission
continues, and is
sent a package
[2]. The package
[2] arrives, but
with errors. If the
package [2]
arrives with
errors, the
receiver sends a
'NACK'.
10m4 Only now this
package [2] (bad)
is not thrown
away, as it is done
in conventional
ARQ. It is stored
in a 'buffer'.

10m5 Continuing, the


transmitter sends
another package
[2.1]. Suppose
that it also arrives
with errors.
10m6 And there is
another
retransmission.
Now the
transmitter
sends a third
package [2.2].

Let's consider
that now it is
'OK', and the
receiver sends
an 'ACK'.

Please note that


buffer is storing
the error
packages [2]
and [2.1].

10m7 Spare: This part is kind of additional information and is


optional for students. Make it appear as a clickable
HARQ techniques are used only by icon on screen. No audio will come for this info.
UL SCH transport channel.

Fram Voice On-Screen Visual description for media developer


e 11 Over (VO) Text (OST)
MODULATION IN LTE
11m Lets study
1 the
modulatio
n schemes
used in
LTE.

11m Modulatio Modulatio Sync OST with VO.


2 n is a n is a
method of method of
multiplexi multiplexi
ng high ng high
frequency frequency
carrier carrier
with with
required required
analog or analog or
digital digital
baseband baseband
signal, so signal, so
that the that the
baseband baseband
signal can signal can
be be
transporte transporte
d to the d to the
other end, other end,
taking the taking the
advantage advantage
of a high of a high
frequency frequency
carrier. carrier.
11m There are
3 many
modulatio
n
technique
s available
and each
one has
some pros
and cons
associated
with
them.

11m For http://www.hill2dot0.com/wiki/images/thumb/c/c4/MLG0011-


4 instance, amplitude-modulation.jpg/400px-MLG0011-amplitude-modulation.jpg
in
amplitude
modulatio
n where in
the
amplitude
of the
carrier
symbols
are
modulate
d with
respected
to the
base band
signal.
11m But the
5 problem is
that it is
not
resilient to
the
external
noise,
since the
noise
always
resides on
the top of
the
amplitude
and
clipping
the noise
will be Change this.
very
difficult.
11m The http://www.google.co.in/url?sa
6 frequency =i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=im
modulatio ages&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&doci
n on the d=WY4cPER4enB6uM&tbnid=bLZ
other Z7HmNRY4IWM:&ved=0CAUQjR
hand w&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsimple.wi
provides kipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FFrequency
better _modulation&ei=UBuDU9jLJc6Tu
quality as ASC_oHgBw&psig=AFQjCNEsf5UJ
the 6k_3U7xScr7ALTmRsU302g&ust=1401
amplitude 187524234767
of the
carrier
wave
remains
the same
but then
the
circuitry is
complex.
11m Hence, http://www.ni.com/cms/images/devzone/tut/dhall_analog_modulatio
7 phase n.JPG
modulatio
n became
very
popular
with
digital
baseband
signals, as
in this
type of
modulatio
n, the
amplitude
as well as
the
frequency
of the
carrier
wave
remains
the same.

Frame Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Visual description for media developer
12 Text (OST)
MODULATION SCHEMES USED IN LTE
12m1 Based on phase Based on
modulation, phase
different modulation,
modulation different
schemes are modulation
used in LTE: schemes are
used in LTE:
12m2 QPSK <pause> QPSK
In this, there
are four
different
transition levels
available and all
of them have
same
amplitude.
12m3 So,
corresponding
to four different
levels, you can
have four
different
phases, which
means two
different bits
can be
modulated in
one QPSK
symbol. This is
because one bit
can have two
values, zero and
one.

12m4 Since all the Keep same visual as 12m3 and blink the below diagram,
amplitudes in sinking it with the VO.
all four states
are the same,
this type of
modulation
scheme is
considered as
the most robust
modulation
scheme used in
LTE.

