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GROUP (A) CLASS WORK PROBLEMS A is a non-singular matrix.

Hence, A1 exists.
Q-1) Find which of the following matrices are
invertible
1 2 3
1 0
1 1 v) Let A = 2 1 3
i) 0 1 ii) 1 1
1 2 3

2 3 sec tan 1 2 3
iii) 10 15 iv) tan
sec Then, A = 2 1 3 = 0
1 2 3
1 2 3 1 2 3
v) 2 1 3 vi) 3 4 4
( R1, & R3 are identical)

1 2 3 4 6 8 A is a singular matrix.
Hence, A1 does not exists.
1 0
Ans. i) Let A =
0 1
1 2 3
1 0
Then, A = = 1 0 =1 0 vi) Let A = 3 4 5
0 1 4 6 8
A is a non-singular matrix.
Hence, A1 exists. 1 2 3
Then, A = 3 4 5
4 6 8
1 1
ii) Let A =
1 1 = 1(32 30) 2 (24 20) + 3(18 16)
= 28+6=0
1 1
Then, A = = 1 1 = 0 A is a singular matrix.
1 1
Hence, A1 does not exist.
A is a singular matrix.
Hence, A1 does not exists.
1 1
1 2 3
Q-2) Find AB, if A = B = 1 2 ,
2 3 1 2 3 1 2
iii) Let A =
10 15
Also find if AB has inverse
2 3
Then, A = = 30 30 = 0 1 1
10 15 1 2 3
Ans. AB = 1 2
A is a singular matrix. 1 2 3
1 2
Hence, A1 exists.
1 (1) + 2 (1) + 3 (1) 1 ( 1) + 2 ( 2) + 3 ( 2)

sec tan 1 (1) +1 ( 2) + ( 3 )(1) 1 ( 1) + ( 2) 2 + ( 3 )( 2)
iv) Let A =
tan sec
1 + 2 + 3 1 + 4 6
=
sec tan 1 2 3 1 4 + 6
Then, A =
tan sec
6 3
= sec 2 tan2 = 1 0 =
4 1

Matrices
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6 3 1 0
AB = = 6 12 = 6 0 1 1 1
4 1 0 1 A =
2 1

A is a non-singular matrix. 5 5
Hence, (AB)1 exists. By R1 + R2

3 1
Q-3) Find inverse of following matrices by 1 0 1 5 5
0 1 A = 2 1

elementary row transformation
5 5
1 1 1 1
i) 1 2 ii) 2 3
1 3 1
A 1 =
5 2 1
3 10 2 1
iii) 2 7 iv) 7 4

3 10
iii)Let A =
1 1 2 7
Ans. i) Let A =
1 2
3 10
A = = 21 20 = 1 0
1 1 2 7
A = = 2 1 =1 0
1 2 A1 exists.
1
A exists. We write AA1 = I
1
AA =1
3 10 1 1 0
A = 0 1
1 1 1 1 0 2 7
1 2 A = 0 1
By R1 R2
R2 R2 R1
1 3 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 0 2 7 A = 0 1
0 1 A = 1 1

By R2 2R1
R1 R1 R2
1 3 1 1 1
1 0 1 2 1 0 1 A = 2 3
0 1 A = 1 1

By R1 3R2
2 1
A 1 = 1 0 1 7 10
1 1 0 1 A = 2 3

1 1
ii) Let A = 7 10
2 3 A 1 =
2 3
1 1
A = =3+2=5 0
2 3 2 1
iv) Let A =
A1 exists. 7 4
We write AA1 = I
2 1
1 1 1 1 0 A = = 8 7 =1 0
A = 0 1 7 4
2 3
A1 exists.
By R2 2R1 AA1 = I
1 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 0
0 5 A = 2 1 7 4 A = 0 1

1 R1 4R1 R2
By R2
5
1 0 1 4 1
7 4 A = 0 1

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R2 R2 7R1 By R1 R3 and R2 R3
1 0 1 4 1 1 0 0
0 4 A = 28 8
A = 0 1 0 = I 3 .
1 0 0 1
R2 R
4 2 Q-5) Find X such that AX = B where
1 0 1 4 1 1 2 0 1
0 1 A = 7 2 A= &B =
1 3 2 4
Ans. AX = B
4 1
A 1 =
7 2 1 2 0 1
X =
1 3 2 4

2 1 3 1 2 0 1
By R2 + R1, X =
A = 1 0 1 0 5 2 5
Q-4) If then reduce it to I3 by
1 1 1 0 1
1 2
By R2 ,
1 2
X =
using Row transformations. 5 0 1 1
5
2 1 3
Ans. A = 1 0 1 4
1 0 5 1
1 1 1 By R1 2R2,
0 1 X = 2
1
= 2 (0 1) 1 (1 1) + 3 (1 0) 5
=20+3=10
A is a non-singular matrix. 4
5 1
Hence, the required transformation is possible. X =
2 1
2 1 3 5
Now. A = 1 0 1

1 1 1
cos sin 0
By R1 R2
Q-6) Find the inverse of sin cos 0

1 1 2 0 0 1
A = 1 0 1
1 1 1 cos sin 0
Ans. A = sin cos 0
By R2 R1 and R3 R1
0 0 1
1 1 2
A = 0 1 1 = cos2 + sin2
0 0 1 =10
A 1 exists
By ( 1) R2 and ( 1)R3
A . A 1 = I
1 1 2
A = 0 1 1 cos sin 0 1 0 0
sin cos 0 A 1 = 0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1
By R1 R2
R1 R1 cos
1 0 1
A = 0 1 1
R2 R2 sin

0 0 1 cos 2 sin cos 0 cos 0 0


1 0 sin 0
2
sin sin cos 0 A =
0 0 1 0 0 1

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R1 R1 + R2 Using R1 R2

1 0 0 cos sin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
sin2 sin cos 0 A 1 = 0 sin 0 4 3 3 A 1 = 1 0 0

0 0 +1 0 0 1 4 4 3 0 0 1

R2 R2 sin2 R1 Using R2 R2 + 4 R1 & R3 R3 4 R1

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
0 sin cos 0 A 1 0 3 1 A 1 = 1 4 0

0 4 1 0 4 1
0 0 1
Using R2 R2 + R3
cos sin 0
= sin cos sin sin 0
2 3
1 0 1 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 1 0 A 1 = 1 0 1

R2 R2 / sin cos 0 4 1 0 4 1

Using R3 R3 4 R2
1 0 0 cos sin 0
0 1 0 A 1 = sin cos 0
1 0 1 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 A 1 = 1 0 1

0 0 1 4 4 3
cos sin 0
IA 1
= sin cos 0 R3 ( 1 ) R3

0 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 0 1
cos sin 0
A 1
= sin cos 0 0 0 1 4 4 3
0 0 1 R1 R1 R3

