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Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 1 of 277

Adam G. Kelly (IL 6277772)


1 (Pro Hac Vice to be filed)
akelly@loeb.com
2 William J. Voller III (IL 6287608)
(Pro Hac Vice to be filed)
3 wvoller@loeb.com
John A. Cotiguala (IL 6311056)
4 (Pro Hac Vice to be filed)
jcotiguala@loeb.com
5 LOEB & LOEB LLP
321 North Clark Street, Suite 2300
6 Chicago, Illinois 60654
Telephone: (312) 464-3100
7
Jimmie W. Pursell, Jr. - 19957
8 jpursell@jsslaw.com
Lindsay G. Leavitt 029110
9 lleavitt@jsslaw.com
JENNINGS, STROUSS & SALMON, P.L.C.
10 A Professional Limited Liability Company
One East Washington Street
11 Suite 1900
Phoenix, Arizona 85004-2554
12 Telephone: (602) 262-5911

13 Attorneys for Plaintiff, Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC


14 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

15 FOR THE DISTRICT OF ARIZONA

16 Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, No.

17 Plaintiff, COMPLAINT

18 vs. (Jury Trial Demanded)

19 Taylor Made Golf Company, Inc.,

20 Defendant.

21 Plaintiff, Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC (PXG), alleges as follows for its
22 Complaint against Defendant TaylorMade Golf Company, Inc. (TaylorMade):
23 PARTIES, JURISDICTION AND VENUE
24 PARTIES
25 1. Plaintiff PXG is now, and has been at all relevant times, a Delaware
26 limited liability company, having its principal place of business in Scottsdale,
27 Arizona. PXG is properly registered in Arizona as a foreign limited liability
28 company authorized to do business in Arizona.
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 2 of 277

1 2. Defendant TaylorMade is now, and has been at all relevant times, a


2 Delaware corporation having its principal place of business in Carlsbad, California.
3 JURISDICTION AND VENUE
4 3. This civil action includes claims for patent infringement arising under
5 the Patent Act of the United States, 35 U.S.C. 1-376.
6 4. This Court has subject matter jurisdiction over this action under 28

7 U.S.C. 1331 and 1338.


8 5. This Court has personal jurisdiction over TaylorMade and venue is

9 proper in this District under 28 U.S.C. 1400(b), because TaylorMade sells or offers
10 to sell infringing products in this District and maintains a regular and established
11 place of business located within the District, specifically a factory outlet store that is,
12 upon information and belief, owned and operated by TaylorMade located at 6401 W.
13 Marana Center Blvd, Ste. 127, Tucson, Arizona.
14 ALLEGATIONS COMMON TO ALL PATENT INFRINGEMENT COUNTS

15 PXG INNOVATES THE 0311 IRONS

16 6. PXG, founded in September of 2014 by well-known business man,

17 philanthropist, and avid golfer Bob Parsons (Parsons), was born out of Parsons
18 desire to make the worlds best golf equipment. Sparing no expense and with no cost
19 or time constraints, PXG engaged in the long process of researching various alloys,
20 exploring new technologies, and identifying unique properties that would make PXG
21 clubs unlike anything else. That effort innovated a new technology that PXG

22 implemented to create a revolutionary ironone with an expanded sweet spot,


23 having an ultra-thin club face, and an elastic polymer material injected in the hollow-
24 bodied club head. That iron is not only better-performing, but it sounds and feels
25 great. The golf club incorporating PXGs technology is called the 0311 iron, and it
26 immediately achieved meteoric success among nonprofessional golfers and PGA and
27 LPGA Tour professionals. As PXGs advertisements suggest: Nobody makes golf
28 clubs the way we do. Period.

2
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 3 of 277

1 7. As a result of Parsons passion and PXGs innovation, PXG has


2 developed a global patent portfolio of 128 patents. PXG has also introduced a full
3 line of golf clubs that have forced and continue to force golfers to change the way
4 they think about the game, and PXG has quickly become a premium international
5 brand, with retailers and distributors around the world.
6 8. PXGs flagship product, the 0311 iron, is depicted here:
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 THE PXG PATENTS
15 9. Parsons, Mike Nicolette (Nicolette), and Brad Schweigert
16 (Schweigert) (collectively, the Inventors) are the inventors of a variety of golf
17 club heads and methods of manufacture of golf club heads, many of which have
18 resulted in numerous issued patents.
19 10. One common depiction of a golf club embodiment taught in the
20 Inventors patents is a club at the address position with weight portions below the
21 horizontal midplane of the club head, for example, in Figure 10:
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

3
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 4 of 277

1 11. Another depiction of a golf club embodiment taught in the Inventors


2 patents is a cross-sectional view, which reveals the thin face, elastic polymer material
3 filling the interior cavity, and a weight portion below the midplane:
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 12. On February 24, 2015, the United States Patent and Trademark Office
15 (PTO) issued U.S. Patent No. 8,961,336 (the 336 patent), entitled GOLF
16 CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS to
17 PXG. A true and correct copy of the 336 patent is attached to this Complaint as
18 Exhibit A.
19 13. The 336 patent teaches, without limitation, an iron-type golf club head
20 comprising a hollow body portion with an interior cavity filled with an elastic
21 polymer material, a first weight portion coupled to the hollow body at or proximate
22 to a top-and-toe transition region, and a second weight portion coupled to the hollow
23 body at or proximate to a sole-and-toe transition region, wherein the second weight
24 portion is located below a horizontal midplane of the golf club head.
25 14. On December 1, 2015, the PTO issued U.S. Patent No. 9,199,143 (the
26 143 patent), entitled GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO
27 MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS to PXG. A true and correct copy of the
28 143 patent is attached to this Complaint as Exhibit B.

4
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 5 of 277

1 15. The 143 patent teaches, without limitation, an iron-type golf club head
2 comprising a hollow body portion with an interior cavity filled with an elastic
3 polymer material, a first weight portion coupled to the hollow body at or proximate
4 to a top-and-toe transition region, and a second weight portion coupled to the hollow
5 body at or proximate to a sole-and-toe transition region, wherein the second weight
6 portion is located below a horizontal midplane of the golf club head, and the first
7 weight portion has a mass less than the mass of the second weight portion.
8 16. On May 24, 2016, the PTO issued U.S. Patent No. 9,345,938 (the 938
9 patent), entitled GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO MANUFACTURE
10 GOLF CLUB HEADS to PXG. A true and correct copy of the 938 patent is
11 attached to this Complaint as Exhibit C.
12 17. The 938 patent teaches, without limitation, a golf club head
13 comprising a hollow body portion having a face portion with a thickness of less than
14 or equal to 1.5 millimeters, an elastic polymer material in the interior cavity
15 configured to fill the interior cavity by injection molding, the elastic polymer being
16 attached to the face and configured to structurally support the face portion during
17 impact with a golf ball, and weight portions coupled to the hollow body portion
18 located above and below the horizontal midplane of the golf club head, wherein the
19 weight portions below the horizontal midplane is greater than the weight portion
20 above the horizontal midplane.
21 18. On May 24, 2016, the PTO issued U.S. Patent No. 9,346,203 (the
22 203 patent), entitled GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO
23 MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS to PXG. A true and correct copy of the
24 203 patent is attached to this Complaint as Exhibit D.
25 19. The 203 patent teaches, without limitation, a method for forming a
26 hollow body portion having a toe portion, top portion, sole portion, back portion, and
27 front portion having a face, a first weight portion coupled to the hollow body at or
28 proximate to a top-and-toe transition region, and a second weight portion coupled to

5
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 6 of 277

1 the hollow body at or proximate to a sole-and-toe transition region, wherein the


2 second weight portion is located below a horizontal midplane of the golf club head,
3 and forming an interior cavity comprising an elastic polymer material configured to
4 at least partially absorb impact on the face portion.
5 20. On June 14, 2016, the PTO issued U.S. Patent No. 9,364,727 (the 727
6 Patent), entitled GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO MANUFACTURE
7 GOLF CLUB HEADS to PXG. A true and correct copy of the 727 patent is
8 attached to this Complaint as Exhibit E.
9 21. The 727 patent teaches, without limitation, an iron-type golf club head
10 comprising a hollow body portion with an interior cavity filled with an elastic
11 polymer material injection molded in the interior cavity, a bonding portion, a first
12 weight portion coupled to the hollow body at or proximate to a top-and-toe transition
13 region, and a second weight portion coupled to the hollow body at or proximate to a
14 sole-and-toe transition region, wherein the second weight portion is located below a
15 horizontal midplane of the golf club head, and the second weight portions includes a
16 greater number of weight portions than the first weight portion.
17 22. On January 3, 2016, the PTO issued U.S. Patent No. 9,533,201 (the
18 201 patent), entitled GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO
19 MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS to PXG. A true and correct copy of the
20 201 patent is attached to this Complaint as Exhibit F.
21 23. The 201 patent teaches, without limitation, a golf club head
22 comprising a body portion having a toe portion, a heel portion, a top portion, a sole
23 portion, a back portion with weight portions, and a front portion having a face portion
24 with a thickness being less than or equal to 1.5 millimeters, an interior cavity, a
25 bonding portion, an elastic polymer injection molded in the cavity, wherein the
26 elastic polymer material is bonded to the bonding portion, and a greater number of
27 weight portions are located on the back portion below a horizontal midplane than
28 above the horizontal midplane.

6
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 7 of 277

1 24. On April 4, 2017, the PTO issued U.S. Patent No. 9,610,481 (the 481
2 patent), entitled GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO MANUFACTURE
3 GOLF CLUB HEADS to PXG. A true and correct copy of the 481 patent is
4 attached to this Complaint as Exhibit G.
5 25. The 481 patent teaches, without limitation, a golf club head
6 comprising body portion having an interior cavity filled with an elastic polymer
7 material, wherein an elastic polymer material volume is related to a body portion
8 volume by the equation: 0.2 Ve / Vb 0.5, where Ve is the elastic polymer material
9 volume in units of in3, and Vb is the body portion volume in units of in3, wherein a
10 greater number of weight portions are located on the rear portion below a horizontal
11 midplane than above the horizontal midplane.
12 26. On June 13, 2017, the PTO issued U.S. Patent No. 9,675,853 (the 853
13 patent), entitled GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO MANUFACTURE
14 GOLF CLUB HEADS to PXG. A true and correct copy of the 853 patent is
15 attached to this Complaint as Exhibit H.
16 27. The 853 patent teaches, without limitation, a golf club head
17 comprising a body portion with a front portion having a face portion with a thickness
18 less than or equal to 1.5 millimeters, an interior cavity, an elastic polymer material
19 injection molded in the interior cavity to structurally support the face portion during
20 the impact with a golf ball, and a bonding portion, wherein a greater number of
21 weight portions are located on the back portion of the body below a horizontal
22 midplane than above the horizontal midplane, wherein at least one weight portion of
23 the plurality of weight portions is constructed from different material than the body
24 portion.
25 28. For each patent referenced above, on or about the time of the filing of
26 the patent application, the Inventors assigned their entire right, title, and interest to
27 the patent application to PXG.
28

7
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 8 of 277

1 TAYLORMADE AND THE INFRINGING P790 IRONS


2 29. Among other products, TaylorMade manufactures, offers for sale, sells,
3 imports into the United States, and/or distributes golf clubs under the name P790
4 (P790 Products).
5 30. An example of a P790 Product is depicted here:
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 31. Another examples of a P790 Product from a cross-sectional view are
13 depicted here:
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25 32. Another example of a P790 Product revealing some internal and

26 external components is depicted as follows:


27
28

8
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 9 of 277

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 33. Collectively, these P790 Product depictions reveal an iron-type golf
10 club head with a hollow body portion having a face portion, a toe portion, a top
11 portion, a sole portion, a back portion, and an interior cavity partially or entirely
12 filled with an elastic polymer material TaylorMade calls a Speedfoam. The P790
13 Products have a first weight portion being a screw located in a first weight port at or
14 proximate to the top-to-toe transition region, a second tungsten weight portion
15 located in a second weight port at or proximate to the sole-to-toe transition region
16 and below the horizontal midplane of the club head, and a front portion having a face
17 portion with a thickness being less than, equal to, and/or substantially equivalent to
18 1.5 millimeters.
19 34. Upon information and belief, the P790 Products also include a bonding
20 portion in the interior cavity configured to couple the elastic polymer material to the
21 back portion of the face portion.
22 35. TaylorMades website and advertising materials confirm that each and
23 every element of at least claim 16 of the 336 patent and claim 15 of the 203 patent
24 reads on TaylorMades P790 Products.
25 36. Upon information and belief, each and every element of at least claim
26 15 of the 143 patent, claim 15 of the 938 patent, claim 16 of the 727 patent, claim
27 1 of the 201 patent, claim 1 of the 481 patent, and claim 1 of the 853 patent reads
28 on TaylorMades P790 Products.

9
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 10 of 277

1 37. TaylorMade has offered to sell the infringing P790 Products in Arizona
2 at retail stores, such as the PGA Super Store located in Scottsdale, Arizona, and via
3 TaylorMades website, where consumers within Arizona may pre-order the P790
4 Products with an expected in stock date of September 15, 2017.
5 38. TaylorMade also offered to sell the infringing P790 Products at a
6 fitting event on September 9, 2017, at Talking Stick Resort and Casino in
7 Scottsdale, Arizona, where customers were allowed to select and be fitted for the
8 P790 Products, as well as order those infringing products for delivery upon launch of
9 the product line on September 15, 2017.
10 CAUSES OF ACTION
COUNT I
11 (U.S. Patent No. 8,961,336)
12 39. PXG realleges and incorporates by reference the preceding paragraphs
13 of this Complaint as though fully set forth herein.
14 40. TaylorMade has infringed and continues to infringe directly, by
15 inducement, and/or contributorily by manufacturing, using, selling, offering to sell,
16 or importing golf clubs embodying one or more claims of the 336 patent,
17 specifically, TaylorMades P790 Products, in violation of 35 U.S.C. 271(a)-(c).
18 41. TaylorMades infringement of the 336 patent has been and continues
19 to be willful.
20 42. TaylorMade has and has had actual notice and/or constructive notice of
21 the 336 patent under 35 U.S.C. 287(a).
22 43. TaylorMades acts of infringement of the 336 patent will continue as
23 alleged in this Complaint unless enjoined by the Court.
24 44. As a direct and proximate result of TaylorMades infringement of the
25 336 patent, PXG has suffered and will continue to suffer monetary damages.
26 45. PXG is entitled to recover from TaylorMade the damages sustained by
27 PXG as a result of TaylorMades wrongful acts in an amount to be determined at
28 trial.

10
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 11 of 277

1 46. PXG has suffered irreparable harm as a result of TaylorMades


2 infringement of the 336 patent.
3 47. Unless TaylorMade is enjoined by this Court from continuing its
4 infringement of the 336 patent, PXG will continue to suffer irreparable harm and
5 impairment of the value of its patent rights. Thus, PXG is entitled to a preliminary
6 and permanent injunction against further infringement.
7 COUNT II
(U.S. Patent No. 9,199,143)
8
48. PXG realleges and incorporates by reference the preceding paragraphs
9
of this Complaint as though fully set forth herein.
10
49. TaylorMade has infringed and continues to infringe directly, by
11
inducement, and/or contributorily by manufacturing, using, selling, offering to sell,
12
or importing golf clubs embodying one or more claims of the 143 patent,
13
specifically, TaylorMades P790 Products, in violation of 35 U.S.C. 271(a)-(c).
14
50. TaylorMades infringement of the 143 patent has been and continues
15
to be willful.
16
51. TaylorMade has and has had actual notice and/or constructive notice of
17
the 143 patent under 35 U.S.C. 287(a).
18
52. TaylorMades acts of infringement of the 143 patent will continue as
19
alleged in this Complaint unless enjoined by the Court.
20
53. As a direct and proximate result of TaylorMades infringement of the
21
143 patent, PXG has suffered and will continue to suffer monetary damages.
22
54. PXG is entitled to recover from TaylorMade the damages sustained by
23
PXG as a result of TaylorMades wrongful acts in an amount to be determined at
24
trial.
25
55. PXG has suffered irreparable harm as a result of TaylorMades
26
infringement of the 143 patent.
27
56. Unless TaylorMade is enjoined by this Court from continuing its
28
infringement of the 143 patent, PXG will continue to suffer irreparable harm and
11
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 12 of 277

1 impairment of the value of its patent rights. Thus, PXG is entitled to a preliminary
2 and permanent injunction against further infringement.
3
COUNT III
4 (U.S. Patent No. 9,345,938)
5 57. PXG realleges and incorporates by reference the preceding paragraphs

6 of this Complaint as though fully set forth herein.


7 58. TaylorMade has infringed and continues to infringe directly, by

8 inducement, and/or contributorily by manufacturing, using, selling, offering to sell,


9 or importing golf clubs embodying one or more claims of the 938 patent,
10 specifically, TaylorMades P790 Products, in violation of 35 U.S.C. 271(a)-(c).
11 59. TaylorMades infringement of the 938 patent has been and continues

12 to be willful.
13 60. TaylorMade has and has had actual notice and/or constructive notice of

14 the 938 patent under 35 U.S.C. 287(a).


15 61. TaylorMades acts of infringement of the 938 patent will continue as

16 alleged in this Complaint unless enjoined by the Court.


17 62. As a direct and proximate result of TaylorMades infringement of the

18 938 patent, PXG has suffered and will continue to suffer monetary damages.
19 63. PXG is entitled to recover from TaylorMade the damages sustained by

20 PXG as a result of TaylorMades wrongful acts in an amount to be determined at


21 trial.
22 64. PXG has suffered irreparable harm as a result of TaylorMades

23 infringement of the 938 patent.


24 65. Unless TaylorMade is enjoined by this Court from continuing its

25 infringement of the 938 patent, PXG will continue to suffer irreparable harm and
26 impairment of the value of its patent rights. Thus, PXG is entitled to a preliminary
27 and permanent injunction against further infringement.
28

12
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 13 of 277

1 COUNT IV
(U.S. Patent No. 9,346,203)
2
66. PXG realleges and incorporates by reference the preceding paragraphs
3
of this Complaint as though fully set forth herein.
4
67. TaylorMade has infringed and continues to infringe directly, by
5
inducement, and/or contributorily by manufacturing, using, selling, offering to sell,
6
or importing golf clubs embodying one or more claims of the 203 patent,
7
specifically, TaylorMades P790 Products, in violation of 35 U.S.C. 271(a)-(c),
8
(g).
9
68. TaylorMades infringement of the 203 patent has been and continues
10
to be willful.
11
69. TaylorMade has and has had actual notice and/or constructive notice of
12
the 203 patent under 35 U.S.C. 287(a).
13
70. TaylorMades acts of infringement of the 203 patent will continue as
14
alleged in this Complaint unless enjoined by the Court.
15
71. As a direct and proximate result of TaylorMades infringement of the
16
203 patent, PXG has suffered and will continue to suffer monetary damages.
17
72. PXG is entitled to recover from TaylorMade the damages sustained by
18
PXG as a result of TaylorMades wrongful acts in an amount to be determined at
19
trial.
20
73. PXG has suffered irreparable harm as a result of TaylorMades
21
infringement of the 203 patent.
22
74. Unless TaylorMade is enjoined by this Court from continuing its
23
infringement of the 203 patent, PXG will continue to suffer irreparable harm and
24
impairment of the value of its patent rights. Thus, PXG is entitled to a preliminary
25
and permanent injunction against further infringement.
26
27
28

13
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 14 of 277

1 COUNT V
(U.S. Patent No. 9,364,727)
2
75. PXG realleges and incorporates by reference the preceding paragraphs
3
of this Complaint as though fully set forth herein.
4
76. TaylorMade has infringed and continues to infringe directly, by
5
inducement, and/or contributorily by manufacturing, using, selling, offering to sell,
6
or importing golf clubs embodying one or more claims of the 727 patent,
7
specifically, TaylorMades P790 Products, in violation of 35 U.S.C. 271(a)-(c).
8
77. TaylorMades infringement of the 727 patent has been and continues
9
to be willful.
10
78. TaylorMade has and has had actual notice and/or constructive notice of
11
the 727 patent under 35 U.S.C. 287(a).
12
79. TaylorMades acts of infringement of the 727 patent will continue as
13
alleged in this Complaint unless enjoined by the Court.
14
80. As a direct and proximate result of TaylorMades infringement of the
15
727 patent, PXG has suffered and will continue to suffer monetary damages.
16
81. PXG is entitled to recover from TaylorMade the damages sustained by
17
PXG as a result of TaylorMades wrongful acts in an amount to be determined at
18
trial.
19
82. PXG has suffered irreparable harm as a result of TaylorMades
20
infringement of the 727 patent.
21
83. Unless TaylorMade is enjoined by this Court from continuing its
22
infringement of the 727 patent, PXG will continue to suffer irreparable harm and
23
impairment of the value of its patent rights. Thus, PXG is entitled to a preliminary
24
and permanent injunction against further infringement.
25
26 COUNT VI
(U.S. Patent No. 9,533,201)
27
84. PXG realleges and incorporates by reference the preceding paragraphs
28
of this Complaint as though fully set forth herein.
14
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 15 of 277

1 85. TaylorMade has infringed and continues to infringe directly, by


2 inducement, and/or contributorily by manufacturing, using, selling, offering to sell,
3 or importing golf clubs embodying one or more claims of the 201 patent,
4 specifically, TaylorMades P790 Products, in violation of 35 U.S.C. 271(a)-(c).
5 86. TaylorMades infringement of the 201 patent has been and continues
6 to be willful.
7 87. TaylorMade has and has had actual notice and/or constructive notice of
8 the 201 patent under 35 U.S.C. 287(a).
9 88. TaylorMades acts of infringement of the 201 patent will continue as
10 alleged in this Complaint unless enjoined by the Court.
11 89. As a direct and proximate result of TaylorMades infringement of the
12 201 patent, PXG has suffered and will continue to suffer monetary damages.
13 90. PXG is entitled to recover from TaylorMade the damages sustained by
14 PXG as a result of TaylorMades wrongful acts in an amount to be determined at
15 trial.
16 91. PXG has suffered irreparable harm as a result of TaylorMades
17 infringement of the 201 patent.
18 92. Unless TaylorMade is enjoined by this Court from continuing its
19 infringement of the 201 patent, PXG will continue to suffer irreparable harm and
20 impairment of the value of its patent rights. Thus, PXG is entitled to a preliminary
21 and permanent injunction against further infringement.
22 COUNT VII
(U.S. Patent No. 9,610,481)
23
93. PXG realleges and incorporates by reference the preceding paragraphs
24
of this Complaint as though fully set forth herein.
25
94. TaylorMade has infringed and continues to infringe directly, by
26
inducement, and/or contributorily by manufacturing, using, selling, offering to sell,
27
or importing golf clubs embodying one or more claims of the 481 patent,
28
specifically, TaylorMades P790 Products, in violation of 35 U.S.C. 271(a)-(c).
15
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 16 of 277

1 95. TaylorMades infringement of the 481 patent has been and continues
2 to be willful.
3 96. TaylorMade has and has had actual notice and/or constructive notice of
4 the 481 patent under 35 U.S.C. 287(a).
5 97. TaylorMades acts of infringement of the 481 patent will continue as
6 alleged in this Complaint unless enjoined by the Court.
7 98. As a direct and proximate result of TaylorMades infringement of the
8 481 patent, PXG has suffered and will continue to suffer monetary damages.
9 99. PXG is entitled to recover from TaylorMade the damages sustained by
10 PXG as a result of TaylorMades wrongful acts in an amount to be determined at
11 trial.
12 100. PXG has suffered irreparable harm as a result of TaylorMades
13 infringement of the 481 patent.
14 101. Unless TaylorMade is enjoined by this Court from continuing its
15 infringement of the 481 patent, PXG will continue to suffer irreparable harm and
16 impairment of the value of its patent rights. Thus, PXG is entitled to a preliminary
17 and permanent injunction against further infringement.
18 COUNT VIII
(U.S. Patent No. 9,675,853)
19
102. PXG realleges and incorporates by reference the preceding paragraphs
20
of this Complaint as though fully set forth herein.
21
103. TaylorMade has infringed and continues to infringe directly, by
22
inducement, and/or contributorily by manufacturing, using, selling, offering to sell,
23
or importing golf clubs embodying one or more claims of the 853 patent,
24
specifically, TaylorMades P790 Products, in violation of 35 U.S.C. 271(a)-(c).
25
104. TaylorMades infringement of the 853 patent has been and continues
26
to be willful.
27
105. TaylorMade has and has had actual notice and/or constructive notice of
28
the 853 patent under 35 U.S.C. 287(a).
16
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 17 of 277

1 106. TaylorMades acts of infringement of the 853 patent will continue as


2 alleged in this Complaint unless enjoined by the Court.
3 107. As a direct and proximate result of TaylorMades infringement of the
4 853 patent, PXG has suffered and will continue to suffer monetary damages.
5 108. PXG is entitled to recover from TaylorMade the damages sustained by
6 PXG as a result of TaylorMades wrongful acts in an amount to be determined at
7 trial.
8 109. PXG has suffered irreparable harm as a result of TaylorMades
9 infringement of the 853 patent.
10 110. Unless TaylorMade is enjoined by this Court from continuing its
11 infringement of the 853 Patent, PXG will continue to suffer irreparable harm and
12 impairment of the value of its patent rights. Thus, PXG is entitled to a preliminary
13 and permanent injunction against further infringement.
14 PRAYER FOR RELIEF
15 WHEREFORE, Plaintiff PXG prays for judgment against TaylorMade, as
16 follows:
17 1. For judgment that the 336 patent is infringed by TaylorMade;
18 2. For profits and damages resulting from TaylorMades past and present
19 infringement of the336 patent;
20 3. For judgment that the 143 patent is infringed by TaylorMade;
21 4. For profits and damages resulting from TaylorMades past and present
22 infringement of the143 patent;
23 5. For judgment that the 938 patent is infringed by TaylorMade;
24 6. For profits and damages resulting from TaylorMades past and present
25 infringement of the938 patent;
26 7. For judgment that the 203 patent is infringed by TaylorMade;
27 8. For profits and damages resulting from TaylorMades past and present
28 infringement of the 203 patent;

17
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 18 of 277

1 9. For judgment that the 727 patent is infringed by TaylorMade;


2 10. For profits and damages resulting from TaylorMades past and present
3 infringement of the 727 patent;
4 11. For judgment that the 201 patent is infringed by TaylorMade;
5 12. For profits and damages resulting from TaylorMades past and present
6 infringement of the 201 patent;
7 13. For judgment that the 481 patent is infringed by TaylorMade;
8 14. For profits and damages resulting from TaylorMades past and present
9 infringement of the 481 patent;
10 15. For judgment that the 853 patent is infringed by TaylorMade;
11 16. For profits and damages resulting from TaylorMades past and present
12 infringement of the 853 patent;
13 17. For injunctive relief, preliminarily and permanently enjoining against
14 the continuing infringement of the 336 patent by TaylorMade, their officers, agents,
15 servants, employees, and those persons acting in active concert or in participation
16 with it, under 35 U.S.C. 283;
17 18. For injunctive relief, preliminarily and permanently enjoining against
18 the continuing infringement of the 143 patent by TaylorMade, their officers, agents,
19 servants, employees, and those persons acting in active concert or in participation
20 with it, under 35 U.S.C. 283;
21 19. For injunctive relief, preliminarily and permanently enjoining against
22 the continuing infringement of the 938 patent by TaylorMade, their officers, agents,
23 servants, employees, and those persons acting in active concert or in participation
24 with it, under 35 U.S.C. 283;
25 20. For injunctive relief, preliminarily and permanently enjoining against
26 the continuing infringement of the 203 patent by TaylorMade, their officers, agents,
27 servants, employees, and those persons acting in active concert or in participation
28 with it, under 35 U.S.C. 283;

18
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 19 of 277

1 21. For injunctive relief, preliminarily and permanently enjoining against


2 the continuing infringement of the 727 patent by TaylorMade, their officers, agents,
3 servants, employees, and those persons acting in active concert or in participation
4 with it, under 35 U.S.C. 283;
5 22. For injunctive relief, preliminarily and permanently enjoining against
6 the continuing infringement of the 201 patent by TaylorMade, their officers, agents,
7 servants, employees, and those persons acting in active concert or in participation
8 with it, under 35 U.S.C. 283;
9 23. For injunctive relief, preliminarily and permanently enjoining against
10 the continuing infringement of the 481 patent by TaylorMade, their officers, agents,
11 servants, employees, and those persons acting in active concert or in participation
12 with it, under 35 U.S.C. 283;
13 24. For injunctive relief, preliminarily and permanently enjoining against
14 the continuing infringement of the 853 patent by TaylorMade, their officers, agents,
15 servants, employees, and those persons acting in active concert or in participation
16 with it, under 35 U.S.C. 283;
17 25. For increased damages, interest, and costs under 35 U.S.C 284;
18
26. For judgment that this is an exceptional case under 35 U.S.C. 285;
19
27. For an award of reasonable attorneys fees under 35 U.S.C. 285;
20
21 28. For costs and disbursements incurred by PXG;

22 29. For an assessment of prejudgment interest; and


23 30. For any other and further relief as the Court deems just and proper.
24 JURY TRIAL DEMAND
25 PXG demands a jury trial on all issues that are triable by a jury.
26 . . .
27 . . .
28 . . .

19
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 20 of 277

1 DATED this 12th day of September, 2017.


2 LOEB & LOEB LLP
3
By ./s/ Adam G. Kelly
4 Adam G. Kelly (IL 6277772)
(Pro Hac Vice to be filed)
5 William J. Voller III (IL 6287608)
(Pro Hac Vice to be filed)
6 John A. Cotiguala (IL 6311056)
(Pro Hac Vice to be filed)
7 321 North Clark Street, Suite 2300
Chicago, Illinois 60654
8
JENNINGS, STROUSS & SALMON, P.L.C.
9
By ./s/ Jimmie W. Pursell, Jr.
10 Jimmie W. Pursell, Jr.
Lindsay G. Leavitt
11 One East Washington St., Suite 1900
Phoenix, AZ 85004-2554
12
Attorneys for Plaintiff, Parsons Xtreme
13 Golf, LLC
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

20
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 21 of 277

EXHIBIT A
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 22 of 277
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US008961336Bl

c12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 8,961,336 Bl


Parsons et al. (45) Date of Patent: *Feb.24,2015

(54) GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO USPC ........... 473/332; 473/335; 473/337; 473/345;
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS 473/349; 473/350
(58) Field of Classification Search
(71) Applicant: Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, Scottsdale, CPC ............................................... A63B 2053/0491
AZ (US) USPC .......................... 473/324-350, 287-292, 256
See application file for complete search history.
(72) Inventors: Robert R. Parsons, Scottsdale, AZ
(US); Michael R. Nicolette, Scottsdale, (56) References Cited
AZ (US); Bradley D. Schweigert,
Anthem, AZ (US) U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

(73) Assignee: Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, Scottsdale, D294,617 s 3/1988 Perkins
AZ (US)
4,754,977 A * 7/1988 Sahm ............................ 473/337
5,158,296 A 10/1992 Lee
5,419,560 A 5/1995 Bamber
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this D362,884 s 10/1995 Blough et al.
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 D362,885 s 10/1995 Blough et al.
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. D362,887 s 10/1995 Blough et al.
D370,514 s 6/1996 Blough et al.
This patent is subject to a terminal dis- 5,540,437 A 7/1996 Bamber
claimer. 5,669,830 A 9/1997 Bamber
5,766,091 A 6/1998 Humphrey eta!.
(21) Appl. No.: 14/513,073 (Continued)
Primary Examiner- Sebastiana Passaniti
(22) Filed: Oct. 13, 2014

Related U.S. Application Data (57) ABSTRACT

(63) Continuation of application No. 14/498,603, filed on Embodiments of golf club heads and methods to manufacture
Sep. 26, 2014, which is a continuation-in-part of golf club heads are generally described herein. In one
application No. 29/501,006, filed on Aug. 29, 2014. example, a golf club head may include a plurality of weight
portions and a body portion. The plurality of weight portions
(60) Provisional application No. 62/041,538, filed on Aug. may be associated with a total weight portion mass. The body
25,2014. portion may include a face portion, a toe portion, a sole
portion, an interior cavity that may extend between the top
(51) Int. Cl. and sole portions, and a back portion with a plurality of
A63B 53104 (2006.01) exterior weight ports having a first set of exterior weight ports
A63B 53106 (2006.01) and a second set of exterior weight ports. Each of the plurality
A63B 59100 (2006.01) of exterior weight ports is associated with a port diameter and
(52) U.S. Cl. configured to receive at least one weight portion of the plu-
CPC ............. A63B 5310475 (2013.01); A63B 53106 rality of weight portions. Other examples and embodiments
(2013.01); A63B 5910074 (2013.01); A63B may be described and claimed.
5910092 (2013.01); A63B 2053/0408 (2013.01);
A63B 2053/0491 (2013.01) 20 Claims, 9 Drawing Sheets

....-100
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 23 of 277

US 8,961,336 Bl
Page 2

(56) References Cited D581,000 S 1112008 Nicolette et al.


D581,004 S 1112008 Schweigert et a!.
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS D584,370 S 112009 Cleveland et a!.
D596,256 S 7/2009 Schweigert et a!.
5,827,132 A 10/1998 Bamber D596,257 S 7/2009 Jertson et a!.
D408,485 S 4/1999 Takahashi et a!. D596,258 S 7/2009 Jertson et a!.
D421,080 S 212000 Chen D596,688 S 7/2009 Schweigert et a!.
D426,276 S 6/2000 Besnard et a!. D597,158 S 7/2009 Schweigert et a!.
6,077,171 A * 6/2000 Yoneyama .................... 473/291 D601,216 S 9/2009 Jertson et a!.
6,290,609 B1 * 9/2001 Takeda .......................... 473/335 7,588,502 B2 9/2009 Nishino
D458,328 S 6/2002 Solheim et al. 7,601,075 B2 10/2009 Cole eta!.
D469,833 S 2/2003 Roberts eta!. D604,783 S 1112009 Nicolette et al.
D473,605 S 4/2003 Petersen eta!. 7,611,424 B2 * 1112009 Nagai eta!. ................... 473/334
D475,107 S 5/2003 Madore 7,736,243 B2 6/2010 Sanchez et a!.
6,695,714 B1 2/2004 Bliss eta!. 7,744,484 B1 * 6/2010 Chao ............................. 473/324
6,702,693 B2 3/2004 Bamber D621,893 S 8/2010 Nicolette et al.
D492,376 S 6/2004 Nicolette et al. D621,894 S 8/2010 Schweigert
D494,240 S 8/2004 Schweigert D621,895 S 8/2010 Schweigert et a!.
D494,648 S 8/2004 Schweigert eta!. D627,409 S 1112010 Schweigert et a!.
D497,963 S 1112004 Toulon eta!. D627,410 S 1112010 Nicolette et al.
D500,350 S 12/2004 Schweigert eta!. D635,627 S 4/2011 Nicolette
D500,351 S 12/2004 Schweigert eta!. 7,938,738 B2 5/2011 Roach
D502,237 S 2/2005 Schweigert eta!. D642,642 S 8/2011 Jertson et a!.
D502,975 S 3/2005 Schweigert eta!. D643,491 S 8/2011 Stokke et al.
D503,204 S 3/2005 Nicolette et al. D643,492 S 8/2011 Nicolette et al.
D504,925 S 5/2005 Schweigert eta!. D643,896 S 8/2011 Jertson et a!.
D505,171 S 5/2005 Schweigert eta!. D647,582 S 10/2011 Nicolette et al.
D507,320 S 7/2005 Roberts eta!. D649,211 S 1112011 Jertson et a!.
D507,614 S 7/2005 Schweigert eta!. 8,062,150 B2 1112011 Gilbert et a!.
D508,099 S 8/2005 Schweigert eta!. D651,268 S 12/2011 Nicolette et al.
D508,545 S 8/2005 Roberts eta!. 8,092,319 B1 112012 Cackett et a!.
D514,183 S 112006 Schweigert eta!. 8,105,180 B1 112012 Cackett et a!.
D516,650 S 3/2006 Wolfe eta!. 8,142,307 B2 3/2012 Sanchez et a!.
D523,501 S 6/2006 Nicolette et al. 8,221,262 B1 7/2012 Cackett et a!.
D523,917 S 6/2006 Wolfe eta!. 8,246,487 B1 * 8/2012 Cackett eta!. ................ 473/334
D530,759 S 10/2006 Nicolette et al. D670,775 S 1112012 Jertson et a!.
D530,760 S 10/2006 Schweigert eta!. D672,417 S 12/2012 Jertson et a!.
7,121,956 B2 * 10/2006 Lo ................................. 473/335 D673,633 S 112013 Jertson et a!.
7,128,663 B2 10/2006 Bamber D673,634 S 112013 Jertson et a!.
D532,849 S 1112006 Nicolette et al. 8,376,878 B2 212013 Bennett et a!.
D534,228 S 12/2006 Nicolette et al. D680,603 S 4/2013 Nicolette et al.
D534,595 S 112007 Hasebe D681,142 S 4/2013 Fossum et al.
D534,597 S 112007 Nicolette et al. D681,143 S 4/2013 Nicolette et al.
D536,759 S 2/2007 Schweigert eta!. 8,414,422 B2 * 4/2013 Peralta eta!. ................. 473/334
D537,494 S 2/2007 Jertson et a!. 8,506,420 B2 8/2013 Hocknell et al.
D538,366 S 3/2007 Nicolette et al. 8,574,094 B2 1112013 Nicolette et al.
D539,864 S 4/2007 Nicolette et al. 8,657,700 B2 212014 Nicolette et al.
D540,898 S 4/2007 Solheim et al. 8,690,710 B2 4/2014 Nicolette et al.
D541,360 S 4/2007 Schweigert eta!. 8,753,230 B2 6/2014 Stokke et al.
7,207,900 B2 4/2007 Nicolette et al. D708,688 s 7/2014 Nicolette et al.
D544,056 S 6/2007 Nicolette et al. 2002/0107087 A1 8/2002 Fagot
D547,410 S 7/2007 Nicolette et al. 2004/0204263 A1 10/2004 Fagot eta!.
D555,219 S 1112007 Lin 2005/0009632 A1 112005 Schweigert et a!.
D561,855 S 2/2008 Schweigert eta!. 2005/0014573 A1 112005 Lee
D562,925 S 2/2008 Schweigert eta!. 2005/0096148 A1 5/2005 Noble eta!.
7,351,164 B2 4/2008 Schweigert eta!. 2005/0277485 A1 12/2005 Hou eta!.
D570,435 S 6/2008 Sanchez et al. 2007/0032308 A1 2/2007 Fagot eta!.
D570,935 S 6/2008 Nicolette et al. 2007/0225084 A1 9/2007 Schweigert et a!.
D570,936 S 6/2008 Schweigert eta!. 2008/0058113 A1 3/2008 Nicolette et al.
D570,942 S 6/2008 Chen et a!. 2008/0300065 A1 12/2008 Schweigert
D571,422 S 6/2008 Schweigert eta!. 2009/0029790 A1 112009 Nicolette et al.
D571,425 S 6/2008 Chen et a!. 2010/0130306 A1 5/2010 Schweigert
D571,427 S 6/2008 Schweigert eta!. 2010/0178999 A1 712010 Nicolette et al.
D571,881 S 6/2008 Nicolette et al. 201110111883 A1 5/2011 Cackett
D572,326 S 7/2008 Schweigert eta!. 201110165963 A1 7/2011 Cackett et a!.
D572,329 S 7/2008 Nicolette et al. 2013/0137532 A1 5/2013 Deshmukh et al.
D573,219 S 7/2008 Schweigert eta!. 2013/0288823 A1 10/2013 Hebreo
7,396,299 B2 7/2008 Nicolette et al. 2014/0080621 A1 3/2014 Nicolette et al.
7,413,518 B2 8/2008 Cole et al. 2014/0128175 A1 5/2014 Jertson et a!.
D577,783 S 9/2008 Schweigert eta!.
D578,590 S 10/2008 Schweigert eta!. * cited by examiner
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 24 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 1 of9 US 8,961,336 Bl

100~

r-180

140
"150

FIG. 1

r1oo

133 )
190~ 130 FIG. 2
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 25 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 2 of9 US 8,961,336 Bl

100~

f180

140

\ 155

FIG. 3

18 7
100~ 140
)
155

FIG.4
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 26 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 3 of9 US 8,961,336 Bl

100~

155

1410

160 170

\ )

\190 FIG. 5

100~

180~ 155

162

1410
170
\

FIG. 6
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 27 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 4 of9 US 8,961,336 Bl

100~

160~
('170

r13o

735 1431
FIG. 7

100~
155
180~

1410
850
170~ r1so

168

1431 FIG. 8
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 28 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 5 of9 US 8,961,336 Bl

100~
180~

720
160~

FIG. 9

100
1030
_{_ _________ _
--_....""""'~-=-=--- - 120 ____.
123
124
140
)

FIG. 10
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 29 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 6 of9


US 8,961,336 Bl

120& 130~

1110

FIG. 11

120~

1220

FIG. 12

130~

1320

FIG. 13
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 30 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 7 of9 US 8,961,336 Bl

110~

150_)

1431
1432 1433 J
190_) 130 FIG. 14

162~

FIG. 15
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 31 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 8 of9 US 8,961,336 Bl

162~

1640

FIG. 16

1700~
START
y
Provide two or more
weight portions
J 710

Provide body portion J 720

Couple at least one weight J 730
portion in weight port

Fill interior cavity
1740
_.)

t
( END )
FIG. 17
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 32 of 277

U.S. Patent Feb.24,2015 Sheet 9 of9 US 8,961,336 Bl

100~

160~

1874
FIG. 18
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 33 of 277

US 8,961,336 Bl
1 2
GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO FIG. 14 depicts a rear view of a body portion of the example
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS golf club head of FIG. 1.
FIG. 15 depicts a cross-sectional view of a face portion of
CROSS REFERENCE the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
FIG. 16 depicts a cross-sectional view of another face
This application is a continuation application ofU.S. Non- portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
Provisional application Ser. No. 14/498,603 filed Sep. 26, FIG.17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club
2014, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Applica- head described herein may be manufactured.
tion No. 62/041,538 filed Aug. 25, 2014, and also a continu- FIG. 18 depicts another cross-sectional view of the
10
ation-in-part application of U.S. Application Serial No. example golf club head of FIG. 4 along line 18-18.
29/501,006, filed Aug. 29, 2014. The disclosures of the ref- For simplicity and clarity of illustration, the drawing fig-
erenced applications are incorporated herein by reference. ures illustrate the general manner of construction, and
descriptions and details of well-known features and tech-
COPYRIGHT AUTHORIZATION 15 niques may be omitted to avoid urmecessarily obscuring the
present disclosure. Additionally, elements in the drawing fig-
The present disclosure may be subject to copyright protec-
ures may not be depicted to scale. For example, the dimen-
tion. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile
sions of some of the elements in the figures may be exagger-
reproduction by anyone of the present disclosure and its
ated relative to other elements to help improve understanding
related documents, as they appear in the Patent and Trade-
mark Office patent files or records, but otherwise reserves all 20 of embodiments of the present disclosure.
applicable copyrights.
DESCRIPTION
FIELD
In general, golf club heads and methods to manufacture
The present disclosure generally relates to golf equipment, 25 golf club heads are described herein. The apparatus, methods,
and more particularly, to golf club heads and methods to and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
manufacturing golf club heads. this regard.
In the example of FIGS. 1-14, a golf club head 100 may
BACKGROUND include a body portion 110 (FIG.14), and two or more weight
30 portions, generally shown as a first set of weight portions 120
Various materials (e.g., steel-based materials, titanium- (e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) and a
based materials, tungsten-based materials, etc.) may be used second set of weight portions 130 (e.g., shown as weight
to manufacture golf club heads. By using multiple materials portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). The body
to manufacture golf club heads, the position of the center of portion 110 may include a toe portion 140, a heel portion 150,
gravity (CG) and/or the moment of inertia (MOl) of the golf 35 a front portion 160, a back portion 170, a top portion 180, and
club heads may be optimized to produce certain trajectory a sole portion 190. The body portion 110 may be made of a
and spin rate of a golf ball. first material whereas the first and second sets of weight
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be made of a second
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS material. The first and second materials may be similar or
40 different materials. For example, the body portion 110 may be
FIG.1 depicts a front view of a golf club head according to partially or entirely made of a steel-basedmaterial (e.g., 17-4
an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of PH stainless steel, Nitronic 50 stainless steel, maraging
manufacture described herein. steel or other types of stainless steel), a titanium -based mate-
FIG. 2 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head of rial, an aluminum-based material (e.g., a high-strength alu-
FIG. 1. 45 minum alloy or a composite aluminum alloy coated with a
FIG. 3 depicts a top view of the example golf club head of high-strength alloy), any combination thereof, and/or other
FIG. 1. suitable types of materials. The first and second sets of weight
FIG. 4 depicts a bottom view of the example golf club head portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or
of FIG. 1. entirely made of a high-density material such as a tungsten-
FIG. 5 depicts a left view of the example golf club head of 50 based material or other suitable types of materials. Alterna-
FIG. 1. tively, the body portion 110 and/or the first and second sets of
FIG. 6 depicts a right view of the example golf club head of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or
FIG. 1. entirely made of a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plas-
FIG. 7 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf tic, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
club head ofFIG.1 along line 7-7. 55 are not limited in this regard.
FIG. 8 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf The golf club head 100 may be an iron-type golf club head
club head of FIG. 1 along line 8-8. (e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron, a
FIG. 9 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf 7-iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type golf club
club head of FIG. 1 along line 9-9. head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, an
FIG. 10 depicts another rear view of the example golf club 60 n-degree wedge such as 44 degrees (0 ) , 48, 52, 56, 60,
head of FIG. 1. etc.). Although FIGS. 1-10 may depict a particular type of
FIG. 11 depicts a top view of a weight portion associated club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufac-
with the example golf club head of FIG. 1. ture described herein may be applicable to other types of club
FIG. 12 depicts a side view of a weight portion associated heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway wood-type club
with the example golf club head of FIG. 1. 65 head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club head, etc.).
FIG. 13 depicts a side view of another weight portion The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
associated with the example golf club head of FIG. 1. described herein are not limited in this regard.
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 34 of 277