12m5 Some important Keep same visual as 12m3 and blink the below diagram,
signaling that sinking it with the VO.
requires priority
delivery always
uses QPSK
modulation
scheme.
12m6 This modulation
scheme is
robust but can
carry only 2 bits
per symbol
which is less
than 16 QAM
and 64 QAM,
which can carry
4 bits and 6 bits
per symbols,
respectively.
12m7 Sixteen QAM 16 QAM
<pause>
In this
modulation
scheme, you
have same four
phases but in
each phase, you
can have four
different
amplitude levels
available, which
means 4 cross
4, that is, 16
different
transition levels,
which in other
words means
that you can
modulate 4 bits
per symbol.
12m8 Sixteen QAM is
not as robust as
QPSK and
requires certain
good radio
conditions, in
terms of signal
to noise ratio.
12m9 But it is
certainly more
robust than
sixty four QAM,
which contain
16 different
amplitudes.

12m10 Sixty four QAM 64 QAM


<pause>

This technique
has 64 different
transition level
s, which comes
from the
multiplication of
4 phases and 16
different
amplitude levels
per phase.

12m11 This type of 2^6 = 64


modulation
scheme is the
highest
throughput
generator in LTE
specifications
since six bits per
symbol can be
mapped.

12m12 But again,


because of 16
different
amplitudes, this
modulation
scheme
requires the
best radio
conditions and
only those
privileged users,
which are in
extremely good
radio conditions
in terms of
Signal to noise
ratio, will be
able to use this
type of
modulation
scheme.
12m13 The LTE network
can use any one
of these
modulation
schemes to
transmit the
data, based on
channel quality
being
experienced by
the UE in LTE
communication.

Frame Voice Over On- Visual description for media developer


13 (VO) Screen
Text (OST)
RESOURCE BLOCK AND RESOURCE GRID OF LTE
13m1 LTE Resource LTE Sync OST with VO.
Block and Resource
Resource Block
Grid for UL and
and DL. Resource
Grid for
UL and DL
13m2 You must be
clear with
the concept
of type 1
FDD, and
type 2, the
TDD version
of OFDMA
and SC-
FDMA
frames.
13m3 But it is
important to
note that the
smallest unit
on which
allocation
are done in
lte, is a
combination
of 12
subcarriers
together for
0.5 ms,
called as one
physical
resource
block.
13m4 Therefore, The size Keep same visual as 13m3.
one chunk of of one
12 PRB = 12
subcarrier, x 15KHz =
each one for 180 KHz.
15 KHz for
0.5 sec,
makes it one
physical
resource
block. The
size of one
PRB is 12
cross 15 KHz,
which is
equal to 180
KHz.
13m5 Just by
looking at
the formula,
one can
easily make
out that one
PRB has a
relation in
both,
frequency
domain,
which is
15Khz, and
time domain
one slot,
which is 0.5
ms.
13m6 You can see
that this
figure
corresponds
to one slot of
0.5 ms,
containing 6
or 7 OFDMA
symbols.

13m7 This one Keep same visual as 13m6.


symbol out
of 6 or 7
OFDMA
symbols is
nothing but
one
Resource
element.
This is the
smallest
theoretical
allocation
unit in LTE
which is
equivalent
to, one
symbol on
one
subcarrier.
13m8 For example,
this value
will be equal
to 2 bits in
case of QPSK
and 6 in case
of 64 QAM.

13m9 The number


of resource
element s
combined,
makes one
physical
resource
block.
Frame Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text Visual description for media developer
14 (OST)
RADIO INTERFACE PROTOCOL STACK OF LTE: USER
PLANE
14m1 LTE Radio LTE Radio Sync OST with VO.
Interface Interface
Protocol Stack Protocol Stack
14m2 The radio
interface protocol
stack of LTE is
defined for the
control plane to
carry signaling
messages, etc.,
and user plane to
carry actual
payload or user
data.

14m3 Protocol stack is


divided into three
layers:

14m4 User plane: in User Plane


user plane, the
architecture of In user plane, the
radio interface architecture of
protocol stack is radio interface
divided into protocol stack is
layers. divided into
different layers.