1 0 0 4 3 3
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 0 1
4 3 3
Q-7) Find the inverse 1 0 1 0 0 1 4 4 3

4 4 3
4 3 3
4 3 3 I A = 1 0 1
1


Ans. Let A = 1 0 1 4 4 3
4 4 3
4 3 3
4 3 3 A = 1 0 1
1

A = 1 0 1 4 4 3
4 4 3

= 4 (0 4) + 3 (3 4) 3 (4 0) Q-8) Show that the matrix


= 4 ( 4) + 3 (1) 3 (4)
1 2 2
= 16 3 12
A = 2 1 2 satisfies the equation
=10
2 2 1
A 1 exist.
A2 4A 5I = O. Hence find A1
1
AA =I
1 2 2 1 2 2 9 8 8
4 3 3 1 0 0 Ans. A = A . A = 2 1 2 2 1 2 = 8 9 8
2

1 0 1 A = 0 1 0
1
2 2 1 2 2 1 8 8 9
4 4 3 0 0 1
Matrices
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Ans. Since A is a non-singular matrix. A1 exists.


1 2 2 4 8 8
4A = 4 2 1 2 = 8 4 8
We write AA1 = 1

2 2 1 8 8 4 x 0 0 1 0 0
0 y 0 A 1 = 0 1 0

1 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 z 0 0 1
5I = 5 0 1 0 = 0 5 0
0 0 1 0 0 5 1 1 1
By R1 , R 2 and R3 ,
x y z
2
LHS = A 4A 5 I

9 8 8 4 8 8 5 0 0 1
0 0
= 8 9 8 8 4 8

0 5 0
1 0 0 x
8 8 9 8 8 4 0 0 5 0 1 0 A 1 1
= 0 0
y
0 0 1
0 0 0 1
0 0
z
= 0 0 0 = 0
0 0 0
1
= RHS 0 0
x
A 2 4A 5I = 0 1
A 1 = 0 0
premultiply A1 on both sides y

(
A 1 A 2 4A 5I = A 1 0) 1
0 0
z
A 1 A . A 4A 1 A 5A 1I = 0
I .A 4I 5 A 1 = 0 2 0 0 x 0 0
Comparing 0 1 0 with 0 y 0 ,

A 4I = 5 A 1
0 0 1 0 0 z
1
A 1 = ( A 4I ) we get, x = 2, y = 1, z = 1
5
Hence, the inverse of
1 2 2 1 0 0
1
= 2 1 2 4 0 1 0
1
0 0

5 2 0 0 2
2 2 1 0 0 1 0 1
0 is 0 1 0 .
1 2 2 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

1
= 2 1 2 0 4 0
5
2 2 1 0 0 4 Q-10) Find X such that AX = B, where

3 2 2 1 3 3 7 3 3

= 2 3 2
1 A = 1 4 3 and B = 1 1 0
A 1
5 1 3 4 1 0 1
2 2 3
Ans. AX = B
x 0 0 1 3 3 7 3 3
Q-9) If A = 0 y 0 is non-singular matrix, find 1 4 3 X = 1 1 0

0 0 z 1 3 4 1 0 1
A1 by using elementary row transformations. R2 R2 R1 and R3 R3 R1
2 0 0 1 3 3 7 3 3
0 1 0 0 1 0 X = 8 4 3
Hence find inverse of
0 0 1 0 0 1 8 3 4

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R1 R1 3R2
0 1
2 0 0
1 0 3 31 15 12 Q-12) If A = and B = 2 3 . Show
0 1 0 X = 8 2 1 3
4 3 1 1
0 0 1 8 3 4 that (AB)1 exist and find it.
R1 R1 3R3 0 1
2 0 0
1 0 0 55 24 24 Ans. AB = 2 3
2 1 3
0 1 0 X = 8 4 3 1 1

0 0 1 8 3 4
0+0+0 2 + 0 + 0
=
55 24 24 0 + (2) + 3 2 3 3
X = 8 4 3 0 2
8 =
3 4 1 8
|AB| = 0 (2) = 2
1 1 4 1 24 7 |AB| 0
Q-11) I f A = ,B = 3 1 , C = 31 9 , t h e n Hence (AB)1 is exist.
1 2
Since (AB) (AB)1 = I
find X such that A X B = C
Ans. A X B = C 0 2 1 1 0
1 8 ( AB ) = 0 1
1 1 24 7
( XB ) = R1 R2
1 2 31 9
First we perform the row transformations 1 8 1 0 1
0 2 ( AB ) = 1 0

1 1 24 7
By R2 R1 , ( XB ) = R1 R1 4R2
0 1 7 2
1 0 1 4 1
1 0 17 5 0 2 ( AB ) = 1 0
By R1 R 2 , ( XB ) =
0 1 7 2
1
17 5 R2 R
XB = 2 2
7 2
4 1
4 1 17 5 1 0 1 1
X = 0 1 ( AB ) =

3 1 7 2 0
2
Now, we perform the column transformations.
4 1
1 4 5 17
= 1
1
By C1 C 2 , X = ( AB )
1 3 2 7 0
2
1 0 5 3
By C 2 4C1 , X =
1 1 2 1 GROUP (A) HOME WORK PROBLEMS

1 0 5 3
By ( 1) C 2 , X = Q-1) Find which of the following matrices are
1 1 2 1
invertible
1 0 2 3
By C1 C 2 , X = 2 2 3
0 1 1 1 cos sin 1 1 3
i) sin cos ii)

2 3 2 2 3
X=
1 1
1 1 5
iii) 1 2 0

5 0 3

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 7

We write AA1 = I
cos sin
Ans. i) Let A =
sin cos 1 1 1 1 0
A = 0 1
2 3
cos sin
Then, A = By R2 2R1
sin cos
= cos2 + sin2 = 1 0. 1 1 1 1 0
0 5 A = 2 1
A is a non-singular matrix.
Hence, A1 exists. 1
By R2
5
2 2 3
1 1 3
ii) 1 0
1 1 1
2 2 3 0 1 A
2 1

5 5
2 2 3
By R1 + R2
Let A = 1 1 3
2 2 3 3 1
1 0 1 5 5
0 1 A 2
2 2 3 1
A = 1 1 3 5 5
2 2 3
1 3 1
A 1 = 2 1
= 2 (3 6) 2 (3 6) + 3 (2 + 2) 5
= 18 + 18
=0 1 2 2
i.e A1 does not exist
A = 0 2 1
ii) Let
1 1 5 1 3 0

ii) Let A = 1 2 0
5 0 3 1 2 2
A = 0 2 1
1 1 5 1 3 0
Then A = 1 2 0
A = 1 (0 3) 2 (0 + 1) 2(0 2)
5 0 3
= 32+4
= 1(6 0) + 1 (3 0) + 5 (10) = 10
= 6 3 50 A1 exists
= 47 0 AA1 = I
A is non-singular matrix 1 2 2 1 0 0
1
A exists. 0 2 1 A = 0 1 0
1