US 8,961,336 Bl
3 4
The toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150 may be on 110 with various manufacturing methods and/or processes
opposite ends of the body portion 110. The heel portion 150 (e.g., a bonding process, a welding process, a brazing process,
may include a hose! portion 155 configured to receive a shaft a mechanical locking method, any combination thereof, or
(not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the golf other suitable manufacturing methods and/or processes).
club head 100 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a golf 5 Alternatively, the golf club head 100 may not include (i) the
club. first set of weight portions 120, (ii) the second set of weight
The front portion 160 may include a face portion 162 (e.g., portions 130, or (iii) both the first and second sets of weight
a strike face). The face portion 162 may include a front portions 120 and 130. In particular, the back portion 170 of
surface 164 and a back surface 166. The front surface 164 the body portion 110 may not include weight ports at or
may include one or more grooves 168 extending between the 10 proximate to the top portion 170 and/or the sole portion 190.
toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150. While the figures For example, the mass of the first set of weight portions 120
may depict a particular number of grooves, the apparatus, (e.g., 3 grams) and/or the mass of the second set of weight
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may portions 130 (e.g., 16.8 grams) may be integral part(s) the
include more or less grooves. The face portion 162 may be body portion 110 instead of separate weight portion(s). The
used to impact a golf ball (not shown). The face portion 162 15 apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
may be an integral portion of the body portion 110. Alterna- herein are not limited in this regard.
tively, the face portion 162 may be a separate piece or an insert The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
coupled to the body portion 110 via various manufacturing respectively, may have similar or different physical properties
methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process, a welding (e.g., color, shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). As a
process, a brazing process, a mechanical locking method, any 20 result, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
combination thereof, or other suitable types of manufacturing 130, respectively, may contribute to the ornamental design of
methods and/or processes). The face portion 162 may be the golf club head 100. In the illustrated example as shown in
associated with a loft plane that defines the loft angle of the FIG. 11, each of the weight portions of the first and second
golf club head 100. The loft angle may vary based on the type sets 120 and 130, respectively, may have a cylindrical shape
of golf club (e.g., a long iron, a middle iron, a short iron, a 25 (e.g., a circular cross section). Alternatively, each of the
wedge, etc.). In one example, the loft angle may be between weight portions of the first set 120 may have a first shape (e.g.,
five degrees and seventy-five degrees. In another example, the a cylindrical shape) whereas each of the weight portions of
loft angle may be between twenty degrees and sixty degrees. the second set 130 may have a second shape (e.g., a cubical
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture shape). In another example, the first set of weight portions
described herein are not limited in this regard. 30 120 may include two or more weight portions with different
As illustrated in FIG. 14, the back portion 170 may include shapes (e.g., the weight portion 121 may be a first shape
a back wall portion 1410 with one or more exterior weight whereas the weight portion 122 may be a second shape dif-
ports along a periphery of the back portion 170, generally ferent from the first shape). Likewise, the second set of weight
shown as a first set of exterior weight ports 1420 (e.g., shown portions 130 may also include two or more weight portions
as weight ports 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424) and a second set 35 with different shapes (e.g., the weight portion 131 may be a
of exterior weight ports 1430 (e.g., shown as weight ports first shape whereas the weight portion 132 may be a second
1431, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1435, 1436, and 1437). Each exterior shape different from the first shape). Although the above
weight port may be associated with a port diameter. In one examples may describe weight portions having a particular
example, the port diameter may be about 0.25 inch (6.35 shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
millimeters). Any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the 40 described herein may include weight portions of other suit-
first set of exterior weight ports 1420 may be separated by less able shapes (e.g., a portion of or a whole sphere, cube, cone,
than the port diameter. In a similar manner, any two adjacent cylinder, pyramid, cuboidal, prism, frustum, or other suitable
exterior weight ports of the second set of exterior weight ports geometric shape). While the above examples and figures may
1430 may be separated by less than the port diameter. The first depict multiple weight portions as a set of weight portions,
and second exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may be 45 each set of the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
exterior weight ports configured to receive one or more 130, respectively, may be a single piece of weight portion. In
weight portions. In particular, each weight portion of the first one example, the first set of weight portions 120 may be a
set 120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and single piece of weight portion instead of a series of four
124) may be disposed in a weight port located at or proximate separate weight portions. In another example, the second set
to the toe portion 140 and/or the top portion 180 on the back 50 of weight portions 130 may be a single piece of weight por-
portion 170. For example, the weight portion 121 may be tion instead of a series of seven separate weight portions. The
partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1421. In apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
another example, the weight portion 122 may be disposed in herein are not limited in this regard.
a weight port 1422 located in a transition region between the Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, for example, the first and
top portion 180 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a top-and-toe 55 second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may
transition region). Each weight portion of the second set 130 include threads, generally shown as 1210 and 1310, respec-
(e.g., shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, tively, to secure in the weight ports of the back portion 170
and 137) may be disposed in a weight port located at or (generally shown as 1420 and 1430 in FIG. 14). For example,
proximate to the toe portion 140 and/or the sole portion 190 each weight portion of the first and second sets of weight
on the back portion 170. For example, the weight portion 135 60 portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a screw. The first
may be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1435. and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
In another example, the weight portion 136 may be disposed may not be readily removable from the body portion 110 with
in a weight port 1436 located in a transition region between or without a tool. Alternatively, the first and second sets of
the sole portion 190 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a sole-and- weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be readily
toe transition region). As described in detail below, the first 65 removable (e.g., with a tool) so that a relatively heavier or
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, lighter weight portion may replace one or more of the weight
may be coupled to the back portion 170 of the body portion portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively.
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In another example, the first and second sets of weight por- 1010 in FIG. 10) with the second set of weight portions 130
tions 120 and 130, respectively, may be secured in the weight being away from the back surface 166 than if the second set of
ports of the back portion 170 with epoxy or adhesive so that weight portions 130 were directly coupled to the back surface
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, 166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
respectively, may not be readily removable. In yet another 5 described herein are not limited in this regard.
example, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and While the figures may depict weight ports with a particular
130, respectively, may be secured in the weight ports of the cross-section shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of
back portion 170 with both epoxy and threads so that the first manufacture described herein may include weight ports with
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, other suitable cross-section shapes. In one example, the
may not be readily removable. The apparatus, methods, and 10 weight ports of the first and/or second sets of weight ports
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in this 1420 and 1430 may have U-like cross-section shape. In
regard. another example, the weight ports of the first and/or second
As mentioned above, the first and second sets of weight set of weight ports 1420 and 1430 may have V-like cross-
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be similar in some section shape. One or more of the weight ports associated
physical properties but different in other physical properties. 15 with the first set of weight portions 120 may have a different
As illustrated in FIGS. 11-13, for example, each of the weight cross-section shape than one or more weight ports associated
portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, with the second set of weight portions 130. For example, the
may have a diameter 1110 of about 0.25 inch (6.35 millime- weight port 1421 may have a U-like cross-section shape
ters) but the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and whereas the weight port 1435 may have a V-like cross-section
130, respectively, may be different in height. In particular, 20 shape. Further, two or more weight ports associated with the
each of the weight portions of the first set 120 may be asso- first set of weight portions 120 may have different cross-
ciated with a first height 1220 (FIG. 12), and each of the section shapes. In a similar manner, two or more weight ports
weight portion of the second set 130 may be associated with associated with the second set of weight portions 130 may
a second height 1320 (FIG. 13). The first height 1220 may be have different cross-section shapes. The apparatus, methods,
relatively shorter than the second height 1320. In one 25 and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
example, the first height 1220 may be about 0.125 inch (3 .17 5 this regard.
millimeters) whereas the second height 1320 may be about Referring back to FIG. 10, for example, the golf club head
0.3 inch (7.62 millimeters). In another example, the first 100 may be associated with a ground plane 1010, a horizontal
height 1220 may be about 0.16 inch (4.064 millimeters) midplane 1020, and a top plane 1030. In particular, the ground
whereas the second height 1320 maybe about 0.4 inch (10.16 30 plane 1010 may be a tangential plane to the sole portion 190
millimeters). Alternatively, the first height 1220 may be equal of the golf club head 100 when the golf club head 100 is at an
to or greater than the second height 1320. The apparatus, address position (e.g., the golf club head 100 is aligned to
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not strike a golfball).A top plane 1030 may be a tangential plane
limited in this regard. to the top portionofthe 180ofthe golf club head 100 when the
To provide optimal perimeter weighting for the golf club 35 golf club head 100 is at the address position. The ground and
head 100, the first set of weight portions 120 (e.g., weight top planes 1010 and 1030, respectively, may be substantially
portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) may be configured to parallel to each other. The horizontal midplane 1020 may be
counter-balance the weight of the hosel155. The second set of vertically halfWay between the ground and top planes 1010
weight portions 130 (e.g., weight portions 131,132,133,134, and 1030, respectively.
135, 136, and 137) may be configured to place the center of 40 The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
gravity of the golf club head 100 at an optimal location. respectively, may be similar in mass (e.g., all of the weight
Turning to FIGS. 7-9, for example, the first and second sets of portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively,
weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be located weigh about the same). Alternatively, the first and second sets
away from the back surface 166 of the face portion 162 (e.g., of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be different
not directly coupled to each other). That is, the first and 45 in mass individually or as an entire set. In particular, each of
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, and the weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121,
the back surface 166 may be partially or entirely separated by 122, 123, and 124) may have relatively less mass than any of
an interior cavity 700 of the body portion 110. As shown in the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., shown as 131,
FIG. 14, for example, each exterior weight port of the first and 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). For example, the second
second sets of exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may 50 set of weight portions 130 may account for more than 50% of
include an opening (e.g., generally shown as 720 and 730) and the total mass from exterior weight portions of the golf club
a port wall (e.g., generally shown as 725 and 735). The port head 100. As a result, the golf club head 100 may be config-
walls 725 and 735 may be integral portions of the back wall ured to have at least 50% of the total mass from exterior
portion 1410 (e.g., a section of the back wall portion 1410). weight portions disposed below the horizontal midplane
Each of the openings 720 and 730 may be configured to 55 1020. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
receive a weight portion such as weight portions 121 and 135, described herein are not limited in this regard.
respectively. The opening 720 may be located at one end of In one example, the golf club head 100 may have a mass in
the weight port 1421, and the port wall 725 may be located or the range of about 220 grams to about 330 grams based on the
proximate to at an opposite end of the weight port 1421. In a type of golf club (e.g., a 4-iron versus a lob wedge). The body
similar manner, the opening 730 may be located at one end of 60 portion 110 may have a mass in the range of about 200 grams
the weight port 1435, and the port wall 735 may be located at to about 310 grams with the first and second sets of weight
or proximate to an opposite end of the weight port 1435. The portions 120 and 130, respectively, having a mass of about 20
port walls 725 and 735 may be separated from the face portion grams (e.g., a total mass from exterior weight portions). Each
162 (e.g., separated by the interior cavity 700). As a result, the of the weight portions of the first set 120 may have a mass of
center of gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 may be 65 about one gram (1.0 g) whereas each of the weight portions of
relatively farther back away from the face portion 162 and the second set 130 may have a mass of about 2.4 grams. The
relatively lower towards a ground plane (e.g., one shown as sum of the mass of the first set of weight portions 120 may be
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about 3 grams whereas the sum of the mass of the first set of 130 may include five separate weight portions instead of
weight portions 130 may be about 16.8 grams. The total mass seven separate weight portions a shown in the figures. Alter-
of the second set of weight portions 130 may weigh more than natively as mentioned above, the apparatus, methods, and
five times as much as the total mass of the first set of weight articles of manufacture described herein may not include any
portions 120 (e.g., a total mass of the second set of weight 5 separate weight portions (e.g., the body portion 110 may be
portions 130 of about 16.8 grams versus a total mass of the manufactured to include the mass of the separate weight
first set of weight portions 120 of about 3 grams). The golf portions as integral part(s) of the body portion 110). The
club head 100 may have a total mass of 19.8 grams from the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respec- herein are not limited in this regard.
tively (e.g., sum of 3 grams from the first set of weight 10 Referring back to FIGS. 7-9 ,for example, the body portion
portions 120 and 16.8 grams from the second set of weight 110 may be a hollow body including the interior cavity 700
portions 130). Accordingly, the first set of weight portions extending between the front portion 160 and the back portion
120 may account for about 15% of the total mass from exte- 170. Further, the interior cavity 700 may extend between the
rior weight portions of the golf club head 100 whereas the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190. The interior cavity
second set of weight portions 130 may be account for about 15 700 may be associated with a cavity height 750 (He), and the
85% of the total mass from exterior weight portions of the body portion 110 may be associated with a body height 850
golf club head 100. The apparatus, methods, and articles of (HB). While the cavity height 750 and the body height 850
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. may vary between the toe and heel portions 140 and 150, the
By coupling the first and second sets of weight portions 120 cavity height 750 may be at least 50% of a body height 850
and 130, respectively, to the body portion 110 (e.g., securing 20 (Hc>0.5*HB). For example, the cavity height 750 may vary
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130 in the between 70-85% of the body height 850. With the cavity
weight ports on the back portion 170), the location of the height 750 of the interior cavity 700 being greater than 50% of
center of gravity (CG) and the moment of inertia (MOl) of the the body height 850, the golf club head 100 may be produce
golf club head 100 may be optimized. In particular, the first relatively more consistent feel, sound, and/or result when the
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, 25 golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball via the face portion 162
may lower the location of the CG towards the sole portion 190 than a golf club head with a cavity height ofless than 50% of
and further back away from the face portion 162. Further, the the body height. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
MOl may be higher as measured about a vertical axis extend- manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
ing through the CG (e.g., perpendicular to the ground plane In one example, the interior cavity 700 may be unfilled
1010). The MOl may also be higher as measured about a 30 (i.e., empty space). The body portion 100 with the interior
horizontal axis extending through the CG (e.g., extending cavity 700 may weight about 100 grams less than the body
towards the toe and heel portions 150 and 160, respectively, of portion 100 without the interior cavity 700. Alternatively, the
the golf club head 100). As a result, the club head 100 may interior cavity 700 may be partially or entirely filled with an
provide a relatively higher launch angle and a relatively lower elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a viscoelastic
spin rate than a golf club head without the first and second sets 35 urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane material
of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively. The apparatus, manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a thermo-
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not plastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic polyure-
limited in this regard. thane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of materials
Alternatively, two or more weight portions in the same set to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise. For
may be different in mass. In one example, the weight portion 40 example, at least 50% of the interior cavity 700 may be filled
121 of the first set 120 may have a relatively lower mass than with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or
the weight portion 122 of the first set 120. In another example, dampen noise when the golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball
the weight portion 131 of the second set 130 may have a via the face portion 162. The apparatus, methods, and articles
relatively lower mass than the weight portion 135 of the of manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
second set 130. With relatively greater mass atthetop-and-toe 45 Turning to FIG. 15, for example, the face portion 162 may
transition region and/or the sole-and-toe transition region, include a first thickness 1510 (T 1 ), and a second thickness
more weight may be distributed away from the center of 1520 (T 2 ). The first thickness 1510 may be a thickness of a
gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 to increase the moment section of the face portion 162 adjacent to a groove 168
of inertia (MOl) about the vertical axis through the CG. whereas the second thickness 1520 may be a thickness of a
Although the figures may depict the weight portions as 50 section of the face portion 162 below the groove 168. For
separate and individual parts, each set of the first and second example, the first thickness 1510 may be a maximum distance
sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a between the front surface 164 and the back surface 166. The
single piece of weight portion. In one example, all of the second thickness 1520 may be based on the groove 168. In
weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, 122, particular, the groove 168 may have a groove depth 1525
123, and 124) may be combined into a single piece of weight 55 (Dgroove). The second thickness 1520 may be a maximum
portion (e.g., a first weight portion). In a similar manner, all of distance between the bottom of the groove 168 and the back
the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., 131, 132, 133, surface 166. The sum of the second thickness 1520 and the
134, 135, 136, and 137) may be combined into a single piece groove depth 1525 may be substantially equal to the first
of weight portion as well (e.g., a second weight portion). In thickness 1510 (e.g., T 2 +Dgroove=T 1 ). Accordingly, the sec-
this example, the golf club head 100 may have only two 60 ond thickness 1520 may be less than the first thickness 1510
weight portions. While the figures may depict a particular (e.g., T 2 <T 1 ).
number of weight portions, the apparatus, methods, and To lower and/or move the CG of the golf club head 100
articles of manufacture described herein may include more or further back, weight from the front portion 160 of the golf
less number of weight portions. In one example, the first set of club head 100 may be removed by using a relatively thinner
weight portions 120 may include two separate weight por- 65 face portion 162. For example, the first thickness 1520 may be
tions instead of three separate weight portions as shown in the about 0.075 inch (1.905 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 =0.075 inch).
figures. In another example, the second set of weight portions With the support of the back wall portion 1410 to form the
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interior cavity 700 and filling at least a portion of the interior thickness 1630 may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters).
cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material, the face portion The groove 168 may also have a groove width. The width of
162 may be relatively thinner (e.g., T 1 <0.075 inch) without the reinforcement section 1605 may be greater than or equal
degrading the structural integrity, sound, and/or feel of the to the groove width. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
golf club head 100. In one example, the first thickness 1510 5 manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
may be less than or equal to 0.060 inch (1.524 millimeters) Alternatively, the face portion 162 may vary in thickness at
(e.g., Tls0.060 inch). In another example, the first thickness and/or between the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190.
1510 may be less than or equal to 0.040 inch (1.016 millime- In one example, the face portion 162 may be relatively thicker
ters) (e.g., T 1 s0.040 inch). Based on the type ofmaterial(s) at or proximate to the top portion 180 than at or proximate to
used to form the face portion 162 and/or the body portion 110, 1o the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion 162
the face portion 162 may be even thinner with the first thick- may taper from the top portion 180 towards the sole portion
ness 1510 being less than or equal to 0.030 inch (0.762 mil- 190). In another example, the face portion 162 may be rela-
limeters) (e.g., T 1 s0.030 inch). The groove depth 1525 may tively thicker at or proximate to the sole portion 190 than at or
be greater than or equal to the second thickness 1520 (e.g., proximate to the top portion 180 (e.g., thickness of the face
Dgroove"= T 2 ). In one example, the groove depth 1525 may be 15 portion 162 may taper from the sole portion 190 towards the
about 0.020 inch (0.508 millimeters) (e.g., Dgroove=0.020 top portion 180). In yet another example, the face portion 162
inch). Accordingly, the second thickness 1520 may be about may be relatively thicker between the top portion 180 and the
0.010 inch (0.254 millimeters) (e.g., T 2 =0.01 0 inch). In sole portion 190 than at or proximate to the top portion 180
another example, the groove depth 1525 may be about 0.015 and the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion
inch (0.381 millimeters), and the second thickness 1520 may 20 162 may have a bell-shaped contour). The apparatus, meth-
be about 0.015 inch (e.g., Dgroove=T 2 =0.015 inch). Alterna- ods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
tively, the groove depth 1525 may be less than the second limited in this regard.
thickness 1520 (e.g., Dgroove <T 2 ). Without the support of the Different from other golf club head designs, the interior
back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer material to fill cavity 700 of the body portion 110 and the location of the first
in the interior cavity 700, a golf club head may not be able to 25 and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
withstand multiple impacts by a golf ball on a face portion. In along the perimeter of the golf club head 100 may result in a
contrast to the golf club head 100 as described herein, a golf golf ball traveling away from the face portion 162 at a rela-
club head with a relatively thin face portion but without the tively higher ball launch angle and a relatively lower spin rate.
support of the back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer As a result, the golf ball may travel farther (i.e., greater total
material to fill in the interior cavity 700 (e.g., a cavity-back 30 distance, which includes carry and roll distances).
golf club head) may produce unpleasant sound (e.g., a tinny FIG.17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club
sound) and/or feel during impact with a golf ball. The appa- head described herein may be manufactured. In the example
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein ofFIG. 17, the process 1700 may begin with providing two or
are not limited in this regard. more weight portions, generally shown as the first and second
Based on manufacturing processes and methods used to 35 sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively (block
form the golf club head 100, the face portion 162 may include 1710). The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
additional material at or proximate to a periphery of the face 130, respectively, may be made of a first material such as a
portion 162. Accordingly, the face portion 162 may also tungsten-based material. In one example, the weight portions
include a third thickness 1530, and a chamfer portion 1540. of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, may be
The third thickness 1530 may be greater than either the first 40 tungsten-alloy screws.
thickness 1510 or the second thickness 1520 (e.g., The process 1700 may provide a body portion 110 having
T 3 >T 1 >T 2 ). In particular, the face portion 162 may be the face portion 162, the interior cavity 700, and the back
coupled to the body portion 110 by a welding process. For portion 170 with two or more exterior weight ports, generally
example, the first thickness 1510 may be about 0.030 inch shown as 1420 and 1430 (block 1720). The body portion 110
(0.762 millimeters), the second thickness 1520 may be about 45 may be made of a second material, which is different than the
0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third thickness may be first material. The body portion 110 may be manufacture
about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). Accordingly, the cham- using an investment casting process, a billet forging process,
fer portion 1540 may accommodate some of the additional a stamping process, a computer numerically controlled
material when the face portion 162 is welded to the body (CNC) machining process, a die casting process, any combi-
portion 110. 50 nation thereof, or other suitable manufacturing processes. In
As illustrated in FIG. 16, for example, the face portion 162 one example, the body portion 110 may be made of 17-4 PH
may include a reinforcement section, generally shown as stainless steel using a casting process. In another example, the
1605, below one or more grooves 168. In one example, the body portion 110 may be made of other suitable type of
face portion 162 may include a reinforcement section 1605 stainless steel (e.g., Nitronic 50 stainless steel manufac-
below each groove. Alternatively, face portion 162 may 55 tured by AK Steel Corporation, West Chester, Ohio) using a
include the reinforcement section 1605 below some grooves forging process. By using Nitronic 50 stainless steel to
(e.g., every other groove) or below only one groove. The face manufacture the body portion 110, the golf club head 100
portion 162 may include a first thickness 1610, a second may be relatively stronger and/or more resistant to corrosion
thickness 1620, a third thickness 1630, and a chamfer portion than golf club heads made from other types of steel. Each
1640. The groove 168 may have a groove depth 1625. The 60 weight port of the body portion 110 may include an opening
reinforcement section 168 may define the second thickness and a port wall. For example, the weight port 1421 may
1620. The first and second thicknesses 1610 and 1620, include the opening 720 and the port wall 725 with the open-
respectively, may be substantially equal to each other (e.g., ing 720 and the port wall 725 being on opposite ends of each
T 1 =T2 ). In one example, the first and second thicknesses 1610 other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 725
and 1620, respectively, may be about 0.030 inch (0.762 mil- 65 of the weight port 1421 and the back surface 166 of the face
limeters) (e.g., T 1 =T 2 =0.030 inch). The groove depth 1625 portion 162. In a similar manner, the weight port 1835 may
may be about 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third include the opening 730 and the port wall 735 with the open-
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ing 730 and the port wall 735 being on opposite ends of each (R&A), etc.), golf equipment related to the apparatus, meth-
other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 735 ods, and articles of manufacture described herein may be
of the weight port 1435 and the back surface 166 of the face conforming or non-conforming to the rules of golf at any
portion 162. particular time. Accordingly, golf equipment related to the
The process 1700 may couple each of the first and second apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
sets of weight portions 120 and 130 into one of the two or herein may be advertised, offered for sale, and/or sold as
more exterior weight ports (blocks 1730). In one example, the conforming or non-conforming golf equipment. The appara-
process 1700 may insert and secure the weight portion 121 in tus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are
the exterior weight port 1421, and the weight portion 135 in not limited in this regard.
the exterior weight portion 1435. The process 1700 may use 10 Although certain example apparatus, methods, and articles
various manufacturing methods and/or processes to secure of manufacture have been described herein, the scope of
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, coverage of this disclosure is not limited thereto. On the
respectively, in the exterior weigh ports such as the weight contrary, this disclosure covers all apparatus, methods, and
ports 1421 and 1435 (e.g., epoxy, welding, brazing, mechani- articles of articles of manufacture fairly falling within the
callock(s), any combination thereof, etc.). 15 scope of the appended claims either literally or under the
The process 1700 may partially or entirely fill the interior doctrine of equivalents.
cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material (e.g., Sorboth-
ane material) (block 1740). In one example, at least 50% of What is claimed is:
the interior cavity 700 may be filled with the elastic polymer 1. A golf club head comprising:
material. As mentioned above, the elastic polymer material 20 a plurality of weight portions made of a first material, the
may absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise in plurality of weight portions being associated with a total
response to the golf club head 100 striking a golf ball. In weight portion mass; and
addition or alternatively, the interior cavity 700 may be filled a body portion made of a second material, the body portion
with a thermoplastic elastomer material and/or a thermoplas- having a face portion, a toe portion, a top portion, a sole
tic polyurethane material. As illustrated in FIG. 18, for 25 portion, an interior cavity extending between the top and
example, the golf club head 100 may include one or more sole portions, and a back portion with a plurality of
weight ports (e.g., one shown as 1431 in FIG. 14) with a first exterior weight ports having a first set of exterior weight
opening 1830 and a second opening 1835. The second open- ports and a second set of exterior weight ports along a
ing 1835 may be used to access the interior cavity 700. In one periphery of the back portion, each of the plurality of
example, the process 1700 (FIG. 17) may fill the interior 30 exterior weight ports is associated with a port diameter
cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material by injecting the and configured to receive at least one weight portion of
elastic polymer material into the interior cavity 700 from the the plurality of weight portions,
first opening 1830 via the second opening 1835. The first and wherein the first set of weight ports is located at or proxi-
second openings 1830 and 1835, respectively, may be same or mate to at least one of the top portion or the toe portion,
different in size and/or shape. While the above example may 35 and the second set of exterior weight ports is located at or
describe and depict a particular weight port with a second proximate to at least one of the sole portion or the toe
opening, any other weight ports of the golf club head 100 may portion,
include a second opening (e.g., the weight port 720). The wherein any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the first
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described set of exterior weight ports are separated by less than the
herein are not limited in this regard. 40 port diameter, and any two adjacent exterior weight
Referring back to FIG. 17, the example process 1700 is ports of the second set of exterior weight ports are sepa-
merely provided and described in conjunction with other rated by less than the port diameter, and
figures as an example of one way to manufacture the golf club wherein more than 50% of the total weight portion mass is
head 100. While a particular order of actions is illustrated in located below a horizontal midplane of the golf club
FIG. 17, these actions may be performed in other temporal 45 head.
sequences. For example, two or more actions depicted in FIG. 2. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
17 may be performed sequentially, concurrently, or simulta- interior cavity comprises a cavity separating the face portion
neously. In one example, blocks 1710, 1720, 1730, and/or and the plurality of exterior weight ports.
1740 may be performed simultaneously or concurrently. 3. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein each of
Although FIG. 17 depicts a particular number of blocks, the 50 the plurality of exterior weight ports comprises a port wall
process may not perform one or more blocks. In one example, separated from a back surface of the face portion by the
the interior cavity 700 may not be filled (i.e., block 1740 may interior cavity.
not be performed). The apparatus, methods, and articles of 4. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. interior cavity comprises a cavity partially or entirely filled
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 55 with an elastic polymer material.
described herein may be implemented in a variety of embodi- 5. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
ments, and the foregoing description of some of these plurality of weight portions comprises a first weight portion
embodiments does not necessarily represent a complete having a first weight portion mass and a second weight por-
description of all possible embodiments. Instead, the descrip- tion having a second weight portion mass, wherein the first
tion of the drawings, and the drawings themselves, disclose at 60 weight portion mass is relatively less than the second weight
least one embodiment, and may disclosure alternative portion mass.
embodiments. 6. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein each of
As the rules of golf may change from time to time (e.g., the first and second sets of exterior weight ports comprises at
new regulations may be adopted or old rules may be elimi- least three exterior weight ports.
nated or modified by golf standard organizations and/or gov- 65 7. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
erning bodies such as the United States Golf Association plurality of weight portions comprises at least one weight
(USGA), the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews portion made of a tungsten-based material.
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 39 of 277

US 8,961,336 Bl
13 14
8. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the body 14. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10,
portion comprises at least a portion made of Nitronic 50 wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity separating the
stainless steel. face portion and the two or more exterior weight ports.
9. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the face 15. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10,
portion comprises a thickness of less than or equal to 0.030 wherein the face portion comprises a thickness ofless than or
inch. equal to 0.030 inch.
10. An iron-type golf club head comprising: 16. An iron-type golf club head comprising:
two or more weight portions made of a first material, the
two or more weight portions being associated with a a hollow body portion having a face portion, a toe portion,
total weight portion mass; and 10
a top portion, a sole portion, a back portion, and an
a hollow body portion made of a second material, the body interior cavity extending between the top and sole por-
portion having a face portion, a toe portion, a heel por- tions, the interior cavity being partially or entirely filled
tion, a top portion, a sole portion, an interior cavity with an elastic polymer material;
extending between the top and sole portions, and a back a first set of weight portions coupled to the hollow body
portion with two or more exterior weight ports along a 15 portion at or proximate to a top-and-toe transition region
periphery of the hollow body portion, each of the two or between the top portion and the toe portion, the first set
more exterior weight ports is associated with a port of weight portions being associated with a first total
diameter and configured to receive at least one of the two mass; and
or more weight portions, a second set of weight portions coupled to the hollow body
wherein the interior cavity is at least partially filled with an 20 portion at or proximate to a sole-and-toe transition
elastic polymer material, region between the sole portion and the toe portion, the
wherein a first exterior weight port is located at or proxi- second set of weight portions being associated with a
mate to at least one of the top portion or the toe portion, second total mass,
and a second exterior weight port is located at or pro xi- wherein the first total mass is less than the second total
mate to at least one of the sole portion or the toe portion, 25
mass, and
wherein any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the first
set of exterior weight ports are separated by less than the wherein the second set of weight portions is located below
port diameter, and any two adjacent exterior weight a horizontal midplane of the golf club head.
ports of the second set of exterior weight ports are sepa- 17. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 16,
rated by less than the port diameter, and 30 wherein each weight portion of the first set of weight portions
wherein more than 50% of the total weight portion mass is is associated with a first mass and each weight portion of the
located below a horizontal midplane of the golf club second set of weight portions is associated with a second
head. mass, and wherein the first mass is relatively less than the
11. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10, second mass.
wherein the two or more weight portions comprises weight 35 18. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 16,
portions with more than about 85% of the total weight portion wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity having at least
mass being below the horizontal midplane of the golf club 50% filled with a thermoplastic elastomer material.
head. 19. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 16,
12. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10, wherein the hollow body portion comprises an interior cavity
wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity height extend- 40
separating the face portion and the first and second sets of
ing between the top portion and the sole portion, the cavity weight portions.
height being at least 50% of a body height of the hollow body
portion. 20. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 16,
13. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10,
wherein the face portion comprises a thickness ofless than or
wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity being at least 45
equal to 0.030 inch.
50% filled with a thermoplastic elastomer material. * * * * *
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 40 of 277

EXHIBIT B
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 41 of 277
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US009199143Bl

c12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 9,199,143 B1


Parsons et al. (45) Date of Patent: *Dec. 1, 2015

(54) GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO USPC .......................... 473/324-350, 287-292, 256
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS See application file for complete search history.

(71) Applicant: Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, Scottsdale, (56) References Cited
AZ (US)
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
(72) Inventors: Robert R. Parsons, Scottsdale, AZ
(US); Michael R. Nicolette, Scottsdale, D294,617 s 3/1988 Perkins
AZ (US); Bradley D. Schweigert, 5,158,296 A 10/1992 Lee
Anthem, AZ (US) 5,419,560 A 5/1995 Bamber
D362,884 s 10/1995 Blough et al.
(73) Assignee: PARSONS XTREME GOLF, LLC, D362,885 s 10/1995 Blough et al.
Scottsdale, AZ (US)
D362,887 s 10/1995 Blough et al.
D370,514 s 6/1996 Blough et al.
5,540,437 A 7/1996 Bamber
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this 5,669,830 A 9/1997 Bamber
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 5,766,091 A 6/1998 Humphrey eta!.
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. 5,827,132 A 10/1998 Bamber
D408,485 S 4/1999 Takahashi et al.
This patent is subject to a terminal dis- D421,080 S 212000 Chen
claimer. D426,276 S 6/2000 Besnard et al.
6,077,171 A 6/2000 Yoneyama
(21) Appl. No.: 14/498,603 6,290,609 B1 9/2001 Takeda
D458,328 S 6/2002 Solheim eta!.
D469,833 S 2/2003 Roberts eta!.
(22) Filed: Sep.26,2014 D473,605 S 4/2003 Petersen eta!.
Related U.S. Application Data D475,107 S 5/2003 Madore

(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 29/501,006, (Continued)


filed on Aug. 29, 2014, now Pat. No. Des. 722,352. Primary Examiner- Sebastiana Passaniti
(60) Provisional application No. 62/041,538, filed on Aug.
25,2014. (57) ABSTRACT

(51) Int. Cl. Embodiments of golf club heads and methods to manufacture
A63B 53104 (2015.01) golf club heads are generally described herein. A golf club
A63B 53106 (2015.01) head includes a plurality of weight portions, a body portion
(52) U.S. Cl. having a face portion, a toe portion, a top portion, a sole
CPC ....... A63B 531047 (2013.01); A63B 2053/0408 portion, an interior cavity, and a back portion with a plurality
(2013.01); A63B 2053/0491 (2013.01) of cylindrical weight ports configured to receive the plurality
(58) Field of Classification Search of weight portions. The interior cavity is filled with an elastic
CPC ........... A63B 53/0475; A63B 59/0074; A63B polymer material. Other examples and embodiments may be
2053/0408; A63B 53/06; A63B 59/0092; described and claimed.
A63B 2053/0491; A63B 2059/0003; A63B
2009/00; A63B 53/047 20 Claims, 9 Drawing Sheets

100~
r1oo
180~ 1030

~\-,--\--T\~- L----------
160~

190./
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 42 of 277

US 9,199,143 B1
Page 2

(56) References Cited D596,257 S 7/2009 Jertson et a!.


D596,258 S 7/2009 Jertson et a!.
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS D596,688 S 7/2009 Schweigert et a!.
D597,158 S 7/2009 Schweigert et a!.
6,695,714 B1 2/2004 Bliss eta!. D601,216 S 9/2009 Jertson et a!.
6,702,693 B2 3/2004 Bamber 7,588,502 B2 9/2009 Nishino
D492,376 S 6/2004 Nicolette et al. 7,601,075 B2 10/2009 Cole eta!.
D494,240 S 8/2004 Schweigert D604,783 S 1112009 Nicolette et al.
D494,648 S 8/2004 Schweigert et a!. 7,736,243 B2 6/2010 Sanchez et a!.
D497,963 S 1112004 Toulon eta!. D621,893 S 8/2010 Nicolette et al.
D500,350 S 12/2004 Schweigert et a!. D621,894 S 8/2010 Schweigert
D500,351 S 12/2004 Schweigert et a!. D621,895 S 8/2010 Schweigert et a!.
D502,237 S 2/2005 Schweigert et a!. D627,409 S 1112010 Schweigert et a!.
D502,975 S 3/2005 Schweigert et a!. D627,410 S 1112010 Nicolette et al.
D503,204 S 3/2005 Nicolette et al. D635,627 S 4/2011 Nicolette
D504,925 S 5/2005 Schweigert et a!. 7,938,738 B2 5/2011 Roach
D505,171 S 5/2005 Schweigert et a!. D642,642 S 8/2011 Jertson et a!.
D507,320 S 7/2005 Roberts eta!. D643,491 S 8/2011 Stokke et al.
D507,614 S 7/2005 Schweigert et a!. D643,492 S 8/2011 Nicolette et al.
D508,099 S 8/2005 Schweigert et a!. D643,896 S 8/2011 Jertson et a!.
D508,545 S 8/2005 Roberts eta!. D647,582 S 10/2011 Nicolette et al.
D514,183 S 112006 Schweigert et a!. D649,211 S 1112011 Jertson et a!.
D516,650 S 3/2006 Wolfe eta!. 8,062,150 B2 1112011 Gilbert et a!.
D523,501 S 6/2006 Nicolette et al. D651,268 S 12/2011 Nicolette et al.
D523,917 S 6/2006 Wolfe eta!. 8,092,319 B1 112012 Cackett et a!.
D530,759 S 10/2006 Nicolette et al. 8,105,180 B1 112012 Cackett et a!.
D530,760 S 10/2006 Schweigert et a!. 8,142,307 B2 3/2012 Sanchez et a!.
7,121,956 B2 10/2006 Lo 8,221,262 B1 7/2012 Cackett et a!.
7,128,663 B2 10/2006 Bamber D670,775 S 1112012 Jertson et a!.
D532,849 S 1112006 Nicolette et al. D672,417 S 12/2012 Jertson et a!.
D534,228 S 12/2006 Nicolette et al. D673,633 S 112013 Jertson et a!.
D534,595 S 112007 Hasebe D673,634 S 112013 Jertson et a!.
D534,597 S 112007 Nicolette et al. 8,376,878 B2 212013 Bennett et a!.
D536,759 S 2/2007 Schweigert et a!. D680,603 S 4/2013 Nicolette et al.
D537,494 S 2/2007 Jertson et a!. D681,142 S 4/2013 Fossum et al.
D538,366 S 3/2007 Nicolette et al. D681,143 S 4/2013 Nicolette et al.
D539,864 S 4/2007 Nicolette et al. 8,506,420 B2 8/2013 Hocknell et al.
D540,898 S 4/2007 Solheim et al. 8,574,094 B2 1112013 Nicolette et al.
D541,360 S 4/2007 Schweigert et a!. 8,657,700 B2 212014 Nicolette et al.
7,207,900 B2 4/2007 Nicolette et al. 8,690,710 B2 4/2014 Nicolette et al.
D544,056 S 6/2007 Nicolette et al. 8,753,230 B2 6/2014 Stokke et al.
D547,410 S 7/2007 Nicolette et al. D708,688 s 7/2014 Nicolette et al.
D555,219 S 1112007 Lin 8,961,336 B1 * 212015 Parsons . A63B 53/0475
D561,855 S 2/2008 Schweigert et a!. 473/332
D562,925 S 2/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2002/0107087 A1 8/2002 Fagot
7,351,164 B2 4/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2004/0204263 A1 10/2004 Fagot eta!.
D570,435 S 6/2008 Sanchez et al. 2005/0009632 A1 112005 Schweigert et a!.
D570,935 S 6/2008 Nicolette et al. 2005/0014573 A1 112005 Lee
D570,936 S 6/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2005/0096148 A1 5/2005 Noble eta!.
D570,942 S 6/2008 Chen eta!. 2005/0277485 A1 12/2005 Hou eta!.
D571,422 S 6/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2007/0032308 A1 2/2007 Fagot eta!.
D571,425 S 6/2008 Chen eta!. 2007/0225084 A1 9/2007 Schweigert et a!.
D571,427 S 6/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2008/0058113 A1 3/2008 Nicolette et al.
D571,881 S 6/2008 Nicolette et al. 2008/0300065 A1 12/2008 Schweigert
D572,326 S 7/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2009/0029790 A1 112009 Nicolette et al.
D572,329 S 7/2008 Nicolette et al. 2010/0130306 A1 5/2010 Schweigert
D573,219 S 7/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2010/0178999 A1 712010 Nicolette et al.
7,396,299 B2 7/2008 Nicolette et al. 201110111883 A1 5/2011 Cackett
7,413,518 B2 8/2008 Cole et al. 201110165963 A1 7/2011 Cackett et a!.
D577,783 S 9/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2013/0137532 A1 5/2013 Deshmukh et al.
D578,590 S 10/2008 Schweigert et a!. 2013/0288823 A1 10/2013 Hebreo
D581,000 S 1112008 Nicolette et al. 2014/0080621 A1 3/2014 Nicolette et al.
D581,004 S 1112008 Schweigert et a!. 2014/0128175 A1 5/2014 Jertson et a!.
D584,370 S 112009 Cleveland eta!.
D596,256 S 7/2009 Schweigert et a!. * cited by examiner
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 43 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec. 1, 2015 Sheet 1 of9 US 9,199,143 B1

100~

155
r-180

140
"150

190/
FIG. 1

~100

150/

133 }
190/ 130 FIG. 2
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 44 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec. 1, 2015 Sheet 2 of9 US 9,199,143 B1

100~

140

FIG. 3

18 7

100~ 140
)

FIG. 4
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 45 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec. 1, 2015 Sheet 3 of9 US 9,199,143 B1

100~

155

1410

160 170

\ )

\190 FIG. 5

100~

180~ 155

162

1410
170
\

-~
\190 FIG. 6
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 46 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec. 1, 2015 Sheet 4 of9 US 9,199,143 B1

100~

160~

166

735 1431
FIG. 7

100~
155
180~

171
850
170~ r16o

168

1431 735
190
j FIG. 8
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 47 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec. 1, 2015 Sheet 5 of9 US 9,199,143 B1

100~
180~

720
160~
1421
1410
1~ f170
~130

FIG. 9

~100

1010

~-l
190/ FIG. 10
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 48 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec.l, 2015


Sheet 6 of9
US 9,199,143 B1

120 & 130 "'\

1110

FIG. 11

120 "'\

1220

FIG. 12

130 "'\

1320

FIG. 13
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 49 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec. 1, 2015 Sheet 7 of9 US 9,199,143 B1

110~

1421 14221423 ~1420


\\ 1424
140

'&...~\\\\1 )

150/

1431
1432 1433 J
190/ 130 FIG. 14

162~

1540

FIG. 15
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 50 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec. 1, 2015 Sheet 8 of9 US 9,199,143 B1

162~

1640

FIG. 16

1700~
START


Provide two or more J710
weight portions
...
Provide body portion J720
...
Couple at least one weight
portion in weight port
J730
...
Fill interior cavity 0740
t
( END )
FIG. 17
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 51 of 277

U.S. Patent Dec. 1, 2015 Sheet 9 of9 US 9,199,143 B1

100~

160~

166

1874
FIG. 18
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 52 of 277

US 9,199,143 B1
1 2
GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO FIG. 15 depicts a cross-sectional view of a face portion of
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
FIG. 16 depicts a cross-sectional view of another face
CROSS REFERENCE portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
FIG.17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional head described herein may be manufactured.
Application 62/041,538 filed Aug. 25, 2014. This is a con- FIG. 18 depicts another cross-sectional view of the
tinuation-in-part application of U.S. Application Ser. No. example golf club head of FIG. 4 along line 18-18.
29/501,006, filed Aug. 29, 2014. The disclosures of the ref- For simplicity and clarity of illustration, the drawing fig-
erenced applications are incorporated herein by reference. 10 ures illustrate the general manner of construction, and
descriptions and details of well-known features and tech-
COPYRIGHT AUTHORIZATION niques may be omitted to avoid urmecessarily obscuring the
present disclosure. Additionally, elements in the drawing fig-
The present disclosure may be subject to copyright protec- ures may not be depicted to scale. For example, the dimen-
tion. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile 15 sions of some of the elements in the figures may be exagger-
reproduction by anyone of the present disclosure and its ated relative to other elements to help improve understanding
related documents, as they appear in the Patent and Trade- of embodiments of the present disclosure.
mark Office patent files or records, but otherwise reserves all
applicable copyrights. DESCRIPTION
20
FIELD In general, golf club heads and methods to manufacture
golf club heads are described herein. The apparatus, methods,
The present disclosure generally relates to golf equipment, and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
and more particularly, to golf club heads and methods to this regard.
manufacturing golf club heads. 25 In the example of FIGS. 1-14, a golf club head 100 may
include a body portion 110 (FIG.14), and two or more weight
BACKGROUND portions, generally shown as a first set of weight portions 120
(e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) and a
Various materials (e.g., steel-based materials, titanium- second set of weight portions 130 (e.g., shown as weight
based materials, tungsten-based materials, etc.) may be used 30 portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). The body
to manufacture golf club heads. By using multiple materials portion 110 may include a toe portion 140, a heel portion 150,
to manufacture golf club heads, the position of the center of a front portion 160, a back portion 170, a top portion 180, and
gravity (CG) and/or the moment of inertia (MOl) of the golf a sole portion 190. The body portion 110 may be made of a
club heads may be optimized to produce certain trajectory first material whereas the first and second sets of weight
and spin rate of a golf ball. 35 portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be made of a second
material. The first and second materials may be similar or
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS different materials. For example, the body portion 110 may be
partially or entirely made of a steel-based material (e.g., 17-4
FIG. 1 depicts a front view of a golf club head according to PH stainless steel, Nitronic 50 stainless steel, maraging
an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of 40 steel or other types of stainless steel), a titanium -based mate-
manufacture described herein. rial, an aluminum-based material (e.g., a high-strength alu-
FIG. 2 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head of minum alloy or a composite aluminum alloy coated with a
FIG. 1. high-strength alloy), any combination thereof, and/or other
FIG. 3 depicts a top view of the example golf club head of suitable types of materials. The first and second sets of weight
FIG. 1. 45 portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or
FIG. 4 depicts a bottom view of the example golf club head entirely made of a high-density material such as a tungsten-
of FIG. 1. based material or other suitable types of materials. Altema-
FIG. 5 depicts a left view of the example golf club head of tively, the body portion 110 and/or the first and second sets of
FIG. 1. weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or
FIG. 6 depicts a right view of the example golf club head of 50 entirely made of a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plas-
FIG. 1. tic, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
FIG. 7 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf are not limited in this regard.
club head ofFIG.1 along line 7-7. The golf club head 100 may be an iron-type golf club head
FIG. 8 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf (e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron, a
club head of FIG. 1 along line 8-8. 55 7-iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type golf club
FIG. 9 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, an
club head of FIG. 1 along line 9-9. n-degree wedge such as 44 degrees (0 ) , 48, 52, 56, 60,
FIG. 10 depicts another rear view of the example golf club etc.). Although FIGS. 1-10 may depict a particular type of
head of FIG. 1. club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufac-
FIG. 11 depicts a top view of a weight portion associated 60 ture described herein may be applicable to other types of club
with the example golf club head of FIG. 1. heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway wood-type club
FIG. 12 depicts a side view of a weight portion associated head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club head, etc.).
with the example golf club head of FIG. 1. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
FIG. 13 depicts a side view of another weight portion described herein are not limited in this regard.
associated with the example golf club head of FIG. 1. 65 The toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150 may be on
FIG.14 depicts a rear view of a bodyportionoftheexample opposite ends of the body portion 110. The heel portion 150
golf club head ofFIG.l. may include a hose! portion 155 configured to receive a shaft
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 53 of 277

US 9,199,143 B1
3 4
(not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the golf a mechanical locking method, any combination thereof, or
club head 100 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a golf other suitable manufacturing methods and/or processes).
club. Alternatively, the golf club head 100 may not include (i) the
The front portion 160 may include a face portion 162 (e.g., first set of weight portions 120, (ii) the second set of weight
a strike face). The face portion 162 may include a front 5 portions 130, or (iii) both the first and second sets of weight
surface 164 and a back surface 166. The front surface 164 portions 120 and 130. In particular, the back portion 170 of
may include one or more grooves 168 extending between the the body portion 110 may not include weight ports at or
toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150. While the figures proximate to the top portion 170 and/or the sole portion 190.
may depict a particular number of grooves, the apparatus, For example, the mass of the first set of weight portions 120
10 (e.g., 3 grams) and/or the mass of the second set of weight
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may
portions 130 (e.g., 16.8 grams) may be integral part(s) the
include more or less grooves. The face portion 162 may be
body portion 110 instead of separate weight portion(s). The
used to impact a golf ball (not shown). The face portion 162
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
may be an integral portion of the body portion 110. Alterna- herein are not limited in this regard.
tively, the face portion 162 may be a separate piece or an insert 15 The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
coupled to the body portion 110 via various manufacturing respectively, may have similar or different physical properties
methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process, a welding (e.g., color, shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). As a
process, a brazing process, a mechanical locking method, any result, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
combination thereof, or other suitable types of manufacturing 130, respectively, may contribute to the ornamental design of
methods and/or processes). The face portion 162 may be 20 the golf club head 100. In the illustrated example as shown in
associated with a loft plane that defines the loft angle of the FIG. 11, each of the weight portions of the first and second
golf club head 100. The loft angle may vary based on the type sets 120 and 130, respectively, may have a cylindrical shape
of golf club (e.g., a long iron, a middle iron, a short iron, a (e.g., a circular cross section). Alternatively, each of the
wedge, etc.). In one example, the loft angle may be between weight portions of the first set 120 may have a first shape (e.g.,
five degrees and seventy-five degrees. In another example, the 25 a cylindrical shape) whereas each of the weight portions of
loft angle may be between twenty degrees and sixty degrees. the second set 130 may have a second shape (e.g., a cubical
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture shape). In another example, the first set of weight portions
described herein are not limited in this regard. 120 may include two or more weight portions with different
As illustrated in FIG. 14, the back portion 170 may include shapes (e.g., the weight portion 121 may be a first shape
a back wall portion 1410 with one or more exterior weight 30 whereas the weight portion 122 may be a second shape dif-
ports along a periphery of the back portion 170, generally ferent from the first shape). Likewise, the second set of weight
shown as a first set of exterior weight ports 1420 (e.g., shown portions 130 may also include two or more weight portions
as weight ports 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424) and a second set with different shapes (e.g., the weight portion 131 may be a
of exterior weight ports 1430 (e.g., shown as weight ports first shape whereas the weight portion 132 may be a second
1431, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1435, 1436, and 1437). Each exterior 35 shape different from the first shape). Although the above
weight port may be associated with a port diameter. In one examples may describe weight portions having a particular
example, the port diameter may be about 0.25 inch (6.35 shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
millimeters). Any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the described herein may include weight portions of other suit-
first set of exterior weight ports 1420 may be separated by less able shapes (e.g., a portion of or a whole sphere, cube, cone,
than the port diameter. In a similar manner, any two adjacent 40 cylinder, pyramid, cuboidal, prism, frustum, or other suitable
exterior weight ports of the second set of exterior weight ports geometric shape). While the above examples and figures may
1430 may be separated by less than the port diameter. The first depict multiple weight portions as a set of weight portions,
and second exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may be each set of the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
exterior weight ports configured to receive one or more 130, respectively, may be a single piece of weight portion. In
weight portions. In particular, each weight portion of the first 45 one example, the first set of weight portions 120 may be a
set 120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and single piece of weight portion instead of a series of four
124) may be disposed in a weight port located at or proximate separate weight portions. In another example, the second set
to the toe portion 140 and/or the top portion 180 on the back of weight portions 130 may be a single piece of weight por-
portion 170. For example, the weight portion 121 may be tion instead of a series of seven separate weight portions. The
partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1421. In so apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
another example, the weight portion 122 may be disposed in herein are not limited in this regard.
a weight port 1422 located in a transition region between the Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, for example, the first and
top portion 180 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a top-and-toe second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may
transition region). Each weight portion of the second set 130 include threads, generally shown as 1210 and 1310, respec-
(e.g., shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 55 tively, to secure in the weight ports of the back portion 170
and 137) may be disposed in a weight port located at or (generally shown as 1420 and 1430 in FIG. 14). For example,
proximate to the toe portion 140 and/or the sole portion 190 each weight portion of the first and second sets of weight
on the back portion 170. For example, the weight portion 135 portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a screw. The first
may be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1435. and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
In another example, the weight portion 136 may be disposed 60 may not be readily removable from the body portion 110 with
in a weight port 1436 located in a transition region between or without a tool. Alternatively, the first and second sets of
the sole portion 190 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a sole-and- weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be readily
toe transition region). As described in detail below, the first removable (e.g., with a tool) so that a relatively heavier or
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, lighter weight portion may replace one or more of the weight
may be coupled to the back portion 170 of the body portion 65 portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively.
110 with various manufacturing methods and/or processes In another example, the first and second sets of weight por-
(e.g., a bonding process, a welding process, a brazing process, tions 120 and 130, respectively, may be secured in the weight
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ports of the back portion 170 with epoxy or adhesive so that weight portions 130 were directly coupled to the back surface
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, 166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
respectively, may not be readily removable. In yet another described herein are not limited in this regard.
example, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and While the figures may depict weight ports with a particular
130, respectively, may be secured in the weight ports of the 5 cross-section shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of
back portion 170 with both epoxy and threads so that the first manufacture described herein may include weight ports with
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, other suitable cross-section shapes. In one example, the
may not be readily removable. The apparatus, methods, and weight ports of the first and/or second sets of weight ports
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in this 1420 and 1430 may have U-like cross-section shape. In
regard. 10 another example, the weight ports of the first and/or second
As mentioned above, the first and second sets of weight set of weight ports 1420 and 1430 may have V-like cross-
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be similar in some section shape. One or more of the weight ports associated
physical properties but different in other physical properties. with the first set of weight portions 120 may have a different
As illustrated in FIGS. 11-13, for example, each of the weight cross-section shape than one or more weight ports associated
portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, 15 with the second set of weight portions 130. For example, the
may have a diameter 1110 of about 0.25 inch (6.35 millime- weight port 1421 may have a U-like cross-section shape
ters) but the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and whereas the weight port 1435 may have a V-like cross-section
130, respectively, may be different in height. In particular, shape. Further, two or more weight ports associated with the
each of the weight portions of the first set 120 may be asso- first set of weight portions 120 may have different cross-
ciated with a first height 1220 (FIG. 12), and each of the 20 section shapes. In a similar manner, two or more weight ports
weight portion of the second set 130 may be associated with associated with the second set of weight portions 130 may
a second height 1320 (FIG. 13). The first height 1220 may be have different cross-section shapes. The apparatus, methods,
relatively shorter than the second height 1320. In one and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
example, the first height 1220 may be about 0.125 inch (3 .17 5 this regard.
millimeters) whereas the second height 1320 may be about 25 Referring back to FIG. 10, for example, the golf club head
0.3 inch (7.62 millimeters). In another example, the first 100 may be associated with a ground plane 1010, a horizontal
height 1220 may be about 0.16 inch (4.064 millimeters) midplane 1020, and a top plane 1030. In particular, the ground
whereas the second height 1320 maybe about 0.4 inch (10.16 plane 1010 may be a tangential plane to the sole portion 190
millimeters). Alternatively, the first height 1220 may be equal of the golf club head 100 when the golf club head 100 is at an
to or greater than the second height 1320. The apparatus, 30 address position (e.g., the golf club head 100 is aligned to
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not strike a golfball).A top plane 1030 may be a tangential plane
limited in this regard. to the top portion of the 180 of the golf club head 100 when the
To provide optimal perimeter weighting for the golf club golf club head 100 is at the address position. The ground and
head 100, the first set of weight portions 120 (e.g., weight top planes 1010 and 1030, respectively, may be substantially
portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) may be configured to 35 parallel to each other. The horizontal midplane 1020 may be
counter-balance the weight of the hosel155. The second set of vertically halfWay between the ground and top planes 1010
weight portions 130 (e.g., weight portions 131,132,133,134, and 1030, respectively.
135, 136, and 137) may be configured to place the center of The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
gravity of the golf club head 100 at an optimal location. respectively, may be similar in mass (e.g., all of the weight
Turning to FIGS. 7-9,forexample, the first and second sets of 40 portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively,
weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be located weigh about the same). Alternatively, the first and second sets
away from the back surface 166 of the face portion 162 (e.g., of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be different
not directly coupled to each other). That is, the first and in mass individually or as an entire set. In particular, each of
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, and the weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121,
the back surface 166 may be partially or entirely separated by 45 122, 123, and 124) may have relatively less mass than any of
an interior cavity 700 of the body portion 110. As shown in the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., shown as 131,
FIG. 14, for example, each exterior weight port of the first and 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). For example, the second
second sets of exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may set of weight portions 130 may account for more than 50% of
include an opening (e.g., generally shown as 720 and 730) and the total mass from exterior weight portions of the golf club
a port wall (e.g., generally shown as 725 and 735). The port 50 head 100. As a result, the golf club head 100 may be config-
walls 725 and 735 may be integral portions of the back wall ured to have at least 50% of the total mass from exterior
portion 1410 (e.g., a section of the back wall portion 1410). weight portions disposed below the horizontal midplane
Each of the openings 720 and 730 may be configured to 1020. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
receive a weight portion such as weight portions 121 and 135, described herein are not limited in this regard.
respectively. The opening 720 may be located at one end of 55 In one example, the golf club head 100 may have a mass in
the weight port 1421, and the port wall 725 may be located or the range of about 220 grams to about 330 grams based on the
proximate to at an opposite end of the weight port 1421. In a type of golf club (e.g., a 4-iron versus a lob wedge). The body
similar manner, the opening 730 may be located at one end of portion 110 may have a mass in the range of about 200 grams
the weight port 1435, and the port wall 735 may be located at to about 310 grams with the first and second sets of weight
or proximate to an opposite end of the weight port 1435. The 60 portions 120 and 130, respectively, having a mass of about 20
port walls 725 and 735 may be separated from the face portion grams (e.g., a total mass from exterior weight portions). Each
162 (e.g., separated by the interior cavity 700). As a result, the of the weight portions of the first set 120 may have a mass of
center of gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 may be about one gram (1.0 g) whereas each of the weight portions of
relatively farther back away from the face portion 162 and the second set 130 may have a mass of about 2.4 grams. The
relatively lower towards a ground plane (e.g., one shown as 65 sum of the mass of the first set of weight portions 120 may be
1010 in FIG. 10) with the second set of weight portions 130 about 3 grams whereas the sum of the mass of the first set of
being away from the back surface 166 than if the second set of weight portions 130 may be about 16.8 grams. The total mass
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of the second set of weight portions 130 may weigh more than natively as mentioned above, the apparatus, methods, and
five times as much as the total mass of the first set of weight articles of manufacture described herein may not include any
portions 120 (e.g., a total mass of the second set of weight separate weight portions (e.g., the body portion 110 may be
portions 130 of about 16.8 grams versus a total mass of the manufactured to include the mass of the separate weight
first set of weight portions 120 of about 3 grams). The golf 5 portions as integral part(s) of the body portion 110). The
club head 100 may have a total mass of 19.8 grams from the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respec- herein are not limited in this regard.
tively (e.g., sum of 3 grams from the first set of weight Referring back to FIGS. 7-9 ,for example, the body portion
portions 120 and 16.8 grams from the second set of weight 110 may be a hollow body including the interior cavity 700
portions 130). Accordingly, the first set of weight portions 10 extending between the front portion 160 and the back portion
120 may account for about 15% of the total mass from exte- 170. Further, the interior cavity 700 may extend between the
rior weight portions of the golf club head 100 whereas the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190. The interior cavity
second set of weight portions 130 may be account for about 700 may be associated with a cavity height 750 (He), and the
85% of the total mass from exterior weight portions of the body portion 110 may be associated with a body height 850
golf club head 100. The apparatus, methods, and articles of 15 (HB). While the cavity height 750 and the body height 850
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. may vary between the toe and heel portions 140 and 150, the
By coupling the first and second sets of weight portions 120 cavity height 750 may be at least 50% of a body height 850
and 130, respectively, to the body portion 110 (e.g., securing (Hc>0.5*HB). For example, the cavity height 750 may vary
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130 in the between 70-85% of the body height 850. With the cavity
weight ports on the back portion 170), the location of the 20 height 750 of the interior cavity 700 being greater than 50% of
center of gravity (CG) and the moment of inertia (MOl) of the the body height 850, the golf club head 100 may be produce
golf club head 100 may be optimized. In particular, the first relatively more consistent feel, sound, and/or result when the
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball via the face portion 162
may lower the location of the CG towards the sole portion 190 than a golf club head with a cavity height ofless than 50% of
and further back away from the face portion 162. Further, the 25 the body height. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
MOl may be higher as measured about a vertical axis extend- manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
ing through the CG (e.g., perpendicular to the ground plane In one example, the interior cavity 700 may be unfilled
1010). The MOl may also be higher as measured about a (i.e., empty space). The body portion 100 with the interior
horizontal axis extending through the CG (e.g., extending cavity 700 may weight about 100 grams less than the body
towards the toe and heel portions 150 and 160, respectively, of 30 portion 100 without the interior cavity 700. Alternatively, the
the golf club head 100). As a result, the club head 100 may interior cavity 700 may be partially or entirely filled with an
provide a relatively higher launch angle and a relatively lower elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a viscoelastic
spin rate than a golf club head without the first and second sets urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane material
of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively. The apparatus, manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a thermo-
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not 35 plastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic polyure-
limited in this regard. thane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of materials
Alternatively, two or more weight portions in the same set to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise. For
may be different in mass. In one example, the weight portion example, at least 50% of the interior cavity 700 may be filled
121 of the first set 120 may have a relatively lower mass than with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or
the weight portion 122 of the first set 120. In another example, 40 dampen noise when the golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball
the weight portion 131 of the second set 130 may have a via the face portion 162. The apparatus, methods, and articles
relatively lower mass than the weight portion 135 of the of manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
second set 130. With relatively greater mass atthetop-and-toe Turning to FIG. 15, for example, the face portion 162 may
transition region and/or the sole-and-toe transition region, include a first thickness 1510 (T 1 ), and a second thickness
more weight may be distributed away from the center of 45 1520 (T 2 ). The first thickness 1510 may be a thickness of a
gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 to increase the moment section of the face portion 162 adjacent to a groove 168
of inertia (MOl) about the vertical axis through the CG. whereas the second thickness 1520 may be a thickness of a
Although the figures may depict the weight portions as section of the face portion 162 below the groove 168. For
separate and individual parts, each set of the first and second example, the first thickness 1510 may be a maximum distance
sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a 50 between the front surface 164 and the back surface 166. The
single piece of weight portion. In one example, all of the second thickness 1520 may be based on the groove 168. In
weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, 122, particular, the groove 168 may have a groove depth 1525
123, and 124) may be combined into a single piece of weight (Dgroove). The second thickness 1520 may be a maximum
portion (e.g., a first weight portion). In a similar mam1er, all of distance between the bottom of the groove 168 and the back
the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., 131, 132, 133, 55 surface 166. The sum of the second thickness 1520 and the
134, 135, 136, and 137) may be combined into a single piece groove depth 1525 may be substantially equal to the first
of weight portion as well (e.g., a second weight portion). In thickness 1510 (e.g., T 2 +Dgroove=T 1 ). Accordingly, the sec-
this example, the golf club head 100 may have only two ond thickness 1520 may be less than the first thickness 1510
weight portions. While the figures may depict a particular (e.g., T 2 <T 1 ).
number of weight portions, the apparatus, methods, and 60 To lower and/or move the CG of the golf club head 100
articles of manufacture described herein may include more or further back, weight from the front portion 160 of the golf
less number of weight portions. In one example, the first set of club head 100 may be removed by using a relatively thinner
weight portions 120 may include two separate weight por- face portion 162. For example, the first thickness 1520 may be
tions instead of three separate weight portions as shown in the about 0.075 inch (1.905 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 =0.075 inch).
figures. In another example, the second set of weight portions 65 With the support of the back wall portion 1410 to form the
130 may include five separate weight portions instead of interior cavity 700 and filling at least a portion of the interior
seven separate weight portions a shown in the figures. Alter- cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material, the face portion
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162 may be relatively thinner (e.g., T 1 <0.075 inch) without the reinforcement section 1605 may be greater than or equal
degrading the structural integrity, sound, and/or feel of the to the groove width. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
golf club head 100. In one example, the first thickness 1510 manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
may be less than or equal to 0.060 inch (1.524 millimeters) Alternatively, the face portion 162 may vary in thickness at
(e.g., Tls0.060 inch). In another example, the first thickness 5 and/or between the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190.
1510 may be less than or equal to 0.040 inch (1.016 millime- In one example, the face portion 162 may be relatively thicker
ters) (e.g., T 1 s0.040 inch). Based on the type ofmaterial(s) at or proximate to the top portion 180 than at or proximate to
used to form the face portion 162 and/or the body portion 110, the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion 162
the face portion 162 may be even thinner with the first thick- may taper from the top portion 180 towards the sole portion
ness 1510 being less than or equal to 0.030 inch (0.762 mil- 10
190). In another example, the face portion 162 may be rela-
limeters) (e.g., T 1 s0.030 inch). The groove depth 1525 may
tively thicker at or proximate to the sole portion 190 than at or
be greater than or equal to the second thickness 1520 (e.g.,
proximate to the top portion 180 (e.g., thickness of the face
Dgroove"= T 2 ). In one example, the groove depth 1525 may be
about 0.020 inch (0.508 millimeters) (e.g., Dgroove=0.020 portion 162 may taper from the sole portion 190 towards the
inch). Accordingly, the second thickness 1520 may be about 15
top portion 180). In yet another example, the face portion 162
0.010 inch (0.254 millimeters) (e.g., T 2 =0.01 0 inch). In may be relatively thicker between the top portion 180 and the
another example, the groove depth 1525 may be about 0.015 sole portion 190 than at or proximate to the top portion 180
inch (0.381 millimeters), and the second thickness 1520 may and the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion
be about 0.015 inch (e.g., Dgroove=T 2 =0.015 inch). Alterna- 162 may have a bell-shaped contour). The apparatus, meth-
tively, the groove depth 1525 may be less than the second 20 ods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
thickness 1520 (e.g., Dgroove <T 2 ). Without the support of the limited in this regard.
back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer material to fill Different from other golf club head designs, the interior
in the interior cavity 700, a golf club head may not be able to cavity 700 of the body portion 110 and the location of the first
withstand multiple impacts by a golf ball on a face portion. In and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
contrast to the golf club head 100 as described herein, a golf 25 along the perimeter of the golf club head 100 may result in a
club head with a relatively thin face portion but without the golf ball traveling away from the face portion 162 at a rela-
support of the back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer tively higher ball launch angle and a relatively lower spin rate.
material to fill in the interior cavity 700 (e.g., a cavity-back As a result, the golf ball may travel farther (i.e., greater total
golf club head) may produce unpleasant sound (e.g., a tinny distance, which includes carry and roll distances).
sound) and/or feel during impact with a golf ball. The appa- 30 FIG.17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein head described herein may be manufactured. In the example
are not limited in this regard. ofFIG. 17, the process 1700 may begin with providing two or
Based on manufacturing processes and methods used to more weight portions, generally shown as the first and second
form the golf club head 100, the face portion 162 may include sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively (block
additional material at or proximate to a periphery of the face 35 1710). The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
portion 162. Accordingly, the face portion 162 may also 130, respectively, may be made of a first material such as a
include a third thickness 1530, and a chamfer portion 1540. tungsten-based material. In one example, the weight portions
The third thickness 1530 may be greater than either the first of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, may be
thickness 1510 or the second thickness 1520 (e.g., tungsten-alloy screws.
T 3 >T 1 >T 2 ). In particular, the face portion 162 may be 40 The process 1700 may provide a body portion 110 having
coupled to the body portion 110 by a welding process. For the face portion 162, the interior cavity 700, and the back
example, the first thickness 1510 may be about 0.030 inch portion 170 with two or more exterior weight ports, generally
(0.762 millimeters), the second thickness 1520 may be about shown as 1420 and 1430 (block 1720). The body portion 110
0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third thickness may be may be made of a second material, which is different than the
about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). Accordingly, the cham- 45 first material. The body portion 110 may be manufacture
fer portion 1540 may accommodate some of the additional using an investment casting process, a billet forging process,
material when the face portion 162 is welded to the body a stamping process, a computer numerically controlled
portion 110. (CNC) machining process, a die casting process, any combi-
As illustrated in FIG. 16, for example, the face portion 162 nation thereof, or other suitable manufacturing processes. In
may include a reinforcement section, generally shown as 50 one example, the body portion 110 may be made of 17-4 PH
1605, below one or more grooves 168. In one example, the stainless steel using a casting process. In another example, the
face portion 162 may include a reinforcement section 1605 body portion 110 may be made of other suitable type of
below each groove. Alternatively, face portion 162 may stainless steel (e.g., Nitronic 50 stainless steel manufac-
include the reinforcement section 1605 below some grooves tured by AK Steel Corporation, West Chester, Ohio) using a
(e.g., every other groove) or below only one groove. The face 55 forging process. By using Nitronic 50 stainless steel to
portion 162 may include a first thickness 1610, a second manufacture the body portion 110, the golf club head 100
thickness 1620, a third thickness 1630, and a chamfer portion may be relatively stronger and/or more resistant to corrosion
1640. The groove 168 may have a groove depth 1625. The than golf club heads made from other types of steel. Each
reinforcement section 168 may define the second thickness weight port of the body portion 110 may include an opening
1620. The first and second thicknesses 1610 and 1620, 60 and a port wall. For example, the weight port 1421 may
respectively, may be substantially equal to each other (e.g., include the opening 720 and the port wall 725 with the open-
T 1 =T2 ). In one example, the first and second thicknesses 1610 ing 720 and the port wall 725 being on opposite ends of each
and 1620, respectively, may be about 0.030 inch (0.762 mil- other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 725
limeters) (e.g., T 1 =T 2 =0.030 inch). The groove depth 1625 of the weight port 1421 and the back surface 166 of the face
may be about 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third 65 portion 162. In a similar manner, the weight port 1835 may
thickness 1630 may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). include the opening 730 and the port wall 735 with the open-
The groove 168 may also have a groove width. The width of ing 730 and the port wall 735 being on opposite ends of each
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other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 735 ods, and articles of manufacture described herein may be
of the weight port 1435 and the back surface 166 of the face conforming or non-conforming to the rules of golf at any
portion 162. particular time. Accordingly, golf equipment related to the
The process 1700 may couple each of the first and second apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
sets of weight portions 120 and 130 into one of the two or 5 herein may be advertised, offered for sale, and/or sold as
more exterior weight ports (blocks 1730). In one example, the conforming or non-conforming golf equipment. The appara-
process 1700 may insert and secure the weight portion 121 in tus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are
the exterior weight port 1421, and the weight portion 135 in not limited in this regard.
the exterior weight portion 1435. The process 1700 may use Although certain example apparatus, methods, and articles
various manufacturing methods and/or processes to secure 10 of manufacture have been described herein, the scope of
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, coverage of this disclosure is not limited thereto. On the
respectively, in the exterior weigh ports such as the weight contrary, this disclosure covers all apparatus, methods, and
ports 1421 and 1435 (e.g., epoxy, welding, brazing, mechani- articles of articles of manufacture fairly falling within the
callock(s), any combination thereof, etc.). scope of the appended claims either literally or under the
The process 1700 may partially or entirely fill the interior 15 doctrine of equivalents.
cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material (e.g., Sorboth-
ane material) (block 1740). In one example, at least 50% of What is claimed is:
the interior cavity 700 may be filled with the elastic polymer 1. A golf club head comprising:
material. As mentioned above, the elastic polymer material a plurality of weight portions made of a first material, the
may absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise in 20 plurality of weight portions being associated with a total
response to the golf club head 100 striking a golf ball. In weight portion mass; and
addition or alternatively, the interior cavity 700 may be filled a body portion made of a second material, the body portion
with a thermoplastic elastomer material and/or a thermoplas- having a face portion, a toe portion, a top portion, a sole
tic polyurethane material. As illustrated in FIG. 18, for portion, an interior cavity extending between the top and
example, the golf club head 100 may include one or more 25 sole portions, and a back portion with a plurality of
weight ports (e.g., one shown as 1431 in FIG. 14) with a first cylindrical weight ports having a first set of cylindrical
opening 1830 and a second opening 1835. The second open- weight ports and a second set of cylindrical weight ports
ing 1835 may be used to access the interior cavity 700. In one along a periphery of the back portion, each of the plu-
example, the process 1700 (FIG. 17) may fill the interior rality of cylindrical weight ports is associated with a port
cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material by injecting the 30 diameter and configured to receive at least one weight
elastic polymer material into the interior cavity 700 from the portion of the plurality of weight portions,
first opening 1830 via the second opening 1835. The first and wherein the first set of cylindrical weight ports is located at
second openings 1830 and 1835, respectively, may be same or or proximate to at least one of the top portion or the toe
different in size and/or shape. While the above example may portion, and the second set of cylindrical weight ports is
describe and depict a particular weight port with a second 35 located at or proximate to at least one of the sole portion
opening, any other weight ports of the golf club head 100 may or the toe portion,
include a second opening (e.g., the weight port 720). The wherein any two adjacent cylindrical weight ports of the
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described first set of cylindrical weight ports are separated by less
herein are not limited in this regard. than the port diameter, and any two adjacent cylindrical
Referring back to FIG. 17, the example process 1700 is 40 weight ports of the second set of cylindrical weight ports
merely provided and described in conjunction with other are separated by less than the port diameter, and
figures as an example of one way to manufacture the golf club wherein the interior cavity is filled with an elastic polymer
head 100. While a particular order of actions is illustrated in material.
FIG. 17, these actions may be performed in other temporal 2. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
sequences. For example, two or more actions depicted in FIG. 45 interior cavity comprises a cavity with at least 50% filled with
17 may be performed sequentially, concurrently, or simulta- a thermoplastic elastomer material.
neously. In one example, blocks 1710, 1720, 1730, and/or 3. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein each of
1740 may be performed simultaneously or concurrently. the plurality of cylindrical weight ports comprises a port wall
Although FIG. 17 depicts a particular number of blocks, the separated from a back surface of the face portion by the elastic
process may not perform one or more blocks. In one example, 50 polymer material.
the interior cavity 700 may not be filled (i.e., block 1740 may 4. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
not be performed). The apparatus, methods, and articles of plurality of weight portions comprises a first weight portion
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. having a first weight portion mass and a second weight por-
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture tion having a second weight portion mass, wherein the first
described herein may be implemented in a variety of embodi- 55 weight portion mass is relatively less than the second weight
ments, and the foregoing description of some of these portion mass.
embodiments does not necessarily represent a complete 5. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein each of
description of all possible embodiments. Instead, the descrip- the first and second sets of cylindrical weight ports comprises
tion of the drawings, and the drawings themselves, disclose at at least three cylindrical weight ports.
least one embodiment, and may disclosure alternative 60 6. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
embodiments. plurality of weight portions comprises at least one weight
As the rules of golf may change from time to time (e.g., portion made of a tungsten-based material.
new regulations may be adopted or old rules may be elimi- 7. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the body
nated or modified by golf standard organizations and/or gov- portion comprises at least a portion made of stainless steel.
erning bodies such as the United States Golf Association 65 8. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the face
(USGA), the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews portion comprises a thickness of less than or equal to 0.030
(R&A), etc.), golf equipment related to the apparatus, meth- inch.
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 58 of 277