14m5 Layer 1 is physical Keep same visual as 14m4 and keep on highlighting
layer, according to VO.
14m6 Layer 2 is data Keep same visual as 14m4 and keep on highlighting
link layer, which according to VO.
is further divided
into Packet Data
Convergence
Protocol or PDCP,
Radio Link
Control or RLC,
and Medium
Access Control or
MAC layers.
14m7 In layer 3, you Keep same visual as 14m4 and keep on highlighting
have TCP/IP or according to VO.
UDP protocol,
which connects
the users data
from the
application
layers, to the
layer 2, with
PDCP.
14m8 Next, you will see
the difference of
each layer and
sub-layer and
how it works for
the user plane as
well as for the
control plane.

Frame Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text Visual description for media developer
15 (OST)
RADIO INTERFACE PROTOCOL STACK OF LTE: CONTROL
PLANE
15m1 Control plane: Control Plane Keep same visual as 14m2.
The protocol
stack The protocol
architecture of stack
LTE for the architecture of
control plane is LTE for the
basically used control plane is
for the signaling basically used
messages like for the signaling
mobility messages like
management, mobility
attachment management,
procedure attachment
authentication, procedure
and setting up authentication,
of the data and setting up
bearers. of the data
bearers.
15m2 Ciphering Keep same visual as 14m2.
integrity check
all of these
features that
come under the
C-Plane of
protocol stack
structure of the
LTE.
15m3 Unlike U plane,
it also contacts
the MME, by
NAS signaling
MME related
decisions.
15m4 RRC layer and
NAS signaling
are the extra
layers used in C-
Plane, but not
in the U-Plane
of LTE protocol
stack.

Frame Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text Visual description for media developer
16 (OST)
RADIO INTERFACE PROTOCOL STACK OF LTE: PHYSICAL
LAYERS
16m1 Physical Layers Physical Layers Sync OST with VO.
which performs
the actual data
transmission over
the air interface,
does not keep
any track of the
logic of
information it is
sending.
16m2 This is similar to Show a courier boy, delivering courier.
any courier boy,
who is unaware
of whats carried
inside the packet,
which he is
supposed to
deliver to the
recipient.

16m3 The data Sync with OST and show the below image in right
transmission on side.
the L1, or the
physical layer of
LTE is performed
by the physical
channels like
PDSCH, PBCH,
etc. which you
will study in
details in the next
module.
16m4 Point here to Make an animation according to VO.
notice is that LTE
uses OFDMA
interface for the
DL transmission,
and DFTS-OFDMA
or SC-FDMA for
the UL
transmission on
15Khz subcarrier
spacing.
16m5 It has common
functionalities for
both the user
plane as well as
for the control
plane.

16m6 But there are Make an animation according to VO.


certain signals in
Physical layer like
DL reference
signals, DL
Synchronization
signals and UL
demodulation
signals, etc.
which has no
interconnection
with the higher
layers of protocol
stack and they
are directly used
by the RRC layer
to make certain
decisions.

Frame 17 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text (OST) Visual description for
media developer
RADIO INTERFACE PROTOCOL STACK OF LTE: LAYER 2
17m1 Layer 2: the layer two of Make an animation
protocol stack of LTE is according to VO.
further divided into three
different subparts.

17m2 Packet Data Convergence Packet Data Convergence Sync OST with VO.
Protocol or PDCP: PDCP Protocol (PDCP)
has different set of
functionalities for both the PDCP has different set of
user plane as well as for functionalities for both the
the control plane. user plane as well as for the
control plane.
17m3 For the user plan,
PDCP is used for the IP
header compression and
decompression, by using a
new technique called as
Robust Header
Compression or ROHC,
since we know that every
IP packet is required to
have a header along with
the payload, which
contains certain
information about the IP
addresses of sender and
the receiver.
17m4 Also, the length and the Make an animation
TTI of the IP packets which according to VO.
takes certain data in the
transmission channel
bandwidth as an overhead
and in most of the case in
user transfer of data like
FTP file transfer, the
header of mostly all the
packets are same.
17m5 Hence, by using a Make an animation
standardized method of according to VO.
ROHC, you can compress
the header, which was of
as big as 20 octets to 1 or
2 octets for the user plane