1 3 0 0 0 1
Q-2) Find the inverse of the following matrices
R3 R3+ R1
(if th ey ex is t) by elementary row
transformation 1 2 2 1 0 0
0 2 1 A = 0 1 0
1
1 2 2
1 1 0 2 1 0 5 2 1 0 1
i) 2 3 ii)
1 3 0 R1 R1+ R2

1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
Ans. i) Let A = 0 2 1 A = 0 1 0
1
2 3
0 5 2 1 0 1
1 1
A = =3+2=5 0 R2 2R2+ R3
2 3
A1 exists
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1 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 4 1 0 0
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 2 1 0 5 18 1 4 1 0
A =
0 5 2 1 0 1 0 2 7 1 0 1
R3 R3 5R2 R2 R2 + 2R3

1 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 4 1 0 0
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 2 1 0 1 4 A1 = 2 1 2

0 0 2 4 10 4 0 2 7 1 0 1

R3 R1 R1 2R2, R3 R3 + 2R2
R3
2 1 0 4 3 2 4
0 1 4 A1 2 1 2
1 0 1 1 1 0 =
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 2 1 0 0 1 3 2 5

0 0 1 2 5 2 R2 R2 4R3, R1 R1 + 4R3
R1 R1+R3 9 6 16
1 0 0
0 1 0 A1 10 7 18
=

3 6 2 0 0 1 3 2 5
A 1 = 1 2 1
2 5 2
1 2 3
Q-4) F in d th e in verse of 1 1 5 by

2 4 7
1 2 4

Q-3) Find the inverse of A = 4 3 2 elementary row transformation.
1 0 3
1 2 3
Ans. Let, A = 1 1 5
1 2 4
2 4 7
Ans. Let, A = 4 3 2
1 0 3 Since AA1 = I

A = 1(9 0) 2 (12 + 2) + 4 (0 3) 1 2 3 1 0 0
0 1 0
= 9 + 20 12 1 1 5 A1 =
2 4 7 0 0 1
= 1
A 0 Applying R2 R2 R1 and R3 R3 2R1,

A1 exists 1 0 0
1 2 3 1 1 0
Since, AA1 = I 0 1 2 A1 =
2 0 1
1 2 4 1 0 0 0 0 1
4 3 2 A 1 = 0 1 0
Applying R2
1 0 3 0 0 1 1 2 3 1 0 0
0 1 2 A1 = 1 1 0
1 2 4
4 3 2 0 0 1 2 0 1
Find the inverse of A =
1 0 3 Applying R1 R1 2R2,

1 0 7 1 2 0
1 2 4 1 0 0 1 1 0
4 3 2 A1 = 0 1 0 0 1 2 A1 =

2 0 1
1 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 1

R2 R2 4R1, R3 R3 R1

Matrices
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Applying R1 R1 7R3 and R2 R2 + 2R3 R1 R1 R2

1 0 0 13 2 7 1 1 0 2 0 1
0 1 0 A1 = 3 1 2 0 1 3 1 3 0 1
A =
0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 0

13 2 7 R2 R2 3R3
A 1
= 3 1 2
2 0 1
1 1 0
2 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 3 1
A =
0 0 1 2 1 0

1 2 3 R1 R1 R2
2 4 5
Q-5) F in d th e in verse of by
1 3 2
3 5 6 1 0 0
0 1 0 A1 = 3 3 1
elementary row transformation. 2 1 0
0 0 1
1 2 3
1 3 2
Ans. Let, A = 2 4 5
3 3 1
3 5 6 A1 =
2 1 0
Now,

1 2 3
A = 2 4 5 1 0 1 1 2 2
3 5 6 2 1 4
Q-6) Find X if X = 3 4 3 .
1 0 2 3 4 1
= 1 (24 25) 2 (12 15) + 3(10 12)
= (1) 2 (3) + 3(2) Ans. We have
= 1 + 6 6 = 1 0
1 0 1 1 2 2
A1 exists 2 1 4 X = 3 4 3
AA1 = I
1 0 2 3 4 1
1 2 3 1 0 0
2 4 5 A1 = 0 1 0 By elementary row transformation
R2 R2 + 2R1, R3 R3 + R1
3 5 6 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 2 2
R2 R2 2R1 R3 R3 3R1 0 1 2
X = 1 0 1
1 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1
0 0 1 1 2 1 0
A =
R2 R2 2R3,
0 1 3 3 0 1
1 0 1 1 2 2
R2 R3 0 1 0
X = 3 4 1
1 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1
0 1 3 1 3 0 1
A = R2 (1)R2,
0 0 1 2 1 0
1 0 1 1 2 2
R2 (1)R2 R3 (1)R3 0 1 0 3 4 1
X=
1 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1
0 1 3 A1 = 3 0 1
R1 R1 + R3
0 0 1 2 1 0
1 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 3 4 1
X=
0 0 1 2 2 1
Matrices
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3 1 2 9 2 1
1 0
Q-7) If A = &B= 1 find X such AX = B. 5 1 (AB) = 0 1
4 2
Ans. AX = B R1 R1 2R2
3 1 2 1 0 1 2
4 2 X = 1 5 1 (AB) = 0 1
1

R2 R2 + R1 R1 (1)R1 ,
3 1 2 1 2
7 1 X = 1 1 0
5 1 (AB) = 0 1
1


R1 R1 + R2
R2 R2 5R1
10 0 3
7 1 X = 1 1 0 1 2
0 1 (AB) = 5 9
1


R1
R1 1 2
10 (AB)1 =
5 9
3
1 0 10
7 1 X =
Q-9) Find the inverse by elementary row
1
transformation
R2 R2 7R1
2 3 3 1 3 2
3 2 2 3 3 0 5
1 0 10 i) ii)
0 1 X = 11 3 2 2 2 5 0

10

1 3 2 3 3

10 11
IX = Ans. i) Let A = 2 2 3
3 2 2
1 3
10 11
X =
2 3 3
|A|= 2 2 3
3 2 2
2 3 3 1 1
Q-8) A=
I f
&B= . Find (AB) by = 2(4 + 6) + 3 (4 9) + 3 (4 6)
1 2 1 0
= 20 15 30 = 25 0
elementary row transformation.
A1 exists.
2 3 3 1 Since AA1 = I
Ans. A = B=
1 2 1 0
2 3 3 1 0 0
2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 0 1 0
AB = 1 2 1 0 A =
3 2 2 0 0 1
2 ( 3 ) + 3 (1) 2 (1) + 3 ( 0 ) R2 R2 R1, R3 R3 R1
=
1 ( 3 ) + 2 (1) 1 (1) + 2 ( 0 )
2 3 3 1 0 0
9 2 0 5 0 A1 = 1 1 0