US 9,199,143 B1
13 14
9. An iron-type golf club head comprising: 15. An iron-type golf club head comprising:
two or more weight portions made of a first material, the a hollow body portion having a face portion, a toe portion,
two or more weight portions being associated with a a top portion, a sole portion, a back portion, and an
total weight portion mass; and interior cavity extending between the top and sole por-
a hollow body portion made of a second material, the body tions, the interior cavity being filled with an elastic poly-
portion having a face portion, a toe portion, a heel por- mer material;
tion, a top portion, a sole portion, an interior cavity
a first set of cylindrical weight portions coupled to the
extending between the top and sole portions, and a back
hollow body portion at or proximate to a top-and-toe
portion with two or more cylindrical weight ports along
transition region between the top portion and the toe
a periphery of the hollow body portion, each of the two 10
portion, the first set of cylindrical weight portions being
or more cylindrical weight ports is associated with a port
associated with a first total mass; and
diameter and configured to receive at least one of the two
or more weight portions, a second set of cylindrical weight portions coupled the
wherein the interior cavity is filled with an elastic polymer hollow body portion at or proximate to a sole-and-toe
material, 15 portions region between the sole portion and the toe
wherein a first cylindrical weight port is located at or pro xi- portion, the second set of cylindrical weight portions
mate to at least one of the top portion or the toe portion, being associated with a second total mass,
and a second cylindrical weight port is located at or wherein the first total mass is less than the second total
proximate to at least one of the sole portion or the toe mass, and
portion, 20 wherein the second set of cylindrical weight portions is
wherein any two adjacent cylindrical weight ports of the located below a horizontal midplane of the golf club
first set of cylindrical weight ports are separated by less head.
than the port diameter, and any two adjacent cylindrical
16. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 15,
weight ports of the second set of cylindrical weight ports
wherein each weight portion of the first set of cylindrical
are separated by less than the port diameter. 25
weight portions is associated with a first mass and each cylin-
10. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 9,
drical weight portion of the second set of cylindrical weight
wherein the two or more weight portions comprises weight
portions is associated with a second mass, and wherein the
portions with more than about 85% of the total weight portion
first mass is relatively less than the second mass.
mass being below the horizontal midplane of the golf club
head. 30 17. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 15,
11. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 9, wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity having at least
wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity height extend- 50% filled with a thermoplastic elastomer material.
ing between the top portion and a sole portion, the cavity 18. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 15,
height being at least 50% of a body height of the hollow body wherein the hollow body portion comprises an interior cavity
portion. 35 separating the face portion and the first and second sets of
12. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 9, cylindrical weight portions.
wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity being at least 19. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 15,
50% filled with a thermoplastic elastomer material. wherein the plurality of cylindrical weight portions com-
13. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 9, prises at least one cylindrical weight portion made of a tung-
wherein each of the plurality of cylindrical weight ports com- 40 sten-based material.
prises a port wall separated from a back surface of the face
portion by the elastic polymer material. 20. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 15,
14. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 9, wherein the face portion comprises a thickness ofless than or
wherein the face portion comprises a thickness ofless than or equal to 0.030 inch.
equal to 0.030 inch. * * * * *
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 59 of 277

EXHIBIT C
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 60 of 277
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US009345938B2

c12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 9,345,938 B2


Parsons et al. (45) Date of Patent: *May 24,2016

(54) GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO 2053/0416 (2013.01); A63B 2053/0445
MANUFACTURING GOLF CLUB HEADS (2013.01); A63B 2053/0491 (2013.01); A63B
2209/00 (2013.01)
(71) Applicant: Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, Scottsdale, (58) Field of Classification Search
AZ (US) CPC ................... A63B 53/0475; A63B 2053/0408;
A63B 2053/0445; A63B 53/0466; A63B
(72) Inventors: Robert R Parsons, Scottsdale, AZ (US); 2053/0491; A63B 2053/0416
Michael R Nicolette, Scottsdale, AZ USPC .......................... 473/324-350, 287-292, 256
(US); Bradley D Schweigert, Scottsdale, See application file for complete search history.
AZ (US)
(56) References Cited
(73) Assignee: PARSONS XTREME GOLF, LLC,
Scottsdale, AZ (US) U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


D294,617 s 3/1988 Perkins
4,754,977 A 7/1988 Sahm
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 4,824,116 A 4/1989 Nagamoto eta!.
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. 5,158,296 A 10/1992 Lee
D336,672 s 6/1993 Gorman
This patent is subject to a terminal dis- 5,419,560 A 5/1995 Bamber
claimer.
(Continued)
(21) Appl. No.: 14/736,098 OTHER PUBLICATIONS

(22) Filed: Jun.10,2015 U.S. Appl. No. 29/501,006, Nicolette et al., "Golf Club Head," filed
Aug. 29, 2014.
(65) Prior Publication Data (Continued)
US 2015/0360098 AI Dec. 17,2015
Primary Examiner- Sebastiana Passaniti
Related U.S. Application Data
(57) ABSTRACT
(60) Continuation of application No. 14/711,596, filed on
May 13, 2015, which is a continuation-in-part of Embodiments of golf club heads and methods to manufacture
application No. 14/589,277, filed on Jan. 5, 2015, golf club heads are generally described herein. In one
which is a continuation of application No. 14/513,073, example, a golf club head may include a body portion with a
toe portion, a heel portion, a top portion, a sole portion, a back
(Continued) portion, a front portion having a face portion with a front
surface and a back surface, an interior cavity extending
(51) Int. Cl. between the top and sole portions and between the face and
A63B 53104 (2015.01) back portions, and an elastic polymer material in the interior
A63B 53106 (2015.01) cavity, and a bonding portion. Other examples and embodi-
(52) U.S. Cl. ments may be described and claimed.
CPC ......... A63B 5310475 (2013.01); A63B 5310466
(2013.01); A63B 2053/0408 (2013.01); A63B 20 Claims, 18 Drawing Sheets

-iOO
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 61 of 277

US 9,345,938 B2
Page 2

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7,037,213 B2 * 5/2006 Otoguro . A63B 53/04
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on Sep. 26, 2014, now Pat. No. 9,199,143, said appli-
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cation No. 14/711,596 is a continuation-in-part of D530,760 S 10/2006 Schweigert et a!.
application No. 29/511,482, filed on Dec. 11, 2014, 7,121,956 B2 10/2006 Lo
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application No. 29/501,006, filed on Aug. 29, 2014, D534,228 S 12/2006 Nicolette et al.
now Pat. No. Des. 722,352, said application No. D534,595 S 112007 Hasebe
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29/514,256, filed on Jan. 9, 2015, now Pat. No. Des. D536,759 S 2/2007 Schweigert et a!.
D537,494 S 2/2007 Jertson et a!.
7 48,214, which is a continuation-in-part of application 7,182,698 B2 2/2007 Tseng
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Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 62 of 277

US 9,345,938 B2
Page 3

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2013/0288823 A1 10/2013 Hebreo
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OTHER PUBLICATIONS
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201110165963 A1 7/2011 Cackett et a!. * cited by examiner
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 63 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 1 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

100~

~180

~ 150

190/
FIG. 1

~100

150,)

132 133 }
190/ 130 FIG. 2
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 64 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 2 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

100~

~180

140

FIG. 3

18 7
100~ 140
)

FIG. 4
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 65 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 3 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

100~

155

1410

170
160

\ )

FIG. 5

100~

180~ 155

162

1410

170 160

\ )

FIG. 6
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 66 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 4 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

r.o
1u~~

700

~170
168
,r-130

166

735 1431

100~
155
"180~

170~ ,r-160

168

FIG~
{ j

1481 735 8
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 67 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 5 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

100-~
180~

720
160~

1410
_,..----170
I f

../130
-730

FIG. 9

riOO
1030

!010

FIG. 10
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 68 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 6 of 18


US 9,345,938 B2

120 & 130 "'\

1110

FIG. 11

120 "'\

1210 "'\ ~~=---7

1220

FIG. 12

130 "'\

1320

FIG. 13
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 69 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 7 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

110~

1421 14221423 ~1420


---~~~,, 1424
140
)

150/

1431 1434
1432 1433 )
190/ 1430 FIG. 14

162~

164
168\

FIG. 15
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 70 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 8 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

162~

1640

FIG. 16

1700~

Provide two or more


weight portions
0710
+
Provide body portion 0720
+
Couple at least one weight
portion in weight port
0730
+
Fill interior cavity J740
+
( END )
FIG. 17
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 71 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 9 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

100~

160~

1874
FIG. 18
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 72 of 277

Sheet 10 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2
U.S. Patent May 24,2016

1900~ 1970-......_
~ 20

~
{1950
1940~

~ 20 1962 FIG. 19
1960./

1900~

1970~

FIG. 20
1990~

~
1950

1990..}
FIG. 21
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 73 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 11 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

2200,

r-2250
2240~
2220\
,---~- ------,
--
,,"'"- - / /
\
~
, '
' ' '',
23 FIG. 22
2260~ 2262

2200~

2270~

2290_.} FIG. 23

2262
FIG. 24
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 74 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 12 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

2500~ 2570'\ 26
~-=-L

~2550
2540~
2520
------------~--- ----------------

FIG. 25

2500~

2570~
2610
,~2630
1
2590/' FIG. 26

2500~

2570~ 2720
2610
2566
r2730
-----------~--~

2590/' FIG. 27
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 75 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 13 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

2800~

FIG. 28

2800~

3000 2920

FIG. 29
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 76 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24, 2016 Sheet 14 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

3000~

2910

3032

FIG. 30

3100~
3110""\. 2910

3130 3132

FIG. 31

3200~
2910

3232

3220
FIG. 32
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 77 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 15 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

3300~
3310~ 2910
r---~

FIG. 33

3400~

3420

FIG. 34
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 78 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 16 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

3500~

3510

FIG. 35

3600~

3620

FIG. 36
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 79 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 17 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

FIG. 37
~3800

3810 "'-.. Heating a golf club head

+
3820 "'-.. Heating an elastic polymer material
t
3830 "'-.. Injecting the elastic polymer material in
an interior cavity of the golf club head

FIG. 38

~3900

Injecting a bonding agent on a back


3910 "'-.. surface of a face portion of a golf
club head
t
Uniformly or substantially uniformly
3920 "'-.. coating the back surface of the face
portion with the bonding agent

FIG. 39
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 80 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 18 of 18 US 9,345,938 B2

(4000

4040
)

4130
FIG. 40

(4000

4030
FIG. 41
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 81 of 277

US 9,345,938 B2
1 2
GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO FIG. 3 depicts a top view of the example golf club head of
MANUFACTURING GOLF CLUB HEADS FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 depicts a bottom view of the example golf club head
CROSS REFERENCE ofFIG.l.
FIG. 5 depicts a left view of the example golf club head of
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional FIG. 1.
Application No. 62/010,836, Jun. 11, 2014, U.S. Provisional FIG. 6 depicts a right view of the example golf club head of
Application No. 62/011,859, filed Jun. 13, 2014, U.S. Provi- FIG. 1.
sional Application No. 62/032,770, filed Aug. 4, 2014, U.S. FIG. 7 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
10
Provisional Application No. 62/041,538, filed Aug. 25, 2014, club head of FIG. 1 along line 7-7.
U.S. Provisional Application No. U.S. Provisional Applica- FIG. 8 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
tion No. 62/118,403, filed Feb. 19,2015, and U.S. Provisional club head of FIG. 1 along line 8-8.
Application No. 62/159,856, filed May 11, 2015. This appli- FIG. 9 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
cation is a continuation of U.S. Non-Provisional Ser. No. club head of FIG. 1 along line 9-9.
15
14/711,596, filed May 13, 2015, which is a continuation-in- FIG. 10 depicts another rear view of the example golf club
part application ofU.S. Non-Provisional application Ser. No. head of FIG. 1.
14/589,277, filed Jan. 5, 2015, which is a continuation appli- FIG. 11 depicts a top view of a weight portion associated
cation of U.S. Non-Provisional application Ser. No. 14/513,
with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
073, filed Oct. 13, 2014, which is a continuation application
20 FIG. 12 depicts a side view of a weight portion associated
of U.S. Non-Provisional Ser. No. 14/498,603, filed Sep. 26,
with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
2014, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Applica-
tion No. 62/041,538, filed Aug. 25, 2014. This application is FIG. 13 depicts a side view of another weight portion
also a continuation-in-part application of U.S. application associated with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
Ser. No. 29/511,482, filed Dec. 11,2014, which is a divisional FIG. 14 depicts a rear view of a body portion of the example
applicationofU.S. application Ser. No. 29/501,006 filed Aug. 25 golf club head of FIG. 1.
29, 2014. This application is also a continuation-in -part appli- FIG. 15 depicts a cross-sectional view of a face portion of
cation of U.S. application Ser. No. 29/514,256, filed Jan. 9, the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
2015, which is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. FIG. 16 depicts a cross-sectional view of another face
application Ser. No. 29/501,006, filed Aug. 29, 2014. This portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
application is also a continuation-in-part application of U.S. 30 FIG.17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club
application Ser. No. 29/515,013, filed Jan. 20, 2015, which is head described herein may be manufactured.
a continuation-in-part application of U.S. Ser. No. 29/501, FIG. 18 depicts another cross-sectional view of the
006, filed Aug. 29, 2014. The disclosures of the referenced example golf club head of FIG. 4 along line 18-18.
applications are incorporated herein by reference. FIG. 19 depicts a top view of a golf club head according to
35 another embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles
COPYRIGHT AUTHORIZATION of manufacture described herein.
FIG. 20 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
The present disclosure may be subject to copyright protec- club head of FIG. 19 along line 20-20.
tion. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile FIG. 21 depicts a front view of the example golf club head
reproduction by anyone of the present disclosure and its 40 ofFIG. 19.
related documents, as they appear in the Patent and Trade- FIG. 22 depicts a top view of a golf club head according to
mark Office patent files or records, but otherwise reserves all yet another embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and
applicable copyrights. articles of manufacture described herein.
FIG. 23 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
FIELD 45 club head of FIG. 22 along line 23-23.
FIG. 24 depicts a front view of the example golf club head
The present disclosure generally relates to golf equipment, of FIG. 22.
and more particularly, to golf club heads and methods to FIG. 25 depicts a top view of a golf club head according to
manufacturing golf club heads. yet another embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and
50 articles of manufacture described herein.
BACKGROUND FIG. 26 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
club head of FIG. 25 along line 26-26.
Various materials (e.g., steel-based materials, titanium- FIG. 27 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
based materials, tungsten-based materials, etc.) may be used club head of FIG. 25 along line 26-26 according to another
to manufacture golf club heads. By using multiple materials 55 embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
to manufacture golf club heads, the position of the center of facture described herein.
gravity (CG) and/or the moment of inertia (MOl) of the golf FIG. 28 depicts a front view of a face portion of the
club heads may be optimized to produce certain trajectory example golf club head of FIG. 1.
and spin rate of a golf ball. FIG. 29 depicts a back view of the face portion of FIG. 28.
60 FIG. 30 depicts a cross-sectional view of an example chan-
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS nel of the face portion of FIG. 28.
FIG. 31 depicts a cross-sectional view of another example
FIG. 1 depicts a front view of a golf club head according to channel of the face portion of FIG. 28.
an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of FIG. 32 depicts a cross-sectional view of yet another
manufacture described herein. 65 example channel of the face portion of FIG. 28.
FIG. 2 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head of FIG. 33 depicts a cross-sectional view of yet another
FIG. 1. example channel of the face portion of FIG. 28.
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FIG. 34 depicts a back view of another example face por- ture described herein may be applicable to other types of club
tion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1. heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway wood-type club
FIG. 35 depicts a back view of yet another example face head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club head, etc.).
portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
FIG. 36 depicts a back view of yet another example face 5 described herein are not limited in this regard.
portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1. The toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150 may be on
FIG. 37 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf opposite ends of the body portion 110. The heel portion 150
club head of FIG. 1. may include a hose! portion 155 configured to receive a shaft
FIG. 38 depicts another manner in which an example golf (not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the golf
club head described herein may be manufactured. 10 club head 100 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a golf
FIG. 39 depicts yet another manner in which an example club.
golf club head described herein may be manufactured. The front portion 160 may include a face portion 162 (e.g.,
FIG. 40 depicts a rear view of a golf club head according to a strike face). The face portion 162 may include a front
an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of surface 164 and a back surface 166. The front surface 164
manufacture described herein. 15 may include one or more grooves 168 extending between the
FIG. 41 depicts a rear view of the golf club headofFIG. 40. toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150. While the figures
For simplicity and clarity of illustration, the drawing fig- may depict a particular number of grooves, the apparatus,
ures illustrate the general manner of construction, and methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may
descriptions and details of well-known features and tech- include more or less grooves. The face portion 162 may be
niques may be omitted to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the 20 used to impact a golf ball (not shown). The face portion 162
present disclosure. Additionally, elements in the drawing fig- may be an integral portion of the body portion 110. Alterna-
ures may not be depicted to scale. For example, the dimen- tively, the face portion 162 may be a separate piece or an insert
sions of some of the elements in the figures may be exagger- coupled to the body portion 110 via various manufacturing
ated relative to other elements to help improve understanding methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process such as
of embodiments of the present disclosure. 25 adhesive, a welding process such as laser welding, a brazing
process, a soldering process, a fusing process, a mechanical
DESCRIPTION locking or connecting method, any combination thereof, or
other suitable types of manufacturing methods and/or pro-
In general, golf club heads and methods to manufacture cesses). The face portion 162 may be associated with a loft
golf club heads are described herein. The apparatus, methods, 30 plane that defines the loft angle of the golf club head 100. The
and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in loft angle may vary based on the type of golf club (e.g., a long
this regard. iron, a middle iron, a short iron, a wedge, etc.). In one
In the example ofFIGS.1-14, a golf club head 100 may example, the loft angle may be between five degrees and
include a body portion 110 (FIG. 14), and two or more weight seventy-five degrees. In another example, the loft angle may
portions, generally shown as a first set of weight portions 120 35 be between twenty degrees and sixty degrees. The apparatus,
(e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) and a methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
second set of weight portions 130 (e.g., shown as weight limited in this regard.
portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). The body As illustrated in FIG. 14, the back portion 170 may include
portion 110 may include a toe portion 140, a heel portion 150, a back wall portion 1410 with one or more exterior weight
a front portion 160, a back portion 170, a top portion 180, and 40 ports along a periphery of the back portion 170, generally
a sole portion 190. The body portion 110 may be made of a shown as a first set of exterior weight ports 1420 (e.g., shown
first material whereas the first and second sets of weight as weight ports 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424) and a second set
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be made of a second of exterior weight ports 1430 (e.g., shown as weight ports
material. The first and second materials may be similar or 1431,1432,1433,1434,1435, 1436, and1437). Each exterior
different materials. For example, the body portion 110 may be 45 weight port may be associated with a port diameter. In one
partially or entirely made of a steel-based material (e.g., 17-4 example, the port diameter may be about 0.25 inch (6.35
PH stainless steel, Nitronic 50 stainless steel, maraging millimeters). Any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the
steel or other types of stainless steel), a titanium-based mate- first set of exterior weight ports 1420 may be separated by less
rial, an aluminum-based material (e.g., a high-strength alu- than the port diameter. In a similar manner, any two adjacent
minum alloy or a composite aluminum alloy coated with a 50 exterior weight ports of the second set of exterior weight ports
high-strength alloy), any combination thereof, and/or other 143 0 may be separated by less than the port diameter. The first
suitable types of materials. The first and second sets of weight and second exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may be
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or exterior weight ports configured to receive one or more
entirely made of a high-density material such as a tungsten- weight portions. In particular, each weight portion of the first
based material or other suitable types of materials. Alterna- 55 set 120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and
tively, the body portion 110 and/or the first and second sets of 124) may be disposed in a weight port located at or proximate
weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or to the toe portion 140 and/or the top portion 180 on the back
entirely made of a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plas- portion 170. For example, the weight portion 121 may be
tic, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1421. In
are not limited in this regard. 60 another example, the weight portion 122 may be disposed in
The golf club head 100 may be an iron-type golf club head a weight port 1422 located in a transition region between the
(e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron, a top portion 180 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a top-and-toe
7-iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type golf club transition region). Each weight portion of the second set 130
head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, an (e.g., shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136,
n-degree wedge such as 44 degrees (0 ) , 48, 52, 56, 60, 65 and 137) may be disposed in a weight port located at or
etc.). Although FIGS. 1-10 may depict a particular type of proximate to the toe portion 140 and/or the sole portion 190
club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufac- on the back portion 170. For example, the weight portion 135
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may be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1435. of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a screw.
In another example, the weight portion 136 may be disposed The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
in a weight port 1436 located in a transition region between respectively, may not be readily removable from the body
the sole portion 190 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a sole-and- portion 110 with or without a tool. Alternatively, the first and
toe transition region). As described in detail below, the first 5 second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, be readily removable (e.g., with a tool) so that a relatively
may be coupled to the back portion 170 of the body portion heavier or lighter weight portion may replace one or more of
110 with various manufacturing methods and/or processes the weight portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130,
(e.g., a bonding process, a welding process, a brazing process, respectively. In another example, the first and second sets of
a mechanical locking method, any combination thereof, or 10 weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be secured in
other suitable manufacturing methods and/or processes). the weight ports of the back portion 170 with epoxy or adhe-
Alternatively, the golf club head 100 may not include (i) the sive so that the first and second sets of weight portions 120
first set of weight portions 120, (ii) the second set of weight and 130, respectively, may not be readily removable. In yet
portions 130, or (iii) both the first and second sets of weight another example, the first and second sets of weight portions
portions 120 and 130. In particular, the back portion 170 of 15 120 and 130, respectively, may be secured in the weight ports
the body portion 110 may not include weight ports at or of the back portion 170 with both epoxy and threads so that
proximate to the top portion 170 and/or the sole portion 190. the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
For example, the mass of the first set of weight portions 120 respectively, may not be readily removable. The apparatus,
(e.g., 3 grams) and/or the mass of the second set of weight methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
portions 130 (e.g., 16.8 grams) may be integral part(s) the 20 limited in this regard.
body portion 110 instead of separate weight portion(s ). The As mentioned above, the first and second sets of weight
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be similar in some
herein are not limited in this regard. physical properties but different in other physical properties.
The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, As illustrated in FIGS.11-13, for example, each of the weight
respectively, may have similar or different physical properties 25 portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively,
(e.g., color, shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). As a may have a diameter 1110 of about 0.25 inch (6.35 millime-
result, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and ters) but the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
130, respectively, may contribute to the ornamental design of 130, respectively, may be different in height. In particular,
the golf club head 100. In the illustrated example as shown in each of the weight portions of the first set 120 may be asso-
FIG. 11, each of the weight portions of the first and second 30 ciated with a first height 1220 (FIG. 12), and each of the
sets 120 and 130, respectively, may have a cylindrical shape weight portion of the second set 130 may be associated with
(e.g., a circular cross section). Alternatively, each of the a second height 1320 (FIG. 13). The first height 1220 may be
weight portions of the first set 120 may have a first shape (e.g., relatively shorter than the second height 1320. In one
a cylindrical shape) whereas each of the weight portions of example, the first height 1220 maybe about0.125 inch(3.175
the second set 130 may have a second shape (e.g., a cubical 35 millimeters) whereas the second height 1320 may be about
shape). In another example, the first set of weight portions 0.3 inch (7.62 millimeters). In another example, the first
120 may include two or more weight portions with different height 1220 may be about 0.16 inch (4.064 millimeters)
shapes (e.g., the weight portion 121 may be a first shape whereas the second height 1320 maybe about 0.4 inch (10.16
whereas the weight portion 122 may be a second shape dif- millimeters). Alternatively, the first height 1220 may be equal
ferent from the first shape). Likewise, the second set of weight 40 to or greater than the second height 1320. The apparatus,
portions 130 may also include two or more weight portions methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
with different shapes (e.g., the weight portion 131 may be a limited in this regard.
first shape whereas the weight portion 132 may be a second To provide optimal perimeter weighting for the golf club
shape different from the first shape). Although the above head 100, the first set of weight portions 120 (e.g., weight
examples may describe weight portions having a particular 45 portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) may be configured to
shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture counter-balance the weight of the hosel155. The second set of
described herein may include weight portions of other suit- weight portions 130 (e.g., weight portions 131,132,133,134,
able shapes (e.g., a portion of or a whole sphere, cube, cone, 135, 136, and 137) may be configured to place the center of
cylinder, pyramid, cuboidal, prism, frustum, or other suitable gravity of the golf club head 100 at an optimal location.
geometric shape). While the above examples and figures may 50 Turning to FIGS. 7-9, for example, the first and second sets of
depict multiple weight portions as a set of weight portions, weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be located
each set of the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and away from the back surface 166 of the face portion 162 (e.g.,
130, respectively, may be a single piece of weight portion. In not directly coupled to each other). That is, the first and
one example, the first set of weight portions 120 may be a second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, and
single piece of weight portion instead of a series of four 55 the back surface 166 may be partially or entirely separated by
separate weight portions. In another example, the second set an interior cavity 700 of the body portion 110. As shown in
of weight portions 130 may be a single piece of weight por- FIG. 14, for example, each exterior weight port of the first and
tion instead of a series of seven separate weight portions. The second sets of exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described include an opening (e.g., generally shown as 720 and 730) and
herein are not limited in this regard. 60 a port wall (e.g., generally shown as 725 and 735). The port
Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, for example, the first and walls 725 and 735 may be integral portions of the back wall
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may portion 1410 (e.g., a section of the back wall portion 1410).
include threads, generally shown as 1210 and 1310, respec- Each of the openings 720 and 730 may be configured to
tively, to engage with correspondingly configured threads in receive a weight portion such as weight portions 121 and 135,
the weight ports to secure in the weight ports of the back 65 respectively. The opening 720 may be located at one end of
portion 170 (generally shown as 1420 and 1430 in FIG. 14). the weight port 1421, and the port wall 725 may be located or
For example, each weight portion of the first and second sets proximate to at an opposite end of the weight port 1421. In a
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similar manner, the opening 730 may be located at one end of portion 110 may have a mass in the range of about 200 grams
the weight port 1435, and the port wall 735 may be located at to about 310 grams with the first and second sets of weight
or proximate to an opposite end of the weight port 1435. The portions 120 and 130, respectively, having a mass of about 20
port walls 725 and 735 may be separated from the face portion grams (e.g., a total mass from exterior weight portions). Each
162 (e.g., separated by the interior cavity 700).As a result, the 5 of the weight portions of the first set 120 may have a mass of
center of gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 may be about one gram (1.0 g) whereas each of the weight portions of
relatively farther back away from the face portion 162 and the second set 130 may have a mass of about 2.4 grams. The
relatively lower towards a ground plane (e.g., one shown as sum of the mass of the first set of weight portions 120 may be
1010 in FIG. 10) with the second set of weight portions 130 about 3 grams whereas the sum of the mass of the first set of
being away from the back surface 166 than if the second set of 10 weight portions 130 may be about 16.8 grams. The total mass
weight portions 130 were directly coupled to the back surface of the second set of weight portions 130 may weigh more than
166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture five times as much as the total mass of the first set of weight
described herein are not limited in this regard. portions 120 (e.g., a total mass of the second set of weight
While the figures may depict weight ports with a particular portions 130 of about 16.8 grams versus a total mass of the
cross-section shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of 15 first set of weight portions 120 of about 3 grams). The golf
manufacture described herein may include weight ports with club head 100 may have a total mass of 19.8 grams from the
other suitable cross-section shapes. In one example, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respec-
weight ports of the first and/or second sets of weight ports tively (e.g., sum of 3 grams from the first set of weight
1420 and 1430 may have U-like cross-section shape. In portions 120 and 16.8 grams from the second set of weight
another example, the weight ports of the first and/or second 20 portions 130). Accordingly, the first set of weight portions
set of weight ports 1420 and 1430 may have V-like cross- 120 may account for about 15% of the total mass from exte-
section shape. One or more of the weight ports associated rior weight portions of the golf club head 100 whereas the
with the first set of weight portions 120 may have a different second set of weight portions 130 may be account for about
cross-section shape than one or more weight ports associated 85% of the total mass from exterior weight portions of the
with the second set of weight portions 130. For example, the 25 golf club head 100. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
weight port 1421 may have a U-like cross-section shape manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
whereas the weight port 1435 may have a V-like cross-section By coupling the first and second sets of weight portions 120
shape. Further, two or more weight ports associated with the and 130, respectively, to the body portion 110 (e.g., securing
first set of weight portions 120 may have different cross- the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130 in the
section shapes. In a similar manner, two or more weight ports 30 weight ports on the back portion 170), the location of the
associated with the second set of weight portions 130 may center of gravity (CG) and the moment of inertia (M 0 I) of the
have different cross-section shapes. The apparatus, methods, golf club head 100 may be optimized. In particular, the first
and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
this regard. may lower the location of the CG towards the sole portion 190
Referring back to FIG. 10, for example, the golf club head 35 and further back away from the face portion 162. Further, the
100 may be associated with a ground plane 1010, a horizontal MOl may be higher as measured about a vertical axis extend-
midplane 1020, and a top plane 1030. In particular, the ground ing through the CG (e.g., perpendicular to the ground plane
plane 1010 may be a tangential plane to the sole portion 190 1010). The MOl may also be higher as measured about a
of the golf club head 100 when the golf club head 100 is at an horizontal axis extending through the CG (e.g., extending
address position (e.g., the golf club head 100 is aligned to 40 towards the toe and heel portions 150 and 160, respectively, of
strike a golfball). A top plane 1030 may be a tangential plane the golf club head 100). As a result, the club head 100 may
to the top portionofthe 180 of the golf club head100 when the provide a relatively higher launch angle and a relatively lower
golf club head 100 is at the address position. The ground and spin rate than a golf club head without the first and second sets
top planes 1010 and 1030, respectively, may be substantially of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively. The apparatus,
parallel to each other. The horizontal midplane 1020 may be 45 methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
vertically halfWay between the ground and top planes 1010 limited in this regard.
and 1030, respectively. Alternatively, two or more weight portions in the same set
The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, may be different in mass. In one example, the weight portion
respectively, may be similar in mass (e.g., all of the weight 121 of the first set 120 may have a relatively lower mass than
portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, 50 the weight portion 122 of the first set 120. In another example,
weigh about the same). Alternatively, the first and second sets the weight portion 131 of the second set 130 may have a
of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be different relatively lower mass than the weight portion 135 of the
in mass individually or as an entire set. In particular, each of second set 130. With relatively greater mass at the top-and-toe
the weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, transition region and/or the sole-and-toe transition region,
122, 123, and 124) may have relatively less mass than any of 55 more weight may be distributed away from the center of
the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., shown as 131, gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 to increase the moment
132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). For example, the second of inertia (MOl) about the vertical axis through the CG.
set of weight portions 130 may account for more than 50% of Although the figures may depict the weight portions as
the total mass from exterior weight portions of the golf club separate and individual parts, each set of the first and second
head 100. As a result, the golf club head 100 may be config- 60 sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a
ured to have at least 50% of the total mass from exterior single piece of weight portion. In one example, all of the
weight portions disposed below the horizontal midplane weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, 122,
1020. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 123, and 124) may be combined into a single piece of weight
described herein are not limited in this regard. portion (e.g., a first weight portion). In a similar manner, all of
In one example, the golf club head 100 may have a mass in 65 the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., 131, 132, 133,
the range of about 220 grams to about 330 grams based on the 134, 135, 136, and 137) may be combined into a single piece
type of golf club (e.g., a 4-iron versus a lob wedge). The body of weight portion as well (e.g., a second weight portion). In
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this example, the golf club head 100 may have only two thickness 1510 (e.g., T 2 +Dgroove=T 1 ). Accordingly, the sec-
weight portions. While the figures may depict a particular ond thickness 1520 may be less than the first thickness 1510
number of weight portions, the apparatus, methods, and (e.g., T 2 <T 1 ).
articles of manufacture described herein may include more or To lower and/or move the CG of the golf club head 100
less number of weight portions. In one example, the first set of 5 further back, weight from the front portion 160 of the golf
weight portions 120 may include two separate weight por- club head 100 may be removed by using a relatively thinner
tions instead of three separate weight portions as shown in the face portion 162. For example, the first thickness 1510 may be
figures. In another example, the second set of weight portions about 0.075 inch (1.905 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 =0.075 inch).
130 may include five separate weight portions instead of
With the support of the back wall portion 1410 to form the
10 interior cavity 700 and filling at least a portion of the interior
seven separate weight portions a shown in the figures. Alter-
cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material, the face portion
natively as mentioned above, the apparatus, methods, and
162 may be relatively thinner (e.g., T 1 <0.075 inch) without
articles of manufacture described herein may not include any
degrading the structural integrity, sound, and/or feel of the
separate weight portions (e.g., the body portion 110 may be golf club head 100. In one example, the first thickness 1510
manufactured to include the mass of the separate weight 15 may be less than or equal to 0.060 inch (1.524 millimeters)
portions as integral part(s) of the body portion 110). The (e.g., Tls0.060 inch). In another example, the first thickness
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described 1510 may be less than or equal to 0.040 inch (1.016 millime-
herein are not limited in this regard. ters) (e.g., T 1 s0.040 inch). Based on the type ofmaterial(s)
Referring back to FIGS. 7-9 ,for example, the body portion used to form the face portion 162 and/or the body portion 110,
110 may be a hollow body including the interior cavity 700 20 the face portion 162 may be even thinner with the first thick-
extending between the front portion 160 and the back portion ness 1510 being less than or equal to 0.030 inch (0.762 mil-
170. Further, the interior cavity 700 may extend between the limeters) (e.g., T 1 s0.030 inch). The groove depth 1525 may
top portion 180 and the sole portion 190. The interior cavity be greater than or equal to the second thickness 1520 (e.g.,
700 may be associated with a cavity height 750 (He), and the Dgroove"= T 2 ). In one example, the groove depth 1525 may be
body portion 110 may be associated with a body height 850 25 about 0.020 inch (0.508 millimeters) (e.g., Dgroove=0.020
(HB). While the cavity height 750 and the body height 850 inch). Accordingly, the second thickness 1520 may be about
may vary between the toe and heel portions 140 and 150, the 0.010 inch (0.254 millimeters) (e.g., T2 =0.010 inch). In
cavity height 750 may be at least 50% of a body height 850 another example, the groove depth 1525 may be about 0.015
(Hc>0.5*HB). For example, the cavity height 750 may vary inch (0.381 millimeters), and the second thickness 1520 may
between 70-85% of the body height 850. With the cavity 30 be about 0.015 inch (e.g., Dgroove=T 2 =0.015 inch). Alterna-
height 750 of the interior cavity 700 being greater than 50% of tively, the groove depth 1525 may be less than the second
the body height 850, the golf club head 100 may produce thickness 1520 (e.g., Dgroove <T 2 ). Without the support of the
relatively more consistent feel, sound, and/or result when the back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer material to fill
golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball via the face portion 162 in the interior cavity 700, a golf club head may not be able to
than a golf club head with a cavity height ofless than 50% of 35 withstand multiple impacts by a golf ball on a face portion. In
the body height. The apparatus, methods, and articles of contrast to the golf club head 100 as described herein, a golf
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. club head with a relatively thin face portion but without the
In one example, the interior cavity 700 may be unfilled support of the back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer
(i.e., empty space). The body portion 100 with the interior material to fill in the interior cavity 700 (e.g., a cavity-back
cavity 700 may weight about 100 grams less than the body 40 golf club head) may produce unpleasant sound (e.g., a tinny
portion 100 without the interior cavity 700. Alternatively, the sound) and/or feel during impact with a golf ball. The appa-
interior cavity 700 may be partially or entirely filled with an ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein
elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a viscoelastic are not limited in this regard.
urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane material Based on manufacturing processes and methods used to
manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a thermo- 45 form the golf club head 100, the face portion 162 may include
plastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic polyure- additional material at or proximate to a periphery of the face
thane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of materials portion 162. Accordingly, the face portion 162 may also
to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise. For include a third thickness 1530, and a chamfer portion 1540.
example, at least 50% of the interior cavity 700 may be filled The third thickness 1530 may be greater than either the first
with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or 50 thickness 1510 or the second thickness 1520 (e.g.,
dampen noise when the golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball T 3 >T 1 >T 2 ). In particular, the face portion 162 may be
via the face portion 162. The apparatus, methods, and articles coupled to the body portion 110 by a welding process. For
of manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. example, the first thickness 1510 may be about 0.030 inch
Turning to FIG. 15, for example, the face portion 162 may (0.762 millimeters), the second thickness 1520 may be about
include a first thickness 1510 (T 1 ), and a second thickness 55 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third thickness 1530
1520 (T 2 ). The first thickness 1510 may be a thickness of a may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). Accordingly, the
section of the face portion 162 adjacent to a groove 168 chamfer portion 1540 may accommodate some of the addi-
whereas the second thickness 1520 may be a thickness of a tiona! material when the face portion 162 is welded to the
section of the face portion 162 below the groove 168. For body portion 110.
example, the first thickness 1510 may be a maximum distance 60 As illustrated in FIG. 16, for example, the face portion 162
between the front surface 164 and the back surface 166. The may include a reinforcement section, generally shown as
second thickness 1520 may be based on the groove 168. In 1605, below one or more grooves 168. In one example, the
particular, the groove 168 may have a groove depth 1525 face portion 162 may include a reinforcement section 1605
(Dgroove). The second thickness 1520 may be a maximum below each groove. Alternatively, face portion 162 may
distance between the bottom of the groove 168 and the back 65 include the reinforcement section 1605 below some grooves
surface 166. The sum of the second thickness 1520 and the (e.g., every other groove) or below only one groove. The face
groove depth 1525 may be substantially equal to the first portion 162 may include a first thickness 1610, a second
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thickness 1620, a third thickness 1630, and a chamfer portion than golf club heads made from other types of steel. Each
1640. The groove 168 may have a groove depth 1625. The weight port of the body portion 110 may include an opening
reinforcement section 168 may define the second thickness and a port wall. For example, the weight port 1421 may
1620. The first and second thicknesses 1610 and 1620, include the opening 720 and the port wall 725 with the open-
respectively, may be substantially equal to each other (e.g., 5 ing 720 and the port wall 725 being on opposite ends of each
T 1 =T2 ). In one example, the first and second thicknesses 1610 other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 725
and 1620, respectively, may be about 0.030 inch (0.762 mil- of the weight port 1421 and the back surface 166 of the face
limeters) (e.g., T 1 =T 2 =0.030 inch). The groove depth 1625 portion 162. In a similar manner, the weight port 1835 may
may be about 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third include the opening 730 and the port wall 735 with the open-
thickness 1630 may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). 10 ing 730 and the port wall 735 being on opposite ends of each
The groove 168 may also have a groove width. The width of other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 735
the reinforcement section 1605 may be greater than or equal of the weight port 1435 and the back surface 166 of the face
to the groove width. The apparatus, methods, and articles of portion 162.
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. The process 1700 may couple each of the first and second
Alternatively, the face portion 162 may vary in thickness at 15 sets of weight portions 120 and 130 into one of the two or
and/or between the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190. more exterior weight ports (blocks 1730). In one example, the
In one example, the face portion 162 may be relatively thicker process 1700 may insert and secure the weight portion 121 in
at or proximate to the top portion 180 than at or proximate to the exterior weight port 1421, and the weight portion 135 in
the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion 162 the exterior weight portion 1435. The process 1700 may use
may taper from the top portion 180 towards the sole portion 20 various manufacturing methods and/or processes to secure
190). In another example, the face portion 162 may be rela- the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
tively thicker at or proximate to the sole portion 190 than at or respectively, in the exterior weight ports such as the weight
proximate to the top portion 180 (e.g., thickness of the face ports 1421 and 1435 (e.g., epoxy, welding, brazing, mechani-
portion 162 may taper from the sole portion 190 towards the callock(s), any combination thereof, etc.).
top portion 180). In yet another example, the face portion 162 25 The process 1700 may partially or entirely fill the interior
may be relatively thicker between the top portion 180 and the cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material (e.g., Sorboth-
sole portion 190 than at or proximate to the top portion 180 ane material) (block 1740). In one example, at least 50% of
and the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion the interior cavity 700 may be filled with the elastic polymer
162 may have a bell-shaped contour). The apparatus, meth- material. As mentioned above, the elastic polymer material
ods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not 30 may absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise in
limited in this regard. response to the golf club head 100 striking a golf ball. In
Different from other golf club head designs, the interior addition or alternatively, the interior cavity 700 may be filled
cavity 700 of the body portion 110 and the location of the first with a thermoplastic elastomer material and/or a thermoplas-
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, tic polyurethane material. As illustrated in FIG. 18, for
along the perimeter of the golf club head 100 may result in a 35 example, the golf club head 100 may include one or more
golf ball traveling away from the face portion 162 at a rela- weight ports (e.g., one shown as 1431 in FIG.14) with a first
tively higher ball launch angle and a relatively lower spin rate. opening 1830 and a second opening 1835. The second open-
As a result, the golf ball may travel farther (i.e., greater total ing 1835 may be used to access the interior cavity 700. In one
distance, which includes carry and roll distances). example, the process 1700 (FIG. 17) may fill the interior
FIG. 17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club 40 cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material by injecting the
head described herein may be manufactured. In the example elastic polymer material into the interior cavity 700 from the
ofFIG. 17, the process 1700 may begin with providing two or first opening 1830 via the second opening 1835. The first and
more weight portions, generally shown as the first and second second openings 1830 and 1835, respectively, may be same or
sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively (block different in size and/or shape. While the above example may
1710). The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 45 describe and depict a particular weight port with a second
130, respectively, may be made of a first material such as a opening, any other weight ports of the golf club head 100 may
tungsten-based material. In one example, the weight portions include a second opening (e.g., the weight port 720). The
of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, may be apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
tungsten-alloy screws. herein are not limited in this regard.
The process 1700 may provide a body portion 110 having 50 Referring back to FIG. 17, the example process 1700 is
the face portion 162, the interior cavity 700, and the back merely provided and described in conjunction with other
portion 170 with two or more exterior weight ports, generally figures as an example of one way to manufacture the golf club
shown as 1420 and 1430 (block 1720). The body portion 110 head 100. While a particular order of actions is illustrated in
may be made of a second material, which is different than the FIG. 17, these actions may be performed in other temporal
first material. The body portion 110 may be manufacture 55 sequences. For example, two or more actions depicted in FIG.
using an investment casting process, a billet forging process, 17 may be performed sequentially, concurrently, or simulta-
a stamping process, a computer numerically controlled neously. In one example, blocks 1710, 1720, 1730, and/or
(CNC) machining process, a die casting process, any combi- 1740 may be performed simultaneously or concurrently.
nation thereof, or other suitable manufacturing processes. In Although FIG. 17 depicts a particular number of blocks, the
one example, the body portion 110 may be made of 17-4 PH 60 process may not perform one or more blocks. In one example,
stainless steel using a casting process. In another example, the the interior cavity 700 may not be filled (i.e., block 1740 may
body portion 110 may be made of other suitable type of not be performed). The apparatus, methods, and articles of
stainless steel (e.g., Nitronic 50 stainless steel manufac- manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
tured by AK Steel Corporation, West Chester, Ohio) using a While the above examples may described an iron-type or a
forging process. By using Nitronic 50 stainless steel to 65 wedge-type golf club head, the apparatus, methods, and
manufacture the body portion 110, the golf club head 100 articles of manufacture described herein may be applicable to
may be relatively stronger and/or more resistant to corrosion other types of golf club heads. Referring to FIGS. 19-21, for
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example, a golf club head 1900 may include a body portion apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
1910 and a cavity wall portion 1920. The golf club head 1900 herein are not limited in this regard.
may have a club head volume greater than or equal to 300 The first interior cavity 2010 may be partially or entirely
cubic centimeters (cm3 or cc ). In one example, the golf club filled with an elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a
head 1900 may be about 460 cc. Alternatively, the golf club 5 viscoelastic urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane
head 1900 may have a club head volume less than or equal to material manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a
300 cc. For example, the golf club head 1900 may have a club thermoplastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic
head volume between 100 cc and 200 cc. The club head polyurethane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of
volume of the golf club head 1900 may be determined by materials to absorb shock, isolate vibration, dampen noise,
using the weighted water displacement method (i.e., 10 and/or provide structural support. The elastic polymer mate-
Archimedes Principle). For example, procedures defined by rial may be injected into the first interior cavity 2010 via an
golf standard organizations and/or governing bodies such as injection molding process via a port on the face portion 1962.
the United States Golf Association (USGA) and/or the Royal For example, at least 50% of the first interior cavity 2010 may
and Ancient Golf Club ofSt. Andrews (R&A) may be used for be filled with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate vibra-
measuring the club head volume of the golf club head 100. 15 tion, dampen noise, and/or provide structural support when
Although FIGS. 19-21 may depict a particular type of club the golf club head 1900 strikes a golf ball via the face portion
head (e.g., a fairway wood-type club head), the apparatus, 1962. With the support of the cavity wall portion 1920 to form
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may be the first interior cavity 2010 and filling at least a portion of the
applicable to other types of club head (e.g., a driver-type club first interior cavity 2010 with an elastic polymer material, the
head, a hybrid-type club head, an iron-type club head, a 20 face portion 1962 may be relatively thin without degrading
putter-type club head, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and the structural integrity, sound, and/or feel of the golf club
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in this head 1900. In one example, the face portion 1962 may have a
regard. thickness ofless than or equal to 0.075 inch (e.g., a distance
The body portion 1910 may include a toe portion 1940, a between the front surface 1964 and the back surface 1966). In
heel portion 1950, a front portion 1960, a rear portion 1970, a 25 another example, the face portion 1962 may have a thickness
top portion 1980 (e.g., a crown portion), and a bottom portion ofless than or equal to 0.060 inch. In yet another example, the
1990 (e.g., a sole portion). The body portion 1910 may be a face portion 1962 may have a thickness ofless than or equal
hollow body made partially or entirely of an aluminum-based to 0.050 inch. Further, the face portion 1962 may have a
material, a magnesium-type material, a steel-based material, thickness ofless than or equal to 0.030 inch. The apparatus,
a titanium-based material, any other suitable material, or any 30 methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
combination thereof. In another example, the body portion limited in this regard.
1910 may be made partially or entirely of a non-metal mate- The cavity wall portion 1920 may include multiple sec-
rial such as a ceramic material, a composite material, any tions. Turning to FIGS. 22-24, for example, a golf club head
other suitable material, or any combination thereof. The front 2200 may include a body portion 2210 and a cavity wall
portion 1960 may include a face portion 1962 (e.g., a strike 35 portion 2220. The body portion 2210 may include a toe por-
face). The face portion 1962 may include a front surface 1964 tion 2240, a heel portion 2250, a front portion 2260, a rear
and a back surface 1966. The front surface 1964 may include portion 2270, a top portion 2280 (e.g., a crown portion), and
a plurality of grooves, generally shown as 2110 in FIG. 21. a bottom portion 2290 (e.g., a sole portion). The front portion
The cavity wall portion 1920 may form a first interior 2260 may include a face portion 2262 (e.g., a strike face) with
cavity 2010 and a second interior cavity 2020 within the body 40 a front surface 2264 and a back surface 2266. The cavity wall
portion 1910. For example, the cavity wall portion 1920 may portion 2220 may extend from the back surface 2266 to form
be made partially or entirely of an aluminum-based material, a first interior cavity 2310 and a second interior cavity 2320
a steel-based material, any other suitable material, or any within the body portion 2210. The cavity wall portion 2220
combination thereof. In another example, the cavity wall may include two or more wall sections, generally shown as
portion 1920 may be made partially or entirely of a non-metal 45 2330, 2340, and 2350 in FIG. 23. The cavity wall portion
material such as a ceramic material, a composite material, any 2220 may form a truncated pyramid-like structure with a
other suitable material, or any combination thereof. The first rectangular base (e. g., FIG. 24) or a square base on the back
interior cavity 2010 may be associated with a first volume, surface 2266. Alternatively, the cavity wall portion 2220 may
and the second interior cavity 2020 may be associated with a form a cuboid-like structure (i.e., with a rectangular base) or
second volume. In one example, the first volume may be less 50 a cuboid-like structure (i.e., with a square base) on the back
than the second volume. Further, the first volume may be less surface 2266. In another example, the cavity wall portion
than or equal to 50% of the second volume. 2220 may form a square-based, pyramid-like structure on the
As illustrated in FIG. 20, for example, the cavity wall back surface 2266. In yet another example, the cavity wall
portion 1920 may extend from the back surface 1966 of the portion 2220 may form a triangular-based, pyramid-like
face portion 1962. In one example, the cavity wall portion 55 structure or a triangular prism-like structure on the back sur-
1920 may extend no more than one inch from the back surface face 2266. Similar to the first interior cavity 2010 (FIGS.
1966. In another example, the cavity wall portion 1920 may 19-21), the first interior cavity 2310 may be partially or
extend no more than two inches from the back surface 1966. entirely filled with an elastic polymer or elastomer material
The cavity wall portion 1920 may be a single curved wall (e.g., a TPE material, a TPU material, etc.). The elastic poly-
section. In particular, the cavity wall portion 1920 may have 60 mer material may be injected into the first interior cavity 2310
a convex arc profile relative to the back surface 1966 (e.g., C via an injection molding process via a port on the face portion
shape) to form a dome-like structure with an elliptical base 2262. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
(e.g., FIG. 21) or a circular base on the back surface 1966. In described herein are not limited in this regard.
another example, the cavity wall portion 1920 may form a As illustrated in FIGS. 25 and 26, for example, a golf club
cone-like structure or a cylinder-like structure with the body 65 head 2500 may include a body portion 2510 and a cavity wall
portion 1910. Alternatively, the cavity wall portion 1920 may portion 2520. The body portion 2510 may include a toe por-
be a concave arc profile relative to the back surface 1966. The tion 2540, a heel portion 2550, a front portion 2560, a rear
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portion 2570, a top portion 2580 (e.g., a crown portion), and As illustrated in FIGS. 28-30, for example, a face portion
a bottom portion 2590 (e.g., a sole portion). The front portion 2800 may include the front surface 2810, and the back surface
2560 may include a face portion 2562 (e.g., a strike face) with 2910. The front surface 2810 may include one or more
a front surface 2564 and a back surface 2566. The face portion grooves, generally shown as 2820, extending longitudinally
2562 may be associated with a loft plane 2605 that defines the 5 across the front surface 2810 (e.g., extending between the toe
loft angle of the golf club head 2500. portion 140 and the heel portion 150 of FIG. 1). The front
The cavity wall portion 2520 may be a single flat wall surface 2810 may be used to impact a golf ball (not shown).
section. In particular, the cavity wall portion 2520 may extend The back surface 2910 may also include one or more chan-
between the toe portion 2540 and the heel portion 2550 and nels, generally shown as 2920. The charmels 2920 may
between the top portion 2580 and the bottom portion 2590 to 10 extend longitudinally across the back surface 2910. The chan-
form a first interior cavity 2610 and a second interior cavity nels 2920 may be parallel or substantially parallel to each
2620 within the body portion 2510. The cavity wall portion other. The charmels 2920 may engage with the elastic poly-
2520 may be parallel or substantially parallel to the loft plane mer material used to fill the interior cavity 700, and serve as
2605. Alternatively as shown in FIG. 27, a cavity wall portion a mechanical locking mechanism between the face portion
2720 may be perpendicular or substantially perpendicular to 15 2800 and the elastic polymer material. In particular, a channel
a ground plane 2730. Similar to the first interior cavities 2010 3000 may include an opening 3010, a bottom section 3020,
(FIGS. 19-21) and 2310 (FIGS. 22-24), the first interior cav- and two sidewalls, generally shown as 3030 and 3032. The
ity 2610 may be partially or entirely filled with an elastic bottom section 3020 may be parallel or substantially parallel
polymer or elastomer material. The elastic polymer material to the back surface 2910. The two sidewalls 3030 and 3032
may be injected into the first interior cavity 2610 via an 20 may be converging sidewalls (i.e., the two sidewalls 3030 and
injection molding process via a port on the face portion 2562 3032 may not be parallel to each other). The bottom section
and/or the bottom portion 2590. The apparatus, methods, and 3020 and the sidewalls 3030 and3032 may form two undercut
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in this portions, generally shown as 3040 and 3042. That is, a width
regard. 3015 at the opening 3010 maybe less thana width3025 of the
Alternatively, the cavity wall portion 2520 may extend 25 bottom section 3020. A cross section of the channel3000 may
between the bottom portion 2590 and a top-and-front transi- be symmetrical about an axis 3050. While FIG. 30 may depict
tion region (i.e., a transition region between the top portion flat or substantially flat sidewalls, the two sidewalls 3030 and
2580 and the front portion 2570) so that the cavity wall 3032 may be curved (e.g., convex relative to each other).
portion 2520 and the loft plane 2630 may not be parallel to Instead of flat or substantially flat sidewalls as shown in
each other. In another example, the cavity wall portion 2520 30 FIG. 30, a channel may include other types of sidewalls. As
may extend between the top portion 2580 and a bottom-and- illustrated in FIG. 31, for example, a channel 3100 may
front transition region (i.e., a transition region between the include an opening 3110, a bottom section 3120, and two
bottom portion 2590 and the front portion 2570) so that the sidewalls, generally shown as 3130 and 3132. The bottom
cavity wall portion 2520 and the loft plane 2630 may be not section 3120 may be parallel or substantially parallel to the
parallel to each other. Although FIGS. 25-27, may depict the 35 back surface 2910. The two sidewalls 3130 and 3132 may be
cavity wall portions 2520 and 2720 being flat or substantially stepped sidewalls. The bottom section 3120 and the sidewalls
flat, the cavity wall portions 2520 and/or 2720 may be con- 3130 and 3132 may form two undercut portions, generally
caved or convexed relatively to the face portion 2562. The shown as 3140 and 3142. That is, a width 3115 at the opening
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described 3110 may be less than a width 3125 of the bottom section
herein are not limited in this regard. 40 3120. A cross section of the charmel3100 may be symmetri-
While above examples may describe a cavity wall portion cal about an axis 3150.
dividing an interior cavity of a hollow body portion to form Insteadofbeing symmetrical as shown in FIGS. 30 and31,
two separate interior cavities with one interior cavity partially a channel may be asymmetrical. As illustrated in FIG. 32, for
or entirely filled with an elastic polymer material, the appa- another example, a charmel 3200 may include an opening
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein 45 3210, a bottom section 3220, and two sidewalls, generally
may include two or more cavity wall portions dividing an shown as 3230 and 3232. The bottom section 3220 may be
interior cavity of a hollow body portion to form three or more parallel or substantially parallel to the back surface 2910. The
separate interior cavities with at least two interior cavities bottom section 3220 and the sidewall 3230 may form an
partially or entirely filled with an elastic polymer material. In undercut portion 3240.
one example, one interior cavity may be partially or entirely 50 Referring to FIG. 33, for example, a channel 3300 may
filled with a TPE material whereas another interior cavity include an opening 3310, a bottom section 3320, and two
may be partially or entirely filled with a TPU material. The sidewalls, generally shown as 3330 and 3332. The bottom
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described section 3320 may not be parallel or substantially parallel to
herein are not limited in this regard. the back surface 2910. The two sidewalls 3330 and 3332 may
Referring back to FIGS. 1-14, the face portion 162 may 55 be parallel or substantially parallel to each other but one
include a non-smooth back surface to improve adhesion and/ sidewall may be longer than the other sidewall. The bottom
or mitigate delamination between the face portion 162 and the section 3320 and the sidewall 3332 may form an undercut
elastic polymer material used to fill the interior cavity 700 portion 3340.
(e.g., FIG. 7). Various methods and/or processes such as an In the example as shown in FIG. 34, a face portion 3400
abrasive blasting process (e.g., a bead blasting process, a sand 60 may include a back surface 3410 with one or more channels,
blasting process, other suitable blasting process, or any com- generally shown as 3420, extending laterally across the back
bination thereof) and/or a milling (machining) process may surface 3410 (e.g., extending between the top portion 180 and
be used to form the back surface 166 into a non-smooth the sole portion 190 of FIG. 1). In another example as
surface. For example, the back surface 166 may have with a depicted in FIG. 35, a face portion 3500 may include a back
surface roughness (Ra) ranging from 0.5 to 250 f.tin (0.012 to 65 surface 3510 with one or more channels, generally shown as
6.3 f.tm). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 3520, extending diagonally across the back surface 3510.
are not limited in this regard. Alternatively, a face portion may include a combination of
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channels extending in different directions across a back sur- cavity 700. Thus, regardless of the orientation of the golf club
face of the face portion (e.g., extending longitudinally, later- head 100 during the injection molding process, the elastic
ally, and/or diagonally). Turning to FIG. 36, for yet another polymer material may be injected into the interior cavity 700
example, a face portion 3600 may include a back surface 3610 from one or more lower positioned weight ports while one or
with one or more channels, generally shown as 3620, 3630, 5 more upper positioned weight ports may serve as air vents.
and 3640, extending in different directions across the back The mold (i.e., the golf club head 100) may then be cooled
surface 3610. In particular, the face portion 3600 may include passively (e.g., at room temperature) or actively so that the
a plurality of channels 3620 extending longitudinally across elastic polymer material reaches a solid state and adheres to
the back surface 3610, a plurality of channels 3630 extending the back surface 166 of the face portion 162. The elastic
laterally across the back surface 3610, and a plurality of 10 polymer material may directly adhere to the back surface 166
channels 3640 extending diagonally across the back surface of the face portion 162. Alternatively, the elastic polymer
3610. material may adhere to the back surface 166 of the face
In addition or alternatively, the golf club head 100 may portion 162 with the aid of the one or more structures on the
include a bonding agent to improve adhesion and/or mitigate back surface 166 and/or a bonding agent described herein
delamination between the face portion 162 and the elastic 15 (e.g., the bonding portion 3710 shown in FIG. 37). The appa-
polymer material used to fill the interior cavity 700 of the golf ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein
club head 100 (e.g., FIG. 7). Referring to FIG. 37, for are not limited in this regard.
example, the golf club head 100 may include the face portion As discussed above, the elastic polymer material may be
162, a bonding portion 3710, and an elastic polymer material heated to a liquid state (i.e., non-foaming) and solidifies after
3720. In one example, the bonding portion 3710 may be 20 being injection molded in the interior cavity 700. An elastic
low-viscosity, organic, solvent-based solutions and/or disper- polymer material with a low modulus of elasticity may pro-
sions of polymers and other reactive chemicals such as vide vibration and noise dampening for the face portion 162
MEGUM, ROBOND, and/or THIXOWM materials when the face portion 162 impacts a golfball. For example, an
manufactured by the Dow Chemical Company, Auburn Hills, elastic polymer material that foams when heated may provide
Mich. In another example, the bonding portion 3710 may be 25 vibration and noise dampening. However, such a foaming
LOCTITE materials manufactured by Henkel Corporation, elastic polymer material may not have sufficient rigidity to
Rocky Hill, Conn. The bonding portion 3710 may be applied provide structural support to a relatively thin face portion
to the back surface 166 to bond the elastic polymer material because of possible excessive deflection and/or compression
3720 to the face portion 162 (e.g., extending between the back of the elastic polymer material when absorbing the impact of
surface 166 and the elastic polymer material 3720). For 30 a golf ball. In one example, the elastic polymer material that
example, the bonding portion 3710 may be applied when the is injection molded in the interior cavity 700 may have a
interior cavity 700 is filled with the elastic polymer material relatively high modulus of elasticity to provide structural
3720 via an injection-molding process. The apparatus, meth- support to the face portion 162 and yet elastically deflect to
ods, and articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard. absorb the impact forces experienced by the face portion 162
FIG. 38 depicts one manner in which the interior cavity 700 35 when striking a golf ball. Thus, a non-foaming and injection
of the golf club head 100 or any of the golf club heads moldable elastic polymer material with a relatively high
described herein is partially or entirely filled with an elastic modulus of elasticity may be used for partially or fully filling
polymer material or an elastomer material. The process 3800 the interior cavity 700 to provide structural support and rein-
may begin with heating the golf club head 100 to a certain forcement for the face portion 162 in addition to providing
temperature (block 3810). In one example, the golf club head 40 vibration and noise dampening. That is, the non-foaming and
100 may be heated to a temperature ranging between 150 C. injection moldable elastic polymer material may be a struc-
to 250 C., which may depend on factors such as the vapor- tural support portion for the face portion 162. The apparatus,
ization temperature of the elastic polymer material to be methods, and articles of manufacture are not limited in this
injected in the interior cavity 700. The elastic polymer mate- regard.
rial may then be heated to a certain temperature (block 3820). 45 FIG. 39 depicts one manner in which a bonding agent as
The elastic polymer material may be a non-foaming and described herein may be applied to a golf club head prior to
injection-moldable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material. partially of fully injecting an elastic polymer in the interior
Accordingly, the elastic polymer material may be heated to cavity 700. In the example of FIG. 39, the process 3900 may
reach a liquid or a flowing state prior to being injected into the begin with injecting a bonding agent on the back surface 166
interior cavity 700. The temperature to which the elastic 50 of the face portion 162 (block 3910). The bonding agent may
polymer material may be heated may depend on the type of be injected on the back surface 166 prior to or after heating the
elastic polymer material used to partially or fully fill the golf club head as described above depending on the properties
interior cavity 700. The heated elastic polymer material may of the bonding agent. The bonding agent may be injected
be injected into the interior cavity 700 to partially or fully fill through one or more of the first set of weight ports 1420
the interior cavity 700 (block 3830). The elastic polymer 55 and/or the second set of weight ports 1430. The bonding agent
material may be injected into the interior cavity 700 from one may be injected on the back surface 166 through several or all
or more oftheweightports described herein (e.g., one or more of the first set of weight ports 1420 and the second set of
weight ports of the first and second sets of weight ports 1420 weight ports 1430. For example, an injection instrument such
and 1430, respectively, shown in FIG. 14). One or more other as a nozzle or a needle may be inserted into each weight port
weight ports may allow the air inside the interior cavity 700 60 until the tip or outlet of the instrument is near the back surface
displaced by the elastic polymer material to vent from the 166. The bonding agent may then be injected on the back
interior cavity 700. In one example, the golf club head 100 surface 166 from the outlet of the instrument. Additionally,
may be oriented horizontally as shown in FIG. 14 during the the instrument may be moved, rotated and/or swiveled while
injection molding process. The elastic polymer material may inside the interior cavity 700 so that the bonding agent is
be injected into the interior cavity 700 from weight ports 1431 65 injected onto an area of the back surface 166 surrounding the
and 1432. The weight ports 1421, 1422 and/or 1423 may instrument. For example, the outlet of the injection instru-
serve as air ports for venting the displaced air from the interior ment may be moved in a circular pattern while inside a weight
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 90 of 277