17m6 It is also used for the Make an animation


ciphering of user data, as according to VO.
well as it helps in transfer
of the user data.
17m7 It is important to note that Make an animation
ROHC technique can be according to VO.
used to compress header
of IP, TCP and UDP
headers for the control
plane.
17m8 On the other hand, PDCP Make an animation
is used for the Integrity according to VO.
protection and the
ciphering to make sure
that the data transmission
takes place without any
error on the receiver side.
17m9 The header compression Make an animation
does not takes place in according to VO.
signaling, that is why
ROHC is not required for
the control plane.
17m10 The transfer of PDCP data Make an animation
takes place on radio according to VO.
bearers. The PDCP also
provide the packet data
units or PDUs to the RLC
AM mode in sequences,
which is discussed next.
Frame 18 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text (OST) Visual description for
media developer
RADIO INTERFACE PROTOCOL STACK OF LTE: RLC
18m1 Radio Link Control or RLC: Radio Link Control (RLC) Sync OST with VO.
The basic function of radio
link control layer is to do The basic function of radio
segmentation of packet link control layer is to do
data units or PDUs and segmentation of packet data
service data units or SDUs. units (PDUs) and service data
Also, re-segmentation in units (SDUs).
case retransmission is
possible as in AM data
transfer.
18m2 This layer also maps the Make an animation
radio bearers with their according to VO.
corresponding logical
channels, and the transfer
in this layer takes place via
logical channels.
18m3 Each radio bearer in LTE Make an animation
have one RLC function according to VO.
working behind it, in any
of the available three
modes which are as
under:
18m4 Transparent Mode or TM 1. Transparent Mode Sync OST with VO.
mode is usable in real (TM)
time services, and it
doesnt provide any This is usable in real time
feedback. No services and it doesnt
retransmission takes place provide any feedback.
in this mode but is very
fast.
18m5 Unacknowledged Mode or 2. Unacknowledged Sync OST with VO.
UM: In this mode as well, Mode (UM)
the retransmission is not
possible but feedback is In this mode as well, the
provided in terms of error retransmission is not possible
stats like BLER, and but feedback is provided in
therefore this mode is terms of error stats like BLER,
used for the signaling and therefore this mode is
purpose. used for the signaling
purpose.
18m6 Acknowledge Mode or 3. Acknowledge Mode Sync OST with VO.
AM: In this mode of RLC, (AM)
the retransmission by
using ARQ is possible In this mode of RLC, the
which can be used for the retransmission by using ARQ
error correction and is possible which can be used
hence this mode is made for the error correction.
useful in non real time Hence, this mode is made
data usage like FTP or useful in non-real time data
Facebook. usage, like FTP or Facebook.

Frame 19 Voice Over (VO) On-Screen Text (OST) Visual description for
media developer
RADIO INTERFACE PROTOCOL STACK OF LTE: MAC
19m1 Medium Access Control or Medium Access Control Sync OST with VO.
MAC: The MAC layer in (MAC)
layer 2 of LTE protocol
stack is a very important The MAC layer in layer 2 of
layer which provides LTE protocol stack is a very
functionalities like important layer which
scheduling of dynamic provides functionalities like
resources of time, and scheduling of dynamic
frequency domain in LTE. resources of time, and
frequency domain in LTE.
19m2 Since in LTE, there are no Make an animation
dedicated physical according to VO.
channels, so the time and
the frequency resources
have to be dynamically
shared between different
user and application in DL
and UL.
19m3 The basic time and Make an animation
frequency resource unit in according to VO.
LTE is called as the
physical resource block or
PRB, which is assigned to
different DL and UL users
and applications.
19m4 The scheduler which is Make an animation
located in the e-node B according to VO.
dynamically, after every 1
ms which is time period
for one sub-frame, finds
out which user or
application needs the
resources.
19m5 This is found with the help Make an animation
of the measurement according to VO.
reports provided by the
UE, so the user with better
channel quality will
receive more resources.
19m6 The MAC layer is used to Make an animation
map logical channels to according to VO.
the transport channels.
19m7 MAC layer is also used for Make an animation
the multiplexing and de- according to VO.
multiplexing of the radio
link control PDUs and
provides the priority to
the logical channels.