= 5 1 1 0 1
1 1 1

9 2 1
|AB| = = 9 10 = 1 0 R1 R3 and R2 R,
5 1 5 2
(AB)1 exists
1 1 1 1 0 1
We know 1
0 1 0 1 1
(AB) [AB]1= I A = 0
5 5
2 3 3 1
0 0
Matrices
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R3 R3 2R1,
1 3 2 1 0 0
3 0 5 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 0 1 A =
1
0 1 0
1
0
2 5 0 0 0 1
A1 =
0 5 5 5 5
3 Applying R2 R2 + 3R1 and R3 R3 2R1,
0 2
1 3 2 1 0 0
1 0 9 11 1 3 1 0
R3 R3 , R1 R1 R2 , A =
5 0 1 4 2 0 1

4 1 Applying R2 R2 + 8R3,
5 1
5
1 0 1 1 3 2 1 0 0
0 1 0 A1 = 1 1
0 0 1 21 A1 = 13 1 8
5 5

0 1 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 0 1
0
5 5 Applying R1 R1 3R2 and R3 R3 + R2,
R3 R3 + R2 1 0 65 40 3 24
0 1 21 A1 = 13 1 8
4 1
5 1 0 0 25 15 1 9
1 0 1 5

0 1 0 1 1 1
A = 0 R3
5 5 Applying ,
0 0 1 25
2 1 2
5 5 5
1 0 65 40 3 24
R1 R1 + R3
0 1 21 A1 =
13 1 8
2 3 0 0 1 15 1 9
5 0
1 0 0 5 25 25 25

0 1 0 1 1
A1 = 0 Applying R1 R1 + 65R3 and R2 R2 21R3,
5 5
0 0 1
2 1 2
25 10 15
5 5 25 25
5
1 0 0 25

0 1 0 A1 = 10 4 11
2 3 25 25 25
5 0 0 0 1
5 2 0 3 15 1 9
1 25 25
IA1 = 1 1
0 ; A = 1 1 0
1 25
5 5 5
2 1 2
2 1 2 25 10 15
5 5 1
5
A =1
10 4 11
25
15 1 9
1 3 2

ii) Let A = 3 0 5
2 5 0 GROUP (B) CLASS WORK PROBLEMS

1 3 2 2 6
3 0 5 Q-1) Find the inverse of by adjoint
|A|= 7 20
2 5 0
method
= (0 + 25) 3(0 + 10) 2 (15 )
2 6
= 25 30 + 30 = 0 Ans. Let A =
7 20
A1 exists.
Since AA1 = I 2 6
A =
7 20
Matrices
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= 2 ( 20 ) 7 ( 6 ) 1 4
A33 = =3
= 40 42 2 5
= 2 0 Cofactor Matrix

3 6 9
1
A exists
0 3 6
A11 = 20 =
6 0 3
A12 = 7
A21 = 6 3 0 6
A22 = 2 (Adj A) = 6 3 0

9 6 3
A A21 20 6
Adj A = 11 =
A12 A22 7 2
3 0 6
1
adj A 1 20 6 A1
= 6 3 0
A 1 = = 9
A 2 7 2 9 6 3

sec tan 0
1 4 2
Q-3) Find inverse of tan sec 0 by adjoint

Q-2) Find the adjoint of 2 5 4
0 0 1
1 2 1
method
1 4 2 sec tan 0

Ans. Let A = 2 5 4 Ans. Let A = tan sec 0
1 2 1
0 0 1

1 4 2 sec tan 0
A = 2 5 4 =9 A = tan sec 0
1 2 1 0 0 1
Co-factors are = sec (sec 0) tan (tan 0) + (0 0)
5 4 = sec2 tan2
A11 = + =3
2 1 =10
A1 exists
2 4
A12 = =6 sec 0
1 1
A11 = (1)1+1 M11 = = sec
0 1
2 5
A13 = + =9 tan 0
1 2
A12 = (1)1+2 M12 = = tan
0 1
4 2
A21 = =0 tan sec
2 1
A13 = (1)1+3 M13 = 0 0 =0
1 2
A22 = + =3 tan 0
1 1 A21 = (1)2+1 M21 = = tan
0 1
1 4
A23 = =6 sec 0
1 2
A22 = (1)2+2 M22 = = sec
0 1
4 2
A31 = + =6 sec tan
5 4
A23 = (1)2+3 M23 = =0
0 0
1 2
A32 = =0 tan 0
2 4
A31 = (1)3+1 M31 = =0
sec 0

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 13

sec 0 3 2
A32 = (1)3+2 M32 = =0 A12 = (1)1+2 M12 =
tan 0 1 3

sec tan = (9 + 2) = 11
A33 = (1)3+3 M33 = 3 0
tan sec
A13 = (1)1+3 M 13 = =00=0
1 0
= sec2 tan2 = 1
Hence the co-factor matrix 1 2
A21 = (1)2+1 M21 = 0 3
A11 A12 A13 sec tan 0
= A21 A22 A23 = tan sec 0 = ( 3 0) = 3
A31 A32 A33 0 0 1 1 2
A22 = (1)2+2 M 22 = = 3 2 =1
1 3
sec tan 0
1 1
adj A = tan sec 0 A23 = (1)2+3 M 23 =
0 0 1 1 0

= (0 + 1) = 1
1
A1 = (adj A) 1 2
A A31 = (1)3+1 M 31 = =20=2
0 2
sec tan 0
1 1 2
tan sec 0 A32 = (1)3+2 M 32 =
= 1 3 2
0 0 1
= ( 2 6) = 8
sec tan 0 1 1
A = tan sec 0 = (1)3+3 M 33 =
1 A33 =0+3=3
3 0
0 0 1
Hence the cofactor matrix

A11 A12 A13 0 11 0


1 = A21 A23 = 3 1
1 2
A22 1
Q-4) If A = 3 0 2 verify that A31
A32 A33 2 8 3
1 0 3
0 3 2
A (adj A) = (adj A) A = A I
adjA = 11 1 8