US 9,345,938 B2
19 20
port to inject the bonding agent in a corresponding circular als. For example, the body portion 4010 may be partially or
pattern on the back surface 166. Each of the first set of weight entirely made of a steel-based material (e.g., 17-4 PH stain-
ports 1420 and the second set of weight ports 1430 may be less steel, Nitronic 50 stainless steel, maraging steel or other
utilized to inject a bonding agent on the back surface 166. types of stainless steel), a titanium-based material, an alumi-
However, utilizing all of first weight ports 1420 and/or the 5 num-based material (e.g., a high-strength aluminum alloy or
second set of weight ports 1430 may not be necessary. For a composite aluminum alloy coated with a high-strength
example, using every other adjacent weight port may be suf- alloy), any combination thereof, and/or other suitable types of
ficient to inject a bonding agent on the entire back surface materials. The first set of weight portions 4020 and the second
166. In another example, weight ports 1421,14221431,1433 weight portion 4030 may be partially or entirely made of a
and 1436 may be used to inject the bonding agent on the back 10 high-density material such as a tungsten-based material or
surface 166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manu- other suitable types of materials. Alternatively, the body por-
facture are not limited in this regard. tion 4010 and/or the first set of weight portions 4020 and the
The process 3900 may also include spreading the bonding second weight portion 4030 may be partially or entirely made
agent on the back surface 166 (block 3920) after injection of of a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plastic, etc.). The
the bonding agent onto the back surface 166 so that a gener- 15 apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture are not lim-
ally uniform coating of the bonding agent is provided on the ited in this regard.
back surface 166. According to one example, the bonding The golf club head4000 may be an iron-type golf club head
agent may be spread on the back surface 166 by injecting air (e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron, a
into the interior cavity 700 through one or more of the first set 7-iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type golf club
of weight ports 1420 and the second set of weight ports 1430. 20 head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, an
The air may be injected into the interior cavity 700 and on the n-degree wedge such as 44 degrees (0 ) , 48, 52, 56, 60,
back surface 166 by inserting an air nozzle into one or more etc.). Although FIGS. 40 and 41 may depict a particular type
of the first set of weight ports 1420 and the second set of of club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
weight ports 1430. According to one example, the air nozzle facture described herein may be applicable to other types of
may be moved, rotated and/or swiveled at a certain distance 25 club heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway wood-type
from the back surface 166 so as to uniformly blow air onto the club head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club head,
bonding agent to spread the bonding agent on the back surface etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
166 for a uniform coating or a substantially uniform coating described herein are not limited in this regard.
of the bonding agent on the back surface 166. The apparatus, The toe portion 4040 and the heel portion 4050 may be on
methods, and articles of manufacture are not limited in this 30 opposite ends of the body portion 4010. The heel portion
regard. 4050 may include a hose! portion 4055 configured to receive
The process 3900 may include a single step of injecting and a shaft (not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the
uniformly or substantially uniformly coating the back surface golf club head 4000 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a
166 with the bonding agent. In one example, the bonding golf club.
agent may be injected on the back surface 166 by being 35 The back portion 4070 may include a back wall portion
converted into fine particles or droplets (i.e., atomized) and 4110 with one or more exterior weight ports along a periphery
sprayed on the back surface 166. Accordingly, the back sur- of the back portion 4070, generally shown as a first set of
face 166 may be uniformly or substantially uniformly coated exterior weight ports 4120 (e.g., shown as weight ports 4121,
with the bonding agent in one step. A substantially uniform 4122, 4123, and 4124) and a second weight port 4130. Each
coating of the back surface 166 with the bonding agent may 40 exterior weight port of the first set of weight ports 4120 may
be defined as a coating having slight non-uniformities due to be associated with a port diameter. In one example, the port
the injection process or the manufacturing process. However, diameter may be about 0.25 inch ( 6.35 millimeters). Any two
such slight non-uniformities may not affect the bonding of the adjacent exterior weight ports of the first set of exterior
filler material to the back surface 166 with the bonding agent weight ports 4120 may be separated by less than the port
as described herein. For example, spraying the bonding agent 45 diameter. The first set of weight ports 4120 and the second
on the back surface 166 may result in overlapping regions of weight port 4130 may be exterior weight ports configured to
the bonding agent having a slightly greater coating thickness receive one or more weight portions. Each weight portion of
than other regions of the bonding agent on the back surface the first set of weight portions 4020 (e.g., shown as weight
166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture are portions 4021, 4022, 4023, and 4024) may be disposed in a
not limited in this regard. 50 weight port of the first set of weight ports 4120 (e.g., shown as
As described herein, any two or more of the weight por- weight ports 4121, 4122,4123, and 4124) located at or proxi-
tions may be configured as a single weight portion. In the mate to the toe portion 4040 and/or the top portion 4080 on
example of FIGS. 40 and 41, a golf club head 4000 may the back portion 4070. For example, the weight portion 4021
include a body portion 4010 and two or more weight portions, may be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 4121.
generally shown as a first set of weight portions 4020 (e.g., 55 In another example, the weight portion 4022 may be disposed
shown as weight portions 4021, 4022, 4023, and 4024) and a in a weight port 4122 located in a transition region between
second weight portion 4030. The body portion 4010 may the top portion 4080 and the toe portion 4040 (e.g., a top-and-
include a toe portion 4040, a heel portion 4050, a front portion toe transition region).
(not shown), a back portion 4070, a top portion 4080, and a The second weight port 4130 may be a recess extending
sole portion 4090. The front portion may be similar in many 60 from the toe portion 4040 or a location proximate to the toe
respects to the front portion 160 of the golf club head 100. portion 4040 to the sole portion or a location proximate to the
Accordingly, details of the front portion of the golf club head sole portion 4090 and through the transition region between
4000 are not provided. the toe portion 4040 and the sole portion 4090. Accordingly,
The body portion 4010 may be made of a first material as shown in FIG. 40, the second weight port 4130 may
whereas the first set of weight portions 4020 and the second 65 resemble an L-shaped recess. The second weight portion
weight portion 4030 may be made of a second material. The 4030 may resemble the shape of the second weight port 4130
first and second materials may be similar or different materi- and may be configured to be disposed in the second weight
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 91 of 277

US 9,345,938 B2
21 22
port 4130. The second weight portion 4030 may be partially conforming or non-conforming to the rules of golf at any
or fully disposed in the weight port 4130. The second weight particular time. Accordingly, golf equipment related to the
portion 4030 may have any shape such as oval, rectangular, apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
triangular, or any geometric or non-geometric shape. The herein may be advertised, offered for sale, and/or sold as
second weight port 413 0 may be shaped similar to the second conforming or non-conforming golf equipment. The appara-
weight portion 4030. However, portions of the second weight tus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are
portion 4030 that are inserted in the second weight port 4130 not limited in this regard.
may have similar shapes as the weight port 4130. As Although certain example apparatus, methods, and articles
described in detail herein, any of the weight portions of manufacture have been described herein, the scope of
described herein, including the weight portions 4020 and the 10 coverage of this disclosure is not limited thereto. On the
second weight portion 4030 may be coupled to the back contrary, this disclosure covers all apparatus, methods, and
portion 4070 of the body portion 4010 with various manufac- articles of articles of manufacture fairly falling within the
turing methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process, a scope of the appended claims either literally or under the
welding process, a brazing process, a mechanical locking doctrine of equivalents.
method, any combination thereof, or other suitable manufac- 15 What is claimed is:
turing methods and/or processes). 1. A golf club head comprising:
The weight portions of the first set of weight portions 4020 a body portion having a face portion, a toe portion, a heel
may have similar or different physical properties (e.g., color, portion, a top portion, a sole portion, a back portion, and
shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). In the illustrated an interior cavity extending between the top and sole
example as shown in FIG. 41, each of the weight portions of 20 portions and being partially or entirely filled with an
the first set of weight portions 4020 may have a cylindrical elastic polymer material;
shape (e.g., a circular cross section). Alternatively, each of the a plurality of weight portions; and
weight portions of the first set of weight portions 4020 may a plurality of weight ports comprising a first set of weight
have different shapes. Although the above examples may ports located along a periphery of the back portion
describe weight portions having a particular shape, the appa- 25 proximate to the sole portion and extending between the
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein toe portion and the heel portion and a second set of
may include weight portions of other suitable shapes (e.g., a weight ports located along the periphery of the back
portion of or a whole sphere, cube, cone, cylinder, pyramid, portion proximate to the top portion, the weight ports of
cuboidal, prism, frustum, or other suitable geometric shape). the first set of weight ports being substantially similarly
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 30 spaced apart, each of the weight ports of the first set of
described herein are not limited in this regard. weight ports having a substantially similar port diameter
The terms "and" and "or" may have both conjunctive and as an adjacent weight port a the first set of weight ports
disjunctive meanings. The terms "a" and "an" are defined as and being separated by less than the port diameter from
one or more unless this disclosure indicates otherwise. The the adjacent weight port, each weight port of the plural-
term "coupled" and any variation thereof refer to directly or 35 ity of weight ports configured to receive at least one
indirectly connecting two or more elements chemically, weight portion of the plurality of weight portions, the
mechanically, and/or otherwise. The phrase "removably con- interior cavity being accessible through at least one of
nected" is defined such that two elements that are "removably the weight ports of the plurality of weight ports.
connected" may be separated from each other without break- 2. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
ing or destroying the utility of either element. 40 interior cavity comprises a cavity separating the face portion
The term "substantially" when used to describe a charac- and the plurality of weight ports.
teristic, parameter, property, or value of an element may rep- 3. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein each of
resent deviations or variations that do not diminish the char- the plurality of exterior weight ports comprises a port wall
acteristic, parameter, property, or value that the element may separated from a back surface of the face portion by the
be intended to provide. Deviations or variations in a charac- 45 interior cavity.
teristic, parameter, property, or value of an element may be 4. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
based on, for example, tolerances, measurement errors, mea- plurality of weight portions comprises a first weight portion
surement accuracy limitations and other factors. The term having a first weight portion mass and a second weight por-
"proximate" is synonymous with terms such as "adjacent," tion having a second weight portion mass, wherein the first
"close," "immediate," "nearby", "neighboring", etc., and 50 weight portion mass is relatively less than the second weight
such terms may be used interchangeably as appearing in this portion mass.
disclosure. 5. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the face
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture portion comprises a thickness of less than or equal to 1.5
described herein may be implemented in a variety of embodi- millimeters (0.060 inch).
ments, and the foregoing description of some of these 55 6. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the elastic
embodiments does not necessarily represent a complete polymer material comprises a non-foaming injection mold-
description of all possible embodiments. Instead, the descrip- able elastic polymer material.
tion of the drawings, and the drawings themselves, disclose at 7. A golf club head comprising:
least one embodiment, and may disclosure alternative a body portion having a face portion, a toe portion, a heel
embodiments. 60 portion, a top portion, a sole portion, and a back portion;
As the rules of golf may change from time to time (e.g., and
new regulations may be adopted or old rules may be elimi- a plurality of weight ports located along a periphery of the
nated or modified by golf standard organizations and/or gov- back portion, the plurality of weight ports comprising:
erning bodies such as the United States Golf Association a first set of weight ports located above a horizontal
(USGA), the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews 65 midplane of the golf club head and being proximate to
(R&A), etc.), golf equipment related to the apparatus, meth- the top portion and extending between the toe portion
ods, and articles of manufacture described herein may be and the heel portion, the first set of weight ports being
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 92 of 277

US 9,345,938 B2
23 24
substantially similarly spaced apart, each of the elastic polymer material, wherein the interior cavity com-
weight ports of the first set of weight ports having a prises a cavity separating the face portion and the back por-
substantially similar first port diameter as an adjacent tion.
weight port and being separated by less than the first 14. A golf club head as defined in claim 7, wherein the face
port diameter from the adjacent weight port, and 5 portion comprises a thickness of less than or equal to 1.5
a second set of weight ports located below a horizontal millimeters (0.060 inch).
midplane of the golf club head and being proximate to 15. A golf club head comprising:
the sole portion and extending between the toe portion a hollow body portion having a face portion with a thick-
and the heel portion, the second set of weight ports ness ofless than or equal to 1.5 millimeters (0.060 inch),
being substantially similarly spaced apart, each of the 10
a toe portion, a heel portion, a top portion, a sole portion,
weight ports of the second set of weight ports having
a back portion, and an interior cavity extending between
substantially similar second port diameter as an adja-
the top and sole portions;
cent weight port and being separated by less than the
s~cond port diameter .from the adjacent weight port,
an elastic polymer material in the interior cavity configured
wherem the first set ofwe1ght ports has less weight ports 15
to partially or entirely fill the interior cavity by injection
than the second set of weight ports. molding, the elastic polymer material being attached to
8. A golf club head as defined in claim 7, the body portion
the face portion and configured to structurally support
comprising an interior cavity extending between the top and the face portion during impact of the face portion with a
sole portions and being partially or entirely filled with an golfball; and
elastic polymer material, the interior cavity being accessible 20
a plurality of weight portions coupled to the hollow body
through at least one of the weight ports of the plurality of portion and located above and below a horizontal mid-
weight ports. plane of the golf club head;
9. A golf club head as defined in claim 7, comprising a
wherein the number of weight portions below the horizon-
plurality of weight portions, each weight port of the plurality tal midplane is greater than the number of weight por-
of weight ports configured to receive a weight portion of the 25
tions above the horizontal midplane.
plurality of weight portions. 16. A golf club head as defined in claim 15, wherein the
10. A golf club head as defined in claim 7, comprising a
interior cavity comprises a cavity having at least 50% filled
plural~ty of weight portions, each weight port of the plurality
with a thermoplastic elastomer material.
ofwe1ght ports configured to receive a weight portion of the 17. A golf club head as defined in claim 15, wherein the
plur~lity of weight portions, wherein the plurality of weight 30
hollow bodyyortion comprises an interior cavity separating
portwns comprises weight portions with more than about the face portwn and the plurality of weight portions.
85% of the total weight portion mass being below the hori- 18. A golf club head as defined in claim 15 comprising a
zontal midplane of the golf club head. plurality of weight ports on the back portion, each weight port
11. A golf club head as defined in claim 7, the body portion
configured to receive a weight portion of the plurality of
we~ght portions, wherein the interior cavity is partially or
comprising an interior cavity extending between the top and 35
sole portions and being partially or entirely filled with an entirely filled by injection molding the elastic polymer mate-
elastic polymer material, wherein the interior cavity com- rial from .at least one weight port of the plurality of weight
prises a cavity height extending between the top portion and ports havmg access to the interior cavity.
th~ sole portion, the cavity height being at least 50% of a body
19. A golf club head as defined in claim 15, wherein the
he1ght of the hollow body portion. 40
elastic polymer material comprises a non-foaming injection
12. A golf club head as defined in claim 7, the body portion moldable elastic polymer material.
comprising an interior cavity extending between the top and 20. A golf club head as defined in claim 15, wherein the
plur~lity of weight portions comprises a first set of weight
sole portions and being partially or entirely filled with an
elastic polymer material, wherein the interior cavity com- portwns located along a periphery of the back portion pro xi-
mate to the sole portion and extending between the toe portion
~~ses. a cavity being at least 50% filled with a non-foaming 45
mJectwn moldable elastic polymer material. and the heel portion and a second set of weight portions
13. A golf club head as defined in claim 7, the body portion
located along the periphery of the back portion proximate to
comprising an interior cavity extending between the top and the top portion.
sole portions and being partially or entirely filled with an * * * * *
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 93 of 277

EXHIBIT D
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 94 of 277
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US009346203B2

c12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 9,346,203 B2


Parsons et al. (45) Date of Patent: *May 24,2016

(54) GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO (2013.01); A63B 2053/0408 (2013.01); A63B
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS 2053/0445 (2013.01); A63B 2053/0454
(2013.01); A63B 2053/0479 (2013.01); A63B
(71) Applicant: Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, Scottsdale, 2053/0491 (2013.01); B29K 2075/00 (2013.01);
AZ (US) B29L 2031/5227 (2013.01)
(58) Field of Classification Search
(72) Inventors: Robert R. Parsons, Scottsdale, AZ CPC ................... A63B 2053/0408; A63B 53/0475;
(US); Michael R. Nicolette, Scottsdale, A63B 2953/0445; A63B 2053/0454; A63B
AZ (US); Bradley D. Schweigert, 2053/0491; A63B 2053/0479; B29C
Anthem, AZ (US) 45/14467; B29L 2031/5227; B29K 2075/00
USPC .......................... 473/324-350, 287-292, 256
(73) Assignee: PARSONS XTREME GOLF, LLC,
See application file for complete search history.
Scottsdale, AZ (US)

( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this (56) References Cited
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
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(65) Prior Publication Data OTHER PUBLICATIONS
US 2015/0231806 Al Aug. 20, 2015 U.S. Appl. No. 29/501,006, Nicolette et al., "Golf Club Head," filed
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Related U.S. Application Data
(Continued)
(60) Continuation of application No. 14/618,479, filed on
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(57) ABSTRACT
(Continued)
Embodiments of golf club heads and methods to manufacture
(51) Int. Cl. golf club heads are generally described herein. In one
A63B 53104 (2015.01) example, a method may include forming a golf club head
A63B 53106 (2015.01) having a body portion with a toe portion, a heel portion, a top
B29C 45114 (2006.01) portion, a sole portion, a back portion, and a front portion with
B29K 75/00 (2006.01) a lace portion. The method may form an interior cavity. Other
B29L 31/52 (2006.01) examples and embodiments may be described and claimed.
(52) U.S. Cl.
CPC ....... B29C 45114467 (2013.01); A63B 5310475 20 Claims, 9 Drawing Sheets

r1oo 1700~

150./
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 95 of 277

US 9,346,203 B2
Page 2

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No. 14/589,277, filed on Jan. 5, 2015, which is a con- 6,290,609 B1 9/2001 Takeda
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US 9,346,203 B2
Page 3

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2002/0107087 A1 8/2002 Fagot
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 2003/0176231 A1 9/2003 Hasebe
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9,192,830 B2 * 1112015 Parsons . A63B 53/0475 * cited by examiner
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 97 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 1 of9 US 9,346,203 B2

100~

r--180

140
~ 150
164
162

190/
FIG. 1

~100

150/

132 133 )
190/ 130 FIG. 2
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 98 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 2 of9 US 9,346,203 B2

100~

{180
8
140

FIG. 3

100~

155

FIG. 4
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 99 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 3 of9 US 9,346,203 B2

100~

155

1410

160 170

\ )

\190 FIG. 5

100~

180~ 155

162

1410
170
\

FIG. 6
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 100 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 4 of9 US 9,346,203 B2

100~

160~

166

FIG. 7

100~
155
180~

1410
850
170~ r16o

168

1431 735
190
j FIG. 8
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 101 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 5 of9 US 9,346,203 B2

100,

720
160,
1421
1410
r170
~ , 130
f

FIG. 9

~100

1010 136
.__l - - - - 134 135
133) _ _ _ _ ____.
131 132
190/' 13o FIG. 10
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 102 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016


Sheet 6 of9
US 9,346,203 B2

120 & 130 ""\

1110

FIG. 11

120 ""\

1220

FIG. 12

130 ""\

1320

FIG. 13
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 103 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 7 of9 US 9,346,203 B2

110~

1421 1422 1423 { 1420


,, 1424
140
)

150/

1431
1432 1433 }
190/ 1430 FIG. 14

162~

166

FIG. 15
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 104 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 8 of9 US 9,346,203 B2

162~

1640

FIG. 16

1700~
START
+
Provide two or more
weight portions
0710
y

Provide body portion 0720


y
Couple at least one weight
portion in weight port
0730
+ 1740
Fill interior cavity v
t
( END )
FIG. 17
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 105 of 277

U.S. Patent May 24,2016 Sheet 9 of9 US 9,346,203 B2

100~

160~

166

1874
FIG. 18
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 106 of 277

US 9,346,203 B2
1 2
GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO to manufacture golf club heads, the position of the center of
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS gravity (CG) and/or the moment of inertia (MOl) of the golf
club heads may be optimized to produce certain trajectory
CROSS REFERENCE and spin rate of a golf ball.

This application is a continuation application ofU.S. Non- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Provisional application Ser. No. 14/618,479, filed Feb. 10,
2015, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Applica- FIG. 1 depicts a front view of a golf club head according to
tionSer. No. 61/942,515, filed Feb. 20,2014, U.S. Provisional an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of
Application Ser. No. 61/945,560, filed Feb. 27, 2014, U.S. 10 manufacture described herein.
Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/948,839, filed Mar. 6, FIG. 2 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head of
2014, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/952,470, filed FIG. 1.
Mar. 13,2014, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/992, FIG. 3 depicts a top view of the example golf club head of
555, filed May 13, 2014, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. FIG. 1.
No. 62/010,836, filed Jun. 11, 2014, U.S. Provisional Appli- 15 FIG. 4 depicts a bottom view of the example golf club head
cation Ser. No. 62/011,859, filed Jun. 13, 2014, and U.S. ofFIG.l.
Provisional Application Ser. No. 62/032,770, filed Aug. 4, FIG. 5 depicts a left view of the example golf club head of
2014. This application is also a continuation application of FIG. 1.
U.S. Non-Provisional application Ser. No. 14/618,501, filed FIG. 6 depicts aright view of the example golf club head of
Feb. 10, 2015, which is a continuation application of U.S. 20 FIG. 1.
Non-Provisional Application Ser. No. 14/589,277, filed Jan. FIG. 7 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
5, 2015, which is a continuation application of U.S. Non- club head of FIG. 1 along line 7-7.
Provisional Application Ser. No. 14/513,073, filed Oct. 13, FIG. 8 depicts across-sectional view of the example golf
2024, which is a continuation application of U.S. Non-Pro- club head of FIG. 1 along line 8-8.
visional application Ser. No. 14/498,603, filed Sep. 26, 2014, 25 FIG. 9 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
which claims the benefit ofU.S. Provisional Application No. club head of FIG. 1 along line 9-9.
62/041,538, filed Aug. 25, 2014. This application is also FIG. 10 depicts another rear view of the example golf club
continuation-in-part application of U.S. application Ser. No. head of FIG. 1.
29/511,482, filed Dec. 11, 2014, which is a divisional appli- FIG. 11 depicts, atop, view of a weight portion associated
cation of U.S. application Ser. No. 29/501,006 filed Aug. 29, 30 with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
2014. This application is also a continuation-in-part applica- FIG. 12 depicts a side view of a weight portion associated
tion of U.S. application Ser. No. 29/514,256, filed Jan. 9, with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
2015, which is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. FIG. 13 depicts a side view of another weight portion
application Ser. No. 29/501,006, filed Aug. 29, 2014. This associated with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
application is also a continuation-in-part application of U.S. 35 FIG. 14 depicts a rear view of a body portion of the example
application Ser. No. 29/515,013, filed Jan. 20, 2015, which is golf club head of FIG. 1.
a continuation-in-part application of U.S. Ser. No. 29/501, FIG. 15 depicts a cross-sectional view of a face portion of
006, filed Aug. 29, 2014. This application is also, a continu- the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
ation-in-part application ofU.S. application Ser. No. 29/515, FIG. 16 depicts a cross-sectional view of another face
381, filed Jan. 22,2015, which is a continuation application of 40 portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
U.S. application Ser. No. 29/506,825, filed Oct. 21, 2014. FIG.17depictsonemannerinwhichtheexamplegolfclub
This application is also a continuation-in-part application of head described herein may be manufactured.
U.S. application Ser. No. 29/512,313, filed Dec. 18, 2014, FIG. 18 depicts another cross-sectional view of the
which is a divisional application of U.S. application Ser. No. example golf club head of FIG. 4 along line 18-18.
29/506,825, filed Oct. 21, 2014. The disclosures of the refer- 45 For simplicity and clarity of illustration, the drawing fig-
enced applications are incorporated herein by reference. ures illustrate the general manner of construction, and
descriptions and details of well-known features and tech-
COPYRIGHT AUTHORIZATION niques may be omitted to avoid urmecessarily obscuring the
present disclosure. Additionally, elements in the drawing fig-
The present disclosure may be subject to copyright protec- 50 ures may not be depicted to scale. For example, the dimen-
tion. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile sions of some of the elements in the figures may be exagger-
reproduction by anyone of the present disclosure and its ated relative to other elements to help improve understanding
related documents, as they appear in the Patent and Trade- of embodiments of the present disclosure.
mark Office patent files or records, but otherwise reserves all
applicable copyrights. 55 DESCRIPTION

FIELD In general, golf club heads and methods to manufacture


golf club heads are described herein. The apparatus, methods,
The present disclosure generally relates to golf equipment, and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
and more particularly, to golf club heads and methods to 60 this regard.
manufacturing golf club heads. In the example of FIGS. 1-14, a golf club head 100 may
include a body portion 110 (FIG.14), and two or more weight
BACKGROUND portions, generally shown as a first set of weight portions 120
(e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) and a
Various materials (e.g., steel-based materials, titanium- 65 second set of weight portions 130 (e.g., shown as weight
based materials, tungsten-based materials, etc.) may be used portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). The body
to manufacture golf club heads. By using multiple materials portion 110 may include a toe portion 140, a heel portion 150,
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 107 of 277

US 9,346,203 B2
3 4
a front portion 160, a back portion 170, a top portion 180, and as weight ports 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424) and a second set
a sole portion 190. The body portion 110 may be made of a of exterior weight ports 1430 (e.g., shown as weight ports
first material whereas the first and second sets of weight 1431,1432,1433,1434,1435, 1436, and1437). Each exterior
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be made of a second weight port, may be associated with a port diameter. In one
material. The first and second materials may be similar or 5 example, the port diameter may be about 0.25 inch (6.35
different materials. For example, the body portion 110 may be millimeters). Any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the
partially or entirely made of a steel-based material (e.g., 17-4 first set of exterior weight ports 1420 may be separated by less
PH stainless steel, Nitronic 50 stainless steel, maraging than the port diameter. In a similar manner, any two adjacent
steel or other types of stainless steel), a titanium-based mate- exterior weight ports of the second set of exterior weight ports
rial, an aluminum-based material (e.g., a high-strength alu- 10 143 0 may be separated by less than the port diameter. The first
minum alloy or a composite aluminum alloy coated with a and second exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may be
high-strength alloy), any combination thereof, and/or other exterior weight ports configured to receive one or more
suitable types of materials. The first and second sets of weight weight portions. In particular, each weight portion of the first
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or set 120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and
entirely made of a high-density material such as a tungsten- 15 124) may be disposed in a weight port located at or proximate
based material or other suitable types of materials. Alterna- to the toe portion 140 and/or the top portion 180 on the back
tively, the body portion 110 and/or the first and second sets of portion 170. For example, the weight portion 121 may be
weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1421. In
entirely made of a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plas- another example, the weight portion 122 may be disposed in
tic, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 20 a weight port 1422 located in a transition region between the
are not limited in this regard. top portion 180 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a top-and-toe
The golf club head 100 may be an iron-type golf club head transition region). Each weight portion of the second set 130
(e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron, a (e.g., shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136,
7 -iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc) or a wedge-type golf club head and 137) may be disposed in a weight port located at or
(e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, ann-de- 25 proximate to the toe portion 140 and/or the sole portion 190
gree wedge such as 44 degrees ( 0 ), 48, 52, 56, 60, etc.). on the back portion 170. For example, the weight portion 135
Although FIGS. 1-10 may depict a particular type of club may be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1435.
head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture In another example, the weight portion 136 may be disposed
described herein may be applicable to other types of club in a weight port 1436 located in a transition region between
heads (e.g., a driver-type club, head, a fairway wood-type 30 the sole portion 190 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a sole-and-
club head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club head, toe transition region). As described in detail below, the first
etc). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
described herein are not limited in this regard. may be coupled to the back portion 170 of the body portion
The toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150 may be on 110 with various manufacturing methods and/or processes
opposite ends of the body portion 110. The heel portion 150 35 (e.g., a bonding process, a welding process, a brazing process,
may include a hose! portion 155 configured to receive a shaft a mechanical locking method, any combination thereof, or
(not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the golf other suitable manufacturing methods and/or processes).
club head 100 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a golf Alternatively, the golf club head 100 may not include (i) the
club. first set of weight portions 120, (ii) the second set of weight
The front portion 160 may include a face portion 162 (e.g., 40 portions 130, or (iii) both the first and second sets of weight
a strike face). The face portion 162 may include a front portions 120 and 130. In particular, the back portion 170 of
surface 164 and a back surface 166. The front surface 164 the body portion 110 may not include weight ports at or
may include one or more grooves 168 extending between the proximate to the top portion 170 and/or the sole portion 190.
toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150. While the figures For example, the mass of the first set of weight portions 120
may depict a particular number of grooves, the apparatus, 45 (e.g., 3 grams) and/or the mass of the second set of weight
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may portions. 130 (e.g., 16.8 grams) may be integral part(s) the
include more or less grooves. The face portion 162 may be body portion 110 instead of separate weight portion(s). The
used to impact a golf ball (not shown). The face portion 162 apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
may be an integral portion of the body portion 110. Alterna- herein are not limited in this regard.
tively, the face portion 162 may be a separate piece or an insert 50 The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
coupled to the body portion 110 via various manufacturing respectively, may have similar or different physical properties
methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process, a welding (e.g., color, shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). As a
process, a brazing process, a mechanical locking method, any result, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
combination thereof, or other suitable types of manufacturing 130, respectively, may contribute to the ornamental design of
methods and/or processes). The face portion 162 may be 55 the golf club head 100. In the illustrated, example as shown in
associated with a loft plane that defines the loft angle of the FIG. 11, each of the weight portions of the first and second
golf club head 100. The loft angle may vary based on the type sets 120 and 130, respectively, may have a cylindrical shape
of golf club (e.g., a long iron, a middle iron, a short iron, a (e.g., a circular cross section). Alternatively, each of the
wedge, etc.). In one example, the loft angle may be between weight portions of the first set 120 may have a first shape (e.g.,
five degrees and seventy-five degrees. In another example, the 60 a cylindrical shape) whereas each of the weight portions of
loft angle may be between twenty degrees and sixty degrees. the second set 130 may have a second shape (e.g., a cubical
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture shape). In another example, the first set of weight portions
described herein are not limited in this regard. 120 may include two or more weight portions with different
As illustrated in FIG. 14, the back portion 170 may include shapes (e.g., the weight portion 121 may be a first shape
a back wall portion 1410 with one or more exterior weight 65 whereas the weight portion 122 may be a second shape dif-
ports along a periphery of the back portion 170, generally ferent from the first shape). Likewise, the second set of weight
shown as a first set of exterior weight ports 1420 (e.g., shown portions 130 may also include two or more weight portions
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 108 of 277

US 9,346,203 B2
5 6
with different shapes (e.g., the weight portion 131 may be a to or greater than the second height 1320. The apparatus,
first shape whereas the weight portion 132 may be a second methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are-not
shape different from the first shape). Although the above limited in this regard.
examples may describe weight portions having a particular To provide optimal perimeter weighting for the golf club
shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 5 head 100, the first set of weight portions 120 (e.g., weight
described herein may include weight portions of .other suit- portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) may be configured to
able shapes (e.g., a portion of or a whole sphere, cube, cone, counter-balance the weight of the hosel155. The second set of
cylinder, pyramid, cuboidal, prism, frustum, or other suitable weight portions 130 (e.g., weight, portions 131, 132, 133,
geometric-shape). While the above examples and figures may 134, 135, 136, and 137) may be configured to place the center
10 of gravity of the golf club head 100 at an optimal location.
depict multiple weight portions as a set of weight portions,
Turning to FIGS. 7-9, for example, the first and second sets of
each set of the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be located
130, respectively, may be a single piece of weight portion. In
away from the back surface 166 of the face portion 162 (e.g.,
one example, the first set of weight portions 120 may be a not directly coupled to each other). That is, the first and
single piece of weight portion instead of a series of four 15 second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, and
separate weight portions. In another example, the second set the back surface 166 may be partially or entirely separated by
of weight portions 130 may be a single piece of weight por- an interior cavity 700 of the body portion 110. As shown in
tion instead of a series of seven separate weight portions. The FIG. 14, for example, each exterior weight port of the first and
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described second sets of exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may
herein are not limited in this regard. 20 include an opening (e.g., generally shown as 720 and 730) and
Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, for example, the first and a port wall (e.g., generally shown as 725 and 735). The port
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may walls 725 and 735 may be integral portions of the back wall
include threads, generally shown as 1210 and 1310, respec- portion 1410 (e.g., a section of the back wall portion 1410).
tively, to engage with correspondingly configured threads in Each of the openings 720 and 730 may be configured to
the weight ports to secure in the weight ports of the back 25 receive a weight portion such as weight portions 121 and 135,
portion 170 (generally shown as 1420 and 1430 in FIG. 14). respectively. The opening 720 may be located at one end of
For example, each weight portion of the first and second sets the weight port 1421, and the port wall 725 may be located or
of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a screw. proximate to at an opposite end of the weight port 1421. In a
The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130. similar manner, the opening 730 may be located at one end of
respectively, may not be readily removable from the body 30 the weight port 1435, and the port wall 735 may be located at
or proximate to an opposite end of the weight port 1435. The
portion 110 with or without a tool. Alternatively, the first and
port walls 725 and 735 may be separated from the face portion
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may
162 (e.g., separated by the interior cavity 700). As a result, the
be readily removable (e.g., with a tool) so that a relatively
center of gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 may be
heavier or lighter weight portion may replace one or more of 35 relatively farther back away from the face portion 162 and
the weight portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, relatively lower towards a ground plane (e.g., one shown as
respectively. In another example, the first and second sets of 1010 in FIG. 10) with the second set of weight portions 130
weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be secured in being away from the back surface 166 than if the second set of
the weight ports of the back portion 170 with epoxy or adhe- weight portions 130 were directly coupled to the back surface
sive so that the first and second sets of weight portions 120 40 166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
and 130, respectively, may not be readily removable. In yet described herein are not limited in this regard.
another example, the first and second sets of weight portions While the figures may depict weight ports with a particular
120 and 130, respectively, may be secured in the weight ports cross-section shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of
of the back portion 170 with both epoxy and threads so that manufacture described, herein may include weight ports with
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, 45 other suitable cross-section shapes. In one example, the
respectively, may not be readily removable. The apparatus, weight ports of the first and/or second sets of weight ports
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not 1420 and 1430 may have U-like cross-section shape. In
limited in this regard. another example, the weight ports of the first and/or second
As mentioned above, the first and second sets of weight set of weight ports 1420 and 1430 may have V-like cross-
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be similar in some 50 section shape. One or more of the weight ports associated
physical properties but different in other physical properties. with the first set of weight portions 120 may have a different
As illustrated in FIGS. 11-13, for example, each of the weight cross-section shape than one or more weight ports associated
portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, with the second set of weight portions 130. For example, the
may have a diameter 1110 of about 0.25 inch (6.35 millime- weight port 1421 may have a U-like cross-section shape
ters) but the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 55 whereas the weight port 1435 may have a V-like cross-section
130, respectively, may be different in height. In particular, shape. Further, two or more weight ports associated with the
each of the weight portions of the first set 120 may be asso- first set of weight portions 120 may have different cross-
ciated with a first height 1220 (FIG. 12), and each of the section shapes. In a similar manner, two or more weight ports
weight portion of the second set 130 may be associated with associated with the second set of weight portions 130 may
a second height 1320 (FIG. 13). The first height 1220 may be 60 have different cross-section shapes. The apparatus, methods,
relatively shorter than the second height 1320. In one and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
example, the first height 1220 may be about 0.125 inch (3 .17 5 this regard.
millimeters) whereas the second height 1320 may be about Referring back to FIG. 10, for example, the golf club head
0.3 inch (7.62 millimeters). In another example, the first 100 may be associated with a ground plane 1010, a horizontal
height 1220 may be about 0.16 inch (4.064 millimeters) 65 midplane 1020, and a top plane 1030. In particular, the ground
whereas the second height 1320 maybe about 0.4 inch (10.16 plane 1010 may be a tangential plane to the sole portion 190
millimeters). Alternatively, the first height 1220 may be equal of the golf club head 100 when the golf club head 100 is at an
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address position (e.g., the golf club head 100 is aligned to towards the toe and heel portions 150 and 160, respectively, of
strike a golfball). A top plane 1030 may be a tangential plane the golf club head 100). As a result, the club head 100 may
to the top portionofthe 180 of the golf club head100 when the provide a relatively higher launch angle and a relatively lower
golf club head 100 is at the address position. The ground, and spin rate than, a golf club head without the first and second
top planes 1010 and 1030, respectively, may be substantially 5 sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively. The appa-
parallel to each other. The horizontal midplane 1020 may be ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein
vertically halfWay between the ground and top planes 1010 are not limited in this regard.
and 1030, respectively. Alternatively, two or more weight portions in the same set
The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, may be different in mass. In one example, the weight portion
respectively, may be similar in mass (e.g., all of the weight 10 121 of the first set 120 may have a relatively lower mass than
portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, the weight portion 122 of the first set 120. In another example,
weigh about the same). Alternatively, the first and second sets the weight portion 131 of the second set 130 may have a
of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be different relatively lower mass than the weight portion 135 of the
in mass individually or as an entire set. In particular, each of second set 130. With relatively greater mass at the top-and-toe
the weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, 15 transition region and/or the sole-and-toe transition region,
122, 123, and 124) may have relatively less mass than any of more weight may be distributed away from the center of
the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., shown as 131, gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 to increase the moment
132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). For example, the second of inertia (MOl) about the vertical axis through the CG.
set of weight portions 130 may account for more than 50% of Although the figures may depict the weight portions as
the total mass from exterior weight portions of the golf club 20 separate and individual parts, each set of the first and second
head 100. As a result, the golf club head 100 may be config- sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a
ured to have at least 50% of the total mass from exterior single piece of weight portion. In one example, all of the
weight portions disposed below the horizontal midplane weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, 122,
1020. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 123, and 124) may be combined into a single piece of weight
described herein are not limited in this regard. 25 portion (e.g., a first weight portion). In a similar manner, all of
In one example, the golf club head 100 may have a mass in the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., 131, 132, 133,
the range of about 220 grams to about 330 grams based on the 134, 135, 136, and 137) may be combined into a single piece
type of golf club (e.g., a 4-iron versus a lob wedge). The body of weight portion as well (e.g., a second weight portion). In
portion 110 may have a mass in the range of about 200 grams this example, the golf club head 100 may have only two
to about 310 grams with the first and second sets of weight 30 weight portions. While the figures may depict a particular
portions 120 and 130, respectively, having a mass of about 20 number of weight portions, the apparatus, methods, and
grams (e.g., a total mass from exterior weight portions). Each articles of manufacture described herein may include more or
of the weight portions of the first set 120 may have a mass of less number of weight portions. In one example, the first set of
about one gram (1.0 g) whereas each of the weight portions of weight portions 120 may include two separate weight por-
the second set 130 may have a mass of about 2.4 grams. The 35 tions instead of three separate weight portions as shown in the
sum of the mass of the first set of weight portions 120 may be figures. In another example, the second set of weight portions
about 3 grams whereas the sum of the mass of the first set of 130 may include five separate weight portions instead of
weight portions 130 may be about 16.8 grams. The total mass seven separate weight portions a shown in the figures. Alter-
of the second set of weight portions 130 may weigh more than natively as mentioned above, the apparatus, methods, and
five times as much as the total mass of the first set of weight 40 articles of manufacture described herein may not include any
portions 120 (e.g., a total mass of the second set of weight separate weight portions (e.g., the body portion 110 may be
portions 130 of about 16.8 grams versus a total mass of the manufactured to include the mass of the separate weight
first set of weight portions 120 of about 3 grams). The golf portions as integral part(s) of the body portion 110). The
club head 100 may have a total mass of 19.8 grams from the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respec- 45 herein are not limited in this regard.
tively (e.g., sum of 3 grams from the first set of weight Referring back to FIGS. 7-9 ,for example, the body portion
portions 120 and 16.8 grams from the second set of weight 110 may be a hollow body including the interior cavity 700
portions 130). Accordingly, the first set of weight portions extending between the front portion 160 and the back portion
120 may account for about 15% of the total mass from exte- 170. Further, the interior cavity 700 may extend between the
rior weight portions of the golf club head 100 whereas the 50 top portion 180 and the sole portion 190. The interior cavity
second set of weight portions 130 may be account for about 700 may be associated with a cavity height 750 (He), and the
85% of the total mass from exterior weight portions of the body portion 110 may be associated with a body height 850
golf club head 100. The apparatus, methods, and articles of (HB). While the cavity height 750 and the body height 850
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. may vary between the toe and heel portions 140 and 150, the
By coupling the first and second sets of weight portions 120 55 cavity height 750 may be at least 50% of a body height 850
and 130, respectively, to the body portion 110 (e.g., securing (Hc>0.5*HB). For example, the cavity height 750 may vary
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130 in the between 70-85% of the body height 850. With the cavity
weight ports on the back portion 170), the location of the height 750 of the interior cavity 700 being greater than 50% of
center of gravity (CG) and the moment of inertia (MOl) of the the body height 850, the golf club head 100 may produce
golf club head 100 may be optimized. In particular, the first 60 relatively more consistent feel, sound, and/or result when the
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball via the face portion 162
may lower the location of the CG towards the sole portion 190 than a golf club head with a cavity height ofless than 50% of
and further back away from the face portion 162. Further, the the body height. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
MOl may be higher as measured about a vertical axis extend- manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
ing through the CG (e.g., perpendicular to the ground plane 65 In one example, the interior cavity 700 may be unfilled
1010). The MOl may also be higher as measured about a (i.e., empty space). The body portion 100 with the interior
horizontal axis extending through the CG (e.g., extending cavity 700 may weight about 100 grams less than the body
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 110 of 277

US 9,346,203 B2
9 10
portion 100 without the Interior cavity 700. Alternatively, the sound) and/or feel during impact with a golf ball. The appa-
interior cavity 700 may be partially or entirely filled with an ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein
elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a viscoelastic are not limited in this regard.
urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane material Based on manufacturing processes and methods used to
manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a thermo- 5 form the golf club head 100, the face portion 162 may include
plastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic polyure- additional material at or proximate to a periphery of the face
thane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of materials portion 162. Accordingly, the face portion 162 may also
to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise. For include a third thickness 1530, and a chamfer portion 1540.
example, at least 50% of the interior cavity 700 may be filled The third thickness 1530 may be greater than either the first
with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or 10
thickness 1510 or the second thickness 1520 (e.g.,
dampen noise when the golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball
T 3 >T 1 >T 2 ). In particular, the face portion 162 may be
via the face portion 162. The apparatus, methods, and articles
coupled to the body portion 110 by a welding process. For
of manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
Turning to FIG. 15, for example, the face portion 162 may example, the first thickness 1510 may be about 0.030 inch
include a first thickness 1510 (T 1 ), and a second thickness 15
(0.762 millimeters), the second thickness 1520 may be about
1520 (T 2 ), The first thickness 1510 may be a thickness of a 0.015 inch. (0.381 millimeters), and the third thickness may
section of the face portion 162 adjacent to a groove 168 be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). Accordingly, the
whereas the second thickness 1520 may be a thickness of a chamfer portion 1540 may accommodate some of the addi-
section of the face portion 162 below the groove 168. For tiona! material when the face portion 162 is welded to the
example, the first thickness 1510 may be a maximum distance 20 body portion 110.
between the front surface 164 and the back surface 166. The As illustrated in FIG. 16, for example, the face portion 162
second thickness 1520 may be based on the groove 168. In may include a reinforcement section, generally shown as
particular, the groove 168 may have a groove depth 1525 1605, below one or more grooves 168. In one example, the
(Dgroove). The second thickness 1520 may be a maximum face portion 162 may include a reinforcement section 1605
distance between the bottom of the groove 168 and the back 25 below each groove. Alternatively, face portion 162 may
surface 166. The sum of the second thickness 1520 and the include the reinforcement section 1605 below some grooves
groove depth 1525 may be substantially equal to the first (e.g., every other groove) or below only one groove. The face
thickness 1510 (e.g., T2 +Dgroove=T 1 ). Accordingly, the sec- portion 162 may include a first thickness 1610, a second
ond thickness 1520 may be less than the first thickness 1510 thickness 1620, a third thickness 1630, and a chamfer portion
(e.g., T2 <T 1 ). 30 1640. The groove 168 may have a groove depth 1625. The
To lower and/or move the CG of the golf club head 100 reinforcement section 168 may define the second thickness
further back, weight from the front portion 160 of the golf 1620. The first and second thicknesses 1610 and 1620,
club head 100 may be removed by using a relatively thinner respectively, may be substantially equal to each other (e.g.,
face portion 162. For example, the first thickness 1510 may be T 1 =T 2 ). In one example, the first and second thicknesses 1610
about 0.075 inch (1.905 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 =0.075 inch). 35 and 1620, respectively, may be about 0.030 inch (0.762 mil-
With the support of the back wait portion 1410 to form the limeters) (e.g., T 1 =T 2 =0.030 inch). The groove depth 1625
interior cavity 700 and filling at least a portion of the interior may be about 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third
cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material, the face portion thickness 1630 may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters).
162 may be relatively thinner (e.g., T 1 <0.075 inch) without The groove 168 may also have a groove width. The width of
degrading the structural integrity, sound, and/or feel of the 40 the reinforcement section 1605 may be greater than or equal
golf club head 100. In one example, the first thickness 1510 to the groove width. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
may be less than or equal to 0.060 inch (1.524 millimeters) manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
(e.g., T 1 s0.060 inch). In another example, the first thickness Alternatively, the face portion 162 may vary in thickness at
1510 may be less than or equal to 0.040 inch (1.016 millime- and/ofbetween the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190.
ters) (e.g., T 1 s0.040 inch). Based on the type ofmaterial(s) 45 In one example, the face portion 162 may be relatively thicker
used to form the face portion 162 and/or the body portion 110, at or proximate to the top portion 180 than at or proximate to
the face portion 162 may be even thinner with the first thick- the sole portion. 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion 162
ness 1510 being less than or equal to 0.030 inch (0.762 mil- may taper from the top portion 180 towards the sole portion
limeters) (e.g., T 1 s0.030 inch). The groove depth 1525 may 190). In another example, the face portion 162 may be rela-
be greater than or equal to the second thickness 1520 (e.g., 50 tively thicker at or proximate to the sole portion 190 than at or
Dgroove"= T 2 ). In one example, the groove depth 1525 may be proximate to the top portion 180 (e.g., thickness of the face
about 0.020 inch (0.508 millimeters) (e.g., Dgroove=0.020 portion 162 may taper front the sole portion 190 towards the
inch). Accordingly, the second thickness 1520 may be about top portion 180). In yet another example, the face portion 162
0.010 inch (0.254 millimeters) (e.g., T 2 =0.01 0 inch). In may be relatively thicker between the top portion 180 and the
another example, the groove depth 1525 may be about 0.015 55 sole portion 190 than at or proximate to the top portion 180
inch (0.381 millimeters), and the second thickness 1520 may and the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion
be about 0.015 inch (e.g., Dgroove=T 2 =0.015 inch). Alterna- 162 may have a bell-shaped contour). The apparatus, meth-
tively, the groove depth 1525 may be less than the second ods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
thickness 1520 (e.g., Dgroove <T 2 ). Without the support of the limited in this regard.
back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer material to fill 60 Different from other golf club head designs, the interior
in the interior cavity 700, a golf club head may not be able to cavity 700 of the body portion 110 and the location of the first
withstand multiple impacts by a golf ball on a face portion. In and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
contrast to the golf club head 100 as described herein, a golf along the perimeter of the golf club head 100 may result in a
club head with a relatively thin face portion but without the golf ball traveling away from the face portion 162 at a rela-
support of the back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer 65 tively higher ball launch angle and a relatively lower spin rate.
material to fill in the interior cavity 700 (e.g., a cavity-back As a result, the golf ball may travel farther (i.e., greater total
golf club head) may produce unpleasant sound (e.g., a tinny distance, which includes carry and roll distances).
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 111 of 277

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11 12
FIG. 17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material by injecting the
head described herein may be manufactured. In the example elastic polymer material into the interior cavity 700 from the
ofFIG. 17, the process 1700 may begin with providing two or first opening 1830 via the second opening 1835. The first and
more weight portions, generally shown as the first and second second openings 1830 and 1835, respectively, may be same or
sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively (block 5 different in size and! of shape. While the above example may
1710). The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and describe and depict a particular weight port with a second
130, respectively, may be made of a first material such as a opening, any other weight ports of the golf club head 100 may
tungsten-based material. In one example, the weight portions include a second opening (e.g., the weight port 720). The
of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, may be apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
tungsten-alloy screws. 10 herein are not limited in this regard.
The process 1700 may provide a body portion 110 having Referring back to FIG. 17, the example process 1700 is
the face portion 162, the interior cavity 700, and the back merely provided and described in conjunction with other
portion 170 with two or more exterior weight ports, generally figures as an example of one way to manufacture the golf club
shown as 1420 and 1430 (block 1720). The body portion 110 head 100. While a particular order of actions is illustrated in
may be made of a second material, which is different than the 15 FIG. 17, these actions may be performed in other temporal
first material. The body portion 110 may be manufacture sequences. For example, two or more actions depicted in FIG.
using an investment casting process, a billet forging process, 17 may be performed sequentially, concurrently, or simulta-
a stamping process, a computer numerically controlled neously. In one example, blocks 1710, 1720, 1730, and/or
(CNC) machining process, a die easting process, any combi- 1740 may be performed simultaneously or concurrently.
nation thereof, or other suitable manufacturing processes. In 20 Although FIG. 17 depicts a particular number of blocks, the
one example, the body portion 110 may be made of 17-4 PH process may not perform one or more blocks. In one example,
stainless steel using a casting process. In another example, the the interior cavity 700 may not be filled (i.e., block 1740 may
body portion 110 may be made of other suitable type of not be performed). The apparatus, methods, and articles of
stainless steel (e.g., Nitronic 50 stainless steel manufac- manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
tured by AK Steel Corporation, West Chester, Ohio) using a 25 The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
forging process. By using Nitronic 50 stainless steel to described herein may be implemented in a variety of embodi-
manufacture the body portion 110, the golf club head 100 ments, and the foregoing description of some of these
may be relatively stronger and/or more resistant to corrosion embodiments does not necessarily represent a complete
than golf club heads made from other types of steel. Each description of all possible embodiments. Instead, the descrip-
weight port of the body portion 110 may include an opening 30 tion of the drawings, and the drawings themselves, disclose at
and a port wall. For example, the weight port 1421 may least one embodiment, and may disclosure alternative
include the opening 720 and the port wall 725 with the open- embodiments.
ing 720 and the port wall 725 being on opposite ends of each As the rules of golf may change from time to time (e.g.,
other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 725 new regulations may be adopted or old rules may be elimi-
of the weight port 1421 and the back surface 166 of the face 35 nated or modified by golf standard organizations and/or gov-
portion 162. In a similar manner, the weight port 1835 may erning bodies such as the United States Golf Association
include the opening 730 and the port wall 735 with the open- (USGA), the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews
ing 730 and the port wall 735 being on opposite ends of each (R&A), etc.), golf equipment related to the apparatus, meth-
other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 735 ods, and articles of manufacture described herein may be
of the weight port 1435 and the back surface 166 of the face 40 conforming or nonconforming to the rules of golf at any
portion 162. particular time. Accordingly, golf equipment related to the
The process 1700 may couple each of the first and second apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
sets of weight portions 120 and 130 into one of the two or herein may be advertised, offered for sale, and/or sold as
more exterior weight ports (blocks 1730). In one example, the conforming or non-conforming golf equipment. The appara-
process 1700 may insert and secure the weight portion 121 in 45 tus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are
the exterior weight port 1421, and the weight portion 135 in not limited in this regard.
the-exterior weight portion 1435. The process 1700 may use Although certain example apparatus, methods, and articles
various manufacturing methods and/or processes to secure of manufacture have been described herein, the scope of
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, coverage of this disclosure is not limited thereto. On the
respectively, in the exterior weigh ports such as the weight 50 contrary, this disclosure covers all apparatus, methods, and
ports 1421 and 1435 (e.g., epoxy, welding, brazing, mechani- articles of articles of manufacture fairly falling within the
callock(s), any combination thereof, etc.). scope of the appended claims either literally or under the
The process 1700 may partially or entirely fill the interior doctrine of equivalents.
cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material (e.g., Sorboth-
ane material) (block 1740). In one example, at least 50% of 55 What is claimed is:
the interior cavity 700 may be filled with the elastic polymer 1. A method comprising:
material. As mentioned above, the elastic polymer material forming a plurality of weight portions made of a first mate-
may absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise in rial;
response to the golf club head 100 striking a golf ball. In forming a body portion of a golf club head made of a
addition or alternatively, the interior cavity 700 may be filled 60 second material, the body portion having a toe portion, a
with a thermoplastic elastomer material and/or a thermoplas- top portion, a sole portion, a back portion, a front por-
tic polyurethane material. As illustrated in FIG. 18, for tion, an interior cavity extending between the top and
example, the golf club head 100 may include one or more sole portions and between the front and back portions,
weight ports (e.g., one shown as 1431 in FIG. 14) with a first and an exterior port connected to the interior cavity;
opening 1830 and a second opening 1835. The second open- 65 forming a plurality of exterior weight ports on the back
ing 1835 may be used to access the interior cavity 700. In one portion of the body portion, each of the exterior weight
example, the process 1700 (FIG. 17) may fill the interior ports being associated with a port diameter and config-
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US 9,346,203 B2
13 14
ured to receive at least one weight portion of the plurality eter, and any two adjacent exterior ports of the second
of weight portions, the plurality of exterior weight ports set of exterior ports are separated by less than the port
having: diameter; and
a first set of exterior weight ports formed along the injecting an elastic polymer material into the interior cavity
periphery of the back portion at or proximate to at from the at least one exterior port.
10 .. A method as defined in claim 9 further comprising
least one of the top portion or the toe portion, and
coul;llmg.at least one ~eight portion of the plurality of weight
a second set of exterior weight ports formed along the portwns mto an ext en or port of the plurality of exterior ports.
periphery of the back portion at or proximate to at ll: A method as defined in claim 9, wherein injecting the
least one of the sole portion or the toe portion, ela~tJc polymer material into the interior cavity comprises
10
wherein any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the fillmg at least 50% of the interior cavity with the elastic
first set of exterior weight ports are separated by less polymer material.
than the port diameter, and any two adjacent exterior 12: A method as defined in claim 9, wherein injecting the
weight ports of the second set of exterior weight ports ~l~stJ~ polymer material into the interior cavity comprises
are separated by less than the port diameter; and mJectmg at least one of a thermoplastic elastomer material or
15 a thermoplastic polyurethane material into the interior cavity
injecting an elastic polymer material into the interior cavity
from the exterior port. from the at least one exterior port.
13. A method as defined in claim 9, wherein forming the
2 . .A method as defined in claim 1, wherein injecting the
ela~tJc polymer material into the interior cavity comprises
body portion comprises forming a body portion having a face
fillmg at least 50% of the interior cavity with the elastic portion with a thickness ofless than or equal to 0.075 inch.
20 14. A method as defined in claim 9, wherein forming the
polymer material.
bo~y portion comprises forming a body portion having a body
3 . .A method as defined in claim 1, wherein injecting the
he1ght and an interior cavity with a cavity height of at least
~l~stJ~ polymer material into the interior cavity comprises
mJectmg at least one of a thermoplastic elastomer material or 50% of the body height.
a thermoplastic polyurethane material into the interior cavity 15. A method comprising:
25 forming a hollow body portion of a golf club head, the
from the exterior port.
4. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein forming the
hollow body portion having a toe portion, a top portion,
body portion comprises forming a body portion having a face a sole portion, a back portion, and a front portion having
portion with a thickness ofless than or equal to 0.075 inch. a face portion;
5. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein forming the
a first set of weight portions coupled to the hollow body
30 portion at or proximate to a top-and-toe transition region
body portion comprises forming a body portion having a face
portion with a thickness of less than or equal to 0.030 inch. between the top portion and the toe portion, the first set
6. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein forming the
of weight portions being associated with a first total
body portion comprises forming a body portion having a body mass;
height and an interior cavity with a cavity height of at least a second set of weight portions coupled to the hollow body
35 portion at or proximate to a sole-and-toe transition
50% of the body height.
7. A method as defined in claim 1 further comprising cou- region between the sole portion and the toe portion, the
pling a weight portion into the exterior port. second set of weight portions being associated with a
8. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein forming the
second total mass and located below a horizontal mid-
body portion comprises forming a body portion having a face plane of the golf club head, wherein the first total mass is
40 less than the second total mass and
portion with a loft angle between five degrees and seventy-
five degrees. forming an interior cavity comprising an elastic polymer
9. A method comprising:
material.between the front portion and the back portion,
forming two or more weight portions; the elast1c polymer material being configured to at least
forming a hollow body portion of a golf club head, the body partially absorb impact on the face portion.
45 16. A method as defined in claim 15, wherein forming the
portion having a toe portion, a top portion, a sole portion,
a back portion, a front portion, and an interior cavity interior cavity comprises injecting the elastic polymer mate-
extending between the top and sole portions and rial !nto the interior cavity from an exterior port of the body
between the front and back portions; portwn.
forming a plurality of exterior ports on the back portion, at . 17: A method as defined in claim 15, wherein forming the
50 mtenor cavity comprises injecting at least 50% of the interior
least one exterior port of the plurality of exterior ports
being connected to the interior cavity, each of the exte- cavity with the elastic polymer material.
rior ports being associated with a port diameter and . 18: A method as defined in claim 15, wherein forming the
configured to receive at least one weight portion of the mtenor cavity comprises injecting at least one of a thermo-
plurality of weight portions, the plurality of exterior plastic elastomer material or a thermoplastic polyurethane
ports having: 55 material into the interior cavity.
a first set of exterior ports formed along the periphery of 19. A method as defined in claim 15, wherein forming the
the back portion at or proximate to at least one of the body portion comprises forming a body portion having a face
top portion or the toe portion, and portion with a thickness ofless than or equal to 0.075 inch.
a second set of exterior ports formed along the periphery . 20: A me~hod as defined in claim 15, wherein forming the
60 mtenor cav1ty comprises forming an interior cavity with a
of the back portion at or proximate to at least one of
cavi~ height of at least 50% of a body height of the body
the sole portion or the toe portion,
wherein any two adjacent exterior ports of the first set of portwn.
exterior ports are separated by less than the port diam- * * * * *
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 113 of 277

EXHIBIT E
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 114 of 277
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US009364 727B2

c12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 9,364,727 B2


Parsons et al. (45) Date of Patent: *Jun. 14,2016

(54) GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO 2053/0416 (2013.01); A63B 2053/0445
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS (2013.01); A63B 2053/0491 (2013.01); A63B
2209/00 (2013.01)
(71) Applicant: Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, Scottsdale, (58) Field of Classification Search
AZ (US) CPC ........... A63B 59/0092; A63B 53/0475; A63B
2209/00; A63B 2053/0408; A63B 2060/002;
(72) Inventors: Robert R. Parsons, Scottsdale, AZ A63B 53/047; A63B 2053/0491; A63B
(US); Michael R. Nicolette, Scottsdale, 59/0074
AZ (US); Bradley D. Schweigert, USPC .................................. 473/324-350, 287-292
Scottsdale, AZ (US) See application file for complete search history.