1 1 2 0 1 3
Ans. A = 3 0 2 Now, (adj A) A
1 0 3
1 1 2 0 3 2
3 0 2 11 1 8
1 1 2 =
A = 3 0 2 1 0 3 0 1 3
1 0 3
0 +11 + 0 3 1 2 2 8 + 6
= 1 (0 + 0) + 1(9 + 2) + 2(0 0) 0 + 0 0 9 + 0 + 2 6 + 0 6
= 0 + 11 + 0 = 11 =
0 + 0 + 0 3 + 0 3 2 + 0 + 9
First we have to find the cofactor matrix

= Aij 33' where Aij = (1)i+j Mij 11 0 0


0 11 0
Now, = ....(i)
0 0 11
0 2
A11 = (1)1+1 M 11 = A (adj A)
0 3

= 0+0 =0 0 3 2 1 1 2
11 1 8 3 0 2
=
0 1 3 1 0 3
Matrices
14 Mahesh Tutorials Science

0+9+2 0+0+0 0 6+6 1 3


11 + 3 + 8 11 + 0 + 0 22 2 + 24 A13 = (1)4 1 4

=
0 3 + 3 0 0+0 0 + 2 + 9 = 43= 1
2 2
11 0 0 A21 = (1)3
0 11 0 4 3
= ....(ii) = (6 8) = 2
0 0 11
1 2
A22 = (1)4 1 3
1 0 0 11 0 0
0 1 0 = 0 11 0
| A| I = 11 = 32= 1
0 0 1 0 0 11
1 2
A23 = (1)5
From (i), (ii) and (iii) we get 1 4
A (adj A) = (adjA) A = |A| I = ( (4 2)) = 2
2 2
GROUP (B) HOME WORK PROBLEMS A31 = (1)4
3 4
= + (8 6) = + 2
3 2
1 2
Q-1) If A = find adj A.
2
5
2 A32 = ( 1) 1 4

3 2 = (4 2) = 2
Ans. A =
2 2 6 1 2
Aij = (1)i+j Mij A33 = ( 1) 1 3

A11 = (1)1+1 [2] = 2 = 32 =1
A12 = (1)3 (2) = 2 Hence, the cofactor matrix
A21 = (1)3 (2) = +2
A22 = (1)4 (3) = 3 7 1 1
2 1 2
T =
A A12 2 2 1
adj ( A ) = 11
A21 A22
7 2 2
2 2 1 1 2
adj ( A ) =
2 3 adj (A)=
1 2 1

1 2 2 1 1 1
Q-3) Find the adjoint of 3 4 7
Q-2) Find the adjoint of 1 3 4
1 4 3 1 1 1

1 2 2 1 1 1
Ans. Let, A = 1 3 4 Ans. Let, A = 3 4 7

1 4 3 1 1 1

3 4 4 7
A11 = (1)2 A11 = (1)2 = 4+7 = 11
4 3 1 1
= 9 16 = 7 3 7
A12 = (1)3 = (3 7) = 4
1 4 1 1
A12 = (1) 3

1 3
3 4
= (3 4) = 1 A13 = (1)4 = 34 = 7
1 1

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 15

1 1 cos sin
A21 = (1)3 1 1 = (1 + 1) = 2 Now, A11 = ( 1)1+1M11 = sin cos

1 1 = cos2 sin2 = 1
A22 = (1)4 = (1 1) = 0
1 1 0 sin
A12 = ( 1)1+1M12 =
0 cos
1 1
A23 = (1) 5
= (1 1)= 2 = ( 0 0) = 0
1 1
0 cos
1 1 A13 = ( 1)1+3M13 = 0 sin = 0 0 = 0
A31 = (1) 4 7
4
= 74 = 3

0 0
1 1 A21 = ( 1)2+1M21 =
A32 = (1) 5
= (7 3) = 4 sin cos
3 7
= ( 0 0) = 0
1 1
A33 = (1)6 = 43 = 1 1 0
3 4 A22 = ( 1)2+2M22 =
0 cos
Hence, the cofactor of matrix
= cos 0 = cos

11 4 7
1 0
= 2 0 2 A23 = ( 1)2+3M23 =
0 sin
3 4 1
= (sin 0)= sin

11 2 3 0 0
adj ( A ) = 4 0 4 A31 = ( 1)3+1M31 =
cos sin
7 2 1
= 00 = 0
1 0
Q-4) Find the inverse of the following matrices A32 = ( 1)3+2M32 =
0 sin
by the adjoint method
= (sin 0)= sin

1 0 0
0 cos sin 1 5 1 0
i) ii) 3 2 A33 = ( 1)3+3M33 =
0 cos
0 sin cos
= cos 0 = cos

2 1 3 1 0 0 Hence the cofactor matrix
1 0
iii) 4 iv) 3 3 0 A11 A12 A13
7 2 1 5 2 1 = A21 A22 A23
A31 A32 A33
1 0 0
A = 0 cos sin
Ans. i) Let, 1 0 0
0 sin cos
= 0 cos sin
0 sin cos
1 0 0
A = 0 cos sin
1 0 0
adj A = 0 sin
0 sin cos
cos
= 1 ( cos2 sin2 ) 0 + 0 0 sin cos
= (cos + sin ) = 1 0
2 2

1
1
A exists. A 1 = ( adjA )
A
First we have to find the cofactor matrix

= Aij 33 where Aij ( 1)i + j Mij 1 0 0


1
= 0 cos sin
1
0 sin cos

Matrices
16 Mahesh Tutorials Science

1 0 0 1 3
A21 = ( 1)2+1M21 =
A 1
= 0 cos sin 2 1
0 sin cos = (1 6) = 5
2 3
1 5 A22 = ( 1)2+2M22 =
ii) Let, A = 7 1
3 2
= 2 + 21 = 23
1 5
A = = 2 +15 = 13 0 2 1
3 2 A23 = ( 1)2+3M23 = 7 2
= A1exists.
= (4 + 7) = 11
First we have to find the cofactor matrix
1 3
= Aij 22 where Aij ( 1)i + j Mij A31 = ( 1)3+1M31 =
1 0
Now, A11 = ( 1)1+1M11 = 2
= 0+3 = 3
A12 = ( 1)1+2M12 = (3) = 3
A21 = ( 1)2+1M21 = 5 2 3
A32 = ( 1)3+2M32 =
A22 = ( 1)2+2M22 = 1 4 0

Hence the cofactor matrix = (0 12) = 12

A A12 2 3 2 1
= 11 = = ( 1)3+3M33
A22 5 1
A33 =
A21 4 1
= 24 = 6
2 5
adj A = Hence the cofactor matrix
3 1
A11 A12 A13 1 4 1
1 1 2 5
( adj A ) = = A21 A23 = 5 23 11
1
A =
13 3 1
A22
A
A31 A32 A33 3 12 6
2 1 3
iii)Let, A = 4 1 0 1 5 3
7 adj A = 4 23 12
2 1
1 11 6
2 1 3
1
A = 4 1 0
1
A = (adj A )
A
7 2 1