(73) Assignee: PARSONS XTREME GOLF, LLC, (56) References Cited


Scottsdale, AZ (US)
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this 1,133,129 A 3/1915 Govan
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 D164,446 S 9/1951 Behrendt
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. 3,020,048 A 2/1962 Carroll
D203,936 s 3/1966 Long
This patent is subject to a terminal dis- D215,101 s 9/1969 Sabat
claimer. D234,963 s 4/1975 Hirata
(Continued)
(21) Appl. No.: 14/852,312
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(22) Filed: Sep. 11, 2015
U.S. Appl. No. 29/511,482, Nicolette et al., "Golf Club Head," filed
Dec. 11, 2014.
(65) Prior Publication Data
(Continued)
US 2016/0001145 AI Jan. 7, 2016
Primary Examiner- Sebastiana Passaniti
Related U.S. Application Data
(57) ABSTRACT
(60) Continuation of application No. 14/711,596, filed on
May 13, 2015, and a continuation-in-part of Embodiments of golf club heads and methods to manufacture
application No. 14/589,277, filed on Jan. 5, 2015, golf club heads are generally described herein. In one
which is a continuation of application No. 14/513,073, example, a golf club head may include a body portion with a
toe portion, a heel portion, a top portion, a sole portion, a back
(Continued) portion, a front portion having a face portion with a front
surface and a back surface, an interior cavity extending
(51) Int. Cl. between the top and sole portions and between the face and
A63B 53104 (2015.01) back portions, and an elastic polymer material in the interior
A63B 53106 (2015.01) cavity, and a bonding portion. Other examples and embodi-
(52) U.S. Cl. ments may be described and claimed.
CPC ......... A63B 5310475 (2013.01); A63B 5310466
(2013.01); A63B 2053/0408 (2013.01); A63B 20 Claims, 18 Drawing Sheets

110---.,._

1420 100~
14221423 /
1421 ~

1424
140
)
160~

166

1874
1432 1433 )

1430
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 115 of 277

US 9,364,727 B2
Page 2

Related U.S. Application Data D426,476 S 6/2000 Goss


6,077,171 A 6/2000 Yoneyama
filed on Oct. 13, 2014, now Pat. No. 8,961,336, which 6,162,133 A 12/2000 Peterson
is a continuation of application No. 14/498,603, filed D442,659 S 5/2001 Kubica eta!.
D443,008 S 5/2001 Kubica eta!.
on Sep. 26, 2014, now Pat. No. 9,199,143, application
D445,862 S 7/2001 Ford
No. 14/852,312, which is a continuation-in-part of ap- 6,290,609 B1 9/2001 Takeda
plication No. 29/511,482, filed on Dec. 11,2014, now D449,866 S 10/2001 Miller
Pat. No. Des. 748,749, which is a division ofapplica- 6,348,014 B1 212002 Chiu
D457,211 S 5/2002 Bakke
tion No. 29/501,006, filed on Aug. 29, 2014, now Pat. D458,328 S 6/2002 Solheim eta!.
No. Des. 722,352, application No. 14/852,312, which D469,833 S 2/2003 Roberts et a!.
is a continuation-in-part of application No. 29/514, 6,533,681 B2 3/2003 Inoue eta!.
256, filed on Jan. 9, 2015, now Pat. No. Des. 748,214, D473,605 S 4/2003 Petersen et a!.
D475,107 S 5/2003 Madore
which is a continuation-in-part of application No. D476,048 S 6/2003 Cleveland et a!.
29/501,006, application No. 14/852,312, which is a D478,949 S 8/2003 DeLaCruz
continuation-in-part of application No. 29/515,013, 6,638,182 B2 10/2003 Kosmatka
filed on Jan. 20, 2015, now Pat. No. Des. 756,471, 6,695,714 B1 2/2004 Bliss eta!.
which is a continuation-in-part of application No. 6,702,693 B2 3/2004 Bamber
D492,376 S 6/2004 Nicolette et al.
29/501,006. D494,240 S 8/2004 Schweigert
D494,648 S 8/2004 Schweigert et a!.
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filed on Jun. 11, 2014, provisional application No. 6,811,496 B2 1112004 Wahl eta!.
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US 9,364,727 B2
Page 4

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Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 118 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 1 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

100~

~180

"150

190/
FIG. 1

~100

121 122 123 ~120


::;....- I\

150/

132 133 J
190/ 130 FIG. 2
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 119 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 2 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

100~

140

FIG. 3

18 7
100~ 140
)

18 7 9

FIG.4
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 120 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun. 14, 2016 Sheet 3 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

100~

155

1410

160 170

\ )

\190 FIG. 5

100~

180~ 155

162

1410
170 160

\ )

FIG. 6
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 121 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 4 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

100~

700
160~

735 1431
FIG. 7

168

1431 735 190j FIG. 8


Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 122 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 5 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

100~
180~

720
160~
1421
1410
/"'170
~ ,. 130
~

FIG. 9

~100

190/ FIG. 10
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 123 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 6 of 18


US 9,364,727 B2

120& 130~

1110

FIG. 11

120~

1220

FIG. 12

130~

1320

FIG. 13
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 124 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 7 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

110~

1420
14221423 /
1421 ~

150.)

1431
1432 1433 J
190.) 1430 FIG. 14

162~

1540

FIG. 15
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 125 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 8 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

162~

1640

FIG. 16

1700~
START


Provide two or more J 710
weight portions
y

Provide body portion J 720


y
Couple at least one weight
portion in weight port
J 730
y

Fill interior cavity J 740


y
( END )
FIG. 17
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 126 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 9 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

100~

160~

166

1874
FIG. 18
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 127 of 277

Sheet 10 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2
U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016

1900~ 1970.........._
~ 20

~1950
1940~

~ 20 FIG. 19
1960/

1900~

1970~

1990~ FIG. 20

1990~ FIG. 21
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 128 of 277

Sheet 11 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2
U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016

2200~ 2270'1 23
~--=--'--

{2250
2240~

FIG. 22
2262

2200~

2270~

FIG. 23
2290_.}

2262
FIG. 24
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 129 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun. 14,2016 Sheet 12 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

2500~

{2550
2540~
2520
------------~--- ----------------

FIG. 25

2500~

2570~
2610
\~2630
'4f
2590~ FIG. 26

2570~ 2720
2610
2566
r2730
-----------~--~

2590~ FIG. 27
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 130 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 13 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

2800~

FIG. 28

2800~

3000 2920

FIG. 29
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 131 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun. 14, 2016 Sheet 14 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

3000~

2910

3032

FIG. 30

3100~
3110""\. 2910

3130 3132

FIG. 31

3200~
2910

3232

3220
FIG. 32
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 132 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 15 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

3300~
3310~ 2910
..------..

FIG. 33

3400~

3420

FIG. 34
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 133 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 16 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

3500~

3510

FIG. 35

3600~

3620

FIG. 36
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 134 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 17 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

FIG. 37
r3aoo
3810 Heating a golf club head
""--
t
3820 Heating an elastic polymer material
""--
t
3830 ""-- Injecting the elastic polymer material in
an interior cavity of the golf club head

FIG. 38

Injecting a bonding agent on a back


3910
""-- surface of a face portion of a golf
club head
t
Uniformly or substantially uniformly
3920
""-- coating the back surface of the face
portion with the bonding agent

FIG. 39
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 135 of 277

U.S. Patent Jun.14,2016 Sheet 18 of 18 US 9,364,727 B2

(4000

4124
'!11\tlt--'.A\)oool'"' 4040

~t\\")
===-_J~\~~~

4130
FIG. 40

(4000

4030
FIG. 41
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 136 of 277

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1 2
GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO FIG. 2 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head of
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 depicts a top view of the example golf club head of
CROSS REFERENCE FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 depicts a bottom view of the example golf club head
This application is a continuation ofU.S. Non-Provisional ofFIG.l.
Applicant Ser. No. 14/711,596, filed May 13, 2015, which FIG. 5 depicts a left view of the example golf club head of
claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. FIG. 1.
61/992,555, filed May 13,2014, U.S. Provisional Application FIG. 6 depicts a right view of the example golf club head of
No. 62/010,836, Jun. 11,2014, U.S. Provisional Application
1
FIG. 1.
No. 62/011,859, filed Jun. 13, 2014, U.S. Provisional Appli- FIG. 7 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
cation No. 62/032,770, filed Aug. 4, 2014, U.S. Provisional club head of FIG. 1 along line 7-7.
Application No. 62/041,538, filed Aug. 25, 2014, U.S. Pro- FIG. 8 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
visional Application No. 62/118,403, filed Feb. 19,2015, and 15
club head of FIG. 1 along line 8-8.
U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/159,856, filed May 11, FIG. 9 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
2015. This application is a continuation-in-part application of club head of FIG. 1 along line 9-9.
U.S. Non-Provisional application Ser. No. 14/589,277, filed FIG. 10 depicts another rear view of the example golf club
Jan. 5, 2015, which is a continuation application of U.S. head of FIG. 1.
Non-Provisional application Ser. No. 14/513,073, filed Oct. 20 FIG. 11 depicts a top view of a weight portion associated
13, 2014, which is a continuation application of U.S. Non- with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
Provisional Ser. No. 14/498,603, filed Sep. 26, 2014, which FIG. 12 depicts a side view of a weight portion associated
claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
62/041,538, filed Aug. 25, 2014. This application is also a FIG. 13 depicts a side view of another weight portion
continuation-in-part application of U.S. application Ser. No. 25 associated with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
29/511,482, filed Dec. 11, 2014, which is a divisional appli- FIG. 14 depicts a rear view of a body portion of the example
cation of U.S. application Ser. No. 29/501,006 filed Aug. 29, golf club head of FIG. 1.
2014. This application is also a continuation-in-part applica- FIG. 15 depicts a cross-sectional view of a face portion of
tion of U.S. application Ser. No. 29/514,256, filed Jan. 9, the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
2015, which is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. 30 FIG. 16 depicts a cross-sectional view of another face
application Ser. No. 29/501,006, filed Aug. 29, 2014. This portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
application is also a continuation-in-part application of U.S. FIG.17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club
application Ser. No. 29/515,013, filed Jan. 20, 2015, which is head described herein may be manufactured.
a continuation-in-part application of U.S. Ser. No. 29/501, FIG. 18 depicts another cross-sectional view of the
006, filed Aug. 29, 2014. The disclosures of the referenced 35 example golf club head of FIG. 4 along line 18-18.
applications are incorporated herein by reference. FIG. 19 depicts a top view of a golf club head according to
another embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles
COPYRIGHT AUTHORIZATION of manufacture described herein.
FIG. 20 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
The present disclosure may be subject to copyright protec- 40 club head of FIG. 19 along line 20-20.
tion. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile FIG. 21 depicts a front view of the example golf club head
reproduction by anyone of the present disclosure and its ofFIG.19.
related documents, as they appear in the Patent and Trade- FIG. 22 depicts a top view of a golf club head according to
mark Office patent files or records, but otherwise reserves all yet another embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and
applicable copyrights. 45 articles of manufacture described herein.
FIG. 23 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
FIELD club head of FIG. 22 along line 23-23.
FIG. 24 depicts a front view of the example golf club head
The present disclosure generally relates to golf equipment, of FIG. 22.
and more particularly, to golf club heads and methods to 50 FIG. 25 depicts a top view of a golf club head according to
manufacturing golf club heads. yet another embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and
articles of manufacture described herein.
BACKGROUND FIG. 26 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
club head of FIG. 25 along line 26-26.
Various materials (e.g., steel-based materials, titanium- 55 FIG. 27 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
based materials, tungsten-based materials, etc.) may be used club head of FIG. 25 along line 26-26 according to another
to manufacture golf club heads. By using multiple materials embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
to manufacture golf club heads, the position of the center of facture described herein.
gravity (CG) and/or the moment of inertia (MOl) of the golf FIG. 28 depicts a front view of a face portion of the
club heads may be optimized to produce certain trajectory 60 example golf club head of FIG. 1.
and spin rate of a golf ball. FIG. 29 depicts a back view of the face portion of FIG. 28.
FIG. 30 depicts a cross-sectional view of an example chan-
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS nel of the face portion of FIG. 28.
FIG. 31 depicts a cross-sectional view of another example
FIG. 1 depicts a front view of a golf club head according to 65 channel of the face portion of FIG. 28.
an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of FIG. 32 depicts a cross-sectional view of yet another
manufacture described herein. example charmel of the face portion of FIG. 28.
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FIG. 33 depicts a cross-sectional view of yet another etc.). Although FIGS. 1-10 may depict a particular type of
example channel of the face portion of FIG. 28. club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufac-
FIG. 34 depicts a back view of another example face por- ture described herein may be applicable to other types of club
tion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1. heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway wood-type club
FIG. 35 depicts a back view of yet another example face 5 head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club head, etc.).
portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
FIG. 36 depicts a back view of yet another example face described herein are not limited in this regard.
portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1. The toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150 may be on
FIG. 37 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf opposite ends of the body portion 110. The heel portion 150
club head of FIG. 1. 10 may include a hose! portion 155 configured to receive a shaft
FIG. 38 depicts another manner in which an example golf (not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the golf
club head described herein may be manufactured. club head 100 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a golf
FIG. 39 depicts yet another manner in which an example club.
golf club head described herein may be manufactured. The front portion 160 may include a face portion 162 (e.g.,
FIG. 40 depicts a rear view of a golf club head according to 15 a strike face). The face portion 162 may include a front
an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of surface 164 and a back surface 166. The front surface 164
manufacture described herein. may include one or more grooves 168 extending between the
FIG. 41 depicts a rear view of the golf club headofFIG. 40. toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150. While the figures
For simplicity and clarity of illustration, the drawing fig- may depict a particular number of grooves, the apparatus,
ures illustrate the general manner of construction, and 20 methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may
descriptions and details of well-known features and tech- include more or less grooves. The face portion 162 may be
niques may be omitted to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the used to impact a golf ball (not shown). The face portion 162
present disclosure. Additionally, elements in the drawing fig- may be an integral portion of the body portion 110. Alterna-
ures may not be depicted to scale. For example, the dimen- tively, the face portion 162 may be a separate piece or an insert
sions of some of the elements in the figures may be exagger- 25 coupled to the body portion 110 via various manufacturing
ated relative to other elements to help improve understanding methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process such as
of embodiments of the present disclosure. adhesive, a welding process such as laser welding, a brazing
process, a soldering process, a fusing process, a mechanical
DESCRIPTION locking or connecting method, any combination thereof, or
30 other suitable types of manufacturing methods and/or pro-
In general, golf club heads and methods to manufacture cesses). The face portion 162 may be associated with a loft
golf club heads are described herein. The apparatus, methods, plane that defines the loft angle of the golf club head 100. The
and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in loft angle may vary based on the type of golf club (e.g., a long
this regard. iron, a middle iron, a short iron, a wedge, etc.). In one
In the example ofFIGS.1-14, a golf club head 100 may 35 example, the loft angle may be between five degrees and
include a body portion 110 (FIG. 14), and two or more weight seventy-five degrees. In another example, the loft angle may
portions, generally shown as a first set of weight portions 120 be between twenty degrees and sixty degrees. The apparatus,
(e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) and a methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
second set of weight portions 130 (e.g., shown as weight limited in this regard.
portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). The body 40 As illustrated in FIG. 14, the back portion 170 may include
portion 110 may include a toe portion 140, a heel portion 150, a back wall portion 1410 with one or more exterior weight
a front portion 160, a back portion 170, a top portion 180, and ports along a periphery of the back portion 170, generally
a sole portion 190. The body portion 110 may be made of a shown as a first set of exterior weight ports 1420 (e.g., shown
first material whereas the first and second sets of weight as weight ports 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424) and a second set
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be made of a second 45 of exterior weight ports 1430 (e.g., shown as weight ports
material. The first and second materials may be similar or 1431,1432,1433,1434,1435, 1436, and1437). Each exterior
different materials. For example, the body portion 110 may be weight port may be associated with a port diameter. In one
partially or entirely made of a steel-based material (e.g., 17-4 example, the port diameter may be about 0.25 inch (6.35
PH stainless steel, Nitronic 50 stainless steel, maraging millimeters). Any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the
steel or other types of stainless steel), a titanium-based mate- 50 first set of exterior weight ports 1420 may be separated by less
rial, an aluminum-based material (e.g., a high-strength alu- than the port diameter. In a similar manner, any two adjacent
minum alloy or a composite aluminum alloy coated with a exterior weight ports of the second set of exterior weight ports
high-strength alloy), any combination thereof, and/or other 143 0 may be separated by less than the port diameter. The first
suitable types of materials. The first and second sets of weight and second exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may be
portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or 55 exterior weight ports configured to receive one or more
entirely made of a high-density material such as a tungsten- weight portions. In particular, each weight portion of the first
based material or other suitable types of materials. Alterna- set 120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, and
tively, the body portion 110 and/or the first and second sets of 124) may be disposed in a weight port located at or proximate
weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be partially or to the toe portion 140 and/or the top portion 180 on the back
entirely made of a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plas- 60 portion 170. For example, the weight portion 121 may be
tic, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1421. In
are not limited in this regard. another example, the weight portion 122 may be disposed in
The golf club head 100 may be an iron-type golf club head a weight port 1422 located in a transition region between the
(e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron, a top portion 180 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a top-and-toe
7-iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type golf club 65 transition region). Each weight portion of the second set 130
head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, an (e.g., shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136,
n-degree wedge such as 44 degrees (0 ) , 48, 52, 56, 60, and 137) may be disposed in a weight port located at or
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proximate to the toe portion 140 and/or the sole portion 190 portion 170 (generally shown as 1420 and 1430 in FIG. 14).
on the back portion 170. For example, the weight portion 135 For example, each weight portion of the first and second sets
may be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1435. of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a screw.
In another example, the weight portion 136 may be disposed The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
in a weight port 1436 located in a transition region between 5 respectively, may not be readily removable from the body
the sole portion 190 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a sole-and- portion 110 with or without a tool. Alternatively, the first and
toe transition region). As described in detail below, the first second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, be readily removable (e.g., with a tool) so that a relatively
may be coupled to the back portion 170 of the body portion heavier or lighter weight portion may replace one or more of
110 with various manufacturing methods and/or processes 10 the weight portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130,
(e.g., a bonding process, a welding process, a brazing process, respectively. In another example, the first and second sets of
a mechanical locking method, any combination thereof, or weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be secured in
other suitable manufacturing methods and/or processes). the weight ports of the back portion 170 with epoxy or adhe-
Alternatively, the golf club head 100 may not include (i) the sive so that the first and second sets of weight portions 120
first set of weight portions 120, (ii) the second set of weight 15 and 130, respectively, may not be readily removable. In yet
portions 130, or (iii) both the first and second sets of weight another example, the first and second sets of weight portions
portions 120 and 130. In particular, the back portion 170 of 120 and 130, respectively, may be secured in the weight ports
the body portion 110 may not include weight ports at or of the back portion 170 with both epoxy and threads so that
proximate to the top portion 170 and/or the sole portion 190. the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
For example, the mass of the first set of weight portions 120 20 respectively, may not be readily removable. The apparatus,
(e.g., 3 grams) and/or the mass of the second set of weight methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
portions 130 (e.g., 16.8 grams) may be integral part(s) the limited in this regard.
body portion 110 instead of separate weight portion(s ). The As mentioned above, the first and second sets of weight
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be similar in some
herein are not limited in this regard. 25 physical properties but different in other physical properties.
The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, As illustrated in FIGS.11-13, for example, each of the weight
respectively, may have similar or different physical properties portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively,
(e.g., color, shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). As a may have a diameter 1110 of about 0.25 inch (6.35 millime-
result, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and ters) but the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
130, respectively, may contribute to the ornamental design of 30 130, respectively, may be different in height. In particular,
the golf club head 100. In the illustrated example as shown in each of the weight portions of the first set 120 may be asso-
FIG. 11, each of the weight portions of the first and second ciated with a first height 1220 (FIG. 12), and each of the
sets 120 and 130, respectively, may have a cylindrical shape weight portion of the second set 130 may be associated with
(e.g., a circular cross section). Alternatively, each of the a second height 1320 (FIG. 13). The first height 1220 may be
weight portions of the first set 120 may have a first shape (e.g., 35 relatively shorter than the second height 1320. In one
a cylindrical shape) whereas each of the weight portions of example, the first height 1220 maybe about0.125 inch(3.175
the second set 130 may have a second shape (e.g., a cubical millimeters) whereas the second height 1320 may be about
shape). In another example, the first set of weight portions 0.3 inch (7.62 millimeters). In another example, the first
120 may include two or more weight portions with different height 1220 may be about 0.16 inch (4.064 millimeters)
shapes (e.g., the weight portion 121 may be a first shape 40 whereas the second height 1320 maybe about 0.4 inch (10.16
whereas the weight portion 122 may be a second shape dif- millimeters). Alternatively, the first height 1220 may be equal
ferent from the first shape). Likewise, the second set of weight to or greater than the second height 1320. The apparatus,
portions 130 may also include two or more weight portions methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
with different shapes (e.g., the weight portion 131 may be a limited in this regard.
first shape whereas the weight portion 132 may be a second 45 To provide optimal perimeter weighting for the golf club
shape different from the first shape). Although the above head 100, the first set of weight portions 120 (e.g., weight
examples may describe weight portions having a particular portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) may be configured to
shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture counter-balance the weight of the hosel155. The second set of
described herein may include weight portions of other suit- weight portions 130 (e.g., weight portions 131,132,133,134,
able shapes (e.g., a portion of or a whole sphere, cube, cone, 50 135, 136, and 137) may be configured to place the center of
cylinder, pyramid, cuboidal, prism, frustum, or other suitable gravity of the golf club head 100 at an optimal location.
geometric shape). While the above examples and figures may Turning to FIGS. 7-9, for example, the first and second sets of
depict multiple weight portions as a set of weight portions, weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be located
each set of the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and away from the back surface 166 of the face portion 162 (e.g.,
130, respectively, may be a single piece of weight portion. In 55 not directly coupled to each other). That is, the first and
one example, the first set of weight portions 120 may be a second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, and
single piece of weight portion instead of a series of four the back surface 166 may be partially or entirely separated by
separate weight portions. In another example, the second set an interior cavity 700 of the body portion 110. As shown in
of weight portions 130 may be a single piece of weight por- FIG. 14, for example, each exterior weight port of the first and
tion instead of a series of seven separate weight portions. The 60 second sets of exterior weight ports 1420 and 1430 may
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described include an opening (e.g., generally shown as 720 and 730) and
herein are not limited in this regard. a port wall (e.g., generally shown as 725 and 735). The port
Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, for example, the first and walls 725 and 735 may be integral portions of the back wall
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may portion 1410 (e.g., a section of the back wall portion 1410).
include threads, generally shown as 1210 and 1310, respec- 65 Each of the openings 720 and 730 may be configured to
tively, to engage with correspondingly configured threads in receive a weight portion such as weight portions 121 and 135,
the weight ports to secure in the weight ports of the back respectively. The opening 720 may be located at one end of
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the weight port 1421, and the port wall 725 may be located or In one example, the golf club head 100 may have a mass in
proximate to at an opposite end of the weight port 1421. In a the range of about 220 grams to about 330 grams based on the
similar manner, the opening 730 may be located at one end of type of golf club (e.g., a 4-iron versus a lob wedge). The body
the weight port 1435, and the port wall 735 may be located at portion 110 may have a mass in the range of about 200 grams
or proximate to an opposite end of the weight port 1435. The 5 to about 310 grams with the first and second sets of weight
port walls 725 and 735 may be separated from the face portion portions 120 and 130, respectively, having a mass of about 20
162 (e.g., separated by the interior cavity 700). As a result, the grams (e.g., a total mass from exterior weight portions). Each
center of gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 may be of the weight portions of the first set 120 may have a mass of
relatively farther back away from the face portion 162 and about one gram (1.0 g) whereas each of the weight portions of
10 the second set 130 may have a mass of about 2.4 grams. The
relatively lower towards a ground plane (e.g., one shown as
sum of the mass of the first set of weight portions 120 may be
1010 in FIG. 10) with the second set of weight portions 130
about 3 grams whereas the sum of the mass of the first set of
being away from the back surface 166 than if the second set of
weight portions 130 may be about 16.8 grams. The total mass
weight portions 130 were directly coupled to the back surface of the second set of weight portions 130 may weigh more than
166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 15 five times as much as the total mass of the first set of weight
described herein are not limited in this regard. portions 120 (e.g., a total mass of the second set of weight
While the figures may depict weight ports with a particular portions 130 of about 16.8 grams versus a total mass of the
cross-section shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of first set of weight portions 120 of about 3 grams). The golf
manufacture described herein may include weight ports with club head 100 may have a total mass of 19.8 grams from the
other suitable cross-section shapes. In one example, the 20 first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respec-
weight ports of the first and/or second sets of weight ports tively (e.g., sum of 3 grams from the first set of weight
1420 and 1430 may have U-like cross-section shape. In portions 120 and 16.8 grams from the second set of weight
another example, the weight ports of the first and/or second portions 130). Accordingly, the first set of weight portions
set of weight ports 1420 and 1430 may have V-like cross- 120 may account for about 15% of the total mass from exte-
section shape. One or more of the weight ports associated 25 rior weight portions of the golf club head 100 whereas the
with the first set of weight portions 120 may have a different second set of weight portions 130 may be account for about
cross-section shape than one or more weight ports associated 85% of the total mass from exterior weight portions of the
with the second set of weight portions 130. For example, the golf club head 100. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
weight port 1421 may have a U-like cross-section shape manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
whereas the weight port 1435 may have a V-like cross-section 30 By coupling the first and second sets of weight portions 120
shape. Further, two or more weight ports associated with the and 130, respectively, to the body portion 110 (e.g., securing
first set of weight portions 120 may have different cross- the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130 in the
section shapes. In a similar manner, two or more weight ports weight ports on the back portion 170), the location of the
associated with the second set of weight portions 130 may center of gravity (CG) and the moment of inertia (M 0 I) of the
have different cross-section shapes. The apparatus, methods, 35 golf club head 100 may be optimized. In particular, the first
and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
this regard. may lower the location of the CG towards the sole portion 190
Referring back to FIG. 10, for example, the golf club head and further back away from the face portion 162. Further, the
100 may be associated with a ground plane 1010, a horizontal MOl may be higher as measured about a vertical axis extend-
midplane 1020, and a top plane 1030. In particular, the ground 40 ing through the CG (e.g., perpendicular to the ground plane
plane 1010 may be a tangential plane to the sole portion 190 1010). The MOl may also be higher as measured about a
of the golf club head 100 when the golf club head 100 is at an horizontal axis extending through the CG (e.g., extending
address position (e.g., the golf club head 100 is aligned to towards the toe and heel portions 150 and 160, respectively, of
strike a golfball). A top plane 1030 may be a tangential plane the golf club head 100). As a result, the club head 100 may
to the top portion of the 180 of the golf club head 100 when the 45 provide a relatively higher launch angle and a relatively lower
golf club head 100 is at the address position. The ground and spin rate than a golf club head without the first and second sets
top planes 1010 and 1030, respectively, may be substantially of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively. The apparatus,
parallel to each other. The horizontal midplane 1020 may be methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
vertically halfWay between the ground and top planes 1010 limited in this regard.
and 1030, respectively. 50 Alternatively, two or more weight portions in the same set
The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, may be different in mass. In one example, the weight portion
respectively, may be similar in mass (e.g., all of the weight 121 of the first set 120 may have a relatively lower mass than
portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, the weight portion 122 of the first set 120. In another example,
weigh about the same). Alternatively, the first and second sets the weight portion 131 of the second set 130 may have a
of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be different 55 relatively lower mass than the weight portion 135 of the
in mass individually or as an entire set. In particular, each of second set 130. With relatively greater mass at the top-and-toe
the weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, transition region and/or the sole-and-toe transition region,
122, 123, and 124) may have relatively less mass than any of more weight may be distributed away from the center of
the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., shown as 131, gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 to increase the moment
132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). For example, the second 60 of inertia (MOl) about the vertical axis through the CG.
set of weight portions 130 may account for more than 50% of Although the figures may depict the weight portions as
the total mass from exterior weight portions of the golf club separate and individual parts, each set of the first and second
head 100. As a result, the golf club head 100 may be config- sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a
ured to have at least 50% of the total mass from exterior single piece of weight portion. In one example, all of the
weight portions disposed below the horizontal midplane 65 weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, 122,
1020. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 123, and 124) may be combined into a single piece of weight
described herein are not limited in this regard. portion (e.g., a first weight portion). In a similar manner, all of
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the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., 131, 132, 133, surface 166. The sum of the second thickness 1520 and the
134, 135, 136, and 137) may be combined into a single piece groove depth 1525 may be substantially equal to the first
of weight portion as well (e.g., a second weight portion). In thickness 1510 (e.g., T 2 +Dgroove=T 1 ). Accordingly, the sec-
this example, the golf club head 100 may have only two ond thickness 1520 may be less than the first thickness 1510
weight portions. While the figures may depict a particular 5 (e.g., T 2 <T 1 ).
number of weight portions, the apparatus, methods, and To lower and/or move the CG of the golf club head 100
articles of manufacture described herein may include more or further back, weight from the front portion 160 of the golf
less number of weight portions. In one example, the first set of club head 100 may be removed by using a relatively thinner
weight portions 120 may include two separate weight por- face portion 162. For example, the first thickness 1510 may be
tions instead of three separate weight portions as shown in the 10 about 0.075 inch (1.905 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 =0.075 inch).
figures. In another example, the second set of weight portions With the support of the back wall portion 1410 to form the
130 may include five separate weight portions instead of interior cavity 700 and filling at least a portion of the interior
seven separate weight portions a shown in the figures. Alter- cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material, the face portion
natively as mentioned above, the apparatus, methods, and 162 may be relatively thinner (e.g., T 1 <0.075 inch) without
articles of manufacture described herein may not include any 15 degrading the structural integrity, sound, and/or feel of the
separate weight portions (e.g., the body portion 110 may be golf club head 100. In one example, the first thickness 1510
manufactured to include the mass of the separate weight may be less than or equal to 0.060 inch (1.524 millimeters)
portions as integral part(s) of the body portion 110). The (e.g., Tls0.060 inch). In another example, the first thickness
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described 1510 may be less than or equal to 0.040 inch (1.016 millime-
herein are not limited in this regard. 20 ters) (e.g., T 1 s0.040 inch). Based on the type ofmaterial(s)
Referring back to FIGS. 7-9 ,for example, the body portion used to form the face portion 162 and/or the body portion 110,
110 may be a hollow body including the interior cavity 700 the face portion 162 may be even thinner with the first thick-
extending between the front portion 160 and the back portion ness 1510 being less than or equal to 0.030 inch (0.762 mil-
170. Further, the interior cavity 700 may extend between the limeters) (e.g., T 1 s0.030 inch). The groove depth 1525 may
top portion 180 and the sole portion 190. The interior cavity 25 be greater than or equal to the second thickness 1520 (e.g.,
700 may be associated with a cavity height 750 (He), and the Dgroove"= T 2 ). In one example, the groove depth 1525 may be
body portion 110 may be associated with a body height 850 about 0.020 inch (0.508 millimeters) (e.g., Dgroove=0.020
(HB). While the cavity height 750 and the body height 850 inch). Accordingly, the second thickness 1520 may be about
may vary between the toe and heel portions 140 and 150, the 0.010 inch (0.254 millimeters) (e.g., T2 =0.010 inch). In
cavity height 750 may be at least 50% of a body height 850 30 another example, the groove depth 1525 may be about 0.015
(Hc>0.5*HB). For example, the cavity height 750 may vary inch (0.381 millimeters), and the second thickness 1520 may
between 70-85% of the body height 850. With the cavity be about 0.015 inch (e.g., Dgroove=T 2 =0.015 inch). Alterna-
height 750 of the interior cavity 700 being greater than 50% of tively, the groove depth 1525 may be less than the second
the body height 850, the golf club head 100 may produce thickness 1520 (e.g., Dgroove <T 2 ). Without the support of the
relatively more consistent feel, sound, and/or result when the 35 back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer material to fill
golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball via the face portion 162 in the interior cavity 700, a golf club head may not be able to
than a golf club head with a cavity height ofless than 50% of withstand multiple impacts by a golf ball on a face portion. In
the body height. The apparatus, methods, and articles of contrast to the golf club head 100 as described herein, a golf
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. club head with a relatively thin face portion but without the
In one example, the interior cavity 700 may be unfilled 40 support of the back wall portion 1410 and the elastic polymer
(i.e., empty space). The body portion 100 with the interior material to fill in the interior cavity 700 (e.g., a cavity-back
cavity 700 may weight about 100 grams less than the body golf club head) may produce unpleasant sound (e.g., a tinny
portion 100 without the interior cavity 700. Alternatively, the sound) and/or feel during impact with a golf ball. The appa-
interior cavity 700 may be partially or entirely filled with an ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein
elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a viscoelastic 45 are not limited in this regard.
urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane material Based on manufacturing processes and methods used to
manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a thermo- form the golf club head 100, the face portion 162 may include
plastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic polyure- additional material at or proximate to a periphery of the face
thane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of materials portion 162. Accordingly, the face portion 162 may also
to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise. For 50 include a third thickness 1530, and a chamfer portion 1540.
example, at least 50% of the interior cavity 700 may be filled The third thickness 1530 may be greater than either the first
with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or thickness 1510 or the second thickness 1520 (e.g.,
dampen noise when the golf club head 100 strikes a golf ball T 3 >T 1 >T 2 ). In particular, the face portion 162 may be
via the face portion 162. The apparatus, methods, and articles coupled to the body portion 110 by a welding process. For
of manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. 55 example, the first thickness 1510 may be about 0.030 inch
Turning to FIG. 15, for example, the face portion 162 may (0.762 millimeters), the second thickness 1520 may be about
include a first thickness 1510 (T 1 ), and a second thickness 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third thickness 1530
1520 (T 2 ). The first thickness 1510 may be a thickness of a may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). Accordingly, the
section of the face portion 162 adjacent to a groove 168 chamfer portion 1540 may accommodate some of the addi-
whereas the second thickness 1520 may be a thickness of a 60 tiona! material when the face portion 162 is welded to the
section of the face portion 162 below the groove 168. For body portion 110.
example, the first thickness 1510 may be a maximum distance As illustrated in FIG. 16, for example, the face portion 162
between the front surface 164 and the back surface 166. The may include a reinforcement section, generally shown as
second thickness 1520 may be based on the groove 168. In 1605, below one or more grooves 168. In one example, the
particular, the groove 168 may have a groove depth 1525 65 face portion 162 may include a reinforcement section 1605
(Dgroove). The second thickness 1520 may be a maximum below each groove. Alternatively, face portion 162 may
distance between the bottom of the groove 168 and the back include the reinforcement section 1605 below some grooves
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(e.g., every other groove) or below only one groove. The face manufacture the body portion 110, the golf club head 100
portion 162 may include a first thickness 1610, a second may be relatively stronger and/or more resistant to corrosion
thickness 1620, a third thickness 1630, and a chamfer portion than golf club heads made from other types of steel. Each
1640. The groove 168 may have a groove depth 1625. The weight port of the body portion 110 may include an opening
reinforcement section 168 may define the second thickness 5 and a port wall. For example, the weight port 1421 may
1620. The first and second thicknesses 1610 and 1620, include the opening 720 and the port wall 725 with the open-
respectively, may be substantially equal to each other (e.g., ing 720 and the port wall 725 being on opposite ends of each
T 1 =T2 ). In one example, the first and second thicknesses 1610 other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 725
and 1620, respectively, may be about 0.030 inch (0.762 mil- of the weight port 1421 and the back surface 166 of the face
limeters) (e.g., T 1 =T 2 =0.030 inch). The groove depth 1625 10 portion 162. In a similar manner, the weight port 1835 may
may be about 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third include the opening 730 and the port wall 735 with the open-
thickness 1630 may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). ing 730 and the port wall 735 being on opposite ends of each
The groove 168 may also have a groove width. The width of other. The interior cavity 700 may separate the port wall 735
the reinforcement section 1605 may be greater than or equal of the weight port 1435 and the back surface 166 of the face
to the groove width. The apparatus, methods, and articles of 15 portion 162.
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. The process 1700 may couple each of the first and second
Alternatively, the face portion 162 may vary in thickness at sets of weight portions 120 and 130 into one of the two or
and/or between the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190. more exterior weight ports (blocks 1730). In one example, the
In one example, the face portion 162 may be relatively thicker process 1700 may insert and secure the weight portion 121 in
at or proximate to the top portion 180 than at or proximate to 20 the exterior weight port 1421, and the weight portion 135 in
the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion 162 the exterior weight portion 1435. The process 1700 may use
may taper from the top portion 180 towards the sole portion various manufacturing methods and/or processes to secure
190). In another example, the face portion 162 may be rela- the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
tively thicker at or proximate to the sole portion 190 than at or respectively, in the exterior weight ports such as the weight
proximate to the top portion 180 (e.g., thickness of the face 25 ports 1421 and 1435 (e.g., epoxy, welding, brazing, mechani-
portion 162 may taper from the sole portion 190 towards the callock(s), any combination thereof, etc.).
top portion 180). In yet another example, the face portion 162 The process 1700 may partially or entirely fill the interior
may be relatively thicker between the top portion 180 and the cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material (e.g., Sorboth-
sole portion 190 than at or proximate to the top portion 180 ane material) (block 1740). In one example, at least 50% of
and the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face portion 30 the interior cavity 700 may be filled with the elastic polymer
162 may have a bell-shaped contour). The apparatus, meth- material. As mentioned above, the elastic polymer material
ods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not may absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise in
limited in this regard. response to the golf club head 100 striking a golf ball. In
Different from other golf club head designs, the interior addition or alternatively, the interior cavity 700 may be filled
cavity 700 of the body portion 110 and the location of the first 35 with a thermoplastic elastomer material and/or a thermoplas-
and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, tic polyurethane material. As illustrated in FIG. 18, for
along the perimeter of the golf club head 100 may result in a example, the golf club head 100 may include one or more
golf ball traveling away from the face portion 162 at a rela- weight ports (e.g., one shown as 1431 in FIG.14) with a first
tively higher ball launch angle and a relatively lower spin rate. opening 1830 and a second opening 1835. The second open-
As a result, the golf ball may travel farther (i.e., greater total 40 ing 1835 may be used to access the interior cavity 700. In one
distance, which includes carry and roll distances). example, the process 1700 (FIG. 17) may fill the interior
FIG. 17 depicts one manner in which the example golf club cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material by injecting the
head described herein may be manufactured. In the example elastic polymer material into the interior cavity 700 from the
ofFIG. 17, the process 1700 may begin with providing two or first opening 1830 via the second opening 1835. The first and
more weight portions, generally shown as the first and second 45 second openings 1830 and 1835, respectively, may be same or
sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively (block different in size and/or shape. While the above example may
1710). The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and describe and depict a particular weight port with a second
130, respectively, may be made of a first material such as a opening, any other weight ports of the golf club head 100 may
tungsten-based material. In one example, the weight portions include a second opening (e.g., the weight port 720). The
of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respectively, may be 50 apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
tungsten-alloy screws. herein are not limited in this regard.
The process 1700 may provide a body portion 110 having Referring back to FIG. 17, the example process 1700 is
the face portion 162, the interior cavity 700, and the back merely provided and described in conjunction with other
portion 170 with two or more exterior weight ports, generally figures as an example of one way to manufacture the golf club
shown as 1420 and 1430 (block 1720). The body portion 110 55 head 100. While a particular order of actions is illustrated in
may be made of a second material, which is different than the FIG. 17, these actions may be performed in other temporal
first material. The body portion 110 may be manufacture sequences. For example, two or more actions depicted in FIG.
using an investment casting process, a billet forging process, 17 may be performed sequentially, concurrently, or simulta-
a stamping process, a computer numerically controlled neously. In one example, blocks 1710, 1720, 1730, and/or
(CNC) machining process, a die casting process, any combi- 60 1740 may be performed simultaneously or concurrently.
nation thereof, or other suitable manufacturing processes. In Although FIG. 17 depicts a particular number of blocks, the
one example, the body portion 110 may be made of 17-4 PH process may not perform one or more blocks. In one example,
stainless steel using a casting process. In another example, the the interior cavity 700 may not be filled (i.e., block 1740 may
body portion 110 may be made of other suitable type of not be performed). The apparatus, methods, and articles of
stainless steel (e.g., Nitronic 50 stainless steel manufac- 65 manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
tured by AK Steel Corporation, West Chester, Ohio) using a While the above examples may described an iron-type or a
forging process. By using Nitronic 50 stainless steel to wedge-type golf club head, the apparatus, methods, and
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articles of manufacture described herein may be applicable to portion 1910. Alternatively, the cavity wall portion 1920 may
other types of golf club heads. Referring to FIGS. 19-21, for be a concave arc profile relative to the back surface 1966. The
example, a golf club head 1900 may include a body portion apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
1910 and a cavity wall portion 1920. The golf club head 1900 herein are not limited in this regard.
may have a club head volume greater than or equal to 300 5 The first interior cavity 2010 may be partially or entirely
cubic centimeters (cm3 or cc ). In one example, the golf club filled with an elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a
head 1900 may be about 460 cc. Alternatively, the golf club viscoelastic urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane
head 1900 may have a club head volume less than or equal to material manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a
300 cc. For example, the golf club head 1900 may have a club thermoplastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic
head volume between 100 cc and 200 cc. The club head 10 polyurethane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of
volume of the golf club head 1900 may be determined by materials to absorb shock, isolate vibration, dampen noise,
using the weighted water displacement method (i.e., and/or provide structural support. The elastic polymer mate-
Archimedes Principle). For example, procedures defined by rial may be injected into the first interior cavity 2010 via an
golf standard organizations and/or governing bodies such as injection molding process via a port on the face portion 1962.
the United States Golf Association (USGA) and/or the Royal 15 For example, at least 50% of the first interior cavity 2010 may
and Ancient Golf Club ofSt. Andrews (R&A) may be used for be filled with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate vibra-
measuring the club head volume of the golf club head 100. tion, dampen noise, and/or provide structural support when
Although FIGS. 19-21 may depict a particular type of club the golf club head 1900 strikes a golf ball via the face portion
head (e.g., a fairway wood-type club head), the apparatus, 1962. With the support of the cavity wall portion 1920 to form
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may be 20 the first interior cavity 2010 and filling at least a portion of the
applicable to other types of club head (e.g., a driver-type club first interior cavity 2010 with an elastic polymer material, the
head, a hybrid-type club head, an iron-type club head, a face portion 1962 may be relatively thin without degrading
putter-type club head, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and the structural integrity, sound, and/or feel of the golf club
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in this head 1900. In one example, the face portion 1962 may have a
regard. 25 thickness ofless than or equal to 0.075 inch (e.g., a distance
The body portion 1910 may include a toe portion 1940, a between the front surface 1964 and the back surface 1966). In
heel portion 1950, a front portion 1960, a rear portion 1970, a another example, the face portion 1962 may have a thickness
top portion 1980 (e.g., a crown portion), and a bottom portion ofless than or equal to 0.060 inch. In yet another example, the
1990 (e.g., a sole portion). The body portion 1910 may be a face portion 1962 may have a thickness ofless than or equal
hollow body made partially or entirely of an aluminum-based 30 to 0.050 inch. Further, the face portion 1962 may have a
material, a magnesium-type material, a steel-based material, thickness ofless than or equal to 0.030 inch. The apparatus,
a titanium-based material, any other suitable material, or any methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not
combination thereof. In another example, the body portion limited in this regard.
1910 may be made partially or entirely of a non-metal mate- The cavity wall portion 1920 may include multiple sec-
rial such as a ceramic material, a composite material, any 35 tions. Turning to FIGS. 22-24, for example, a golf club head
other suitable material, or any combination thereof. The front 2200 may include a body portion 2210 and a cavity wall
portion 1960 may include a face portion 1962 (e.g., a strike portion 2220. The body portion 2210 may include a toe por-
face). The face portion 1962 may include a front surface 1964 tion 2240, a heel portion 2250, a front portion 2260, a rear
and a back surface 1966. The front surface 1964 may include portion 2270, a top portion 2280 (e.g., a crown portion), and
a plurality of grooves, generally shown as 2110 in FIG. 21. 40 a bottom portion 2290 (e.g., a sole portion). The front portion
The cavity wall portion 1920 may form a first interior 2260 may include a face portion 2262 (e.g., a strike face) with
cavity 2010 and a second interior cavity 2020 within the body a front surface 2264 and a back surface 2266. The cavity wall
portion 1910. For example, the cavity wall portion 1920 may portion 2220 may extend from the back surface 2266 to form
be made partially or entirely of an aluminum-based material, a first interior cavity 2310 and a second interior cavity 2320
a steel-based material, any other suitable material, or any 45 within the body portion 2210. The cavity wall portion 2220
combination thereof. In another example, the cavity wall may include two or more wall sections, generally shown as
portion 1920 may be made partially or entirely of a non-metal 2330, 2340, and 2350 in FIG. 23. The cavity wall portion
material such as a ceramic material, a composite material, any 2220 may form a truncated pyramid-like structure with a
other suitable material, or any combination thereof. The first rectangular base (e. g., FIG. 24) or a square base on the back
interior cavity 2010 may be associated with a first volume, 50 surface 2266. Alternatively, the cavity wall portion 2220 may
and the second interior cavity 2020 may be associated with a form a cuboid-like structure (i.e., with a rectangular base) or
second volume. In one example, the first volume may be less a cuboid-like structure (i.e., with a square base) on the back
than the second volume. Further, the first volume may be less surface 2266. In another example, the cavity wall portion
than or equal to 50% of the second volume. 2220 may form a square-based, pyramid-like structure on the
As illustrated in FIG. 20, for example, the cavity wall 55 back surface 2266. In yet another example, the cavity wall
portion 1920 may extend from the back surface 1966 of the portion 2220 may form a triangular-based, pyramid-like
face portion 1962. In one example, the cavity wall portion structure or a triangular prism-like structure on the back sur-
1920 may extend no more than one inch from the back surface face 2266. Similar to the first interior cavity 2010 (FIGS.
1966. In another example, the cavity wall portion 1920 may 19-21), the first interior cavity 2310 may be partially or
extend no more than two inches from the back surface 1966. 60 entirely filled with an elastic polymer or elastomer material
The cavity wall portion 1920 may be a single curved wall (e.g., a TPE material, a TPU material, etc.). The elastic poly-
section. In particular, the cavity wall portion 1920 may have mer material may be injected into the first interior cavity 2310
a convex arc profile relative to the back surface 1966 (e.g., C via an injection molding process via a port on the face portion
shape) to form a dome-like structure with an elliptical base 2262. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
(e.g., FIG. 21) or a circular base on the back surface 1966. In 65 described herein are not limited in this regard.
another example, the cavity wall portion 1920 may form a As illustrated in FIGS. 25 and 26, for example, a golf club
cone-like structure or a cylinder-like structure with the body head 2500 may include a body portion 2510 and a cavity wall
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portion 2520. The body portion 2510 may include a toe por- surface roughness (Ra) ranging from 0.5 to 250 f.tin (0.012 to
tion 2540, a heel portion 2550, a front portion 2560, a rear 6.3 f.llll). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
portion 2570, a top portion 2580 (e.g., a crown portion), and are not limited in this regard.
a bottom portion 2590 (e.g., a sole portion). The front portion As illustrated in FIGS. 28-30, for example, a face portion
2560 may include a face portion 2562 (e.g., a strike face) with 5 2800 may include the front surface 2810, and the back surface
a front surface 2564 and a back surface 2566. The face portion 2910. The front surface 2810 may include one or more
2562 may be associated with a loft plane 2605 that defines the grooves, generally shown as 2820, extending longitudinally
loft angle of the golf club head 2500. across the front surface 2810 (e.g., extending between the toe
The cavity wall portion 2520 may be a single flat wall portion 140 and the heel portion 150 of FIG. 1). The front
10 surface 2810 may be used to impact a golf ball (not shown).
section. In particular, the cavity wall portion 2520 may extend
The back surface 2910 may also include one or more chan-
between the toe portion 2540 and the heel portion 2550 and
nels, generally shown as 2920. The charmels 2920 may
between the top portion 2580 and the bottom portion 2590 to
extend longitudinally across the back surface 2910. The chan-
form a first interior cavity 2610 and a second interior cavity nels 2920 may be parallel or substantially parallel to each
2620 within the body portion 2510. The cavity wall portion 15 other. The charmels 2920 may engage with the elastic poly-
2520 may be parallel or substantially parallel to the loft plane mer material used to fill the interior cavity 700, and serve as
2605. Alternatively as shown in FIG. 27, a cavity wall portion a mechanical locking mechanism between the face portion
2720 may be perpendicular or substantially perpendicular to 2800 and the elastic polymer material. In particular, a channel
a ground plane 2730. Similar to the first interior cavities 2010 3000 may include an opening 3010, a bottom section 3020,
(FIGS. 19-21) and 2310 (FIGS. 22-24), the first interior cav- 20 and two sidewalls, generally shown as 3030 and 3032. The
ity 2610 may be partially or entirely filled with an elastic bottom section 3020 may be parallel or substantially parallel
polymer or elastomer material. The elastic polymer material to the back surface 2910. The two sidewalls 3030 and 3032
may be injected into the first interior cavity 2610 via an may be converging sidewalls (i.e., the two sidewalls 3030 and
injection molding process via a port on the face portion 2562 3032 may not be parallel to each other). The bottom section
and/or the bottom portion 2590. The apparatus, methods, and 25 3020 and the sidewalls 3030 and3032 may form two undercut
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in this portions, generally shown as 3040 and 3042. That is, a width
regard. 3015 at the opening 3010 maybe less thana width3025 of the
Alternatively, the cavity wall portion 2520 may extend bottom section 3020. A cross section of the channel3000 may
between the bottom portion 2590 and a top-and-front transi- be symmetrical about an axis 3050. While FIG. 30 may depict
tion region (i.e., a transition region between the top portion 30 flat or substantially flat sidewalls, the two sidewalls 3030 and
2580 and the front portion 2570) so that the cavity wall 3032 may be curved (e.g., convex relative to each other).
portion 2520 and the loft plane 2630 may not be parallel to Instead of flat or substantially flat sidewalls as shown in
each other. In another example, the cavity wall portion 2520 FIG. 30, a channel may include other types of sidewalls. As
may extend between the top portion 2580 and a bottom-and- illustrated in FIG. 31, for example, a channel 3100 may
front transition region (i.e., a transition region between the 35 include an opening 3110, a bottom section 3120, and two
bottom portion 2590 and the front portion 2570) so that the sidewalls, generally shown as 3130 and 3132. The bottom
cavity wall portion 2520 and the loft plane 2630 may be not section 3120 may be parallel or substantially parallel to the
parallel to each other. Although FIGS. 25-27, may depict the back surface 2910. The two sidewalls 3130 and 3132 may be
cavity wall portions 2520 and 2720 being flat or substantially stepped sidewalls. The bottom section 3120 and the sidewalls
flat, the cavity wall portions 2520 and/or 2720 may be con- 40 3130 and 3132 may form two undercut portions, generally
caved or convexed relatively to the face portion 2562. The shown as 3140 and 3142. That is, a width 3115 at the opening
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described 3110 may be less than a width 3125 of the bottom section
herein are not limited in this regard. 3120. A cross section of the charmel3100 may be symmetri-
While above examples may describe a cavity wall portion cal about an axis 3150.
dividing an interior cavity of a hollow body portion to form 45 Insteadofbeing symmetrical as shown in FIGS. 30 and31,
two separate interior cavities with one interior cavity partially a channel may be asymmetrical. As illustrated in FIG. 32, for
or entirely filled with an elastic polymer material, the appa- another example, a charmel 3200 may include an opening
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein 3210, a bottom section 3220, and two sidewalls, generally
may include two or more cavity wall portions dividing an shown as 3230 and 3232. The bottom section 3220 may be
interior cavity of a hollow body portion to form three or more 50 parallel or substantially parallel to the back surface 2910. The
separate interior cavities with at least two interior cavities bottom section 3220 and the sidewall 3230 may form an
partially or entirely filled with an elastic polymer material. In undercut portion 3240.
one example, one interior cavity may be partially or entirely Referring to FIG. 33, for example, a channel 3300 may
filled with a TPE material whereas another interior cavity include an opening 3310, a bottom section 3320, and two
may be partially or entirely filled with a TPU material. The 55 sidewalls, generally shown as 3330 and 3332. The bottom
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described section 3320 may not be parallel or substantially parallel to
herein are not limited in this regard. the back surface 2910. The two sidewalls 3330 and 3332 may
Referring back to FIGS. 1-14, the face portion 162 may be parallel or substantially parallel to each other but one
include a non-smooth back surface to improve adhesion and/ sidewall may be longer than the other sidewall. The bottom
or mitigate delamination between the face portion 162 and the 60 section 3320 and the sidewall 3332 may form an undercut
elastic polymer material used to fill the interior cavity 700 portion 3340.
(e.g., FIG. 7). Various methods and/or processes such as an In the example as shown in FIG. 34, a face portion 3400
abrasive blasting process (e.g., a bead blasting process, a sand may include a back surface 3410 with one or more channels,
blasting process, other suitable blasting process, or any com- generally shown as 3420, extending laterally across the back
bination thereof) and/or a milling (machining) process may 65 surface 3410 (e.g., extending between the top portion 180 and
be used to form the back surface 166 into a non-smooth the sole portion 190 of FIG. 1). In another example as
surface. For example, the back surface 166 may have with a depicted in FIG. 35, a face portion 3500 may include a back
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surface 3510 with one or more channels, generally shown as be injected into the interior cavity 700 from weight ports 1431
3520, extending diagonally across the back surface 3510. and 1432. The weight ports 1421, 1422 and/or 1423 may
Alternatively, a face portion may include a combination of serve as airports for venting the displaced air from the interior
channels extending in different directions across a back sur- cavity 700. Thus, regardless of the orientation of the golf club
face of the face portion (e.g., extending longitudinally, later- 5 head 100 during the injection molding process, the elastic
ally, and/or diagonally). Turning to FIG. 36, for yet another polymer material may be injected into the interior cavity 700
example, a face portion 3600 may include a back surface 3610 from one or more lower positioned weight ports while one or
with one or more channels, generally shown as 3620, 3630, more upper positioned weight ports may serve as air vents.
and 3640, extending in different directions across the back The mold (i.e., the golf club head 100) may then be cooled
surface 3610. In particular, the face portion 3600 may include 10 passively (e.g., at room temperature) or actively so that the
a plurality of channels 3620 extending longitudinally across elastic polymer material reaches a solid state and adheres to
the back surface 3610, a plurality of channels 3630 extending the back surface 166 of the face portion 162. The elastic
laterally across the back surface 3610, and a plurality of polymer material may directly adhere to the back surface 166
channels 3640 extending diagonally across the back surface of the face portion 162. Alternatively, the elastic polymer
3610. 15 material may adhere to the back surface 166 of the face
In addition or alternatively, the golf club head 100 may portion 162 with the aid of the one or more structures on the
include a bonding agent to improve adhesion and/or mitigate back surface 166 and/or a bonding agent described herein
delamination between the face portion 162 and the elastic (e.g., the bonding portion 3710 shown in FIG. 37). The appa-
polymer material used to fill the interior cavity 700 of the golf ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein
club head 100 (e.g., FIG. 7). Referring to FIG. 37, for 20 are not limited in this regard.
example, the golf club head 100 may include the face portion As discussed above, the elastic polymer material may be
162, a bonding portion 3710, and an elastic polymer material heated to a liquid state (i.e., non-foaming) and solidifies after
3720. In one example, the bonding portion 3710 may be being injection molded in the interior cavity 700. An elastic
low-viscosity, organic, solvent-based solutions and/or disper- polymer material with a low modulus of elasticity may pro-
sions of polymers and other reactive chemicals such as 25 vide vibration and noise dampening for the face portion 162
MEGUM, ROBOND, and/or THIXOWM materials when the face portion 162 impacts a golfball. For example, an
manufactured by the Dow Chemical Company, Auburn Hills, elastic polymer material that foams when heated may provide
Mich. In another example, the bonding portion 3710 may be vibration and noise dampening. However, such a foaming
LOCTITE materials manufactured by Henkel Corporation, elastic polymer material may not have sufficient rigidity to
Rocky Hill, Conn. The bonding portion 3710 may be applied 30 provide structural support to a relatively thin face portion
to the back surface 166 to bond the elastic polymer material because of possible excessive deflection and/or compression
3720 to the face portion 162 (e.g., extending between the back of the elastic polymer material when absorbing the impact of
surface 166 and the elastic polymer material 3720). For a golf ball. In one example, the elastic polymer material that
example, the bonding portion 3710 may be applied when the is injection molded in the interior cavity 700 may have a
interior cavity 700 is filled with the elastic polymer material 35 relatively high modulus of elasticity to provide structural
3720 via an injection-molding process. The apparatus, meth- support to the face portion 162 and yet elastically deflect to
ods, and articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard. absorb the impact forces experienced by the face portion 162
FIG. 38 depicts one manner in which the interior cavity 700 when striking a golf ball. Thus, a non-foaming and injection
of the golf club head 100 or any of the golf club heads moldable elastic polymer material with a relatively high
described herein is partially or entirely filled with an elastic 40 modulus of elasticity may be used for partially or fully filling
polymer material or an elastomer material. The process 3800 the interior cavity 700 to provide structural support and rein-
may begin with heating the golf club head 100 to a certain forcement for the face portion 162 in addition to providing
temperature (block 3810). In one example, the golf club head vibration and noise dampening. That is, the non-foaming and
100 may be heated to a temperature ranging between 150 C. injection moldable elastic polymer material may be a struc-
to 250 C., which may depend on factors such as the vapor- 45 tural support portion for the face portion 162. The apparatus,
ization temperature of the elastic polymer material to be methods, and articles of manufacture are not limited in this
injected in the interior cavity 700. The elastic polymer mate- regard.
rial may then be heated to a certain temperature (block 3820). FIG. 39 depicts one manner in which a bonding agent as
The elastic polymer material may be a non-foaming and described herein may be applied to a golf club head prior to
injection-moldable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material. 50 partially of fully injecting an elastic polymer in the interior
Accordingly, the elastic polymer material may be heated to cavity 700. In the example of FIG. 39, the process 3900 may
reach a liquid or a flowing state prior to being injected into the begin with injecting a bonding agent on the back surface 166
interior cavity 700. The temperature to which the elastic of the face portion 162 (block 3910). The bonding agent may
polymer material may be heated may depend on the type of be injected on the back surface 166 prior to or after heating the
elastic polymer material used to partially or fully fill the 55 golf club head as described above depending on the properties
interior cavity 700. The heated elastic polymer material may of the bonding agent. The bonding agent may be injected
be injected into the interior cavity 700 to partially or fully fill through one or more of the first set of weight ports 1420
the interior cavity 700 (block 3830). The elastic polymer and/or the second set of weight ports 1430. The bonding agent
material may be injected into the interior cavity 700 from one may be injected on the back surface 166 through several or all
or more oftheweightports described herein (e.g., one or more 60 of the first set of weight ports 1420 and the second set of
weight ports of the first and second sets of weight ports 1420 weight ports 1430. For example, an injection instrument such
and 1430, respectively, shown in FIG. 14). One or more other as a nozzle or a needle may be inserted into each weight port
weight ports may allow the air inside the interior cavity 700 until the tip or outlet of the instrument is near the back surface
displaced by the elastic polymer material to vent from the 166. The bonding agent may then be injected on the back
interior cavity 700. In one example, the golf club head 100 65 surface 166 from the outlet of the instrument. Additionally,
may be oriented horizontally as shown in FIG. 14 during the the instrument may be moved, rotated and/or swiveled while
injection molding process. The elastic polymer material may inside the interior cavity 700 so that the bonding agent is
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 145 of 277