= 2 ( 1 0 ) 1 (4 + 0) + 3 (8 7) 1 5 3
1
= 4 23 12
=24+3=30 3
1 11 6
A1exists.
First we have to find the cofactor matrix
1 5 3
1
= Aij 33 where Aij ( 1)i + j Mij A 1
= 4 23 12
3
1 11 6
1 0
1+1
Now, A11 = ( 1) M11 =
2 1
1 0 0
= 10 = 1 iv) Let, A = 3 3 0
4 0 5 2 1
A12 = ( 1)1+2M12 =
7 1
1 0 0
= (4 + 0) = 4
A = 3 3 0
4 1
A13 = ( 1)1+3M13 = 5 2 1
7 2
= 1 ( 3 0 ) 0 ( 3 0) + 0 (6 15)
= 87 = 1

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 17

= 3+00 3+3 6
A33 = ( 1) M 33 = ( 1) ( 3)
=30
=3
A1exists.
Minor A11 A12 A13
Cofactor Matrix = A21 A22 A23
3 0
M 11 = = 3
2 1 A31 A32 A33

1+1 2
A11 = ( 1) M 11 = ( 1) ( 3 ) 3 3 9
= 3 = 0 1 2
0 0 3
3 0
M 12 = = 3
5 1 3 0 0
1+2 3 adj A = 3 1 0
A12 = ( 1) M 12 = ( 1) ( 3 )
9 2 3
=3
1
3 3 A 1 = adj ( A )
M 13 = A
5 2
= 6 15 = 9 3 0 0
1
A 1
= 3 1 0
A13 = ( 1)
1+3
M13 = ( 1)
4
( 9 ) 3
9 2 3
= 9
3 0 0
0 0 1
M 21 = =0 = 3 1 0
2 1 3
9 2 3
2+1 3
A21 = ( 1) A21 = ( 1) (0)
=0

1 0
M 22 = = 1
5 1
2+2 4
A22 = ( 1) A22 = ( 1) ( 1)
= 1

1 0
M 23 = =2
5 2
2+3 5
A23 = ( 1) M 23 = ( 1) ( 2)
= 2

0 0
M 31 = =0
3 0
3+1 4
A31 = ( 1) M 31 = ( 1) (0)
=0

1 0
M 32 = =0
3 0
3+2 5
A32 = ( 1) M 32 = ( 1) (0)
=0

1 0
M 33 = =3
3 3

Matrices
18 Mahesh Tutorials Science

GROUP (C) CLASS WORK PROBLEMS


1 2 3 x 2
2 4 5 y = 1
Q-1) Solve by the reduction method. ii)
2 5 6 z 2
i) x + y = 4 , 2x y = 5
ii) x + 2y + 3z = 2 ; 2x + 4y + 5z = 1 R2 2R1 & R3 2R1
2x + 5y + 6z = 2 1 2 3 x 2
0 0 1 y = 3
Ans. i) The given equations can be written in
matrix form : 0 1 0 z 2

1 1 x 4
2 1 y = 5 R2 R3

This is of the form AX = B , where 1 2 3 x 2
0 1 0 y = 2
1 1 x 4
A= , X = y and B = 5 0 0 1 z 3
2 1
Now,
R1 R1 2R2
1 1 1 0 3 x +6
A = = 1 2 = 3 0
2 1 0 1 0 y = 2

A 1 exist. 0 0 1 z 3

AA1 = I
R1 + 3R3
1 1 1 1 0
2 1 A = 0 1 1 0 0 x 3
0 1 0 y = 2

R2 R2 2R1 0 0 1 z 3

1 1 1 1 0
0 3 A = 2 1 ( R3 ) ( 1) R3

R2 R2 /3 1 0 0 x 3
0 1 0 y = 2
1 1 1 1 0
0 1 A = 2 3 1 3 0 0 1 z 3

R1 R1 R2
x 3
1 1 1 1 3 1 3 I y = 2
0 1 A = 2 3 1 3
z 3

1 3 1 3 x = 3, y = 2 & z = 3
A 1 =
2 3 1 3
Now , premultiply AX = B by A1 , we get Q-2) Solve by reduction method
1 1
A (AX) = A B ; (A A) X = A B1 1
i) x + 3y = 2 , 3x + 5y = 4
IX = A1 B = A1 B ii) 4 x + 2y z = 3; x 2y + z = 8;
1 3 1 3 4 2x y + z = 7
X = 5
2 3 1 3 iii) x + y + z = 9 ; 2x + 5y + 7z = 52
2x + y z = 0
4 5
+ Ans. i) The given equations can be written in the
x 3 3
y = 8 5 matrix form as :

3 3 1 3 x 2
3 5 y = 4
x 3
y = 1 By R2 3R1

By equality of matrices, x = 3 , y = 1 is the 1 3 x 2
required soolution 0 4 y = 2

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 19

1 2 z = 3 2 ... (iii)
x + 3y 2
=
0 4y 2 We get, x = 1; y = 2; z = 3
By equality of matrices,
1 1 1 x 9
x + 3y = 2 ... (i) 2 5 7 y = 52
4y = 2 ... (ii) iii)
2 1 1 z 0
1
From (ii) , y = R2 R2 2R1, R3 R3 2R1
2
1 1 1 1 x 9
Substituting y = in (i) , we get 0 3 5 y = 34
2
0 1 3 z 18
3
x+ =2
2 1
R3 R3 + R
3 1 3 2
x =2 =
2 2

1 1 1 1 1 x 9
Hence , x = , y = is the required
2 2 0 3 5 y = 34
solution. 4 z 20
0 0
3 3
ii) The given equation can be written in the Hence x + y + z = 9
matrix form AX = B
4z 20
3y + 5z = 34 ; =
4 2 1 x 3 3 3
1 2 1 y = 8
z = 5
2 1 1 z 7 x = 1, y = 3, z = 5

R1 R2
Q-3) In a city there are two factories A and B.
1 2 1 x 8 Each factory produces sports clothes for
4 2 1 y = 3
boys and girls. There are three types of
2 1 1 z 7 clothes produced in both the factories, type
R2 R2 4R1 and R3 R3 2R1 I, II and III. For boys the number of units
of types I, II and III are 80, 70 and 65 in
1 2 1 x 8 factory A & 85, 65 and 72 in factory B. For
0 10 5 y = 35
girls the number of units of types, I, II and
0 3 1 z 9 III are 80, 75, 90 in factory A & 50, 55, 80
in factory B. Express the information in
3
R3 R3 R2 terms of matrices and answer the following
10
questions ?
1 2 1 x 8 i) How many total units of type I are
0 10 5 y = 35
produced for boys ?
0 0 1 2 z 3 2 ii) What is total production of each type
R1 R1 + 9R3 and for boys and girls ?
Ans. The given information in matrix form is :
x 2y + z 8 Factory : A B
10y 5z = 35 Types : I II III I II III
1 2z 3 2 Boys : 80 70 65 85 65 72
x 2y + z = 8 ... (i) 80 75 90 50 55 80
Girls
10y 5z = 35 ... (ii)

Matrices
20 Mahesh Tutorials Science

Therefore the total production of sports = [5000 + 6000 + 16000 ]


clothes is given as : = [37000]
80 70 65 85 65 72 Hence, the total revenue in market I
80 75 90 + 50 55 80 = Rs 37000.