US 9,364,727 B2
19 20
injected onto an area of the back surface 166 surrounding the The body portion 4010 may be made of a first material
instrument. For example, the outlet of the injection instru- whereas the first set of weight portions 4020 and the second
ment may be moved in a circular pattern while inside a weight weight portion 4030 may be made of a second material. The
port to inject the bonding agent in a corresponding circular first and second materials may be similar or different materi-
pattern on the back surface 166. Each of the first set of weight 5 als. For example, the body portion 4010 may be partially or
ports 1420 and the second set of weight ports 1430 may be entirely made of a steel-based material (e.g., 17-4 PH stain-
utilized to inject a bonding agent on the back surface 166. less steel, Nitronic 50 stainless steel, maraging steel or other
However, utilizing all of first weight ports 1420 and/or the types of stainless steel), a titanium-based material, an alumi-
second set of weight ports 1430 may not be necessary. For num-based material (e.g., a high-strength aluminum alloy or
10 a composite aluminum alloy coated with a high-strength
example, using every other adjacent weight port may be suf-
alloy), any combination thereof, and/or other suitable types of
ficient to inject a bonding agent on the entire back surface
materials. The first set of weight portions 4020 and the second
166. In another example, weight ports 1421,14221431,1433
weight portion 4030 may be partially or entirely made of a
and 1436 may be used to inject the bonding agent on the back high-density material such as a tungsten-based material or
surface 166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manu- 15 other suitable types of materials. Alternatively, the body por-
facture are not limited in this regard. tion 4010 and/or the first set of weight portions 4020 and the
The process 3900 may also include spreading the bonding second weight portion 4030 may be partially or entirely made
agent on the back surface 166 (block 3920) after injection of of a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plastic, etc.). The
the bonding agent onto the back surface 166 so that a gener- apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture are not lim-
ally uniform coating of the bonding agent is provided on the 20 ited in this regard.
back surface 166. According to one example, the bonding The golf club head4000 may be an iron-type golf club head
agent may be spread on the back surface 166 by injecting air (e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron, a
into the interior cavity 700 through one or more of the first set 7-iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type golf club
of weight ports 1420 and the second set of weight ports 1430. head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, an
The air may be injected into the interior cavity 700 and on the 25 n-degree wedge such as 44 degrees (0 ) , 48, 52, 56, 60,
back surface 166 by inserting an air nozzle into one or more etc.). Although FIGS. 40 and 41 may depict a particular type
of the first set of weight ports 1420 and the second set of of club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
weight ports 1430. According to one example, the air nozzle facture described herein may be applicable to other types of
may be moved, rotated and/or swiveled at a certain distance club heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway wood-type
from the back surface 166 so as to uniformly blow air onto the 30 club head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club head,
bonding agent to spread the bonding agent on the back surface etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
166 for a uniform coating or a substantially uniform coating described herein are not limited in this regard.
of the bonding agent on the back surface 166. The apparatus, The toe portion 4040 and the heel portion 4050 may be on
methods, and articles of manufacture are not limited in this opposite ends of the body portion 4010. The heel portion
regard. 35 4050 may include a hose! portion 4055 configured to receive
The process 3900 may include a single step of injecting and a shaft (not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the
uniformly or substantially uniformly coating the back surface golf club head 4000 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a
166 with the bonding agent. In one example, the bonding golf club.
agent may be injected on the back surface 166 by being The back portion 4070 may include a back wall portion
converted into fine particles or droplets (i.e., atomized) and 40 4110 with one or more exterior weight ports along a periphery
sprayed on the back surface 166. Accordingly, the back sur- of the back portion 4070, generally shown as a first set of
face 166 may be uniformly or substantially uniformly coated exterior weight ports 4120 (e.g., shown as weight ports 4121,
with the bonding agent in one step. A substantially uniform 4122, 4123, and 4124) and a second weight port 4130. Each
coating of the back surface 166 with the bonding agent may exterior weight port of the first set of weight ports 4120 may
be defined as a coating having slight non-uniformities due to 45 be associated with a port diameter. In one example, the port
the injection process or the manufacturing process. However, diameter may be about 0.25 inch ( 6.35 millimeters). Any two
such slight non-uniformities may not affect the bonding of the adjacent exterior weight ports of the first set of exterior
filler material to the back surface 166 with the bonding agent weight ports 4120 may be separated by less than the port
as described herein. For example, spraying the bonding agent diameter. The first set of weight ports 4120 and the second
on the back surface 166 may result in overlapping regions of 50 weight port 4130 may be exterior weight ports configured to
the bonding agent having a slightly greater coating thickness receive one or more weight portions. Each weight portion of
than other regions of the bonding agent on the back surface the first set of weight portions 4020 (e.g., shown as weight
166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture are portions 4021, 4022, 4023, and 4024) may be disposed in a
not limited in this regard. weight port of the first set of weight ports 4120 (e.g., shown as
As described herein, any two or more of the weight por- 55 weight ports 4121, 4122,4123, and 4124) located at or proxi-
tions may be configured as a single weight portion. In the mate to the toe portion 4040 and/or the top portion 4080 on
example of FIGS. 40 and 41, a golf club head 4000 may the back portion 4070. For example, the weight portion 4021
include a body portion 4010 and two or more weight portions, may be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 4121.
generally shown as a first set of weight portions 4020 (e.g., In another example, the weight portion 4022 may be disposed
shown as weight portions 4021, 4022, 4023, and 4024) and a 60 in a weight port 4122 located in a transition region between
second weight portion 4030. The body portion 4010 may the top portion 4080 and the toe portion 4040 (e.g., a top-and-
include a toe portion 4040, a heel portion 4050, a front portion toe transition region).
(not shown), a back portion 4070, a top portion 4080, and a The second weight port 4130 may be a recess extending
sole portion 4090. The front portion may be similar in many from the toe portion 4040 or a location proximate to the toe
respects to the front portion 160 of the golf club head 100. 65 portion 4040 to the sole portion or a location proximate to the
Accordingly, details of the front portion of the golf club head sole portion 4090 and through the transition region between
4000 are not provided. the toe portion 4040 and the sole portion 4090. Accordingly,
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 146 of 277

US 9,364,727 B2
21 22
as shown in FIG. 40, the second weight port 4130 may erning bodies such as the United States Golf Association
resemble an L-shaped recess. The second weight portion (USGA), the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews
4030 may resemble the shape of the second weight port 4130 (R&A), etc.), golf equipment related to the apparatus, meth-
and may be configured to be disposed in the second weight ods, and articles of manufacture described herein may be
port 4130. The second weight portion 4030 may be partially conforming or non-conforming to the rules of golf at any
or fully disposed in the weight port 4130. The second weight particular time. Accordingly, golf equipment related to the
portion 4030 may have any shape such as oval, rectangular, apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
triangular, or any geometric or non-geometric shape. The herein may be advertised, offered for sale, and/or sold as
second weight port 413 0 may be shaped similar to the second conforming or non-conforming golf equipment. The appara-
weight portion 4030. However, portions of the second weight 10 tus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are
portion 4030 that are inserted in the second weight port 4130 not limited in this regard.
may have similar shapes as the weight port 4130. As Although certain example apparatus, methods, and articles
described in detail herein, any of the weight portions of manufacture have been described herein, the scope of
described herein, including the weight portions 4020 and the coverage of this disclosure is not limited thereto. On the
second weight portion 4030 may be coupled to the back 15 contrary, this disclosure covers all apparatus, methods, and
portion 4070 of the body portion 4010 with various manufac- articles of articles of manufacture fairly falling within the
turing methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process, a scope of the appended claims either literally or under the
welding process, a brazing process, a mechanical locking doctrine of equivalents.
method, any combination thereof, or other suitable manufac- What is claimed is:
turing methods and/or processes). 20 1. A golf club head comprising:
The weight portions of the first set of weight portions 4020 a plurality of weight portions;
may have similar or different physical properties (e.g., color, a body portion having a face portion with a back surface, a
shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). In the illustrated toe portion, a top portion, a sole portion, an interior
example as shown in FIG. 41, each of the weight portions of cavity extending between the top and sole portions, and
the first set of weight portions 4020 may have a cylindrical 25 a back portion with a plurality of exterior weight ports
shape (e.g., a circular cross section). Alternatively, each of the having a first set of exterior weight ports and a second set
weight portions of the first set of weight portions 4020 may of exterior weight ports along a periphery of the back
have different shapes. Although the above examples may portion, each of the plurality of exterior weight ports is
describe weight portions having a particular shape, the appa- associated with a port diameter and configured to receive
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein 30 at least one weight portion of the plurality of weight
may include weight portions of other suitable shapes (e.g., a portions;
portion of or a whole sphere, cube, cone, cylinder, pyramid, an elastic polymer material injection molded in the interior
cuboidal, prism, frustum, or other suitable geometric shape). cavity to structurally support the face portion during
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture impact with a golf ball; and
described herein are not limited in this regard. 35 a bonding portion coupled between the back surface of the
The terms "and" and "or" may have both conjunctive and face portion and the elastic polymer material,
disjunctive meanings. The terms "a" and "an" are defined as wherein the first set of weight ports is located at or proxi-
one or more unless this disclosure indicates otherwise. The mate to at least one of the top portion or the toe portion,
term "coupled" and any variation thereof refer to directly or and the second set of exterior weight ports is located at or
indirectly connecting two or more elements chemically, 40 proximate to at least one of the sole portion or the toe
mechanically, and/or otherwise. The phrase "removably con- portion,
nected" is defined such that two elements that are "removably wherein any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the first
connected" may be separated from each other without break- set of exterior weight ports are separated by less than the
ing or destroying the utility of either element. port diameter, and any two adjacent exterior weight
The term "substantially" when used to describe a charac- 45 ports of the second set of exterior weight ports are sepa-
teristic, parameter, property, or value of an element may rep- rated by less than the port diameter, and
resent deviations or variations that do not diminish the char- wherein the number of weight portions of the plurality of
acteristic, parameter, property, or value that the element may weight portions below a horizontal midplane of the golf
be intended to provide. Deviations or variations in a charac- club head is greater than the number of weight portions
teristic, parameter, property, or value of an element may be 50 of the plurality of weight portions above the horizontal
based on, for example, tolerances, measurement errors, mea- midplane of the golf club head.
surement accuracy limitations and other factors. The term 2. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
"proximate" is synonymous with terms such as "adjacent," interior cavity comprises a cavity separating the face portion
"close," "immediate," "nearby", "neighboring", etc., and and the plurality of exterior weight ports.
such terms may be used interchangeably as appearing in this 55 3. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein each of
disclosure. the plurality of exterior weight ports comprises a port wall
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture separated from a back surface of the face portion by the
described herein may be implemented in a variety of embodi- interior cavity.
ments, and the foregoing description of some of these 4. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
embodiments does not necessarily represent a complete 60 interior cavity comprises a cavity partially or entirely filled
description of all possible embodiments. Instead, the descrip- with the elastic polymer material.
tion of the drawings, and the drawings themselves, disclose at 5. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
least one embodiment, and may disclosure alternative plurality of weight portions comprises a first weight portion
embodiments. having a first weight portion mass and a second weight por-
As the rules of golf may change from time to time (e.g., 65 tion having a second weight portion mass, wherein the first
new regulations may be adopted or old rules may be elimi- weight portion mass is relatively less than the second weight
nated or modified by golf standard organizations and/or gov- portion mass.
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 147 of 277

US 9,364,727 B2
23 24
6. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein each of 12. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10,
the first and second sets of exterior weight ports comprises at wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity height extend-
least three exterior weight ports. ing between the top portion and the sole portion, the cavity
7. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the height being at least 50% of a body height of the hollow body
plurality of weight portions comprises at least one weight portion.
portion made of a tungsten-based material. 13. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10,
8. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the body wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity being at least
portion comprises at least a portion made of stainless steel. 50% filled with a thermoplastic elastomer material.
9. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the face 14. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10,
portion comprises a thickness of less than or equal to 0.030 10 wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity separating the
inch. face portion and the two or more exterior weight ports.
10. An iron-type golf club head comprising:
15. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10,
two or more weight portions made of a first material, the
wherein the face portion comprises a thickness ofless than or
two or more weight portions being associated with a
equal to 0.030 inch.
total weight portion mass; 15
a hollow body portion made of a second material, the body 16. An iron-type golf club head comprising:
portion having a face portion with a back surface, a toe a hollow body portion having a face portion with a back
portion, a heel portion, a top portion, a sole portion, an surface, a toe portion, a top portion, a sole portion, a back
interior cavity extending between the top and sole por- portion, and an interior cavity extending between the top
tions, and a back portion with a first set of exterior 20 and sole portions;
weight ports and a second set of exterior weight ports an elastic polymer material injection molded in the interior
along a periphery of the hollow body portion, each exte- cavity to structurally support the face portion during
rior weight port of the first set of exterior weight ports impact with a golf ball;
and the second set of exterior weight ports is associated a bonding portion coupled between the back surface of the
with a port diameter and configured to receive at least 25 face portion and the elastic polymer material;
one of the two or more weight portions; a first set of weight portions coupled to the hollow body
an elastic polymer material injection molded in the interior portion at or proximate to a top-and-toe transition region
cavity to structurally support the face portion during between the top portion and the toe portion; and
impact with a golf ball; and a second set of weight portions coupled to the hollow body
a bonding portion coupled between the back surface of the 30
portion at or proximate to a sole-and-toe transition
face portion and the elastic polymer material, region between the sole portion and the toe portion,
wherein the first set of exterior weight port is located at or
proximate to at least one of the top portion or the toe wherein the second set of weight portions includes a
portion, and the second set of exterior weight port is greater number of weight portions than the first set of
located at or proximate to at least one of the sole portion 35
weight portions, and
or the toe portion, wherein the second set of weight portions is located below
wherein any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the first a horizontal midplane of the golf club head.
set of exterior weight ports are separated by less than the 17. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 16,
port diameter, and any two adjacent exterior weight wherein each weight portion of the first set of weight portions
ports of the second set of exterior weight ports are sepa- 40 is associated with a first mass and each weight portion of the
rated by less than the port diameter, second set of weight portions is associated with a second
wherein more than 50% of the total weight portion mass is mass, and wherein the first mass is relatively less than the
located below a horizontal midplane of the golf club second mass.
head, and 18. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 16,
wherein the interior cavity is accessible through at least one 45 wherein the interior cavity comprises a cavity having at least
of the exterior weight ports of the first set of exterior 50% filled with a thermoplastic elastomer material.
weight ports or the second set of exterior weight ports 19. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 16,
such that the elastic polymer material is injected into the wherein the hollow body portion comprises an interior cavity
interior cavity through the at least one exterior weight separating the face portion and the first and second sets of
port. 50
weight portions.
11. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 10,
wherein the two or more weight portions comprises weight 20. An iron-type golf club head as defined in claim 16,
portions with more than about 85% of the total weight portion wherein the face portion comprises a thickness ofless than or
mass being below the horizontal midplane of the golf club equal to 0.030 inch.
head. * * * * *
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 148 of 277

EXHIBIT F
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 149 of 277

111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US009533201B2

c12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 9,533,201 B2


Parsons et al. (45) Date of Patent: *Jan. 3, 2017

(54) GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO (2013.01); A63B 2053/0408 (2013.01); A63B
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS 2053/0416 (2013.01); A63B 2053/0445
(2013.01); A63B 2053/0491 (2013.01); A63B
(71) Applicant: Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, 2209/00 (2013.01)
Scottsdale, AZ (US) (58) Field of Classification Search
CPC ................... A63B 53/0475; A63B 2059/0003;
(72) Inventors: Robert R. Parsons, Scottsdale, AZ
(US); Michael R. Nicolette, Scottsdale, A63B 59/0092; A63B 2053/0491; A63B
AZ (US); Bradley D. Schweigert, 2209/00; A63B 2053/0408; A63B
Scottsdale, AZ (US) 2053/0445; A63B 2053/0416; A63B
53/0466
(73) Assignee: PARSONS XTREME GOLF, LLC, USPC .................................. 473/324-350, 287-292
Scottsdale, AZ (US) See application file for complete search history.

( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this (56) References Cited
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

This patent is subject to a terminal dis- 1,133,129 A 3/1915 Govan


claimer. D164,469 S 9/1951 Behrendt
(Continued)
(21) Appl. No.: 15/043,106
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(22) Filed: Feb. 12, 2016
U.S. Appl. No. 14/618,501, Parsons eta!., "Golf Club Heads and
(65) Prior Publication Data Methods to Manufacture Golf Club Heads," filed Feb. 10, 2015.
US 2016/0158607 Al Jun. 9, 2016 (Continued)

Related U.S. Application Data Primary Examiner- Sebastiana Passaniti


(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 14/589,277,
(57) ABSTRACT
filed on Jan. 5, 2015, now Pat. No. 9,421,437, which
is a continuation of application No. 14/498,603, filed Embodiments of golf club heads and methods to manufac-
on Sep. 26,2014, now Pat. No. 9,199,143, application ture golf club heads are generally described herein. In one
No. 15/043,106, which is a continuation-in-part of example, a golf club head may include a body portion with
application No. 14/711,596, filed on May 13, 2015, a toe portion, a heel portion, a top portion, a sole portion, a
which is a continuation-in-part of application No. back portion, and a front portion having a face portion. The
(Continued) golf club head may include an interior cavity. The interior
cavity is at least partially filled with an elastic polymer
(51) Int. Cl. material. A bonding portion bonds the elastic polymer mate-
A63B 53104 (2015.01) rial to the face portion. Other examples and embodiments
A63B 53106 (2015.01) may be described and claimed.
(52) U.S. Cl.
CPC ....... A63B 5310466 (2013.01); A63B 5310475 20 Claims, 23 Drawing Sheets

4300".,
r33oo

Bonding a bonding agent to a back surface of a face


portion of a golf club head 4310

Injecting elastic polymer material in an interior 4320


cavity of the golf club head

Bonding the elastic polymer material to the bonding agent 4330


Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 150 of 277

US 9,533,201 B2
Page 2

Related U.S. Application Data 5,766,092 A 6/1998 Mimeur eta!.


5,769,735 A 6/1998 Hosokawa
14/589,277, which is a continuation of application 5,797,807 A * 8/1998 Moore A63B 53/04
No. 14/513,073, filed on Oct. 13, 2014, now Pat. No. 473/305
8,961 ,336, which is a continuation of application No. D399,277 s 10/1998 Ezaki
5,827,132 A 10/1998 Bamber
14/498,603, application No. 15/043,106, which is a
D408,485 S 4/1999 Takahashi eta!.
continuation-in-part of application No. 29/515,013, 5,899,821 A 5/1999 Hsu et al.
filed on Jan. 20, 2015, now Pat. No. Des. 756,471, 5,935,016 A 8/1999 Antonious
which is a continuation-in-part of application No. D414,535 S 9/1999 Mertens
29/501,006, filedonAug. 29,2014, now Pat. No. Des. D421,080 S 212000 Chen
D426,276 S 6/2000 Besnard et a!.
722,352, application No. 15/043,106, which is a 6,077,171 A 6/2000 Yoneyama
continuation-in-part of application No. 29/547,678, 6,162,133 A * 12/2000 Peterson A63B 53/04
filed on Dec. 7, 2015, now Pat. No. Des. 764,610, 473/345
which is a continuation-in-part of application No. D442,659 S 5/2001 Kubica eta!.
29/540,066, filed on Sep. 21,2015, now Pat. No. Des. D443,008 S 5/2001 Kubica eta!.
D445,862 S 7/2001 Ford
746,926, which is a continuation-in-part of applica- 6,290,609 B1 9/2001 Takeda
tion No. 29/537,413, filed on Aug. 25, 2015, now D449,866 S 10/2001 Miller
abandoned. D457,211 S 5/2002 Bakke
D469,833 S 2/2003 Roberts et al.
(60) Provisional application No. 62/041,538, filed on Aug. D475,107 S 5/2003 Madore
25, 2014, provisional application No. 62/277,636, D476,048 S 6/2003 Cleveland et a!.
filed on Jan. 12, 2016, provisional application No. D478,949 S 8/2003 DeLaCruz
6,638,182 B2 10/2003 Kosmatka
62/276,358, filed on Jan. 8, 2016, provisional 6,695,714 B1 2/2004 Bliss et al.
application No. 62/275,443, filed on Jan. 6, 2016, 6,702,693 B2 3/2004 Bamber
provisional application No. 62/209,780, filed on Aug. 6,780,123 B2 8/2004 Hasebe
25, 2015, provisional application No. 62/159,856, D497,963 S 1112004 Toulon eta!.
filed on May 11, 2015, provisional application No. 6,811,496 B2 1112004 Wahl eta!.
D499,779 S 12/2004 Mahaffey et a!.
62/118,403, filed on Feb. 19, 2015. D502,975 S 3/2005 Schweigert et a!.
D503,204 S 3/2005 Nicolette et a!.
(56) References Cited D507,320 S 7/2005 Roberts et al.
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U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 6,923,733 B2 8/2005 Chen
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473/345 7,156,751 B2 1/2007 Wahl eta!.
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473/332 7,303,486 B2 12/2007 Imamoto
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D336,672 s 6/1993 Gorman D594,518 S 6/2009 Schweigert
5,351,958 A * 10/1994 Helmstetter A63B 53/04 7,582,024 B2 * 9/2009 Shear . A63B 53/0466
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D353,862 s 12/1994 Saito 7,588,502 B2 9/2009 Nishino
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D362,884 s 10/1995 Blough eta!. D612,438 S 3/2010 Carlyle et a!.
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473/309 7,744,484 B1 6/2010 Chao
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Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 151 of 277

US 9,533,201 B2
Page 3

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2006/0240909 A1 * 10/2006 Breier A63B 53/0466
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 473/334
2007/0032308 A1 2/2007 Fagot et a!.
8,088,025 B2 112012 Wahl et al. 2007/0225084 A1 9/2007 Schweigert et a!.
8,092,319 B1 112012 Cackett et a!. 2008/0058113 A1 3/2008 Nicolette et a!.
8,105,180 B1 112012 Cackett et a!. 2008/0188322 A1 8/2008 Anderson et a!.
D658,248 S 4/2012 Nunez et a!. 2008/0300065 A1 12/2008 Schweigert
8,221,262 B1 7/2012 Cackett eta!. 2009/0029790 A1 112009 Nicolette et a!.
8,246,487 B1 8/2012 Cackett et a!. 2010/0130306 A1 5/2010 Schweigert
8,328,662 B2 12/2012 Nakamura eta!. 2010/0178999 A1 7/2010 Nicolette eta!.
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Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 152 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 1 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

100~

155
('180

140

190_)'
FIG. 1

r1oo

150_)'

132
190_)' FIG. 2
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 153 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 2 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

100~

~180

140

FIG. 3

100~

155

7 9

FIG. 4
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 154 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 3 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

100~

155

1410

160 170

\ )

\190 FIG. 5

100~

180~ 155

162

1410
170
\

FIG. 6
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 155 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 4 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

100~
180~

1410
160~
170
.-/

166

735 1431
FIG. 7

100~
155
180~

1410
850
170~ ~160

FIG. 8
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 156 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 5 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

100~
180~

720
160~
170
.,/

166

73s FIG. 9

r1oo

+-10t------~~~l~~~~ __ 35\~ 131 134 147


190./ FIG. 10
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 157 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 6 of 23


US 9,533,201 B2

120& 130 ~

1110

FIG. 11

120~

1210 ~ ~~-----:.?
1220

FIG. 12

130~

1320

FIG. 13
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 158 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 7 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

110~

FIG. 14

162~

"1540

\__166

FIG. 15
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 159 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 8 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

162~

1640

FIG. 16

1700~
(START
y
Provide two or more
weight portions
J 710

Provide body portion J 720

Couple at least one weight J 730
portion in weight port
t
Fin interior cavity ) 740
t
( END )
FIG. 17
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 160 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 9 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

100~
180~

1410
160~

166

1874
FIG. 18
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 161 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 10 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

1900~

FIG. 19

1900~

2100 2020

FIG. 20
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 162 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 11 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

2100~
+
2110~ v-2150 2010

FIG. 21

2200~
2010

2230

FIG. 22

2300~
2010

2332

2320
FIG. 23
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 163 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 12 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

2400~
20i0

FIG. 24

2500~

2520

FIG. 25
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 164 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 13 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

2600~

2610

FIG. 26

2700~

FIG. 27
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 165 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 14 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

162

2810

FIG. 28
~2900

2910 ~ Heating a go!f club head

2920 ~
Heating an elastic polymer material
!
2930 ~ Injecting the e!astic polymer material in
an interior cavity of the go!f club head

FIG. 29

~3000

Injecting a bonding agent on a back


3010 ~ surface of a face portion of a golf
club head
t
Uniformly or substantially uniformly
3020 ~ coating the back surface of the face
portion with the bonding agent

FIG. 30
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 166 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 15 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

3150
~

3190~
3230
FIG. 31

3147
3190~
3130
FIG. 32
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 167 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 16 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

3300~
3368

3340

3390_)' FIG. 33

3300

FIG. 34
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 168 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 17 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

~3390

3350

1
r
3340

3300

FIG. 35

3380~

3350

41 40
FIG. 36
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 169 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 18 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

3310

FIG. 37

FIG. 38
3800
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 170 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 19 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

f-3413

3316
I
I FIG. 39
I 3533 t-'3417

FIG. 40
3532
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 171 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 20 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

3890

FIG. 41

3362
FIG. 42
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 172 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 21 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

4300~

Bonding a bonding agent to a back surface of a face


portion of a golf dub head
~ 4310

t
Injecting elastic polymer material in an interior ,_,.,....,. 4320
cavity of the golf dub head

~
Bonding the elastic polymer material to the bonding agent 4330

FIG. 43
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 173 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 22 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

4400~

Applying a bonding agent to a back surface of a face


portion of a golf club head r 4410

~
Heating the golf dub head to bond the bonding ~ 4420
agent to the back surface of the face portion

t
Injecting elastic polymer materia! in an interior cavity of ~ 4430
the golf club head

~
Heating the golf dub head to bond the elastic ~ 4440
polymer material to the bonding agent

FIG. 44
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 174 of 277

U.S. Patent Jan.3,2017 Sheet 23 of 23 US 9,533,201 B2

Cure Time

FIG. 45
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 175 of 277

US 9,533,201 B2
1 2
GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS
FIG. 1 depicts a front view of a golf club head according
CROSS REFERENCE to an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of
5 manufacture described herein.
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional FIG. 2 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head
Application No. 62/118,403, filed on Feb. 19, 2015, U.S. of FIG. 1.
Provisional Application No. 62/159,856, filed on May 11, FIG. 3 depicts a top view of the example golf club head
2015, U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/209,780, filed on of FIG. 1.
10 FIG. 4 depicts a bottom view of the example golf club
Aug. 25, 2015, U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/275,
head of FIG. 1.
443, filed on Jan. 6, 2016, U.S. Provisional Application No.
FIG. 5 depicts a left view of the example golf club head
62/276,358, filed on Jan. 8, 2016, and U.S. Provisional
of FIG. 1.
Application No. 62/277,636, filed on Jan. 12, 2016. This FIG. 6 depicts a right view of the example golf club head
application is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. 15 of FIG. 1.
Non-Provisional application Ser. No. 14/589,277, filed on FIG. 7 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
Jan. 5, 2015, which is a continuation application of U.S. club head of FIG. 1 along line 7-7.
Non-Provisional application Ser. No. 14/498,603, filed on FIG. 8 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
Sep. 26, 2014, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional club head of FIG. 1 along line 8-8.
Application No. 62/041,538 filed Aug. 25, 2014. This appli- 20 FIG. 9 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
cation is also a continuation-in-part application of U.S. club head of FIG. 1 along line 9-9.
Non-Provisional application Ser. No. 14/711,596, filed May FIG. 10 depicts another rear view of the example golf club
13, 2015, which is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. head of FIG. 1.
Non-Provisional application Ser. No. 14/589,277, filed Jan. FIG. 11 depicts a top view of a weight portion associated
5, 2015, which is a continuation application of U.S. Non- 25 with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
Provisional application Ser. No. 14/513,073, filed Oct. 13, FIG. 12 depicts a side view of a weight portion associated
2014, which is a continuation application of U.S. Non- with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
Provisional application Ser. No. 14/498,603, filed Sep. 26, FIG. 13 depicts a side view of another weight portion
2014, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Appli- associated with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
cation No. 62/041,538, filed Aug. 25, 2014. This application 30 FIG. 14 depicts a rear view of a body portion of the
example golf club head of FIG. 1.
is also a continuation-in-part application of U.S. application
FIG. 15 depicts a cross-sectional view of a face portion of
Ser. No. 29/515,013, filed on Jan. 20, 2015, which is a
the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
continuation-in-part application of U.S. application Ser. No.
FIG. 16 depicts a cross-sectional view of another face
29/501,006, filed on Aug. 29, 2014. This application is also 35 portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
a continuation-in-part application of U.S. application Ser. FIG. 17 depicts one manner in which the example golf
No. 29/547,678, filed on Dec. 7, 2015, which is a continu- club head described herein may be manufactured.
ation-in-part application ofU.S. application Ser. No. 29/540, FIG. 18 depicts another cross-sectional view of the
066, filed on Sep. 21, 2015, which is a continuation-in-part example golf club head of FIG. 4 along line 18-18.
application of U.S. application Ser. No. 29/537,413, filed on 40 FIG. 19 depicts a front view of a face portion of the
Aug. 25, 2015. The disclosure of the referenced applications example golf club head of FIG. 1.
are incorporated herein by reference. FIG. 20 depicts a back view of the face portion of FIG. 19.
FIG. 21 depicts a cross-sectional view of an example
COPYRIGHT AUTHORIZATION channel of the face portion of FIG. 19.
45 FIG. 22 depicts a cross-sectional view of another example
The present disclosure may be subject to copyright pro- channel of the face portion of FIG. 19.
tection. The copyright owner has no objection to the fac- FIG. 23 depicts a cross-sectional view of yet another
simile reproduction by anyone of the present disclosure and example channel of the face portion of FIG. 19.
its related documents, as they appear in the Patent and FIG. 24 depicts a cross-sectional view of yet another
Trademark Office patent files or records, but otherwise 50 example channel of the face portion of FIG. 19.
reserves all applicable copyrights. FIG. 25 depicts a back view of another example face
portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
FIELD FIG. 26 depicts a back view of yet another example face
portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
The present disclosure generally relates to golf equip- 55 FIG. 27 depicts a back view of yet another example face
ment, and more particularly, to golf club heads and methods portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
to manufacturing golf club heads. FIG. 28 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
club head of FIG. 1.
BACKGROUND FIG. 29 depicts another manner in which an example golf
60 club head described herein may be manufactured.
Various materials (e.g., steel-based materials, titanium- FIG. 30 depicts yet another manner in which an example
based materials, tungsten-based materials, etc.) may be used golf club head described herein may be manufactured.
to manufacture golf club heads. By using multiple materials FIG. 31 depicts a rear view of a golf club head according
to manufacture golf club heads, the position of the center of to an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of
gravity (CG) and/or the moment of inertia (MOl) of the golf 65 manufacture described herein.
club heads may be optimized to produce certain trajectory FIG. 32 depicts a rear view of the golf club head of FIG.
and spin rate of a golf ball. 31.
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 176 of 277