For market II :
165 135 137 Sale matrix = [6000 10000 8000]
=
130 130 170
4
Therefore the total production of sports clothes
Sale price matrix = 3
of each type for boys and girls is given as :
6
I II III
Boys : 165 135 137 4
Girls : 130 130 170 total revenue [6000 10000 8000] 3
6
Hence,
i) total units of type I produced for boys = 165 = [24000 + 30000 + 48000]
ii) total production for boys : = [102000]
Type I is 165 units, type II is 135 units Hence, the total revenue in market II
and type III is 137 units, and = Rs 1,02,000
Total production for girls : 2.50
Type I is 130 units, type II is 130 units
ii) Cost price matrix = 1.50
and type III is 170 units.
3.00

Q-4) A manufacture produces three products A,


Profit matrix in market I
B, C which he sells in two markets I and II.
The annual sales are as shown below : 3 2.50 0.50
2
= 1.50 = 0.50
Market A B C 4 3.00 1.00

I 5000 3000 4000
Profit matrix in market II
II 6000 10000 8000
4 2.50 1.50
3 1.50
i) If the units sale prices of A, B, C are Rs. = = 1.50
3, Rs.2, and Rs.4 respectively in market 6 3.00 3.00
I and they are Rs. 4, Rs.3, and Rs.6 in
0.50
market II. Find the total reven ue in
Gross profit = [5000 3000 4000] 0.50
each market using matrix algebra
1
ii) If the units cost prices of A, B, C are
Rs.2.50, Rs.1.50 and Rs.3 respectively = [2500 + 1500 + 4000] = [8000]
then find the gross profit. In each Hence, the gross profit in market
market I = Rs 8000.
Ans. i) For market I : Profit matrix in market II
Sale matrix = [5000 3000 4000]
1.50

3 Gross Profit = [6000 10000 8000] 1.50
Sale price matrix = 2 3

4
= [9000 + 15000 + 24000] = [48000]
Hence, the gross profit in market II
3
2 is Rs 48000.
total revenue = [5000 3000 4000]
4

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 21

Q-5) The televisions manufactured in a factory GROUP (C) HOME WORK PROBLEMS
are stored in two warhouse. They are then
transported to the two shops. In the month Q-1) Solve by the inversion method.
of January the first warehouse has 45 i) x + 3y + 3z = 2, x + 4y + 3z = 1,
televisions and the second warehouse has x + 3y + 4z = 4
55 televisions. The first shop requires 47 ii) 5x y + 4z = 5, 2x + 3y + 5z = 2 and
television and second shop requires 53 5x 2y + 6z = 1
televisions. The televisions are transported iii) 2x y = 2, 3x + 4y = 3
from each warehouse to each of the two
iv) x +2y = 2, 2x + 3y = 3
shops. If the requirement of each shop is
v) 2x +6y = 8, x + 3y = 5
fulfilled then represen t th e above
information in term of one matrix equation. 1 3 3 x 2
Further, the transportation charges per 1 4 3 y = 1
Ans. i)
unit are Rs. 100 and Rs. 150 for the first 1 3 4 z 4
and the second shop respectively and the
AX = B
total transportation charges for the two
warehouses are Rs. 10000 and Rs. 15000 1 3 3 x 2
1 4 3 , X = y , B = 1
respectively. Represent this information in
terms of one matrix equation. 1 3 4 z 4
Ans. i) Let x1 and x2 be the number of T.V. sets
A = 1(16 9) 3(4 3) + 3(3 4)
sent by warehouse 1 to shops 1and 2
respectively, and x3 and x4 be the number =733
of T.V. sets sent by warehouse 2 to shops =1
1 and 2 respectively. A 0, A1 exist.
Then, according to the given data : Since,
x1 + x2 = 45 AA1 = I
x3 + x4 = 55
1 3 3 1 0 0
x1 + x3 = 47 1 4 3 A 1 = 0 1 0
x2 + x4 = 53
1 3 4 0 0 1
Expressing the above equation in matrix
form as : R2 R2 R1

1 1 0 0 x1 45 1 3 3 1 0 0
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 x 2 55
= = 1 3 4 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 x 3 47

0 1 0 1 x 4 53 R3 R3 R1
According to the second condition 1 3 3 1 0 0
100x1 + 150x2 = 1000 and 0 1 0 A 1 = 1 1 0

100x3 + 150x4 = 15000 0 0 1 1 0 1
The above information in Matrix form is as :
R1 R1 3R2
x1 x 2 100 10000
x =
3 x 4 150 15000 1 0 3 4 3 0
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 1 0

0 0 1 1 0 1

R1 R1 3R3

1 0 0 7 3 3
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 1 0

0 0 1 1 0 1
Matrices
22 Mahesh Tutorials Science

1 4
7 3 3 A21 = ( 1)2+1 M 21 =
= 1 1 0
2 6
IA 1
1 0 1 = ( 6 + 8) = 2
5 4
A1(AX) = A1 (B) A22 = ( 1)2+2 M 22 =
5 6
X = A1 B
= (30 20) = 10
x 7 3 3 2 5 1
y = 1 1 0 1 A23 = ( 1)2+3 M 23 = 5 2

z 1 0 1 4
= ( 10 + 5) = 5
x 1 1 4
y = 1 A31 = ( 1)3+1 M 31 = 3 5

z 2 = 5 12 = 17
x = 1, y = 1, z = 2 5 4
A32 = ( 1)3+2 M 32 = 2 5
ii) The given equation can be written in
the matrix form as : = (25 8) = 17
5 1 4 x 5 5 1
2 3 5 y = 2 A33 = ( 1)3+3 M 33 =
2 3