US 9,533,201 B2
3 4
FIG. 33 depicts a front view of a golf club head according and 130, respectively, may be partially or entirely made of
to an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plastic, etc.). The
manufacture described herein. apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture are not
FIG. 34 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head limited in this regard.
of FIG. 33. The golf club head 100 may be an iron-type golf club head
FIG. 35 depicts a rear perspective view of the example (e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron,
golf club head of FIG. 33. a 7 -iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type golf club
FIG. 36 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, an
of FIG. 33. n-degree wedge such as 44 degrees ( 0 ), 48, 52, 56, 60,
FIG. 37 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf 10 etc.). Although FIGS. 1-10 may depict a particular type of
club head of FIG. 33 along line 37-37 of FIG. 36. club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufac-
FIG. 38 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf ture described herein may be applicable to other types of
club head of FIG. 33 along line 38-38 of FIG. 36. club heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway wood-
FIG. 39 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf type club head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club
club head of FIG. 33 along line 39-39 of FIG. 36. 15 head, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
FIG. 40 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf facture described herein are not limited in this regard.
club head of FIG. 33 along line 40-40 of FIG. 36. The toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150 may be on
FIG. 41 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf opposite ends of the body portion 110. The heel portion 150
club head of FIG. 33 along line 41-41 of FIG. 36. may include a hose! portion 155 configured to receive a shaft
FIG. 42 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf 20 (not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the golf
club head of FIG. 33 along line 42-42 of FIG. 36. club head 100 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a golf
FIG. 43 depicts yet another manner in which an example club.
golf club head described herein may be manufactured. The front portion 160 may include a face portion 162
FIG. 44 depicts yet another manner in which an example (e.g., a strike face). The face portion 162 may include a front
golf club head described herein may be manufactured. 25 surface 164 and a back surface 166. The front surface 164
FIG. 45 depicts an example of curing a bonding agent. may include one or more grooves 168 extending between the
For simplicity and clarity of illustration, the drawing toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150. While the figures
figures illustrate the general manner of construction, and may depict a particular number of grooves, the apparatus,
descriptions and details of well-known features and tech- methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may
niques may be omitted to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the 30 include more or less grooves. The face portion 162 may be
present disclosure. Additionally, elements in the drawing used to impact a golf ball (not shown). The face portion 162
figures may not be depicted to scale. For example, the may be an integral portion of the body portion 110. Alter-
dimensions of some of the elements in the figures may be natively, the face portion 162 may be a separate piece or an
exaggerated relative to other elements to help improve insert coupled to the body portion 110 via various manu-
understanding of embodiments of the present disclosure. 35 facturing methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process
such as adhesive, a welding process such as laser welding,
DESCRIPTION a brazing process, a soldering process, a fusing process, a
mechanical locking or connecting method, any combination
In general, golf club heads and methods to manufacture thereof, or other suitable types of manufacturing methods
golf club heads are described herein. The apparatus, meth- 40 and/or processes). The face portion 162 may be associated
ods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not with a loft plane that defines the loft angle of the golf club
limited in this regard. head 100. The loft angle may vary based on the type of golf
In the example of FIGS. 1-14, a golf club head 100 may club (e.g., a long iron, a middle iron, a short iron, a wedge,
include a body portion 110 (FIG. 14), and two or more etc.). In one example, the loft angle may be between five
weight portions, generally shown as a first set of weight 45 degrees and seventy-five degrees. In another example, the
portions 120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, loft angle may be between twenty degrees and sixty degrees.
and 124) and a second set of weight portions 130 (e.g., The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and described herein are not limited in this regard.
137). The body portion 110 may include a toe portion 140, As illustrated in FIG. 14, the back portion 170 may
a heel portion 150, a front portion 160, a back portion 170, 50 include a back wall portion 1410 with one or more exterior
a top portion 180, and a sole portion 190. The body portion weight ports along a periphery of the back portion 170,
110 may be made of a first material whereas the first and generally shown as a first set of exterior weight ports 1420
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, (e.g., shown as weight ports 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424)
may be made of a second material. The first and second and a second set of exterior weight ports 1430 (e.g., shown
materials may be similar or different materials. For example, 55 as weight ports 1431, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1435, 1436, and
the body portion 110 may be partially or entirely made of a 1437). Each exterior weight port may be associated with a
steel-based material (e.g., 17-4 PH stainless steel, Nitronic port diameter. In one example, the port diameter may be
50 stainless steel, maraging steel or other types of stainless about 0.25 inch (6.35 millimeters). Any two adjacent exte-
steel), a titanium-based material, an aluminum-based mate- rior weight ports of the first set of exterior weight ports 1420
rial (e.g., a high-strength aluminum alloy or a composite 60 may be separated by less than the port diameter. In a similar
aluminum alloy coated with a high-strength alloy), any manner, any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the second
combination thereof, and/or other suitable types of materi- set of exterior weight ports 1430 may be separated by less
als. The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, than the port diameter. The first and second exterior weight
respectively, may be partially or entirely made of a high- ports 1420 and 1430 may be exterior weight ports config-
density material such as a tungsten-based material or other 65 ured to receive one or more weight portions. In particular,
suitable types of materials. Alternatively, the body portion each weight portion of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as
110 and/or the first and second sets of weight portions 120 weight portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) may be disposed in
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a weight port located at or proximate to the toe portion 140 first set of weight portions 120 may be a single piece of
and/or the top portion 180 on the back portion 170. For weight portion instead of a series of four separate weight
example, the weight portion 121 may be partially or entirely portions. In another example, the second set of weight
disposed in the weight port 1421. In another example, the portions 130 may be a single piece of weight portion instead
weight portion 122 may be disposed in a weight port 1422 5 of a series of seven separate weight portions. The apparatus,
located in a transition region between the top portion 180 methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are
and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a top-and-toe transition not limited in this regard.
region). Each weight portion of the second set 130 (e.g., Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, for example, the first and
shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
137) may be disposed in a weight port located at or proxi- 10 may include threads, generally shown as 1210 and 1310,
mate to the toe portion 140 and/or the sole portion 190 on the respectively, to engage with correspondingly configured
back portion 170. For example, the weight portion 135 may threads in the weight ports to secure in the weight ports of
be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1435. In the back portion 170 (generally shown as 1420 and 1430 in
another example, the weight portion 136 may be disposed in FIG. 14). For example, each weight portion of the first and
a weight port 1436 located in a transition region between the 15 second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
sole portion 190 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a sole-and-toe may be a screw. The first and second sets of weight portions
transition region). As described in detail below, the first and 120 and 130, respectively, may not be readily removable
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, from the body portion 110 with or without a tool. Alterna-
may be coupled to the back portion 170 of the body portion tively, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
110 with various manufacturing methods and/or processes 20 130, respectively, may be readily removable (e.g., with a
(e.g., a bonding process, a welding process, a brazing tool) so that a relatively heavier or lighter weight portion
process, a mechanical locking method, any combination may replace one or more of the weight portions of the first
thereof, or other suitable manufacturing methods and/or and second sets 120 and 130, respectively. In another
processes). example, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
Alternatively, the golf club head 100 may not include (i) 25 130, respectively, may be secured in the weight ports of the
the first set of weight portions 120, (ii) the second set of back portion 170 with epoxy or adhesive so that the first and
weight portions 130, or (iii) both the first and second sets of second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
weight portions 120 and 130. In particular, the back portion may not be readily removable. In yet another example, the
170 of the body portion 110 may not include weight ports at first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
or proximate to the top portion 170 and/or the sole portion 30 respectively, may be secured in the weight ports of the back
190. For example, the mass of the first set of weight portions portion 170 with both epoxy and threads so that the first and
120 (e.g., 3 grams) and/or the mass of the second set of second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
weight portions 130 (e.g., 16.8 grams) may be integral may not be readily removable. The apparatus, methods, and
part(s) the body portion 110 instead of separate weight articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
portion(s). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manu- 35 this regard.
facture described herein are not limited in this regard. As mentioned above, the first and second sets of weight
The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be similar in some
respectively, may have similar or different physical proper- physical properties but different in other physical properties.
ties (e.g., color, shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). As As illustrated in FIGS. 11-13, for example, each of the
a result, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 40 weight portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130,
130, respectively, may contribute to the ornamental design respectively, may have a diameter 1110 of about 0.25 inch
of the golf club head 100. In the illustrated example as (6.35 millimeters) but the first and second sets of weight
shown in FIG. 11, each of the weight portions of the first and portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be different in
second sets 120 and 130, respectively, may have a cylindri- height. In particular, each of the weight portions of the first
cal shape (e.g., a circular cross section). Alternatively, each 45 set 120 may be associated with a first height 1220 (FIG. 12),
of the weight portions of the first set 120 may have a first and each of the weight portion of the second set 130 may be
shape (e.g., a cylindrical shape) whereas each of the weight associated with a second height 1320 (FIG. 13). The first
portions of the second set 130 may have a second shape height 1220 may be relatively shorter than the second height
(e.g., a cubical shape). In another example, the first set of 1320. In one example, the first height 1220 may be about
weight portions 120 may include two or more weight 50 0.125 inch (3.175 millimeters) whereas the second height
portions with different shapes (e.g., the weight portion 121 1320 may be about 0.3 inch (7.62 millimeters). In another
may be a first shape whereas the weight portion 122 may be example, the first height 1220 may be about 0.16 inch (4.064
a second shape different from the first shape). Likewise, the millimeters) whereas the second height 1320 may be about
second set of weight portions 130 may also include two or 0.4 inch (10.16 millimeters). Alternatively, the first height
more weight portions with different shapes (e.g., the weight 55 1220 may be equal to or greater than the second height 1320.
portion 131 may be a first shape whereas the weight portion The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
132 may be a second shape different from the first shape). described herein are not limited in this regard.
Although the above examples may describe weight portions Referring back to FIG. 10, for example, the golf club head
having a particular shape, the apparatus, methods, and 100 may be associated with a ground plane 1010, a hori-
articles of manufacture described herein may include weight 60 zontal midplane 1020, and a top plane 1030. In particular,
portions of other suitable shapes (e.g., a portion of or a the ground plane 1010 may be a tangential plane to the sole
whole sphere, cube, cone, cylinder, pyramid, cuboidal, portion 190 of the golf club head 100 when the golf club
prism, frustum, or other suitable geometric shape). While the head 100 is at an address position (e.g., the golf club head
above examples and figures may depict multiple weight 100 is aligned to strike a golf ball). A top plane 1030 may
portions as a set of weight portions, each set of the first and 65 be a tangential plane to the top portion of the 180 of the golf
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, club head 100 when the golf club head 100 is at the address
may be a single piece of weight portion. In one example, the position. The ground and top planes 1010 and 1030, respec-
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tively, may be substantially parallel to each other. The and the toe portion 140 to lower the center of gravity and
horizontal midplane 1020 may be vertically halfWay increase the moment of inertia of the golf club head 100
between the ground and top planes 1010 and 1030, respec- about a vertical axis that extends through the center of
tively. gravity. To lower the center of gravity of the golf club head
To provide optimal perimeter weighting for the golf club 5 100, all or a portion of the second set of weight portions 130
head 100, the first set of weight portions 120 (e.g., weight may be located closer to the sole portion 190 than to the
portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) may be configured to horizontal midplane 1020. For example, the weight portions
counter-balance the weight of the hosel155. For example, as 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, and 136 may be closer to the sole
shown in FIG. 10, the first set of weight portions 120 (e.g., portion 190 than to the horizontal midplane 1020. The
weight portions 121, 122, 123 and 124) may be located near 10 locations of the second set of weight portions 130 (i.e., the
the periphery of the body portion 110 and extend from the locations of the second set of exterior weight ports 1430) and
top portion to a transition region 145 between the top portion the physical properties and materials of construction of the
180 and the toe portion 140, and from the transition region weight portions of the second set of weight portions 130 may
145 to the toe portion 140. In other words, the first set of be determined to optimally affect the weight, weight distri-
weight portions 120 may be located on the golf club head 15 bution, center of gravity, moment of inertia characteristics,
100 at a generally opposite location relative to the hosel155. structural integrity and/or or other static and/or dynamic
According to one example, at least a portion of the first set characteristics of the golf club head 100. The apparatus,
of weight portions 120 may be located near the periphery of methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are
the body portion 110 and extend through the transition not limited in this regard.
region 145. According to another example, at least a portion 20 Turning to FIGS. 7-9, for example, the first and second
of the first set of weight portions 120 may extend near the sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be
periphery of the body portion 110 and extend along a portion located away from the back surface 166 of the face portion
of the top portion 180. According to another example, at 162 (e.g., not directly coupled to each other). That is, the first
least a portion of the first set of weight portions 120 may and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respec-
extend near the periphery of the body portion 110 and extend 25 tively, and the back surface 166 may be partially or entirely
along a portion of the toe portion 140. The first set of weight separated by an interior cavity 700 of the body portion 110.
portions 120 may be above the horizontal midplane 1020 of As shown in FIG. 14, for example, each exterior weight port
the golf club head 100. At least a portion of the first set of of the first and second sets of exterior weight ports 1420 and
weight portions 120 may be near the toe portion 140 to 1430 may include an opening (e.g., generally shown as 720
increase the moment of inertia of the golf club head 100 30 and 730) and a port wall (e.g., generally shown as 725 and
about a vertical axis of the golf club head 100 that extends 735). The port walls 725 and 735 may be integral portions
through the center of gravity of the golf club head 100. of the back wall portion 1410 (e.g., a section of the back wall
Accordingly, the first set of weight portions 120 may be near portion 1410). Each of the openings 720 and 730 may be
the periphery of the body portion 110 and extend through the configured to receive a weight portion such as weight
top portion 180, the toe portion 140 and/or the transition 35 portions 121 and 135, respectively. The opening 720 may be
region 145 to counter-balance the weight of the hose! 155 located at one end of the weight port 1421, and the port wall
and/or increase the moment of inertia of the golf club head 725 may be located or proximate to at an opposite end of the
100. The locations of the first set of weight portions 120 (i.e., weight port 1421. In a similar manner, the opening 730 may
the locations of the first set of exterior weight ports 1420) be located at one end of the weight port 1435, and the port
and the physical properties and materials of construction of 40 wall 735 may be located at or proximate to an opposite end
the weight portions of the first set of weight portions 120 of the weight port 1435. The port walls 725 and 735 may be
may be determined to optimally affect the weight, weight separated from the face portion 162 (e.g., separated by the
distribution, center of gravity, moment of inertia character- interior cavity 700). The port wall 725 may have a distance
istics, structural integrity and/or or other static and/or 726 from the back surface 166 of the face portion 162 as
dynamic characteristics of the golf club head 100. The 45 shown in FIG. 9. The port wall 735 may have a distance 736
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described from the back surface 166 of the face portion 162. The
herein are not limited in this regard. distances 726 and 736 may be determined to optimize the
The second set of weight portions 130 (e.g., weight location of the center of gravity of the golf club head 100
portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137) may be when the first and second sets of weight ports 1420 and
configured to place the center of gravity of the golf club head 50 1430, respectively, receive weight portions as described
100 at an optimal location and optimize the moment of herein. According to one example, the distance 736 may be
inertia of the golf club head about a vertical axis that extends greater than the distance 726 so that the center of gravity of
through the center of gravity of the golf club head 100. the golf club head 100 is moved toward the back portion
Referring to FIG. 10, all or a substantial portion of the 170. As a result, a width 740 of a portion of the interior
second set of weight portions 130 may be generally near the 55 cavity 700 below the horizontal midplane 1020 may be
sole portion 190. For example, the second set of weight greater than a width 742 of the interior cavity 700 above the
portions 130 (e.g., weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, horizontal midplane 1020. The apparatus, methods, and
136, and 137) may be near the periphery of the body portion articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
110 and extend from the sole portion 190 to the toe portion this regard.
140. As shown in the example of FIG. 10, the weight 60 As discussed herein, the center of gravity (CG) of the golf
portions 131, 132, 133, and 134 may be located near the club head 100 may be relatively farther back away from the
periphery of the body portion 110 and extend along the sole face portion 162 and relatively lower towards a ground plane
portion 190 to lower the center of gravity of the golf club (e.g., one shown as 1010 in FIG. 10) with all or a substantial
head 100. The weight portions 135, 136 and 137 may be portion of the second set of weight portions 130 being closer
located near the periphery of the body portion 110 and 65 to the sole portion 190 than to the horizontal midplane 1020
extend from the sole portion 190 to the toe portion 140 and the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130,
through a transition region 147 between the sole portion 190 respectively being away from the back surface 166 than if
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the second set of weight portions 130 were directly coupled grams versus a total mass of the first set of weight portions
to the back surface 166. The locations of the first and second 120 of about 3 grams). The golf club head 100 may have a
sets of weight ports 1420 and 1430 and the physical prop- total mass of 19.8 grams from the first and second sets of
erties and materials of construction of the weight portions of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively (e.g., sum of 3
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, 5 grams from the first set of weight portions 120 and 16.8
respectively, may be determined to optimally affect the grams from the second set of weight portions 130). Accord-
weight, weight distribution, center of gravity, moment of ingly, the first set of weight portions 120 may account for
inertia characteristics, structural integrity and/or or other about 15% of the total mass from exterior weight portions of
static and/or dynamic characteristics of the golf club head the golf club head 100 whereas the second set of weight
100. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture 10 portions 130 may be account for about 85% of the total mass
described herein are not limited in this regard. from exterior weight portions of the golf club head 100. The
While the figures may depict weight ports with a particu- apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
lar cross-section shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles herein are not limited in this regard.
of manufacture described herein may include weight ports By coupling the first and second sets of weight portions
with other suitable cross-section shapes. In one example, the 15 120 and 130, respectively, to the body portion 110 (e.g.,
weight ports of the first and/or second sets of weight ports securing the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
1420 and 1430 may have U-like cross-section shape. In 130 in the weight ports on the back portion 170), the location
another example, the weight ports of the first and/or second of the center of gravity (CG) and the moment of inertia
set of weight ports 1420 and 1430 may have V-like cross- (MOl) of the golf club head 100 may be optimized. In
section shape. One or more of the weight ports associated 20 particular, as described herein, the first and second sets of
with the first set of weight portions 120 may have a different weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may lower the
cross-section shape than one or more weight ports associated location of the CG towards the sole portion 190 and further
with the second set of weight portions 130. For example, the back away from the face portion 162. Further, the MOl may
weight port 1421 may have a U-like cross-section shape be higher as measured about a vertical axis extending
whereas the weight port 1435 may have a V-like cross- 25 through the CG (e.g., perpendicular to the ground plane
section shape. Further, two or more weight ports associated 1010). The MOl may also be higher as measured about a
with the first set of weight portions 120 may have different horizontal axis extending through the CG (e.g., extending
cross-section shapes. In a similar manner, two or more towards the toe and heel portions 150 and 160, respectively,
weight ports associated with the second set of weight of the golf club head 100). As a result, the club head 100 may
portions 130 may have different cross-section shapes. The 30 provide a relatively higher lannch angle and a relatively
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described lower spin rate than a golf club head without the first and
herein are not limited in this regard. second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively.
The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
respectively, may be similar in mass (e.g., all of the weight described herein are not limited in this regard.
portions of the first and second sets 120 and 130, respec- 35 Alternatively, two or more weight portions in the same set
tively, weigh about the same). Alternatively, the first and may be different in mass. In one example, the weight portion
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, 121 of the first set 120 may have a relatively lower mass than
may be different in mass individually or as an entire set. In the weight portion 122 of the first set 120. In another
particular, each of the weight portions of the first set 120 example, the weight portion 131 of the second set 130 may
(e.g., shown as 121, 122, 123, and 124) may have relatively 40 have a relatively lower mass than the weight portion 135 of
less mass than any of the weight portions of the second set the second set 130. With relatively greater mass at the
130 (e.g., shown as 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137). top-and-toe transition region and/or the sole-and-toe transi-
For example, the second set of weight portions 130 may tion region, more weight may be distributed away from the
account for more than 50% of the total mass from exterior center of gravity (CG) of the golf club head 100 to increase
weight portions of the golf club head 100. As a result, the 45 the moment of inertia (MOl) about the vertical axis through
golf club head 100 may be configured to have at least 50% the CG.
of the total mass from exterior weight portions disposed Although the figures may depict the weight portions as
below the horizontal midplane 1020. The apparatus, meth- separate and individual parts, each set of the first and second
ods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be a
limited in this regard. 50 single piece of weight portion. In one example, all of the
In one example, the golf club head 100 may have a mass weight portions of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as 121, 122,
in the range of about 220 grams to about 330 grams based 123, and 124) may be combined into a single piece of weight
on the type of golf club (e.g., a 4-iron versus a lob wedge). portion (e.g., a first weight portion). In a similar manner, all
The body portion 110 may have a mass in the range of about of the weight portions of the second set 130 (e.g., 131, 132,
200 grams to about 310 grams with the first and second sets 55 133, 134, 135, 136, and 137) may be combined into a single
of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, having a mass piece of weight portion as well (e.g., a second weight
of about 20 grams (e.g., a total mass from exterior weight portion). In this example, the golf club head 100 may have
portions). Each of the weight portions of the first set 120 only two weight portions. While the figures may depict a
may have a mass of about one gram (1.0 g) whereas each of particular number of weight portions, the apparatus, meth-
the weight portions of the second set 130 may have a mass 60 ods, and articles of manufacture described herein may
of about 2.4 grams. The sum of the mass of the first set of include more or less number of weight portions. In one
weight portions 120 may be about 3 grams whereas the sum example, the first set of weight portions 120 may include
of the mass of the first set of weight portions 130 may be two separate weight portions instead of three separate
about 16.8 grams. The total mass of the second set of weight weight portions as shown in the figures. In another example,
portions 130 may weigh more than five times as much as the 65 the second set of weight portions 130 may include five
total mass of the first set of weight portions 120 (e.g., a total separate weight portions instead of seven separate weight
mass of the second set of weight portions 130 of about 16.8 portions a shown in the figures. Alternatively as mentioned
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above, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture vide low compression, and provide high resilience. The
described herein may not include any separate weight por- apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
tions (e.g., the body portion 110 may be manufactured to herein are not limited in this regard.
include the mass of the separate weight portions as integral Turning to FIG. 15, for example, the face portion 162 may
part(s) of the body portion 110). The apparatus, methods, 5 include a first thickness 1510 (T 1 ), and a second thickness
and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited 1520 (T 2 ). The first thickness 1510 may be a thickness of a
in this regard. section of the face portion 162 adjacent to a groove 168
Referring back to FIGS. 7-9, for example, the body whereas the second thickness 1520 may be a thickness of a
portion 110 may be a hollow body including the interior section of the face portion 162 below the groove 168. For
cavity 700 extending between the front portion 160 and the 10 example, the first thickness 1510 may be a maximum
back portion 170. Further, the interior cavity 700 may extend distance between the front surface 164 and the back surface
between the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190. The 166. The second thickness 1520 may be based on the groove
interior cavity 700 may be associated with a cavity height 168. In particular, the groove 168 may have a groove depth
750 (He), and the body portion 110 may be associated with 1525 (Dgroove). The second thickness 1520 may be a maxi-
a body height 850 (HB). While the cavity height 750 and the 15 mum distance between the bottom of the groove 168 and the
body height 850 may vary between the toe and heel portions back surface 166. The sum of the second thickness 1520 and
140 and 150, the cavity height 750 may be at least 50% of the groove depth 1525 may be substantially equal to the first
a body height 850 (Hc>0.5*HB). For example, the cavity thickness 1510 (e.g., T 2 +Dgroove=T 1 ). Accordingly, the sec-
height 750 may vary between 70-85% of the body height ond thickness 1520 may be less than the first thickness 1510
850. With the cavity height 750 of the interior cavity 700 20 (e.g., T2 <T 1 ).
being greater than 50% of the body height 850, the golf club To lower and/or move the CG of the golf club head 100
head 100 may produce relatively more consistent feel, further back, weight from the front portion 160 of the golf
sound, and/or result when the golf club head 100 strikes a club head 100 may be removed by using a relatively thinner
golf ball via the face portion 162 than a golf club head with face portion 162. For example, the first thickness 1510 may
a cavity height of less than 50% of the body height. The 25 be about 0.075 inch (1.905 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 =0.075
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described inch). With the support of the back wall portion 1410 to form
herein are not limited in this regard. the interior cavity 700 and filling at least a portion of the
In one example, the interior cavity 700 may be unfilled interior cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material, the face
(i.e., empty space). The body portion 100 with the interior portion 162 may be relatively thinner (e.g., T 1 <0.075 inch)
cavity 700 may weight about 100 grams less than the body 30 without degrading the structural integrity, sound, and/or feel
portion 100 without the interior cavity 700. Alternatively, of the golf club head 100. In one example, the first thickness
the interior cavity 700 may be partially or entirely filled with 1510 may be less than or equal to 0.060 inch (1.524
an elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a viscoelastic millimeters) (e.g., T 1 s0.060 inch). In another example, the
urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane material first thickness 1510 may be less than or equal to 0.040 inch
manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a thermo- 35 (1.016 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 s0.040 inch). Based on the type
plastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic polyure- of material(s) used to form the face portion 162 and/or the
thane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of mate- body portion 110, the face portion 162 may be even thinner
rials to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise. with the first thickness 1510 being less than or equal to 0.030
For example, at least 50% of the interior cavity 700 may be inch (0.762 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 s0.030 inch). The groove
filled with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate vibration, 40 depth 1525 may be greater than or equal to the second
and/or dampen noise when the golf club head 100 strikes a thickness 1520 (e.g., Dgroove"=T 2 ). In one example, the
golf ball via the face portion 162. groove depth 1525 may be about 0.020 inch (0.508 milli-
In another example, the interior cavity 700 may be meters) (e.g., Dgroove=0.020 inch). Accordingly, the second
partially or entirely filled with a polymer material such as an thickness 1520 may be about 0.010 inch (0.254 millimeters)
ethylene copolymer material to absorb shock, isolate vibra- 45 (e.g., T 2 =0.010 inch). In another example, the groove depth
tion, and/or dampen noise when the golf club head 100 1525 may be about 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the
strikes a golf ball via the face portion 162. In particular, at second thickness 1520 may be about 0.015 inch (e.g.,
least 50% of the interior cavity 700 may be filled with a high Dgroove=T 2 =0.015 inch). Alternatively, the groove depth
density ethylene copolymer ionomer, a fatty acid modified 1525 may be less than the second thickness 1520 (e.g.,
ethylene copolymer ionomer, a highly amorphous ethylene 50 Dgroove <T 2 ). Without the support of the back wall portion
copolymer ionomer, an ionomer of ethylene acid acrylate 1410 and the elastic polymer material to fill in the interior
terpolymer, an ethylene copolymer comprising a magnesium cavity 700, a golf club head may not be able to withstand
ionomer, an injection moldable ethylene copolymer that may multiple impacts by a golf ball on a face portion. In contrast
be used in conventional injection molding equipment to to the golf club head 100 as described herein, a golf club
create various shapes, an ethylene copolymer that can be 55 head with a relatively thin face portion but without the
used in conventional extrusion equipment to create various support of the back wall portion 1410 and the elastic
shapes, and/or an ethylene copolymer having high compres- polymer material to fill in the interior cavity 700 (e.g., a
sion and low resilience similar to thermoset polybutadiene cavity-back golf club head) may produce unpleasant sound
rubbers. For example, the ethylene copolymer may include (e.g., a tinny sound) and/or feel during impact with a golf
any of the ethylene copolymers associated with DuPont 60 ball. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
High-Performance Resin (HPF) family of materials (e.g., described herein are not limited in this regard.
DuPont HPF AD1172, DuPont HPF AD1035, DuPont Based on manufacturing processes and methods used to
HPF 1000 and DuPont HPF 2000), which are manufac- form the golf club head 100, the face portion 162 may
tured by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company of Wilm- include additional material at or proximate to a periphery of
ington, Del. The DuPont HPF family of ethylene capo- 65 the face portion 162. Accordingly, the face portion 162 may
lymers are injection moldable and may be used with also include a third thickness 1530, and a chamfer portion
conventional injection molding equipment and molds, pro- 1540. The third thickness 1530 may be greater than either
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the first thickness 1510 or the second thickness 1520 (e.g., example, the weight portions of the first and second sets 120
T 3 >T 1 >T 2 ). In particular, the face portion 162 may be and 130, respectively, may be tungsten-alloy screws.
coupled to the body portion 110 by a welding process. For The process 1700 may provide a body portion 110 having
example, the first thickness 1510 may be about 0.030 inch the face portion 162, the interior cavity 700, and the back
(0.762 millimeters), the second thickness 1520 may be about 5 portion 170 with two or more exterior weight ports, gener-
0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), and the third thickness 1530 ally shown as 1420 and 1430 (block 1720). The body portion
may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 millimeters). Accordingly, 110 may be made of a second material, which is different
the chamfer portion 1540 may accommodate some of the than the first material. The body portion 110 may be manu-
additional material when the face portion 162 is welded to facture using an investment casting process, a billet forging
the body portion 110. 10 process, a stamping process, a computer numerically con-
As illustrated in FIG. 16, for example, the face portion trolled (CNC) machining process, a die casting process, any
162 may include a reinforcement section, generally shown combination thereof, or other suitable manufacturing pro-
as 1605, below one or more grooves 168. In one example, cesses. In one example, the body portion 110 may be made
the face portion 162 may include a reinforcement section of 17-4 PH stainless steel using a casting process. In another
1605 below each groove. Alternatively, face portion 162 15 example, the body portion 110 may be made of other
may include the reinforcement section 1605 below some suitable type of stainless steel (e.g., Nitronic 50 stainless
grooves (e.g., every other groove) or below only one groove. steel manufactured by AK Steel Corporation, West Chester,
The face portion 162 may include a first thickness 1610, a Ohio) using a forging process. By using Nitronic 50
second thickness 1620, a third thickness 1630, and a cham- stainless steel to manufacture the body portion 110, the golf
fer portion 1640. The groove 168 may have a groove depth 20 club head 100 may be relatively stronger and/or more
1625. The reinforcement section 168 may define the second resistant to corrosion than golf club heads made from other
thickness 1620. The first and second thicknesses 1610 and types of steel. Each weight port of the body portion 110 may
1620, respectively, may be substantially equal to each other include an opening and a port wall. For example, the weight
(e.g., T 1 =T 2 ). In one example, the first and second thick- port 1421 may include the opening 720 and the port wall 725
nesses 1610 and 1620, respectively, may be about 0.030 inch 25 with the opening 720 and the port wall 725 being on
(0.762 millimeters) (e.g., T 1 =T2 =0.030 inch). The groove opposite ends of each other. The interior cavity 700 may
depth 1625 may be about 0.015 inch (0.381 millimeters), separate the port wall 725 of the weight port 1421 and the
and the third thickness 1630 may be about 0.050 inch (1.27 back surface 166 of the face portion 162. In a similar
millimeters). The groove 168 may also have a groove width. mauner, the weight port 1835 may include the opening 730
The width of the reinforcement section 1605 may be greater 30 and the port wall 735 with the opening 730 and the port wall
than or equal to the groove width. The apparatus, methods, 735 being on opposite ends of each other. The interior cavity
and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited 700 may separate the port wall 735 of the weight port 1435
in this regard. and the back surface 166 of the face portion 162.
Alternatively, the face portion 162 may vary in thickness The process 1700 may couple each of the first and second
at and/or between the top portion 180 and the sole portion 35 sets of weight portions 120 and 130 into one of the two or
190. In one example, the face portion 162 may be relatively more exterior weight ports (blocks 1730). In one example,
thicker at or proximate to the top portion 180 than at or the process 1700 may insert and secure the weight portion
proximate to the sole portion 190 (e.g., thickness of the face 121 in the exterior weight port 1421, and the weight portion
portion 162 may taper from the top portion 180 towards the 135 in the exterior weight portion 1435. The process 1700
sole portion 190). In another example, the face portion 162 40 may use various manufacturing methods and/or processes to
may be relatively thicker at or proximate to the sole portion secure the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
190 than at or proximate to the top portion 180 (e.g., 130, respectively, in the exterior weight ports such as the
thickness of the face portion 162 may taper from the sole weight ports 1421 and 1435 (e.g., epoxy, welding, brazing,
portion 190 towards the top portion 180). In yet another mechanicallock(s), any combination thereof, etc.).
example, the face portion 162 may be relatively thicker 45 The process 1700 may partially or entirely fill the interior
between the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190 than at cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material (e.g., Sorboth-
or proximate to the top portion 180 and the sole portion 190 ane material) or a polymer material (e.g., an ethylene
(e.g., thickness of the face portion 162 may have a bell- copolymer material such as DuPont HPF family of mate-
shaped contour). The apparatus, methods, and articles of rials) (block 1740). In one example, at least 50% of the
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. 50 interior cavity 700 may be filled with the elastic polymer
Different from other golf club head designs, the interior material. As mentioned above, the elastic polymer material
cavity 700 of the body portion 110 and the location of the may absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen noise in
first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, response to the golf club head 100 striking a golf ball. In
respectively, along the perimeter of the golf club head 100 addition or alternatively, the interior cavity 700 may be filled
may result in a golf ball traveling away from the face portion 55 with a thermoplastic elastomer material and/or a thermo-
162 at a relatively higher ball launch angle and a relatively plastic polyurethane material. As illustrated in FIG. 18, for
lower spin rate. As a result, the golf ball may travel farther example, the golf club head 100 may include one or more
(i.e., greater total distance, which includes carry and roll weight ports (e.g., one shown as 1431 in FIG.14) with a first
distances). opening 1830 and a second opening 1835. The second
FIG. 17 depicts one manner in which the example golf 60 opening 1835 may be used to access the interior cavity 700.
club head described herein may be manufactured. In the In one example, the process 1700 (FIG. 17) may fill the
example of FIG. 17, the process 1700 may begin with interior cavity 700 with an elastic polymer material by
providing two or more weight portions, generally shown as injecting the elastic polymer material into the interior cavity
the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, 700 from the first opening 1830 via the second opening
respectively (block 1710). The first and second sets of 65 1835. The first and second openings 1830 and 1835, respec-
weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, may be made of tively, may be same or different in size and/or shape. While
a first material such as a tungsten-based material. In one the above example may describe and depict a particular
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weight port with a second opening, any other weight ports sidewalls, generally shown as 2230 and 2232. The bottom
of the golf club head 100 may include a second opening section 2220 may be parallel or substantially parallel to the
(e.g., the weight port 720). The apparatus, methods, and back surface 2010. The two sidewalls 2230 and 2232 may be
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in stepped sidewalls. The bottom section 2220 and the side-
this regard. 5 walls 2230 and 2232 may form two undercut portions,
Referring back to FIG. 17, the example process 1700 is generally shown as 2240 and 2242. That is, a width 2215 at
merely provided and described in conjunction with other the opening 2210 may be less than a width 2225 of the
figures as an example of one way to manufacture the golf bottom section 2220. A cross section of the channel 2200
club head 100. While a particular order of actions is illus- may be symmetrical about an axis 2250.
trated in FIG. 17, these actions may be performed in other 10 Instead of being symmetrical as shown in FIGS. 21 and
temporal sequences. For example, two or more actions 22, a channel may be asymmetrical. As illustrated in FIG.
depicted in FIG. 17 may be performed sequentially, concur- 23, for another example, a channel 2300 may include an
rently, or simultaneously. In one example, blocks 1710, opening 2310, a bottom section 2320, and two sidewalls,
1720, 1730, and/or 1740 may be performed simultaneously generally shown as 2330 and 2332. The bottom section 2320
or concurrently. Although FIG. 17 depicts a particular num- 15 may be parallel or substantially parallel to the back surface
ber of blocks, the process may not perform one or more 2010. The bottom section 2320 and the sidewall 2330 may
blocks. In one example, the interior cavity 700 may not be form an undercut portion 2340.
filled (i.e., block 1740 may not be performed). The appara- Referring to FIG. 24, for example, a channel 2400 may
tus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein include an opening 2410, a bottom section 2420, and two
are not limited in this regard. 20 sidewalls, generally shown as 2430 and 2432. The bottom
Referring back to FIGS. 1-14, the face portion 162 may section 2420 may not be parallel or substantially parallel to
include a non-smooth back surface to improve adhesion the back surface 2010. The two sidewalls 2430 and 2432
and/or mitigate delamination between the face portion 162 may be parallel or substantially parallel to each other but one
and the elastic polymer material used to fill the interior sidewall may be longer than the other sidewall. The bottom
cavity 700 (e.g., FIG. 7). Various methods and/or processes 25 section 2420 and the sidewall 2432 may form an undercut
such as an abrasive blasting process (e.g., a bead blasting portion 2440.
process, a sand blasting process, other suitable blasting In the example as shown in FIG. 25, a face portion 2500
process, or any combination thereof) and/or a milling (ma- may include a back surface 2510 with one or more channels,
chining) process may be used to form the back surface 166 generally shown as 2520, extending laterally across the back
into a non-smooth surface. For example, the back surface 30 surface 2510 (e.g., extending between the top portion 180
166 may have with a surface roughness (Ra) ranging from and the sole portion 190 of FIG. 1). In another example as
0.5 to 250 f.tin (0.012 to 6.3 f.tm). The apparatus, methods, depicted in FIG. 26, a face portion 2600 may include a back
and articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard. surface 2610 with one or more channels, generally shown as
As illustrated in FIGS. 19-21, for example, a face portion 2620, extending diagonally across the back surface 2610.
1900 may include the front surface 1910, and the back 35 Alternatively, a face portion may include a combination of
surface 2010. The front surface 1910 may include one or channels extending in different directions across a back
more grooves, generally shown as 1920, extending longitu- surface of the face portion (e.g., extending longitudinally,
dinally across the front surface 1910 (e.g., extending laterally, and/or diagonally). Turning to FIG. 27, for yet
between the toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150 of FIG. another example, a face portion 2700 may include a back
1). The front surface 1910 may be used to impact a golf ball 40 surface 2710 with one or more channels, generally shown as
(not shown). 2720, 2730, and 2740, extending in different directions
The back surface 2010 may also include one or more across the back surface 2710. In particular, the face portion
channels, generally shown as 2020. The charmels 2020 may 2700 may include a plurality of channels 2720 extending
extend longitudinally across the back surface 2010. The longitudinally across the back surface 2710, a plurality of
channels 2020 may be parallel or substantially parallel to 45 channels 2730 extending laterally across the back surface
each other. The channels 2020 may engage with the elastic 2710, and a plurality of channels 2740 extending diagonally
polymer material used to fill the interior cavity 700, and across the back surface 2710.
serve as a mechanical locking mechanism between the face Referring to FIG. 28, for example, the golf club head 100
portion 1900 and the elastic polymer material. In particular, may include the face portion 162, a bonding portion 2810,
a channel 2100 may include an opening 2110, a bottom 50 and an elastic polymer material 2820. The bonding portion
section 2120, and two sidewalls, generally shown as 2130 2810 may provide connection, attachment and/or bonding of
and 2132. The bottom section 2120 may be parallel or the elastic polymer material 2820 to the face portion 162.
substantially parallel to the back surface 2010. The two The bonding portion 2810 may be a bonding agent, a
sidewalls 2130 and 2132 may be converging sidewalls (i.e., combination of bonding agents, a bonding structure or
the two sidewalls 2130 and 2132 may not be parallel to each 55 attachment device, a combination of bonding structures
other). The bottom section 2120 and the sidewalls 2130 and and/or attachment devices, and/or a combination of one or
2132 may form two undercut portions, generally shown as more bonding agents, one or more bonding structures and/or
2140 and 2142. That is, a width 2115 at the opening 2110 one or more attachment devices. For example, the golf club
may be less than a width 2125 of the bottom section 2120. head 100 may include a bonding agent to improve adhesion
A cross section of the charmel 2100 may be symmetrical 60 and/or mitigate delamination between the face portion 162
about an axis 2150. While FIG. 21 may depict flat or and the elastic polymer material used to fill the interior
substantially flat sidewalls, the two sidewalls 2130 and 2132 cavity 700 of the golf club head 100 (e.g., FIG. 7). In one
may be curved (e.g., convex relative to each other). example, the bonding portion 2810 may be low-viscosity,
Instead of flat or substantially flat sidewalls as shown in organic, solvent-based solutions and/or dispersions of poly-
FIG. 21, a channel may include other types of sidewalls. As 65 mers and other reactive chemicals such as MEGUMTM,
illustrated in FIG. 22, for example, a channel 2200 may ROBOND, and/or THIXOWM materials manufactured by
include an opening 2210, a bottom section 2220, and two the Dow Chemical Company, Auburn Hills, Mich. In
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another example, the bonding portion 2810 may be LOC- 162 when the face portion 162 impacts a golf ball. For
TITE materials manufactured by Henkel Corporation, example, an elastic polymer material that foams when
Rocky Hill, Conn. The bonding portion 2810 may be applied heated may provide vibration and noise dampening. How-
to the back surface 166 to bond the elastic polymer material ever, such a foaming elastic polymer material may not have
2820 to the face portion 162 (e.g., extending between the 5 sufficient rigidity to provide structural support to a relatively
back surface 166 and the elastic polymer material2820). For thin face portion because of possible excessive deflection
example, the bonding portion 2810 may be applied when the and/or compression of the elastic polymer material when
interior cavity 700 is filled with the elastic polymer material absorbing the impact of a golf ball. In one example, the
2820 via an injection-molding process. The apparatus, meth- elastic polymer material that is injection molded in the
ods, and articles of manufacture are not limited in this 10 interior cavity 700 may have a relatively high modulus of
regard. elasticity to provide structural support to the face portion
FIG. 29 depicts one manner in which the interior cavity 162 and yet elastically deflect to absorb the impact forces
700 of the golf club head 100 or any of the golf club heads experienced by the face portion 162 when striking a golf
described herein is partially or entirely filled with an elastic ball. Thus, a non-foaming and injection moldable elastic
polymer material or an elastomer material. The process 2900 15 polymer material with a relatively high modulus of elasticity
may begin with heating the golf club head 100 to a certain may be used for partially or fully filling the interior cavity
temperature (block 2910). In one example, the golf club 700 to provide structural support and reinforcement for the
head 100 may be heated to a temperature ranging between face portion 162 in addition to providing vibration and noise
150 C. to 250 C., which may depend on factors such as the dampening. That is, the non-foaming and injection moldable
vaporization temperature of the elastic polymer material to 20 elastic polymer material may be a structural support portion
be injected in the interior cavity 700. The elastic polymer for the face portion 162. The apparatus, methods, and
material may then be heated to a certain temperature (block articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard.
2920). The elastic polymer material may be a non-foaming FIG. 30 depicts one manner in which a bonding agent as
and injection-moldable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) described herein may be applied to a golf club head prior to
material. Accordingly, the elastic polymer material may be 25 partially of fully injecting an elastic polymer in the interior
heated to reach a liquid or a flowing state prior to being cavity 700. In the example of FIG. 30, the process 3000 may
injected into the interior cavity 700. The temperature to begin with injecting a bonding agent on the back surface 166
which the elastic polymer material may be heated may of the face portion 162 (block 3010). The bonding agent may
depend on the type of elastic polymer material used to be injected on the back surface 166 prior to or after heating
partially or fully fill the interior cavity 700. The heated 30 the golf club head as described above depending on the
elastic polymer material may be injected into the interior properties of the bonding agent. The bonding agent may be
cavity 700 to partially or fully fill the interior cavity 700 injected through one or more of the first set of weight ports
(block 2930). The elastic polymer material may be injected 1420 and/or the second set of weight ports 1430. The
into the interior cavity 700 from one or more of the weight bonding agent may be injected on the back surface 166
ports described herein (e.g., one or more weight ports of the 35 through several or all of the first set of weight ports 1420 and
first and second sets of weight ports 1420 and 1430, respec- the second set of weight ports 1430. For example, an
tively, shown in FIG. 14). One or more other weight ports injection instrument such as a nozzle or a needle may be
may allow the air inside the interior cavity 700 displaced by inserted into each weight port until the tip or outlet of the
the elastic polymer material to vent from the interior cavity instrument is near the back surface 166. The bonding agent
700. In one example, the golf club head 100 may be oriented 40 may then be injected on the back surface 166 from the outlet
horizontally as shown in FIG. 14 during the injection of the instrument. Additionally, the instrument may be
molding process. The elastic polymer material may be moved, rotated and/or swiveled while inside the interior
injected into the interior cavity 700 from weight ports 1431 cavity 700 so that the bonding agent is injected onto an area
and 1432. The weight ports 1421, 1422 and/or 1423 may of the back surface 166 surrounding the instrument. For
serve as air ports for venting the displaced air from the 45 example, the outlet of the injection instrument may be
interior cavity 700. Thus, regardless of the orientation of the moved in a circular pattern while inside a weight port to
golf club head 100 during the injection molding process, the inject the bonding agent in a corresponding circular pattern
elastic polymer material may be injected into the interior on the back surface 166. Each of the first set of weight ports
cavity 700 from one or more lower positioned weight ports 1420 and the second set of weight ports 1430 may be utilized
while one or more upper positioned weight ports may serve 50 to inject a bonding agent on the back surface 166. However,
as air vents. The mold (i.e., the golf club head 100) may then utilizing all of first weight ports 1420 and/or the second set
be cooled passively (e.g., at room temperature) or actively so of weight ports 1430 may not be necessary. For example,
that the elastic polymer material reaches a solid state and using every other adjacent weight port may be sufficient to
adheres to the back surface 166 of the face portion 162. The inject a bonding agent on the entire back surface 166. In
elastic polymer material may directly adhere to the back 55 another example, weight ports 1421, 1422 1431, 1433 and
surface 166 of the face portion 162. Alternatively, the elastic 1436 may be used to inject the bonding agent on the back
polymer material may adhere to the back surface 166 of the surface 166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
face portion 162 with the aid of the one or more structures facture are not limited in this regard.
on the back surface 166 and/or a bonding agent described The process 3000 may also include spreading the bonding
herein (e.g., the bonding portion 2810 shown in FIG. 28). 60 agent on the back surface 166 (block 3020) after injection of
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture the bonding agent onto the back surface 166 so that a
described herein are not limited in this regard. generally uniform coating of the bonding agent is provided
As discussed above, the elastic polymer material may be on the back surface 166. According to one example, the
heated to a liquid state (i.e., non-foaming) and solidifies after bonding agent may be spread on the back surface 166 by
being injection molded in the interior cavity 700. An elastic 65 injecting air into the interior cavity 700 through one or more
polymer material with a low modulus of elasticity may of the first set of weight ports 1420 and the second set of
provide vibration and noise dampening for the face portion weight ports 1430. The air may be injected into the interior
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cavity 700 and on the back surface 166 by inserting an air partially or entirely made of a non-metal material (e.g.,
nozzle into one or more of the first set of weight ports 1420 composite, plastic, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and
and the second set of weight ports 1430. According to one articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard.
example, the air nozzle may be moved, rotated and/or The golf club head 3100 may be an iron-type golf club
swiveled at a certain distance from the back surface 166 so 5 head (e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a
as to uniformly blow air onto the bonding agent to spread the 6-iron, a 7-iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type
bonding agent on the back surface 166 for a uniform coating golf club head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand
or a substantially uniform coating of the bonding agent on wedge, ann-degree wedge such as 44 degrees (0 ) , 48, 52,
the back surface 166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of 56, 60, etc.). Although FIGS. 31 and 32 may depict a
manufacture are not limited in this regard. 10 particular type of club head, the apparatus, methods, and
The example process 3000 is merely provided and articles of manufacture described herein may be applicable
described in conjunction with other figures as an example of to other types of club heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a
one way to manufacture the golf club head 100. While a fairway wood-type club head, a hybrid-type club head, a
particular order of actions is illustrated in FIG. 30, these putter-type club head, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and
actions may be performed in other temporal sequences. 15 articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
Further, two or more actions depicted in FIG. 30 may be this regard.
performed sequentially, concurrently, or simultaneously. The toe portion 3140 and the heel portion 3150 may be on
The process 3000 may include a single action of injecting opposite ends of the body portion 3110. The heel portion
and uniformly or substantially uniformly coating the back 3150 may include a hose! portion 3155 configured to receive
surface 166 with the bonding agent. In one example, the 20 a shaft (not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and
bonding agent may be injected on the back surface 166 by the golf club head 3100 on the opposite end of the shaft to
being converted into fine particles or droplets (i.e., atom- form a golf club.
ized) and sprayed on the back surface 166. Accordingly, the The back portion 3170 may include a back wall portion
back surface 166 may be uniformly or substantially uni- 3210 with one or more exterior weight ports along a periph-
formly coated with the bonding agent in one action. A 25 ery of the back portion 3170, generally shown as a first set
substantially uniform coating of the back surface 166 with of exterior weight ports 3220 (e.g., shown as weight ports
the bonding agent may be defined as a coating having slight 3221, 3222, 3223, and 3224) and a second weight port 3230.
non-uniformities due to the injection process or the manu- Each exterior weight port of the first set of weight ports 3220
facturing process. However, such slight non-uniformities may be associated with a port diameter. In one example, the
may not affect the bonding of the elastic polymer material or 30 port diameter may be about 0.25 inch (6.35 millimeters).
the elastomer material to the back surface 166 with the Any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the first set of
bonding agent as described herein. For example, spraying exterior weight ports 3220 may be separated by less than the
the bonding agent on the back surface 166 may result in port diameter. The first set of weight ports 3220 and the
overlapping regions of the bonding agent having a slightly second weight port 3230 may be exterior weight ports
greater coating thickness than other regions of the bonding 35 configured to receive one or more weight portions.
agent on the back surface 166. The apparatus, methods, and Each weight portion of the first set of weight portions
articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard. 3120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 3121, 3122, 3123, and
As described herein, any two or more of the weight 3124) may be disposed in a weight port of the first set of
portions may be configured as a single weight portion. In the weight ports 3220 (e.g., shown as weight ports 3221, 3222,
example of FIGS. 31 and 32, a golf club head 3100 may 40 3223, and 3224) located at or proximate to the toe portion
include a body portion 3110 and two or more weight 3140 and/or the top portion 3180 on the back portion 3170.
portions, generally shown as a first set of weight portions For example, the weight portion 3121 may be partially or
3120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 3121, 3122, 3123, and entirely disposed in the weight port 3221. In another
3124) and a second weight portion 3130. The body portion example, the weight portion 3122 may be disposed in a
3110 may include a toe portion 3140, a heel portion 3150, a 45 weight port 3222 located in a transition region between the
front portion (not shown), a back portion 3170, a top portion top portion 3180 and the toe portion 3140 (e.g., a top-and-
3180, and a sole portion 3190. The front portion may be toe transition region). The configuration of the first set of
similar in many respects to the front portion 160 of the golf weight ports 3220 and the first set of weight portions 3120
club head 100. Accordingly, details of the front portion of is similar to many respects to the golf club head 100.
the golf club head 3100 are not provided. 50 Accordingly, a detailed description of the configuration of
The body portion 3110 may be made of a first material the first set of weight ports 3220 and the first set of weight
whereas the first set of weight portions 3120 and the second portions 3120 is not provided.
weight portion 3130 may be made of a second material. The The second weight port 3230 may be a recess extending
first and second materials may be similar or different mate- from the toe portion 3140 or a location proximate to the toe
rials. For example, the body portion 3110 may be partially 55 portion 3140 to the sole portion or a location proximate to
or entirely made of a steel-based material (e.g., 17-4 PH the sole portion 3190 and through the transition region
stainless steel, Nitronic 50 stainless steel, maraging steel between the toe portion 3140 and the sole portion 3190.
or other types of stainless steel), a titanium-based material, Accordingly, as shown in FIG. 31, the second weight port
an aluminum-based material (e.g., a high-strength aluminum 3230 may resemble an L-shaped recess. The second weight
alloy or a composite aluminum alloy coated with a high- 60 portion 3130 may resemble the shape of the second weight
strength alloy), any combination thereof, and/or other suit- port 3230 and may be configured to be disposed in the
able types of materials. The first set of weight portions 3120 second weight port 3230. The second weight portion 3130
and the second weight portion 3130 may be partially or may be partially or fully disposed in the weight port 3230.
entirely made of a high-density material such as a tungsten- The second weight portion 3130 may have any shape such
based material or other suitable types of materials. Alterna- 65 as oval, rectangular, triangular, or any geometric or non-
tively, the body portion 3110 and/or the first set of weight geometric shape. The second weight port 3230 may be
portions 3120 and the second weight portion 3130 may be shaped similar to the second weight portion 3130. However,
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portions of the second weight portion 3130 that are inserted 3350, a front portion 3360, a back portion 3370, a top
in the second weight port 3230 may have similar shapes as portion 3380, and a sole portion 3390. The heel portion 3350
the weight port 3230. As described in detail herein, any of may include a hose! portion 3355 configured to receive a
the weight portions described herein, including the weight shaft (not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the
portions 3120 and the second weight portion 3130 may be 5 golf club head 3300 on the opposite end of the shaft to form
coupled to the back portion 3170 of the body portion 3110 a golf club.
with various manufacturing methods and/or processes (e.g., The body portion 3310 may be made of a first material
a bonding process, a welding process, a brazing process, a whereas the first and second sets of weight portions 3320
mechanical locking method, any combination thereof, or and 3330, respectively, may be made of a second material.
other suitable manufacturing methods and/or processes). 10 The first and second materials may be similar or different
The second weight portion 3130 may be configured to materials. The materials from which the golf club head 3300,
place the center of gravity of the golf club head 100 at an weight portions 3320 and/or weight portions 3330 are con-
optimal location and optimize the moment of inertia of the structed may be similar in many respects to any of the golf
golf club head about a vertical axis that extends through the club heads and the weight portions described herein such as
center of gravity of the golf club head 3100. All or a 15 the golf club head 100. Accordingly, a detailed description
substantial portion of the second weight portion 3130 may of the materials of construction of the golf club head 3300,
be generally near the sole portion 3190. For example, the weight portions 3320 and/or weight 3330 are not described
second weight portion 3130 may be near the periphery of the in detail. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufac-
body portion 3110 and extend from the sole portion 3190 to ture are not limited in this regard.
the toe portion 3190. As shown in the example of FIG. 32, 20 The golf club head 3300 may be an iron-type golf club
the second weight portion 3130 may be located near the head (e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a
periphery of the body portion 3110 and partially or substan- 6-iron, a 7-iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type
tially extend along the sole portion 3190 to lower the center golf club head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand
of gravity of the golf club head 3100. A portion of the second wedge, ann-degree wedge such as 44 degrees (0 ) , 48, 52,
weight portion 3130 may be located near the periphery of the 25 56, 60, etc.). Although FIGS. 33-42 may depict a particu-
body portion 3110 and extend from the sole portion 3190 to lar type of club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of
the toe portion 3140 through a transition region 3147 manufacture described herein may be applicable to other
between the sole portion 3190 and the toe portion 3140 to types of club heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway
lower the center of gravity and increase the moment of wood-type club head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type
inertia of the golf club head 3100 about a vertical axis that 30 club head, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of
extends through the center of gravity. To lower the center of manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
gravity of the golf club head 3100, all or a portion of the The front portion 3360 may include a face portion 3362
second weight portion 3130 may be located closer to the sole (e.g., a strike face). The face portion 3362 may include a
portion 3190 than to a horizontal midplane 3260 of the golf front surface 3364 and a back surface 3366 (shown in FIG.
club head 3100. The location of the second weight portion 35 37). The front surface 3364 may include one or more
3130 (i.e., the location of the weight port 3230) and the grooves 3368 extending between the toe portion 3340 and
physical properties and materials of construction of the the heel portion 3350. While the figures may depict a
weight portions of the second weight port 3130 may be particular number of grooves, the apparatus, methods, and
determined to optimally affect the weight, weight distribu- articles of manufacture described herein may include more
tion, center of gravity, moment of inertia characteristics, 40 or less grooves. The face portion 3362 may be used to
structural integrity and/or or other static and/or dynamic impact a golf ball (not shown). The face portion 3362 may
characteristics of the golf club head 3100. The apparatus, be an integral portion of the body portion 3310. Alterna-
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are tively, the face portion 3362 may be a separate piece or an
not limited in this regard. insert coupled to the body portion 3310 via various manu-
The weight portions of the first set of weight portions 45 facturing methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process
3120 may have similar or different physical properties (e.g., such as adhesive, a welding process such as laser welding,
color, shape, size, density, mass, volume, etc.). In the a brazing process, a soldering process, a fusing process, a
illustrated example as shown in FIG. 32, each of the weight mechanical locking or connecting method, any combination
portions of the first set of weight portions 3120 may have a thereof, or other suitable types of manufacturing methods
cylindrical shape (e.g., a circular cross section). Alterna- 50 and/or processes). The face portion 3362 may be associated
tively, each of the weight portions of the first set of weight with a loft plane that defines the loft angle of the golf club
portions 3120 may have different shapes. Although the head 3300. The loft angle may vary based on the type of golf
above examples may describe weight portions having a club (e.g., a long iron, a middle iron, a short iron, a wedge,
particular shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles of etc.). In one example, the loft angle may be between five
manufacture described herein may include weight portions 55 degrees and seventy-five degrees. In another example, the
of other suitable shapes (e.g., a portion of or a whole sphere, loft angle may be between twenty degrees and sixty degrees.
cube, cone, cylinder, pyramid, cuboidal, prism, frustum, or The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
other suitable geometric shape). The apparatus, methods, described herein are not limited in this regard.
and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited As illustrated in FIG. 36, the back portion 3370 may
in this regard. 60 include a back wall portion 3510 with one or more exterior
In the example ofFIGS. 33-42, a golf club head 3300 may weight ports along a periphery of the back portion 3370,
include a body portion 3310, and two or more weight generally shown as a first set of exterior weight ports 3520
portions, generally shown as a first set of weight portions (e.g., shown as weight ports 3521 and 3522) and a second set
3320 (e.g., shown as weight portions 3321 and 3322) and a of exterior weight ports 3530 (e.g., shown as weight ports
second set of weight portions 3330 (e.g., shown as weight 65 3531, 3532, 3533, 3534 and 3535). Each exterior weight
portions 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334 and 3335). The body port may be defined by an opening in the back wall portion
portion 3310 may include a toe portion 3340, a heel portion 3510. Each exterior weight port may be associated with a
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port diameter. In one example, the port diameter may be weight portions 3320 and 3330 are coupled to the golf club
about 0.25 inch (6.35 millimeters). The weight ports of the head 3300 may be similar in many respect to any of the
first set of exterior weight ports 3520 may be separated by weight portions described herein, such as the weight por-
less than the port diameter or the port diameter of any of the tions shown in the example of FIGS. 12 and 13. Accord-
two adjacent weight ports of the first set of exterior weight 5 ingly, a detailed description of the physical properties of the
ports 3520. In a similar manner, any two adjacent exterior first and second sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330, and
weight ports of the second set of exterior weight ports 3530 the devices and/or methods by which the first and second
may be separated by less than the port diameter or the port sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330 are coupled to the golf
diameter of any of the two adjacent weight ports of the club head 3300 are not described in detail herein. The
second set of exterior weight ports 3530. The first and 10 apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
second exterior weight ports 3520 and 3530, respectively, herein are not limited in this regard.
may be exterior weight ports configured to receive one or As illustrated in FIG. 34, golf club head 3300 may be
more weight portions. In particular, each weight portion of associated with a ground plane 4110, a horizontal midplane
the first set of weight portions 3320 (e.g., shown as weight 4120, and a top plane 4130. In particular, the ground plane
portions 3321 and 3322) may be disposed in a weight port 15 4110 may be a plane that may be substantially parallel with
located at or proximate to the toe portion 3340 and/or the top the ground and be tangential to the sole portion 3390 of the
portion 3380 on the back portion 3370. For example, the golf club head 3300 when the golf club head 3300 is at an
weight portion 3321 may be partially or entirely disposed in address position (e.g., the golf club head 3300 is aligned to
the weight port 3521. In another example, the weight portion strike a golf ball). A top plane 4130 may be a tangential
3322 may be disposed in the weight port 3522 located in a 20 plane to the top portion of the 3380 of the golf club head
transition region between the top portion 3380 and the toe 3300 when the golf club head 3300 is at the address position.
portion 3340 (e.g., a top-and-toe transition region). Each The ground and top planes 4110 and 4130, respectively, may
weight portion of the second set of weight portions 3330 be substantially parallel to each other. The horizontal mid-
(e.g., shown as weight portions 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334 and plane 4120 may be located at half the vertical distance
3335) may be disposed in a weight port located at or 25 between the ground and top planes 4110 and 4130, respec-
proximate to the toe portion 3340 and/or the sole portion tively.
3390 on the back portion 3370. For example, the weight To provide optimal perimeter weighting for the golf club
portion 3333 may be partially or entirely disposed in the head 3300, the first set of weight portions 3320 (e.g., weight
weight port 3533. In another example, the weight portion portions 3321 and 3322) may be configured to counter-
3335 may be disposed in a weight port 3535 located in a 30 balance the weight of the hose! 3355 and/or increase the
transition region between the sole portion 3390 and the toe moment of inertia of the golf club head 3300 about a vertical
portion 3340 (e.g., a sole-and-toe transition region). In axis of the golf club head 3300 that extends through the
another example, any of the weight portions of the first set center of gravity of the golf club head 3300. For example, as
of weight portions 3320 and the second set of weight shown in FIG. 34, the first set of weight portions 3320 (e.g.,
portions 3330 may disposed in any of the weight ports of the 35 weight portions 3321 and 3322) may be located near the
first set of weight ports 3520 and the second set of weight periphery of the body portion 3310 and extend in a transition
ports 3530. As described in detail herein, the first and second region 3345 between the top portion 3380 and the toe
sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330, respectively, may be portion 3340. In another example, the first set of weight
coupled to the back portion 3370 of the body portion 3310 portions 3320 (e.g., weight portions 3321 and 3322) may be
with various manufacturing methods and/or processes (e.g., 40 located near the periphery of the body portion 3310 and
a bonding process, a welding process, a brazing process, a extend proximate to the toe portion 3340. The locations of
mechanical locking method, any combination thereof, or the first set of weight portions 3320 (i.e., the locations of the
other suitable manufacturing methods and/or processes). first set of weight ports 3520) and the physical properties and
Alternatively, the golf club head 3300 may not include (i) materials of construction of the weight portions of the first
the first set of weight portions 3320, (ii) the second set of 45 set of weight portions 3320 may be determined to optimally
weight portions 3330, or (iii) both the first and second sets affect the weight, weight distribution, center of gravity,
of weight portions 3320 and 3330. In particular, the back moment of inertia characteristics, structural integrity and/or
portion 3370 of the body portion 3310 may not include or other static and/or dynamic characteristics of the golf club
weight ports at or proximate to the top portion 3370 and/or head 3300. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
the sole portion 3390. For example, the mass of the first set 50 facture described herein are not limited in this regard.
of weight portions 3320 (e.g., 3 grams) and/or the mass of The second set of weight portions 3330 (e.g., weight
the second set of weight portions 3330 (e.g., 16.8 grams) portions 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334 and 3335) may be config-
may be integral part(s) the body portion 3310 instead of ured to place the center of gravity of the golf club head 3300
separate weight portion(s). The apparatus, methods, and at an optimal location and/or optimize the moment of inertia
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in 55 of the golf club head about a vertical axis that extends
this regard. through the center of gravity of the golf club head 3300.
The first and second sets of weight portions 3320 and Referring to FIG. 34, all or a substantial portion of the
3330, respectively, may have similar or different physical second set of weight portions 3330 may be near the sole
properties (e.g., color, shape, size, density, mass, volume, portion 3390. For example, the second set of weight portions
etc.). As a result, the first and second sets of weight portions 60 3330 (e.g., weight portions 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334 and
3320 and 3330, respectively, may contribute to the orna- 3335) may extend at or near the sole portion 3390 between
mental design of the golf club head 3300. The physical the toe portion 3340 and the heel portion 3350 to lower the
properties of the first and second sets of weight portions center of gravity of the golf club head 100. The weight
3320 and 3330 may be similar in many respect to any of the portions 3334 and 3335 may be located closer to the toe
weight portions described herein, such as the weight por- 65 portion 3340 than to the heel portion 3350 and/or at or near
tions shown in the example of FIG. 11. Furthermore, the a transition region 3347 between the sole portion 3390 and
devices and/or methods by which the first and second set of the toe portion 3340 to increase the moment of inertia of the
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golf club head 3300 about a vertical axis that extends portion 3362 and relatively lower towards a ground plane
through the center of gravity. Some of the weight portions of (e.g., one shown as 4110 in FIG. 34) as compared to a golf
the second set of weight portions 3330 may be located at the club without a width 3840 of a portion of the interior cavity
toe portion. To lower the center of gravity of the golf club 3800 being greater than a width 3842 of the interior cavity
head 3300, all or a portion of the second set of weight 5 3800 as described herein, with all or a substantial portion of
portions 3330 may be located closer to the sole portion 3390 the second set of weight portions 3330 being closer to the
than to the horizontal midplane 4120. The locations of the sole portion 3390 than to the horizontal midplane 4120, and
second set of weight portions 3330 (i.e., the locations of the the first and second sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330,
second set of weight ports 3530) and the physical properties respectively, being away from the back surface 3366 than if
and materials of construction of the weight portions of the 10 the second set of weight portions 3330 were directly coupled
second set of weight portions 3330 may be determined to to the back surface 3366. The locations of the first and
optimally affect the weight, weight distribution, center of second sets of weight ports 3520 and 3530 and the physical
gravity, moment of inertia characteristics, structural integ- properties and materials of construction of the weight por-
rity and/or or other static and/or dynamic characteristics of tions of the first and second sets of weight portions 3320 and
the golf club head 3300. The apparatus, methods, and 15 3330, respectively, may be determined to optimally affect
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in the weight, weight distribution, center of gravity, moment of
this regard. inertia characteristics, structural integrity and/or or other
Turning to FIG. 37, for example, the first and second sets static and/or dynamic characteristics of the golf club head
of weight portions 3320 and 3330, respectively, may be 3300. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
located away from the back surface 3366 of the face portion 20 described herein are not limited in this regard.
3362 (e.g., not directly coupled to each other). That is, the While the figures may depict weight ports with a particu-
first and second sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330, lar cross-section shape, the apparatus, methods, and articles
respectively, and the back surface 3366 may be partially or of manufacture described herein may include weight ports
entirely separated by an interior cavity 3800 of the body with other suitable cross-section shapes. The weight ports of
portion 3300. For example, each exterior weight port of the 25 the first and/or second sets of weight ports 3520 and 3530
first and second sets of exterior weight ports 3320 and 3330 may have cross-sectional shapes that are similar to the
may include an opening (e.g., generally shown as 3820 and cross-sectional shapes of any of the weight ports described
3830) and a port wall (e.g., generally shown as 3825 and herein. Accordingly, the detailed description of the cross-
3835). The port walls 3825 and 3835 may be integral sectional shapes of the weight ports 3520 and 3530 are not
portions of the back wall portion 3510 (e.g., a section of the 30 described in detail. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
back wall portion 3510). Each of the openings 3820 and manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard.
3830 may be configured to receive a weight portion such as The first and second sets of weight portions 3320 and
weight portions 3321 and 3335, respectively. The opening 3330, respectively, may be similar in mass (e.g., all of the
3820 may be located at one end of the weight port 3521, and weight portions of the first and second sets 3320 and 3330,
the port wall 3825 may be located or proximate to at an 35 respectively, weigh about the same). Alternatively, the first
opposite end of the weight port 3521. In a similar manner, and second sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330, respec-
the opening 3830 may be located at one end of the weight tively, may be different in mass individually or as an entire
port 3535, and the port wall 3835 may be located at or set. In particular, each of the weight portions of the first set
proximate to an opposite end of the weight port 3535. The 3320 (e.g., shown as 3321 and 3322) may have relatively
port walls 3825 and 3835 may be separated from the face 40 less mass than any of the weight portions of the second set
portion 3362 (e.g., separated by the interior cavity 3800). 3330 (e.g., shown as 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334 and 3335). For
Each port wall of the first set of weight ports 3520, such as example, the second set of weight portions 3330 may
the port wall 3825 may have a distance 3826 from the back account for more than 50% of the total mass from exterior
surface 3366 of the face portion 3362 as shown in FIG. 37. weight portions of the golf club head 3300. As a result, the
Each port wall of the second set of weight ports 3530, such 45 golf club head 3300 may be configured to have at least 50%
as the port wall 3835 may have a distance 3836 from the of the total mass from exterior weight portions disposed
back surface 3366 of the face portion 3362. The distances below the horizontal midplane 4120. In one example, the
3826 and 3836 may be determined to optimize the location total mass from exterior weight portions may be greater
of the center of gravity of the golf club head 3300 when the below the horizontal midplane 4120 that the total mass from
first and second sets of weight ports 3520 and 3530, respec- 50 exterior weight portions above the horizontal midplane
tively, receive weight portions as described herein. Accord- 4120. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
ing to one example, the distance 3836 may be greater than described herein are not limited in this regard.
the distance 3826 so that the center of gravity of the golf club In one example, the golf club head 3300 may have a mass
head 3300 is moved toward the back portion 3370 and/or in the range of about 220 grams to about 330 grams based
lowered toward the sole portion 3390. According to one 55 on the type of golf club (e.g., a 4-iron versus a lob wedge).
example, the distance 3836 may be greater than the distance The body portion 3310 may have a mass in the range of
3826 by a factor ranging from about 1.5 to about 4. In other about 200 grams to about 310 grams with the first and
words, the distance 3836 may be about 1.5 times to about 4 second sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330, respectively,
times greater than the distance 3826. As a result, a width having a mass of about 20 grams (e.g., a total mass from
3840 (shown in FIG. 38) of a portion of the interior cavity 60 exterior weight portions). Each of the weight portions of the
3800 below the horizontal midplane 4120 may be greater first set 3320 may have a mass of about one gram (1.0 g)
than a width 3842 of the interior cavity 3800 above the whereas each of the weight portions of the second set 3330
horizontal midplane 4120. The apparatus, methods, and may have a mass of about 2.4 grams. The sum of the mass
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in of the first set of weight portions 3320 may be about 3 grams
this regard. 65 whereas the sum of the mass of the first set of weight
As discussed herein, the center of gravity (CG) of the golf portions 3330 may be about 16.8 grams. The total mass of
club head 3300 may be relatively farther back from the face the second set of weight portions 3330 may weigh more than
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five times as much as the total mass of the first set of weight 3360 and the back portion 3370. Further, the interior cavity
portions 3320 (e.g., a total mass of the second set of weight 3800 may extend between the top portion 3380 and the sole
portions 3330 of about 16.8 grams versus a total mass ofthe portion 3390. The interior cavity 3800 may be associated
first set of weight portions 3320 of about 3 grams). The golf with a cavity height 3850 (He), and the body portion 3310
club head 3300 may have a total mass of 19.8 grams from 5 may be associated with a body height 3950 (HB). While the
the first and second sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330, cavity height 3850 and the body height 3950 may vary
respectively (e.g., sum of 3 grams from the first set of weight between the toe and heel portions 3340 and 3350, and the top
portions 3320 and 16.8 grams from the second set of weight and sole portions 3370 and 3390, the cavity height 3850 may
portions 3330). Accordingly, the first set of weight portions be at least 50% of a body height 3950 (Hc>0.5*HB). For
3320 may account for about 15% of the total mass from 10 example, the cavity height 3850 may vary between 70%-
exterior weight portions of the golf club head 3300 whereas 85% of the body height 3950. With the cavity height 3850
the second set of weight portions 3330 may be account for of the interior cavity 3800 being greater than 50% of the
about 85% of the total mass from exterior weight portions of body height 3950, the golf club head 3300 may produce
the golf club head 3300. The apparatus, methods, and relatively more consistent feel, sound, and/or result when the
articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in 15 golf club head 3300 strikes a golf ball via the face portion
this regard. 3362 than a golf club head with a cavity height of less than
By coupling the first and second sets of weight portions 50% of the body height. The apparatus, methods, and
3320 and 3330, respectively, to the body portion 3310 (e.g., articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
securing the first and second sets of weight portions 3320 this regard.
and 3330 in the weight ports on the back portion 3370), the 20 The interior cavity 3800 may be associated with a cavity
location of the center of gravity (CG) and the moment of width 3840 (W c), and the body portion 3310 may be
inertia (MOl) of the golf club head 3300 may be optimized. associated with a body width 3990 (WB). The cavity width
In particular, the first and second sets of weight portions 3840 and the body width 3990 may vary between the top
3320 and 3330, respectively, may lower the location of the portion 3380 and the sole portion 3390 and between the toe
CG towards the sole portion 3390 and further back away 25 portion 3340 and the heel portion 3350. The cavity width
from the face portion 3362. Further, the MOl may be higher 3840 may be at least 50% of a body width 3990
as measured about a vertical axis extending through the CG (W c>0.5*WB) at certain regions on the body portion 3310
(e.g., perpendicular to the ground plane 4110). The MOl between the top and sole portions 3370 and 3390 and
may also be higher as measured about a horizontal axis between the toe and heel portions 3340 and 3350. According
extending through the CG (e.g., extending towards the toe 30 to another example, the cavity width 3840 may vary between
and heel portions 3350 and 3360, respectively, of the golf about 40%-60% of a body width 3990 at certain regions
club head 3300). As a result, the club head 3300 may provide between the top and sole portions 3380 and 3390. According
a relatively higher launch angle and a relatively lower spin to another example, the cavity width 3840 may vary between
rate than a golf club head without the first and second sets about 30%-70% of a body width 3990 at certain regions
of weight portions 3320 and 3330, respectively. The appa- 35 between the top and sole portions 3380 and 3390. According
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein to another example, the cavity width 3840 may vary between
are not limited in this regard. about 20%-80% of a body width 3990 at certain regions
Alternatively, two or more weight portions in the same set between the top and sole portions 3380. For example, the
may be different in mass. In one example, the weight portion cavity width 3840 may vary between about 20%-80% of the
3321 of the first set 3320 may have a relatively lower mass 40 body width 3990 at or below the horizontal midplane 4120.
than the weight portion 3322 of the first set 3320. In another With the cavity width 3890 of the interior cavity 3800 that
example, the weight portion 3331 of the second set 3330 may vary between about 20% or more to about 80% or less
may have a relatively lower mass than the weight portion of the body width 3990 at or below the horizontal midplane
3335 of the second set 3330. With relatively greater mass at 4120, a substantial portion of the mass of the golf club head
the top-and-toe transition region and/or the sole-and-toe 45 3300 may be moved lower and farther back as compared to
transition region, more weight may be distributed away from a golf club head with a cavity width of less than about 20%
the center of gravity (CG) of the golf club head 3300 to of the body width. Further, the golf club head 3300 may
increase the moment of inertia (MOl) about the vertical axis produce relatively more consistent feel, sound, and/or result
through the CG. when the golf club head 3300 strikes a golf ball via the face
Although the figures may depict the weight portions as 50 portion 3362 than a golf club head with a cavity width ofless
separate and individual parts, each set of the first and second than about 20% of the body width. The apparatus, methods,
sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330, respectively, may be and articles of manufacture described herein are not limited
a single piece of weight portion. In one example, all of the in this regard.
weight portions of the first set 3320 (e.g., shown as 3321 and To provide an inner cavity 3800 having cavity a width
3322) may be combined into a single piece of weight portion 55 3840 that may vary between about 20-80% of a body width
(e.g., a first weight portion). In a similar manner, all of the 3990 at or below the horizontal midplane 4120, to lower the
weight portions of the second set 3330 (e.g., 3331, 3332, CG of the golf club head 3300, and/or to move the CG of the
3333, 3334 and 3335) may be combined into a single piece golf club head 3300 farther back relative to the face portion
of weight portion as well (e.g., a second weight portion) 3360, the back portion 3370 may have a recessed portion
similar to the example of FIG. 32. While the figures may 60 3410 (shown in FIGS. 35, 36 and 39) that may extend
depict a particular number of weight portions, the apparatus, between a location near the horizontal midplane 4120 and a
methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may location at or near the top portion 3380. The recessed portion
include more or less number of weight portions. The appa- 3410 may be defined by an upper wall 3412 of the back
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein portion 3370 and a ledge portion 3414. The upper wall 3412
are not limited in this regard. 65 of the back portion 3370 may extend from a location at or
The body portion 3310 may be a hollow body including near the horizontal midplane 4120 to a location at or near the
the interior cavity 3800 extending between the front portion top portion 3380. The ledge portion 3414 may extend from
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the upper wall3412 of the back portion 3370 to a lower wall material manufactured by Sorbothane, Inc., Kent, Ohio), a
3416 of the back portion 3370. The lower wall 3416 of the thermoplastic elastomer material (TPE), a thermoplastic
back portion 3370 may extend from a location at or near the polyurethane material (TPU), and/or other suitable types of
horizontal midplane 4120 to a location at or near the bottom materials to absorb shock, isolate vibration, and/or dampen
portion 3380. The ledge portion 3414 may extends from the 5 noise. For example, at least 50% of the interior cavity 3800
upper wall 3412 in a direction away from the face portion may be filled with a TPE material to absorb shock, isolate
3360. Accordingly, the ledge portion 3414 facilitates a vibration, and/or dampen noise when the golf club head
transition from the upper wall 3412 to the lower wall 3416 3300 strikes a golf ball via the face portion 3362.
by which the width of the body portion 3310 is substantially In another example, the interior cavity 3800 may be
increased at or near the horizontal midplane 4120 as com- 10 partially or entirely filled with a polymer material such as an
pared to the width of the body portion 3310 above the ethylene copolymer material to absorb shock, isolate vibra-
horizontal midplane. The ledge portion 3414 may have a tion, and/or dampen noise when the golf club head 3300
ledge portion width 3418 (shown in FIG. 39) that is greater strikes a golf ball via the face portion 3362. In particular, at
than an upper body width 3420 of the body portion 3310. In least 50% of the interior cavity 3800 may be filled with a
one example, the ledge portion width 3418 may be defined 15 high density ethylene copolymer ionomer, a fatty acid
as a width of a surface on the back portion 3370 that extends modified ethylene copolymer ionomer, a highly amorphous
between a plane 3413 generally defining the upper wall3412 ethylene copolymer ionomer, an ionomer of ethylene acid
of the back portion 3370 and a plane 3417 generally defining acrylate terpolymer, an ethylene copolymer comprising a
the lower wall 3416 of the back portion 3370. The upper magnesium ionomer, an injection moldable ethylene copo-
body width 3420 may be defined as a width of the body 20 lymer that may be used in conventional injection molding
portion 3310 at or above the horizontal midplane 4120. equipment to create various shapes, an ethylene copolymer
According to one example, the ledge portion width 3418 that can be used in conventional extrusion equipment to
may be wider than the upper body width 3420 by a factor of create various shapes, and/or an ethylene copolymer having
between about 0.5 to about 1.0. According to another high compression and low resilience similar to thermoset
example, the ledge portion width 3418 may be wider than 25 polybutadiene rubbers. For example, the ethylene copoly-
the upper body width 3420 by a factor of about 1.5. mer may include any of the ethylene copolymers associated
According to another example, the ledge portion width 3418 with DuPont High-Performance Resin (HPF) family of
may be wider than the upper body width 3420 by a factor of materials (e.g., DuPont HPF AD1172, DuPont HPF
about 3.0. Accordingly, a golf club according to the AD1035, DuPont HPF 1000 and DuPont HPF 2000),
examples described herein may have a ledge portion width 30 which are manufactured by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and
3418 that is wider than the upper body width 3420 by a Company of Wilmington, Del. The DuPont HPF family of
factor of greater than or equal to about 0.5 to less than or ethylene copolymers are injection moldable and may be
equal to about 3.0. Accordingly, the body width 3990 at, near used with conventional injection molding equipment and
or below the horizontal midplane 4120 may be substantially molds, provide low compression, and provide high resil-
greater than the upper body width 3420, which may provide 35 ience. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
for a cavity width 3840 that may be around 20% to 80% of described herein are not limited in this regard.
the body width 3990 at, near or below the horizontal As described herein, the cavity width 3840 may vary
midplane 4120. Further, the recessed portion 3410 allows between about 20%-80% of a body width 3990 at or below
the golf club head 3300 to generally have a greater mass the horizontal midplane 4120. According to one example, at
below the horizontal midplane 4120 than above the hori- 40 least 50% of the elastic polymer or elastomer material
zontal plane 4120. In other words, the mass that is removed partially or filling the interior cavity 3800 may be located
from the golf club head 3300 to define the recessed portion below the horizontal midplane 4120 of the golf club head
3410 may be moved to aft or back portions of the body 3300. Accordingly, the center of gravity of the golf club head
portion 3310 that are around and below the horizontal 3300 may be further lowered and moved farther back as
midplane 4120. 45 compared to a golf club head with a cavity width ofless than
To generally maintain a cavity width 3840 that may be about 20% of the body width and that is partially or fully
around 20%-80% of the body width 3990, the cavity width filled with an elastic polymer or elastomer material. Further,
3840 may be greater near the sole portion 3390 or below the the golf club head 3300 may produce relatively more
horizontal midplane 4120 than near the top portion 3380 or consistent feel, sound, and/or result when the golf club head
above the horizontal midplane 4120. According to one 50 3300 strikes a golf ball via the face portion 3362 as com-
example, the cavity width 3840 may generally vary accord- pared to a golf club head with a cavity width of less than
ing to a variation in the body width 3990 at certain regions about 20% of the body width that is partially or fully filled
of the body portion 3310 between the top portion 3380 and with an elastic polymer material.
the sole portion 3390 and between the toe portion 3340 and The thickness of the face portion 3362 may vary between
the heel portion 3350. For example, as shown in FIG. 40, the 55 the top portion 3380 and the sole portion and between the toe
cavity width 3840 may generally vary according to the body portion 3340 and the heel portion as discussed in detail
width 3990 in certain regions of the body portion 3310 herein and shown in the examples of FIGS. 15 and 16.
between the top portion 3380 and the sole portion 3390. The According, a detailed description of the variation in the
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described thickness of the face portion 3362 is not provided. The
herein are not limited in this regard. 60 apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described
In one example, the interior cavity 3800 may be unfilled herein are not limited in this regard.
(i.e., empty space). The body portion 3300 with the interior Different from other golf club head designs, the interior
cavity 3800 may weight about 100 grams less than the body cavity 3800 of the body portion 3310 and the location of the
portion 3300 without the interior cavity 3800. Alternatively, first and second sets of weight portions 3320 and 3330,
the interior cavity 3800 may be partially or entirely filled 65 respectively, along the perimeter of the golf club head 3300
with an elastic polymer or elastomer material (e.g., a vis- may result in a golf ball traveling away from the face portion
coelastic urethane polymer material such as Sorbothane 3362 at a relatively higher ball launch angle and a relatively
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lower spin rate. As a result, the golf ball may travel farther or different amounts of the same compound, respectively.
(i.e., greater total distance, which includes carry and roll According to the process 4300, the bonding agent may be
distances). bonded to the back surface of the face portion by being
The golf club head 3300 may be manufactured by any of activated to the initial bonding state. Elastic polymer mate-
the methods described herein and illustrated in FIG. 17. 5 rial is then injected in the interior cavity 700 of the golf club
Accordingly, a detailed description of the method of manu- head 100 (block 4320). The process 4300 then includes
facturing the golf club head 3300 is not provided. bonding the elastic polymer material to the bonding agent
As illustrated in FIGS. 37 and 41, for example, the golf (block 4330). Bonding the elastic polymer material to the
club head 3300 may include one or more weight ports (e.g., bonding agent includes activating the bonding agent to the
one shown as weight ports 3521 and 3531) that may open to 10 final bonding state to permanently bond the elastic polymer
the to the cavity 3800. The weight port 3531 may include a material to the bonding agent and to permanently bond the
first opening 3930 and a second opening 3935. The second bonding agent to the back surface 166 of the face portion
opening 3935 may be used to access the interior cavity 3800. 162. The example process 4300 is merely provided and
In one example, the process 1700 (FIG. 17) may fill the described in conjunction with other figures as an example of
interior cavity 3800 with an elastic polymer material by 15 one way to manufacture the golf club head 100. While a
injecting the elastic polymer material into the interior cavity particular order of actions is illustrated in FIG. 43, these
3800 from the first opening 3930 via the second opening actions may be performed in other temporal sequences.
3935. The first and second openings 3930 and 3935, respec- Further, two or more actions depicted in FIG. 43 may be
tively, may be same or different in size and/or shape. The performed sequentially, concurrently, or simultaneously.
weight port 3521 may include a first opening 4030 and a 20 FIG. 44 depicts one manner by which the interior cavity
second opening 4035. The second opening 4035 may be 700 of the golf club head 100 or any of the golf club heads
used to access the interior cavity 3800. In one example, the described herein may be partially or entirely filled with an
process 1700 (FIG. 17) may fill the interior cavity 3800 with elastic polymer material or an elastomer material (e.g., an
an elastic polymer material by injecting the elastic polymer elastic polymer material 2820 of FIG. 28 such as a TPE
material into the interior cavity 3800 from the weight port 25 material). The process 4400 may begin with applying a
3531. As the elastic polymer fills the interior cavity 3800, the bonding agent (e.g., a bonding portion 2810 of FIG. 28) to
air inside the interior cavity 3800 that is displaced by the the back surface 166 of the face portion 162 of the golf club
elastic polymer material may exit the interior cavity from the head 100 (block 4410). The bonding agent may be any type
weight port 3521 through the second opening 4035 and then of adhesive and/or other suitable materials. In one example,
the first opening 4030. After the cavity is partially or fully 30 the bonding agent may be an epoxy. Prior to applying the
filled with the elastic polymer material, the weight ports bonding agent, the golf club head 100 may be cleaned to
3531 and 3521 may be closed by inserting and securing remove any oils, other chemicals, debris or other unintended
weight portions therein as described in detail herein. Alter- materials from the golf club head 100 (not shown). The
natively, the elastic polymer material may be injected into bonding agent may be applied on the back surface 166 as
the interior cavity 3800 from the weight port 3521. Accord- 35 described herein depending on the properties of the bonding
ingly, the weight port 3531 may function as an exit port for agent. The bonding agent may be applied to the back surface
the displaced air inside the interior cavity 3800. While the 166 of the face portion 162 through one or more of the first
above example may describe and depict particular weight set of weight ports 1420 and/or the second set of weight
ports with second openings, any other weight ports of the ports 1430. For example, the bonding agent may be in liquid
golf club head 4200 may include a second opening (e.g., the 40 form and injected on the back surface 166 through several or
weight port 3532). The apparatus, methods, and articles of all of the first set of weight ports 1420 and the second set of
manufacture described herein are not limited in this regard. weight ports 1430. An injection instrun1ent (not shown) such
FIG. 43 depicts one manner by which the interior cavity as a nozzle or a needle may be inserted into each weight port
700 of the golf club head 100 or any of the golf club heads until the tip or outlet of the injection instrument is near the
described herein may be partially or entirely filled with an 45 back surface 166. The bonding agent may then be injected
elastic polymer material or an elastomer material (e.g., an on the back surface 166 from the outlet of the injection
elastic polymer material 2820 of FIG. 28 such as a TPE instrument. Additionally, the injection instrument may be
material). The process 4300 may begin with bonding a moved, rotated and/or swiveled while inside the interior
bonding agent to the back surface 166 of the face portion cavity 700 so that the bonding agent may be injected onto an
162 of the golf club head 100 (block 4310). The bonding 50 area of the back surface 166 surrounding the injection
agent may have an initial bonding state, which may be a instrument. For example, the outlet of the injection instru-
temporary bonding state, and a final bonding state, which ment may be moved in a circular pattern while inside a
may be a permanent bonding state. The initial bonding state weight port to inject the bonding agent in a corresponding
and the final bonding states may be activated when the circular pattern on the back surface 166. Each of the first set
bonding agent is exposed to heat, radiation, and/or other 55 of weight ports 1420 and the second set of weight ports 1430
chemical compounds. For example, as described in detail may be utilized to inject a bonding agent on the back surface
herein, the bonding agent may be an epoxy having an initial 166. However, utilizing all of first weight ports 1420 and/or
cure state and a final cure state that are activated by the the second set of weight ports 1430 may not be necessary.
epoxy being heated to different temperatures for a period of For example, using every other adjacent weight port may be
time, respectively, by conduction, convention and/or radia- 60 sufficient to inject a bonding agent on the entire back surface
tion. In another example, the bonding agent may be a 166. In another example, weight ports 1421, 1422 1431,
bonding material that is activated to an initial bonding state 1433 and 1436 may be used to inject the bonding agent on
and a final bonding state by being exposed to different doses the back surface 166. The apparatus, methods, and articles of
and/or duration of ultraviolet radiation, respectively. In manufacture are not limited in this regard.
another example, the bonding agent may be a bonding 65 The process 4400 may also include spreading or overlay-
material that is activated to an initial bonding state and a ing the bonding agent on the back surface 166 (not shown)
final bonding state by being exposed to different compounds after injecting the bonding agent onto the back surface 166
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so that a generally uniform coating of the bonding agent is temperature Tempi' The bonding agent may transition from
provided on the back surface 166. According to one the initial cure state to the final cure state when the bonding
example, the bonding agent may be spread on the back agent may be heated to a temperature greater than or equal
surface 166 by injecting air into the interior cavity 700 to the final cure state temperature Tempffor a period of time.
through one or more of the first set of weight ports 1420 5 Accordingly, a final cure state temperature range may be
and/or the second set of weight ports 1430. The air may be defined by temperatures that are greater than or equal to the
injected into the interior cavity 700 and on the back surface final cure state temperature Tempi' As shown in FIG. 45, the
166 by inserting an air nozzle into one or more of the first initial cure state temperature Temp, and the final cure state
set of weight ports 1420 and/or the second set of weight temperature Tempfmay vary based on the amount of time
ports 1430. According to one example, the air nozzle may be 10 that the bonding agent may be heated. In particular, a
moved, rotated and/or swiveled at a certain distance from the transition from the uncured state to the initial cure state and
back surface 166 so as to uniformly blow air onto the a transition from the initial cure state to the final cure state
bonding agent to spread the bonding agent on the back may be dictated by certain temperature and time profiles
surface 166 for a uniform coating or a substantially uniform based on the properties of the bonding agent. At a tempera-
coating of the bonding agent on the back surface 166. In one 15 ture below the initial cure temperature Temp,, the bonding
example, the golf club head 100 may be pivoted back and agent may be in the uncured state (e.g., a liquid state). In the
forth in one or several directions so that the bonding agent initial cure state, the bonding agent may form an initial bond
is spread along a portion or substantially the entire area of with an object and become pliable to be manipulated (e.g.,
the back surface 166 of the face portion 162. In one example, moved, spread, overlay, etc.) without obtaining full cross
the golf club head 100 may be vibrated with the back surface 20 linking or forming a permanent bond. In other words, the
166 of the face portion 162 in a generally horizontal orien- bonding agent may form an initial bond with an object and
tation so that the bonding agent may spread or overlay on the be manipulated without forming a permanent bond. In the
back surface 166 in a uniform coating manner or a substan- final cure state, the bond of the bonding agent (e.g., cross
tially uniform coating manner. The apparatus, methods, and linking for a bonding agent that includes epoxy) may be
articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard. 25 complete or become permanently set.
The example process 4400 is merely provided and The bonding agent may be applied to the back surface 166
described in conjunction with other figures as an example of of the face portion 162 when the bonding agent is in the
one way to manufacture the golf club head 100. While a uncured state, which may be a liquid state. Subsequently, the
particular order of actions is illustrated in FIG. 44, these golf club head 100 and/or the bonding agent may be heated
actions may be performed in other temporal sequences. 30 to a first temperature Temp 1 that is greater than or equal to
Further, two or more actions depicted in FIG. 44 may be the initial cure state temperature Temp, and less than the final
performed sequentially, concurrently, or simultaneously. cure state temperature Tempf to change the bonding agent
The process 4400 may include a single action (not shown) from an uncured state to an initial cure state (i.e., an initial
of injecting and uniformly or substantially uniformly coating cure state temperature range) (block 4420). Accordingly, the
the back surface 166 with the bonding agent. In one 35 bonding agent may form an initial bond with the back
example, the bonding agent may be injected on the back surface 166 of the face portion 162. After bonding the
surface 166 by being converted into fine particles or droplets bonding agent to the back surface 166, the golf club head
(i.e., atomized) and sprayed on the back surface 166. may be cooled for a period of time at ambient or room
Accordingly, the back surface 166 may be uniformly or temperature (not shown). Accordingly, the bonding agent
substantially uniformly coated with the bonding agent in one 40 may be in an initial cured state and bonded to the back
action. A substantially uniform coating of the bonding agent surface 166 of the face portion 162 so that the bonding agent
on the back surface 166 may be defined as a coating having may be bonded to the back surface 166 during the injection
slight non-uniformities due to the injection process or the molding of an elastic polymer material in the interior cavity
manufacturing process. However, such slight non-uniformi- 700. Ambient or room temperature may be defined as a room
ties may not affect the bonding of the elastic polymer 45 temperature ranging between so C. (41 oF.) to 40 C. (104
material or elastomer material to the back surface 166 with F.). The first temperature Temp 1 and duration by which the
the bonding agent as described herein. For example, spray- golf club head and/or the bonding agent heated to the first
ing the bonding agent on the back surface 166 may result in temperature Temp 1 may depend on the curing or bonding
overlapping regions of the bonding agent having a slightly properties of the bonding agent. The apparatus, methods,
greater coating thickness than other regions of the bonding 50 and articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard.
agent on the back surface 166. The apparatus, methods, and After the bonding agent is bonded to the back surface 166
articles of manufacture are not limited in this regard. of the face portion 162, the golf club head 100 may be heated
In one example as shown in FIG. 45, the bonding agent (i.e., pre-heating the golf club head 100) prior to receiving
may be an epoxy having different curing states based on the the elastic polymer material (not shown). The golf club head
temperature and the amount of time to which the epoxy may 55 100 may be heated so that when the elastic polymer material
be exposed. The bonding agent may have an uncured state, is injected in the golf club head 100, the elastic polymer
an initial cure state, and a final cure state. In one example, material is not cooled by contact with the golf club head and
the uncured state may be a liquid state, the initial cure state remains in a flowing liquid form to fill the internal cavity
may be gel or a semi-solid/semi-liquid state, and the final 700. The temperature to which the golf club head is heated,
cure state may be a solid state. The bonding agent may 60 which may be referred to herein as a third temperature, may
transition from the uncured state to the initial cure state be similar to the temperature of the elastic polymer material
when the bonding agent is heated to a temperature between when being injected into the internal cavity 700. However,
an initial cure state temperature (Temp,) and a final cure state the temperature to which the golf club head is heated may be
temperature (Tempf) for a period of time. Accordingly, an less than the final cure temperature Tempf of the bonding
initial cure state temperature range may be defined by 65 agent. Accordingly, the bonding agent may not transition
temperatures that are greater than or equal to the initial cure from the initial cure state to the final cured state during the
state temperature Temp, and less than the final cure state injection molding process. Further, the pre-heating tempera-
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35 36
ture of the golf club head 100 may be determined so that bond between the golf club head 100 and the bonding agent
excessive cooling of the golf club head 100 may not be and between the elastic polymer material and the bonding
necessary after injection molding the elastic polymer mate- agent. The golf club head 100 may be then cooled at ambient
rial in the internal cavity 700. Prior to being injected into the or room temperature (not shown). According to one
internal cavity 700, the elastic polymer material may also be example, the characteristic time (CT) of the golf club head
heated to a liquid state (not shown). The temperature to may be measured (not shown) after manufacturing the golf
which the elastic polymer material may be heated may club head as discussed herein. CT measurements may deter-
depend on the type of elastic polymer material used to mine if the golf club head conforms to CT rules established
partially or fully fill the interior cavity 700. Further, the by one or more golf governing bodies.
temperature to which the elastic polymer material is heated 10
The heating and cooling processes described herein may
may be determined so that shrinkage of the elastic polymer
be performed by conduction, convention, and/or radiation.
material is reduced during the injection molding process.
For example, all of the heating and cooling processes may
However, as described herein, the elastic polymer material
may be heated to a temperature that is less than the final cure be performed by using heating or cooling systems that
temperature Tempf of the bonding agent. The apparatus, 15
employ conveyor belts that move the golf club head 100
methods, and articles of manufacture are not limited in this through a heating or cooling environment for a period of
regard. time as discussed herein. The apparatus, methods, and
As described herein, the cavity 700 may be partially or articles of manufacture described herein are not limited in
fully filled with the elastic polymer material by injecting the this regard.
elastic polymer material in the cavity 700 (block 4430). The 20 An elastic polymer material with a low modulus of
injection speed of the elastic polymer material may be elasticity, such as a foaming elastic polymer material, may
determined so that the interior cavity 700 may be slowly provide vibration and noise dampening for the face portion
filled to provide a better fill while allowing air to escape the 162 when the face portion 162 impacts a golf ball. An elastic
interior cavity 700 and allowing the injected elastic polymer polymer material with a higher modulus of elasticity, such as
material to rapidly cool. For example, the elastic polymer 25 a non-foaming elastic polymer material, may provide struc-
material may be a non-foaming and injection-moldable tural support to the face portion 162 in addition to providing
thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material. The elastic polymer vibration and noise dampening. Accordingly, a thin face
material may be injected into the interior cavity 700 from portion 162 may be provided when the interior cavity 700 is
one or more of the weight ports described herein (e.g., one filled with a non-foaming elastic polymer material since the
or more weight ports of the first and second sets of weight 30 elastic polymer material may provide structural support to
ports 1420 and 1430, respectively, shown in FIG. 14). One the thin face portion 162. In one example, the elastic
or more other weight ports may allow the air inside the polymer material that is injection molded in the interior
interior cavity 700 displaced by the elastic polymer material cavity 700 may have a relatively high modulus of elasticity
to vent from the interior cavity 700. In one example, the golf to provide structural support to the face portion 162 and yet
club head 100 may be oriented horizontally as shown in FIG. 35 elastically deflect to absorb the impact forces experienced by
14 during the injection molding process. The elastic polymer the face portion 162 when striking a golf ball. Thus, a
material may be injected into the interior cavity 700 from non-foaming and injection moldable elastic polymer mate-
weight ports 1431 and 1432. The weight ports 1421, 1422 rial with a relatively high modulus of elasticity may be used
and/or 1423 may serve as air ports for venting the displaced for partially or fully filling the interior cavity 700 to provide
air from the interior cavity 700. Thus, regardless of the 40 structural support and reinforcement for the face portion 162
orientation of the golf club head 100 during the injection in addition to providing vibration and noise dampening. That
molding process, the elastic polymer material may be is, the non-foaming and injection moldable elastic polymer
injected into the interior cavity 700 from one or more lower material may be a structural support portion for the face
positioned weight ports while one or more upper positioned portion 162. The apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
weight ports may serve as air vents. 45 facture are not limited in this regard.
According to one example, any one of the weight ports or While the above examples may described an iron-type or
any air vent on the golf club head 100 that may be used as a wedge-type golf club head, the apparatus, methods, and
air ports for venting the displaced air may be connected to articles of manufacture described herein may be applicable
a vacuum source (not shown) during the injection molding to other types of golf club heads.
process. Accordingly, air inside the interior cavity 700 and 50 The terms "and" and "or" may have both conjunctive and
displaced by the elastic polymer material may be removed disjunctive meanings. The terms "a" and "an" are defined as
from the interior cavity 700 by the vacuum source. Thus, a one or more unless this disclosure indicates otherwise. The
possibility of having trapped air pockets in the interior term "coupled" and any variation thereof refer to directly or
cavity 700 and/or a non-uniform filling of the interior cavity indirectly connecting two or more elements chemically,
700 with the elastic polymer material may be reduced. The 55 mechanically, and/or otherwise. The phrase "removably
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described connected" is defined such that two elements that are
herein are not limited in this regard. "removably connected" may be separated from each other
After the elastic polymer material is injected in the cavity without breaking or destroying the utility of either element.
700, the golf club head 100 may be heated to a second The term "substantially" when used to describe a char-
temperature Temp 2 that is greater than or equal to the final 60 acteristic, parameter, property, or value of an element may
cure temperature Tempf of the bonding agent to reactivate represent deviations or variations that do not diminish the
the bonding agent to bond the elastic polymer material to the characteristic, parameter, property, or value that the element
bonding agent (i.e., a final cure state temperature range) may be intended to provide. Deviations or variations in a
(block 4440). The second temperature Temp 2 and the dura- characteristic, parameter, property, or value of an element
tion by which the golf club head 100 is heated to the second 65 may be based on, for example, tolerances, measurement
temperature Temp 2 may depend on the properties of the errors, measurement accuracy limitations and other factors.
bonding agent as shown in FIG. 45 to form a permanent The term "proximate" is synonymous with terms such as
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37 38
"adjacent," "close," "immediate," "nearby", "neighboring", 4. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
etc., and such terms may be used interchangeably as appear- bonding portion is bonded to the back surface of the face
ing in this disclosure. portion before the elastic polymer material is bonded to the
The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture bonding portion.
described herein may be implemented in a variety of 5. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
embodiments, and the foregoing description of some of elastic polymer material comprises at least one of a ther-
these embodiments does not necessarily represent a com- moplastic elastomer material or a thermoplastic polyure-
plete description of all possible embodiments. Instead, the thane material.
description of the drawings, and the drawings themselves, 6. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the
disclose at least one embodiment, and may disclosure alter- 10 bonding portion comprises a uniform coating or a substan-
native embodiments. tially uniform coating of a bonding agent on the back surface
As the rules of golf may change from time to time (e.g., of the face portion.
new regulations may be adopted or old rules may be 7. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the face
eliminated or modified by golf standard organizations and/or portion comprises a substantially uniform thickness from at
governing bodies such as the United States Golf Association 15 or proximate to the top portion to at or proximate to the sole
(USGA), the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews portion.
(R&A), etc.), golf equipment related to the apparatus, meth- 8. A golf club head comprising:
ods, and articles of manufacture described herein may be a body portion having a toe portion, a heel portion, a top
conforming or non-conforming to the rules of golf at any portion, a sole portion, a back portion with a plurality
particular time. Accordingly, golf equipment related to the 20 of weight portions, and a front portion having a face
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture described portion with a front surface and a back surface;
herein may be advertised, offered for sale, and/or sold as an interior cavity extending between the top and sole
conforming or non-conforming golf equipment. The appa- portions and between the face and back portions;
ratus, methods, and articles of manufacture described herein a bonding portion bonded to the back surface of the face
are not limited in this regard. 25 portion;
Although certain example apparatus, methods, and an elastic polymer material injection molded in the inte-
articles of manufacture have been described herein, the rior cavity to structurally support the face portion
scope of coverage of this disclosure is not limited thereto. during impact with a golf ball;
On the contrary, this disclosure covers all apparatus, meth- wherein the bonding portion is bonded to the face portion
ods, and articles of articles of manufacture fairly falling 30 before injection molding the elastic polymer material in
within the scope of the appended claims either literally or the interior cavity;
under the doctrine of equivalents. wherein the elastic polymer material is bonded to the
What is claimed is: bonding portion after being injection molded in the
1. A golf club head comprising: interior cavity, and
a body portion having a toe portion, a heel portion, a top 35 wherein a greater number of weight portions of the
portion, a sole portion, a back portion with a plurality plurality of weight portions are located on the back
of weight portions, and a front portion having a face portion below a horizontal midplane of the body por-
portion with a thickness extending between a front tion than above the horizontal midplane.
surface and a back surface, the thickness being less than 9. A golf club head as defined in claim 8, wherein the
or equal to 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inch); 40 bonding portion is bonded to the face portion at a first
an interior cavity extending between the top and sole temperature, and wherein the elastic polymer material is
portions and between the face and back portions; bonded to the bonding portion at a second temperature
a bonding portion bonded to the back surface of the face higher than the first temperature.
portion; and 10. A golf club head as defined in claim 8, wherein the
an elastic polymer material injection molded in the inte- 45 bonding portion comprises a bonding agent, wherein the
rior cavity to structurally support the face portion bonding portion is bonded to the face portion at a tempera-
during impact with a golf ball, ture within an initial cure state temperature range of the
wherein the elastic polymer material is bonded to the bonding agent, and wherein the elastic polymer material is
bonding portion; bonded to the bonding portion at a temperature within a final
wherein a greater number of weight portions of the 50 cure state temperature range of the bonding agent.
plurality of weight portions are located on the back 11. A golf club head as defined in claim 8, wherein the
portion below a horizontal midplane of the body por- back portion comprises a plurality of exterior ports, and
tion than above the horizontal midplane. wherein each exterior port of the plurality of exterior ports
2. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the is configured to receive a weight portion of the plurality of
bonding portion comprises a bonding agent having a first 55 weight portions.
cure state within a first temperature range and a second cure 12. A golf club head as defined in claim 8, wherein the
state within a second temperature range different from the elastic polymer material comprises at least one of a ther-
first temperature range, wherein the bonding portion is moplastic elastomer material or a thermoplastic polyure-
bonded to the back surface of the face portion in the first cure thane material.
state of the bonding agent, and wherein the elastic polymer 60 13. A golf club head as defined in claim 8, wherein the
material is bonded to the bonding portion in the second cure face portion comprises a thickness extending between the
state of the bonding agent. front and back surfaces of less than or equal to 1.5millime-
3. A golf club head as defined in claim 1, wherein the back ters (0.06 inch).
portion comprises a plurality of exterior ports, and wherein 14. A golf club head as defined in claim 8, wherein the
each exterior port of the plurality of exterior ports is con- 65 face portion comprises a substantially uniform thickness
figured to receive a weight portion of the plurality of weight from at or proximate to the top portion to at or proximate to
portions. the sole portion, and wherein the substantially uniform
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US 9,533,201 B2
39 40
thickness extends less than or equal to 1.5 millimeters (0.06 wherein a greater number of weight portions of the
inch) between the front and back surfaces. plurality of weight portions are closer to the toe portion
15. A golf club head as defined in claim 8, wherein the than the heel portion.
bonding portion comprises a uniform coating or a substan- 17. A golf club head as defined in claim 16, wherein the
tially uniform coating of a bonding agent on the back surface initial cure state of the bonding portion is activated at a first
of the face portion. temperature within an initial cure state temperature range of
16. A golf club head comprising: the bonding portion, wherein the final cure state of the
a body portion having a toe portion, a heel portion, a top
bonding portion is activated at a second temperature within
portion, a sole portion, a back portion with a plurality
a final cure state temperature range of the bonding portion,
of weight portions, and a front portion having a face 1o
and wherein the second temperature is greater than the first
portion with a front surface and a back surface a
thickness of the face portion extending between ~he temperature.
front and back surfaces being less than or equal to 1.5 18. A golf club head as defined in claim 16 wherein the
millimeters (0.06 inch); elastic polymer material comprises at least o~e of a ther-
an interior cavity extending between the top and sole 1s moplastic elastomer material or a thermoplastic polyure-
portions and between the face and back portions; thane material.
a bonding portion having an initial cure state and a final 19. A golf club head as defined in claim 16, wherein a
grea~er number of weight portions of the plurality of weight
cure state with a different bonding configuration than
the initial cure state, the bonding portion configured to portwns are located on the back portion below a horizontal
bond to the back surface of the face portion at the initial 2o midplane of the body portion than above the horizontal
cure state; and midplane.
an elastic polymer material injection molded in the inte- 20. A golf club head as defined in claim 16, wherein the
rior cavity to structurally support the face portion face portion comprises a substantially uniform thickness
during impact with a golf ball, the bonding portion from at or proximate to the top portion to at or proximate to
configured to bond to the elastic polymer material at the the sole portion.
final cure state, * * * * *
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 195 of 277

EXHIBIT G
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 196 of 277

111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US009610481B2

c12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 9,610,481 B2


Parsons et al. (45) Date of Patent: *Apr. 4, 2017

(54) GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO A63B 2053/0408 (2013.01); A63B 2053/0412
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS (2013.01); A63B 2053/0416 (2013.01);
(Continued)
(71) Applicant: Parsons Xtreme Golf, LLC, (58) Field of Classification Search
Scottsdale, AZ (US) CPC ........ A63B 53/0475; A63B 2059/0003; A63B
59/0092; A63B 2053/0491; A63B
(72) Inventors: Robert R. Parsons, Scottsdale, AZ 2209/00; A63B 2053/0408; A63B 53/04;
(US); Bradley D. Schweigert, Anthem, A63B 53/0466; A63B 53/047; A63B
AZ (US); Michael R. Nicolette, 53/0487;
Scottsdale, AZ (US) (Continued)
(73) Assignee: PARSONS XTREME GOLF, LLC, (56) References Cited
Scottsdale, AZ (US)
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 1,133,129 A 3/1915 Govan
D164,469 S 9/1951 Behrendt
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.
(Continued)
This patent is subject to a terminal dis-
claimer. OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(21) Appl. No.: 15/188,718 U.S. Appl. No. 14/618,501, Parsons eta!., "Golf Club Heads and
Methods to Manufacture Golf Club Heads," filed Feb. 10, 2015.
(22) Filed: Jun. 21, 2016
(Continued)
(65) Prior Publication Data Primary Examiner- Sebastiana Passaniti
US 2016/0296804 Al Oct. 13, 2016
(57) ABSTRACT
Related U.S. Application Data Embodiments of golf club heads and methods to manufac-
ture golf club heads are generally described herein. In one
(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. example, a golf club head may include a body portion with
PCT/US2015/016666, filed on Feb. 19, 2015, which a toe portion, a heel portion, a top portion, a sole portion, a
(Continued) rear portion, and a front portion having a face portion with
a face portion thickness extending between a front surface
(51) Int. Cl. and a back surface. The body portion may be associated with
A63B 53104 (2015.01) a body portion volume. The golf club head may also include
A63B 53106 (2015.01) an interior cavity. The interior cavity may include an elastic
(52) U.S. Cl. polymer material. Other examples and embodiments may be
CPC ............ A63B 53104 (2013.01); A63B 531047 described and claimed.
(2013.01); A63B 5310466 (2013.01); A63B
5310475 (2013.01); A63B 5310487 (2013.01); 20 Claims, 23 Drawing Sheets

3130
3190_)
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 197 of 277

US 9,610,481 B2
Page 2

Related U.S. Application Data 5,244,211 A * 9/1993 Lukasiewicz . A63B 53/04


264/45.4
is a continuation-in-part of application No. 15/043, D353,862 s 12/1994 Saito
106, filed on Feb. 12, 2016, now Pat. No. 9,533,201, D357,520 s 4/1995 Helmstetter et a!.
which is a continuation-in-part of application No. 5,419,559 A * 5/1995 Melanson A63B 53/04
14/711,596, filed on May 13, 2015, which is a con- 473/346
5,419,560 A 5/1995 Bamber
tinuation-in-part of application No. 14/589,277, filed 5,425,535 A 6/1995 Gee
on Jan. 5, 2015, now Pat. No. 9,421,437, which is a D361,358 s 8/1995 Simmons
continuation of application No. 14/513,073, filed on 5,447,311 A 9/1995 Viollaz eta!.
Oct. 13, 2014, now Pat. No. 8,961,336, which is a 5,451,056 A 9/1995 Manning
continuation of application No. 14/498,603, filed on D362,884 s 10/1995 Blough eta!.
Sep. 26, 2014, now Pat. No. 9,199,143.
D362,885 s 10/1995 Blough eta!.
D362,887 s 10/1995 Blough eta!.
(60) Provisional application No. 62/209,780, filed on Aug.
D370,514 s 6/1996 Blough eta!.
5,540,437 A 7/1996 Bamber
25, 2015, provisional application No. 62/275,443, 5,637,045 A 6/1997 Igarashi
filed on Jan. 6, 2016, provisional application No. 5,647,808 A * 7/1997 Hosokawa . A63B 53/04
62/276,358, filed on Jan. 8, 2016, provisional 473/342
application No. 62/277,636, filed on Jan. 12, 2016, 5,649,873 A * 7/1997 Fuller A63B 53/04
provisional application No. 62/343,739, filed on May 473/332
5,669,830 A 9/1997 Bamber
31, 2016, provisional application No. 61/942,515, D389,541 s 111998 Huan-Chiang
filed on Feb. 20, 2014, provisional application No. D395,476 s 6/1998 Pond eta!.
61/945,560, filed on Feb. 27, 2014, provisional 5,766,091 A 6/1998 Humphrey et a!.
application No. 61/948,839, filed on Mar. 6, 2014, 5,766,092 A 6/1998 Mimeur eta!.
provisional application No. 61/952,470, filed on Mar. 5,769,735 A * 6/1998 Hosokawa . A63B 53/04
473/332
13, 2014, provisional application No. 61/992,555, D399,277 s 10/1998 Ezaki
filed on May 13, 2014, provisional application No. 5,827,132 A 10/1998 Bamber
62/010,836, filed on Jun. 11, 2014, provisional D408,485 S 4/1999 Takahashi eta!.
application No. 62/011,859, filed on Jun. 13, 2014, 5,899,821 A 5/1999 Hsu et al.
provisional application No. 62/032,770, filed on Aug. 5,935,016 A 8/1999 Antonious
D414,535 S 9/1999 Mertens
4, 2014, provisional application No. 62/041,538, filed D421,080 S 212000 Chen
on Aug. 25, 2014. D426,276 S 6/2000 Besnard et a!.
6,077,171 A 6/2000 Yoneyama
(52) U.S. Cl. 6,162,133 A 12/2000 Peterson
D442,659 S 5/2001 Kubica eta!.
CPC ................. A63B 2053/0445 (2013.01); A63B D443,008 S 5/2001 Kubica eta!.
2053/0479 (2013.01); A63B 2053/0491 D445,862 S 7/2001 Ford
(2013.01); A63B 2209/00 (2013.01) 6,290,609 B1 9/2001 Takeda
(58) Field of Classification Search D449,866 S 10/2001 Miller
D457,211 S 5/2002 Bakke
CPC .... A63B 2053/0412; A63B 2053/0479; A63B D469,833 S 2/2003 Roberts et al.
2053/0416; A63B 2053/0445 D475,107 S 5/2003 Madore
USPC .................................. 473/324-350, 287-292 D476,048 S 6/2003 Cleveland et a!.
See application file for complete search history. D478,949 S 8/2003 DeLaCruz
6,638,182 B2 10/2003 Kosmatka
6,695,714 B1 2/2004 Bliss et al.
(56) References Cited 6,702,693 B2 3/2004 Bamber
6,780,123 B2 8/2004 Hasebe
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS D497,963 S 1112004 Toulon eta!.
6,811,496 B2 1112004 Wahl eta!.
3,020,048 A 2/1962 Carroll D499,779 S 12/2004 Mahaffey et a!.
D203,936 s 3/1966 Long 6,855,067 B2 * 2/2005 Solheim. A63B 53/02
3,266,805 A * 8/1966 Bulla A63B 53/04 473/246
273/DIG. 3 D502,975 S 3/2005 Schweigert et a!.
D215,101 s 9/1969 Sabat D503,204 S 3/2005 Nicolette et a!.
D234,963 s 4/1975 Hirata D507,320 S 7/2005 Roberts et al.
D239,550 s 4/1976 Timbrook D508,545 S 8/2005 Roberts et al.
D240,054 s 5/1976 Meissler 6,923,733 B2 8/2005 Chen
D261,167 s 10/1981 Swamson D514,183 S 112006 Schweigert et a!.
4,523,759 A * 6/1985 Igarashi A63B 53/04 D516,650 S 3/2006 Wolfe et al.
473/329 D518,863 S 4/2006 Motoyoshi et a!.
4,545,580 A * 10/1985 Tomita. A63B 53/04 D523,501 S 6/2006 Nicolette et a!.
473/332 D523,917 S 6/2006 Wolfe et al.
D294,617 s 3/1988 Perkins D524,889 S 7/2006 Yu eta!.
4,754,977 A 7/1988 Sahm 7,121,956 B2 10/2006 Lo
4,803,023 A * 2/1989 Enomoto A63B 53/04 7,128,663 B2 10/2006 Bamber
264/45.4 D534,595 S 1/2007 Hasebe
4,824,116 A 4/1989 Nagamoto eta!. 7,156,751 B2 1/2007 Wahl eta!.
4,988,104 A 111991 Shiotani et a!. 7,182,698 B2 2/2007 Tseng
5,028,049 A * 7/1991 McKeighen A63B 53/04 7,207,900 B2 4/2007 Nicolette et a!.
473/345 D543,601 S 5/2007 Kawami
5,158,296 A 10/1992 Lee D555,219 S 1112007 Lin
5,176,384 A 111993 Sata et al. 7,303,486 B2 12/2007 Imamoto
5,213,328 A 5/1993 Long eta!. D559,932 S 1/2008 Belmont
D336,672 s 6/1993 Gorman 7,351,164 B2 4/2008 Schweigert et a!.
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 198 of 277

US 9,610,481 B2
Page 3

(56) References Cited 2002/0037775 A1 * 3/2002 Keelan . A63B 53/0487


473/324
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 2002/0107087 A1 8/2002 Fagot
2003/0139226 A1 7/2003 Cheng et a!.
7,396,299 B2 7/2008 Nicolette et a!. 2003/0176231 A1 9/2003 Hasebe
D584,370 S 112009 Cleveland et a!. 2004/0204263 A1 10/2004 Fagot et a!.
D594,518 S 6/2009 Schweigert 2005/0009632 A1 112005 Schweigert et a!.
7,588,502 B2 9/2009 Nishino 2005/0014573 A1 112005 Lee
D604,783 S 1112009 Nicolette et a!. 2005/0119066 A1 6/2005 Stites et a!.
7,611,424 B2 1112009 Nagai et al. 2005/0239569 A1 10/2005 Best et a!.
D606,605 S 12/2009 Wada et a!. 2005/0277485 A1 12/2005 Hou et a!.
D607,070 S 12/2009 Wada et a!. 2006/0111200 A1 5/2006 Poynor
D607,071 S 12/2009 Wada et a!. 2007/0032308 A1 2/2007 Fagot et a!.
7,658,686 B2 2/2010 Soracco 2007/0225084 A1 9/2007 Schweigert et a!.
D612,438 S 3/2010 Carlyle et a!. 2008/0058113 A1 3/2008 Nicolette et a!.
D612,439 S 3/2010 Carlyle et a!. 2008/0188322 A1 8/2008 Anderson et a!.
D617,406 S 6/2010 Carlyle et a!. 2008/0300065 A1 12/2008 Schweigert
D618,293 S 6/2010 Foster eta!. 2009/0029790 A1 112009 Nicolette et a!.
7,744,484 B1 6/2010 Chao 2010/0130306 A1 5/2010 Schweigert
D621,893 S 8/2010 Nicolette et a!. 2010/0178999 A1 7/2010 Nicolette eta!.
7,798,917 B2 9/2010 Nguyen et al. 201110111883 A1 5/2011 Cackett
7,815,521 B2 10/2010 Banet a!. 201110165963 A1 7/2011 Cackett et al.
7,846,040 B2 12/2010 Ban 201110269567 A1 11/2011 Ban et al.
D633,967 S 3/2011 Carlyle et a!. 201110294596 A1 12/2011 Ban
7,938,738 B2 5/2011 Roach 2013/0137 532 A1 5/2013 Deshmukh et a!.
D643,490 S 8/2011 Wada et a!. 2013/0225319 A1 8/2013 Kato
8,062,150 B2 1112011 Gilbert et a!. 2013/0281226 A1 10/2013 Ban
8,088,025 B2 112012 Wahl et al. 2013/0288823 A1 10/2013 Hebreo
8,092,319 B1 112012 Cackett et a!. 2013/0303303 A1 1112013 Ban
8,105,180 B1 112012 Cackett et a!. 2013/0310192 A1 1112013 Wahl et a!.
D658,248 S 4/2012 Nunez et a!. 2014/0080621 A1 3/2014 Nicolette et a!.
8,221,262 B1 7/2012 Cackett eta!. 2014/0128175 A1 5/2014 Jertson et a!.
8,246,487 B1 8/2012 Cackett et a!. 2014/0274441 A1 9/2014 Greer
8,328,662 B2 12/2012 Nakamura eta!. 2014/0274451 A1 9/2014 Knight et a!.
8,376,878 B2 2/2013 Bennett et al. 2015/0231454 A1 8/2015 Parsons et al.
D681,142 S 4/2013 Fossum et a!. 2015/0231806 A1 8/2015 Parsons et al.
8,414,422 B2 4/2013 Peralta et al.
8,506,420 B2 8/2013 Hocknell et a!.
8,545,343 B2 10/2013 Boyd et a!. OTHER PUBLICATIONS
8,574,094 B2 11/2013 Nicolette et a!.
8,657,700 B2 2/2014 Nicolette et a!. International Search Report and Written Opinion received in con-
8,663,026 B2 3/2014 Blowers et a!. nection with corresponding application No. PCT/US2015/016666,
8,690,710 B2 4/2014 Nicolette et a!. on May 14, 2015 (8 pages).
D707,316 s 6/2014 Aguayo et al. U.S. Appl. No. 14/589,277, Parsons et a!., "Golf Club Heads and
D707,317 s 6/2014 Aguayo et al.
Methods to Manufacture Golf Club Heads," filed Jan. 5, 2015.
8,753,230 B2 6/2014 Stokke et al.
8,827,832 B2 9/2014 Breier et a!. U.S. Appl. No. 29/512,313, Nicolette, "Golf Club Head," filed Dec.
8,827,833 B2 9/2014 Amano eta!. 18, 2014.
8,845,455 B2 9/2014 Ban et a!. Kozuchowski, Zak, "Callaway Mack Daddy 2 PM Grind Wedges"
D716,387 s 10/2014 Aguayo et al. (http://www. golfWrz.corn/276203/callaway-mack-daddy-2-pm-
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D722,352 S 2/2015 Nicolette et a!. published Jan. 21, 2015.
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8,961,336 B1 2/2015 Parsons et al.
Wedge," (http://www.pgatour.com/equipmentreport/20 15/011211
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D748,214 s 112016 Nicolette et a!. lished Jan. 21, 2015.
D748,749 s 2/2016 Nicolette et a!.
D756,471 s 5/2016 Nicolette et a!. * cited by examiner
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 199 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 1 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

100~

140
~ 150

190/
FIG. 1

100

150/

190/ FIG. 2
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 200 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 2 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

100~

~180

140

FIG. 3

7
100~

155

FIG.4
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 201 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 3 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

100~

155

1410

160 170

\ )

\.190 FIG. 5

100~

180~ 155

162

1410
170
\

-~
\.190 FIG. 6
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 202 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 4 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

100~
180~

1410
160~
170
./

166

735 1431
FIG. 7

100~
155
180~

1410
850
170~ r16o

168

1431 FIG. 8
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 203 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 5 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

100~
180~

720
160~
170
~

166

735 FIG. 9

~100

1010

~-L-------~~~~~-35\~ 131 134 147


190/ FIG. 10
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 204 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017


Sheet 6 of 23
US 9,610,481 B2

120& 130~

1110

FIG. 11

120~

1210 ~ ~;;;;;;~~

1220

FIG. 12

130~

1320

FIG. 13
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 205 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 7 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

110~

1432 1433 J
1430 FIG. 14

162~

1540

FIG. 15
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 206 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 8 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

162\

1640

FIG. 16

1700\
START

'
Provide two or more
weight portions
J 710

Provide body portion J 720
'
Couple at least one weight
portion in weight port
J 730
v
Fill interior cavity
) 740
v
( END)
FIG. 17
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 207 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 9 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

100~
180~

1410
160~

166

1874
FIG. 18
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 208 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 10 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

1900~

1920~=========

FIG. 19

1900~

2100 2020

FIG. 20
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 209 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 11 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

2100~

2110~ v.-2150
+
2010
2132

FIG. 21

2200~
2010

2230

FIG. 22

2300~
2010

2332

2320
FIG. 23
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 210 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 12 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

2400~
2410~ 20i0
r------..

FIG. 24

2500~

2520

FIG. 25
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 211 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 13 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

2600~

2610

FIG. 26

2700~

FIG. 27
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 212 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 14 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

162

2810
2820
FIG. 28
r29oo
2910 ""\,... Heating a golf club head

+
2920 ""-.. Heating an elastic polymer material
+
2930 ""\,... Injecting the elastic polymer material in
an interior cavity of the golf club head

FIG. 29

~3000

Injecting a bonding agent on a back


3010 ""\,... surtace of a face portion of a golf
club head

+
Uniformly or substantially uniformly
3020 '-- coating the back surtace of the face
portion with the bonding agent

FIG. 30
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 213 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 15 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

3230
3190_)
FIG. 31

3130 3147
3190_)
FIG. 32
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 214 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 16 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

3300~
3368

("'3380

3390 _)' FIG. 33

;::-- 3300

1((-
4120

...( _______ _
4110 3390
FIG. 34
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 215 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 17 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

~3390

r
3340

3300

FIG. 35

3380~

3350

41
FIG. 36
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 216 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 18 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

3310

FIG. 37

- ___r412~--

FIG. 38
3800
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 217 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 19 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

l--3413

3316
I
I FIG. 39
I 3533 j-"'3417

FIG. 40
3532
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 218 of 277 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
A\>r. 4, 2017 Sheet 20 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2 1
1
U.S. -patent 1
1
1
1
1
3890 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3331 1

f\G. 41 1
1
1
1
3531 3930 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3362
1
f\G.42 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 219 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 21 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

4300~

Bonding a bonding agent to a back surface of a face


v-- 4310
portion of a golf club head

~
Injecting elastic polymer material in an interior v--- 4320
cavity of the golf club head

~
Bonding the elastic polymer material to the bonding agent v--- 4330

FIG. 43
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 220 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 22 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

4400~

Applying a bonding agent to a back surface of a face


portion of a golf club head 0 4410

~
Heating the golf club head to bond the bonding 0 4420
agent to the back surface of the face portion

~
Injecting elastic polymer material in an interior cavity of 0 4430
the golf club head

~
Heating the golf club head to bond the elastic f-.-' 4440
polymer material to the bonding agent

FIG. 44
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 221 of 277

U.S. Patent Apr. 4, 2017 Sheet 23 of 23 US 9,610,481 B2

Cure Time

FIG. 45
Case 2:17-cv-03125-JJT Document 1 Filed 09/12/17 Page 222 of 277

US 9,610,481 B2
1 2
GOLF CLUB HEADS AND METHODS TO FIG. 2 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head
MANUFACTURE GOLF CLUB HEADS of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 depicts a top view of the example golf club head
CROSS REFERENCE of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 depicts a bottom view of the example golf club
This application claims the benefits of U.S. Provisional head of FIG. 1.
Application No. 62/209,780, filed Aug. 25, 2015, U.S. FIG. 5 depicts a left view of the example golf club head
Provisional Application No. 62/275,443, filed Jan. 6, 2016, of FIG. 1.
U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/276,358, filed Jan. 8,
2016, U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/ 277 ,636 , filed FIG. 6 depicts a right view of the example golf club head
10
Jan. 12, 2016, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/343, of FIG. 1.
739, filed May 31, 2016. This application is a continuation- FIG. 7 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
in-part application of International Application No. PCT/ club head of FIG. 1 along line 7-7.
US15/16666, filed Feb. 19, 2015, which claims the benefits FIG. 8 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/942,515, filed Feb. club head of FIG. 1 along line 8-8.
20, 2014, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/945,560, filed 15 FIG. 9 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
Feb. 27, 2014, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/948,839, club head of FIG. 1 along line 9-9.
filed Mar. 6, 2014, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/952, FIG. 10 depicts another rear view of the example golf club
470, filed Mar. 13, 2014, U.S. Provisional Application No. head of FIG. 1.
61/992,555, filed May 13, 2014, U.S. Provisional Applica- FIG. 11 depicts a top view of a weight portion associated
tion No. 62/010,836, filed Jun. 11, 2014, U.S. Provisional 20 with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
Application No. 62/011,859, filed Jun. 13, 2014, and U.S. FIG. 12 depicts a side view of a weight portion associated
Provisional Application No. 62/032,770, filed Aug. 4, 2014. with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
This application is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. FIG. 13 depicts a side view of another weight portion
Non-Provisional Ser. No. 15/043,106, filed Feb. 12, 2016, associated with the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
which is a continuation-in-part application of u.s. Non- 25 FIG. 14 depicts a rear view of a body portion of the
Provisional Ser. No. 14/711,596, filed May 13, 2015, which example golf club head of FIG. 1.
is a continuation-in-part application ofU.S. Non-Provisional FIG. 15 depicts a cross-sectional view of a face portion of
application Ser. No. 14/589,277, filed Jan. 5, 2015, which is the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
a continuation application of U.S. Non-Provisional applica- FIG. 16 depicts a cross-sectional view of another face
tion Ser. No. 14/513,073, filed Oct. 13, 2014, now U.S. Pat. 30 portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
No. 8,961,336, which is a continuation application of U.S. FIG. 17 depicts one manner in which the example golf
Non-Provisional Ser. No. 14/498,603, filed Sep. 26, 2014, club head described herein may be manufactured.
now U.S. Pat. No. 9,199,143, which claims the benefit of FIG. 18 depicts another cross-sectional view of the
U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/041,538, filed Aug. 25, example golf club head of FIG. 4 along line 18-18.
2014. The disclosures of the referenced applications are 35 FIG. 19 depicts a front view of a face portion of the
incorporated herein by reference. example golf club head of FIG. 1.
FIG. 20 depicts a back view of the face portion of FIG. 19.
COPYRIGHT AUTHORIZATION FIG. 21 depicts a cross-sectional view of an example
channel of the face portion of FIG. 19.
The present disclosure may be subject to copyright pro- 40 FIG. 22 depicts a cross-sectional view of another example
tection. The copyright owner has no objection to the fac- channel of the face portion of FIG. 19.
simile reproduction by anyone of the present disclosure and FIG. 23 depicts a cross-sectional view of yet another
its related documents, as they appear in the Patent and example channel of the face portion of FIG. 19.
Trademark Office patent files or records, but otherwise FIG. 24 depicts a cross-sectional view of yet another
reserves all applicable copyrights. 45 example channel of the face portion of FIG. 19.
FIG. 25 depicts a back view of another example face
FIELD portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
FIG. 26 depicts a back view of yet another example face
The present disclosure generally relates to golf equip- portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
ment, and more particularly, to golf club heads and methods 50 FIG. 27 depicts a back view of yet another example face
to manufacturing golf club heads. portion of the example golf club head of FIG. 1.
FIG. 28 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
BACKGROUND club head of FIG. 1.
FIG. 29 depicts another manner in which an example golf
Various materials (e.g., steel-based materials, titanium- 55 club head described herein may be manufactured.
based materials, tungsten-based materials, etc.) may be used FIG. 30 depicts yet another manner in which an example
to manufacture golf club heads. By using multiple materials golf club head described herein may be manufactured.
to manufacture golf club heads, the position of the center of FIG. 31 depicts a rear view of a golf club head according
gravity (CG) and/or the moment of inertia (MOl) of the golf to an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of
club heads may be optimized to produce certain trajectory 60 manufacture described herein.
and spin rate of a golf ball. FIG. 32 depicts a rear view of the golf club head of FIG.
31.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 33 depicts a front view of a golf club head according
to an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of
FIG. 1 depicts a front view of a golf club head according 65 manufacture described herein.
to an embodiment of the apparatus, methods, and articles of FIG. 34 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head
manufacture described herein. of FIG. 33.
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FIG. 35 depicts a rear perspective view of the example The golf club head 100 may be an iron-type golf club head
golf club head of FIG. 33. (e.g., a 1-iron, a 2-iron, a 3-iron, a 4-iron, a 5-iron, a 6-iron,
FIG. 36 depicts a rear view of the example golf club head a 7 -iron, an 8-iron, a 9-iron, etc.) or a wedge-type golf club
of FIG. 33. head (e.g., a pitching wedge, a lob wedge, a sand wedge, an
0
FIG. 37 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf 5 n-degree wedge such as 44 degrees ( ), 48, 52, 56, 60,
club head of FIG. 33 along line 37-37 of FIG. 36. etc.). Although FIGS. 1-10 may depict a particular type of
FIG. 38 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf club head, the apparatus, methods, and articles of manufac-
club head of FIG. 33 along line 38-38 of FIG. 36. ture described herein may be applicable to other types of
FIG. 39 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf club heads (e.g., a driver-type club head, a fairway wood-
10 type club head, a hybrid-type club head, a putter-type club
club head of FIG. 33 along line 39-39 of FIG. 36.
head, etc.). The apparatus, methods, and articles of manu-
FIG. 40 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf
facture described herein are not limited in this regard.
club head of FIG. 33 along line 40-40 of FIG. 36.
The toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150 may be on
FIG. 41 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf opposite ends of the body portion 110. The heel portion 150
club head of FIG. 33 along line 41-41 of FIG. 36. 15 may include a hose! portion 155 configured to receive a shaft
FIG. 42 depicts a cross-sectional view of the example golf (not shown) with a grip (not shown) on one end and the golf
club head of FIG. 33 along line 42-42 of FIG. 36. club head 100 on the opposite end of the shaft to form a golf
FIG. 43 depicts yet another manner in which an example club.
golf club head described herein may be manufactured. The front portion 160 may include a face portion 162
FIG. 44 depicts yet another manner in which an example 20 (e.g., a strike face). The face portion 162 may include a front
golf club head described herein may be manufactured. surface 164 and a back surface 166. The front surface 164
FIG. 45 depicts an example of curing a bonding agent. may include one or more grooves 168 extending between the
For simplicity and clarity of illustration, the drawing toe portion 140 and the heel portion 150. While the figures
figures illustrate the general manner of construction, and may depict a particular number of grooves, the apparatus,
descriptions and details of well-known features and tech- 25 methods, and articles of manufacture described herein may
niques may be omitted to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the include more or less grooves. The face portion 162 may be
present disclosure. Additionally, elements in the drawing used to impact a golf ball (not shown). The face portion 162
figures may not be depicted to scale. For example, the may be an integral portion of the body portion 110. Alter-
dimensions of some of the elements in the figures may be natively, the face portion 162 may be a separate piece or an
exaggerated relative to other elements to help improve 30 insert coupled to the body portion 110 via various manu-
understanding of embodiments of the present disclosure. facturing methods and/or processes (e.g., a bonding process
such as adhesive, a welding process such as laser welding,
DESCRIPTION a brazing process, a soldering process, a fusing process, a
mechanical locking or connecting method, any combination
In general, golf club heads and methods to manufacture 35 thereof, or other suitable types of manufacturing methods
golf club heads are described herein. The apparatus, meth- and/or processes). The face portion 162 may be associated
ods, and articles of manufacture described herein are not with a loft plane that defines the loft angle of the golf club
limited in this regard. head 100. The loft angle may vary based on the type of golf
In the example of FIGS. 1-14, a golf club head 100 may club (e.g., a long iron, a middle iron, a short iron, a wedge,
include a body portion 110 (FIG. 14), and two or more 40 etc.). In one example, the loft angle may be between five
weight portions, generally shown as a first set of weight degrees and seventy-five degrees. In another example, the
portions 120 (e.g., shown as weight portions 121, 122, 123, loft angle may be between twenty degrees and sixty degrees.
and 124) and a second set of weight portions 130 (e.g., The apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture
shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and described herein are not limited in this regard.
137). The body portion 110 may include a toe portion 140, 45 As illustrated in FIG. 14, the back portion 170 may
a heel portion 150, a front portion 160, a back portion 170, include a back wall portion 1410 with one or more exterior
a top portion 180, and a sole portion 190. The body portion weight ports along a periphery of the back portion 170,
110 may be made of a first material whereas the first and generally shown as a first set of exterior weight ports 1420
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, (e.g., shown as weight ports 1421, 1422, 1423, and 1424)
may be made of a second material. The first and second so and a second set of exterior weight ports 1430 (e.g., shown
materials may be similar or different materials. For example, as weight ports 1431, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1435, 1436, and
the body portion 110 may be partially or entirely made of a 1437). Each exterior weight port may be associated with a
steel-based material (e.g., 17-4 PH stainless steel, Nitronic port diameter. In one example, the port diameter may be
50 stainless steel, maraging steel or other types of stainless about 0.25 inch (6.35 millimeters). Any two adjacent exte-
steel), a titanium-based material, an aluminum-based mate- 55 riorweight ports of the first set of exterior weight ports 1420
rial (e.g., a high-strength aluminum alloy or a composite may be separated by less than the port diameter. In a similar
aluminum alloy coated with a high-strength alloy), any manner, any two adjacent exterior weight ports of the second
combination thereof, and/or other suitable types of materi- set of exterior weight ports 1430 may be separated by less
als. The first and second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, than the port diameter. The first and second exterior weight
respectively, may be partially or entirely made of a high- 60 ports 1420 and 1430 may be exterior weight ports config-
density material such as a tungsten-based material or other ured to receive one or more weight portions. In particular,
suitable types of materials. Alternatively, the body portion each weight portion of the first set 120 (e.g., shown as
110 and/or the first and second sets of weight portions 120 weight portions 121, 122, 123, and 124) may be disposed in
and 130, respectively, may be partially or entirely made of a weight port located at or proximate to the toe portion 140
a non-metal material (e.g., composite, plastic, etc.). The 65 and/or the top portion 180 on the back portion 170. For
apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture are not example, the weight portion 121 may be partially or entirely
limited in this regard. disposed in the weight port 1421. In another example, the
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weight portion 122 may be disposed in a weight port 1422 of a series of seven separate weight portions. The apparatus,
located in a transition region between the top portion 180 methods, and articles of manufacture described herein are
and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a top-and-toe transition not limited in this regard.
region). Each weight portion of the second set 130 (e.g., Referring to FIGS. 12 and 13, for example, the first and
shown as weight portions 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, and 5 second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
137) may be disposed in a weight port located at or proxi- may include threads, generally shown as 1210 and 1310,
mate to the toe portion 140 and/or the sole portion 190 on the respectively, to engage with correspondingly configured
back portion 170. For example, the weight portion 135 may threads in the weight ports to secure in the weight ports of
be partially or entirely disposed in the weight port 1435. In the back portion 170 (generally shown as 1420 and 1430 in
another example, the weight portion 136 may be disposed in 10 FIG. 14). For example, each weight portion of the first and
a weight port 1436 located in a transition region between the second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively,
sole portion 190 and the toe portion 140 (e.g., a sole-and-toe may be a screw. The first and second sets of weight portions
transition region). As described in detail below, the first and 120 and 130, respectively, may not be readily removable
second sets of weight portions 120 and 130, respectively, from the body portion 110 with or without a tool. Alterna-
may be coupled to the back portion 170 of the body portion 15 tively, the first and second sets of weight portions 120 and
110 with various manufacturing methods and/or processes 130, respectively, may be readily removable (e.g., with a
(e.g., a bonding process, a welding