5 2 6 z 1
= 15 + 2 = 17
This is of the form AX = B, where the cofactor matrix =

5 1 4 x 5 A11 A12 A13 28 13 19


A 5
A = 2 3 5 , X = y and B = 2 21 A22 A23 = 2 10
5 2 6 z 1 A31 A32 A33 17 17 17

Let us find A1
28 17
2
5 1 4 adj A = 13 10 17
A = 2 3 5 19 5 17
5 2 6
1
= 5(18 + 10) + 1 (12 25) + 4( 4 15)
A 1 = ( adj A )
A
= 140 13 76 = 51 0
A1 is exist. 28 2 17
1
= 13 10 17
Now, we have to find the cofactor 51
matrix 19 5 17

= Aij 33 where Aij = ( 1)i+j Mij Now, premultiply AX = B by A1, we get,


A1(AX) = A1 B
3 5
A11 = ( 1)1+1 M 11 = 2 6 (A1A)X = A1 B
IX = A1 B
= 18 + 10 = 28
2 5 28 2 17 5
1
A12 = ( 1)1+2 M 12 = X = 13 10 17 2
5 6 51
19 5 17 1
= (12 25)= 13
2 3 140 4 +17 153
= ( 1)1+3 M 13 = 5 1 1
102
A13 2 = 65 + 20 +17 =
51 51
95 +10 17 102
= 4 15 = 19

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 23

x 3 4 1
11 11
y = 2 A 1 =
z 2 3 2
11 11
By equality of matrices,
Now, premultiply AX = B by A1, we get,
x = 3, y = 2, z = 2 is the required
A1(AX) = A1 B
solution.
(A1A)X = A1 B
iii) The given equation can be written in
IX = A1 B
the matrix form as :
2 1 x 2 4 /11 1/11 2
X =
3 4 y = 3 3 /11 2 /11 3

This is of the form AX = B, where 8 3 5
+
2 1 x x 11 11 11
A= 2 = =
3 4 , X = y and B = y 6 + 6 12
3
1
11 11 11
Let us find A
By equality of matrices,
2 1
A = 5 12
3 4 x= ,y = is th e re qu ire d
11 11
=8+3 solution.
= 11 0 iv) The given equation can be written in
A1 is exist. the matrix form as :
we write AA1 = I
1 2 x 2
2 1 1 1 0 2 3 y = 3
A = 0 1
3 4 This is of the form AX = B , where
By R1 R2,
1 2 x 2
A= X = and B =
3 4 1 0 1
2 3 y 3
2 A =
1
1 0 Let us find A 1

By R1 R2, 1 2
A = = 3 4 = 1 0
1 5 1 1 1 2 3
2 A =
1 1 0

A1 exists.
By R2 2R1, We write AA1 = I
1 2 1 1 0
1 5 1 1 1 A = 0 1
0 11 A = 3 2 2 3

By R2 2R1
1
By R2, 1 2 1 1 0
11
0 1 A = 2 1

1 1
1 5 1 By (1)R2
0 1 A = 3 2

11 11 1 2 1 1 0
0 1 A = 2 1
By R1 5R2,
By R1 2R2
4 1
1 0 1 11 11 1 0 1 3 2
0 1 A = 3 2
0 1 A = 2 1

11 11
3 2
A 1 =
2 1

Matrices
24 Mahesh Tutorials Science

Now, premultiply AX = B by A1, we get, y = 3


A1 (AX) = A1 B
5y 2z = 15
(A1A) X = A1 B
IX = A1B 15 2z = 15
2z = 0
3 2 2
X = z = 0
2 1 3
x = 2, y = 3, z = 0
x 6 + 6 0 ii) The given equations can be written in the
= =
y 4 3 1 matrix form as :
By equality of matrices 1 1 1 x 1
x = 0 , y = 1 is the required solution 2 1 0 y = 1

v) The given equation can be written in 3 3 4 z 2
the matrix form as :
By R2 2R1 and R3 3R1,
2 6 x 8
1 3 y = 5 1 1 1 x 1
0 1 2 y = 1
This is of the form AX = B , where
0 6 7 z 1
2 6 x 8
A= ; X = and B =
1 3 y 5 By R3 6R2,
1
Let us find A 1 1 1 x 1
2 6 0 1 2 y = 1
A= =66=0
1 3
0 0 5 z 5
A1 does not exist
Hence, x and y do not exist x y + z 1
0 + y 2z = 1
0 + 0 +5z 5
Q-2) Solve by the reduction method.
i) 2x + y + 2z = 7; x y + z + 1 = 0; By equality of matrices,
3x + 2y + z 12 = 0 x y+ z =1 ... (i)
ii) x y + z = 1; 2x y = 1 and y 2z = 1 ... (ii)
3x + 3y 4z = 2
5z = 5 ... (iii)
iii) 2x y + z = 1; x + 2y + 3z = 8;
From (iii), z = 1
3x + y 4z = 11
Substituting z = 1 in (ii), we get,
2 1 2 x 7 y 2z = 1 y= 1
1 1 1 y = 1
Ans. i) Substituting y = 1, z = 1 in (i) we get,
3 2 1 z 12 x 1+1=1 x=1
R3 R3 3R2 Hence, x = 1, y =1 , z = 1 is the required
solution.
2 1 2 x 7 iii) 2x y + z = 1
1 1 1 y = 1
x + 2y + 3z = 8
0 5 2 z 15
3x + y 4z = 1
1 2 1 1 x 1
R2 R2 R
2 1 1 2 3 y = 8

3 1 4 z 1
2 1 2 7
x 9
0 y =
0 3 R3 R3 3R2
2 2
0 z 2 1 1 x 1
5 2 15
1 2 3 y = 8

Hence, 2x + y + 2z = 7 ...(i) 0 5 13 z 23
3 9
y = ...(ii)
2 2
Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 25

1 Q-3) Two farmers Ram and Rahim cultivate


R2 R2 R three varieties of rice namely Basmati,
2 1
Parimal and Colam. The sale (in Rupees) of
2 1 1 1
x these varieties of rice by them in the
0 5 5 15

y = months of August and October are as given
2 2 2
0 5 13 z 23 below :
August Basmati Parimal Colam
2 Ram 10000 20000 15000
R2 R Rahim 12000 19000 14000
5 2

2 1 1 x 1
0 1 October Basmati Parimal Colam
1 y = 3
Ram 11000 21000 16000
0 5 13 z 23
Rahim 13000 19000 15000
R3 R3 + 5R2 Use the matrix algebra and find the
following :
2 1 1 x 1
0 1 1 y = 3
i) Find total sale by each of them for each
of the variety.
0 0 8 z 8
ii) Find the increase in sales for each
R1 R1 + R2 ; variety from August to October.
1 iii) If both Ram and Rahim get 2.5% profit
R3 R3
8 on gross sales find the profit for each
of them and for each of the variety.
2 0 2 x 4
0 1 1 y = 3 Ans. The given information can be written in the
matrix form as :
0 0 1 z 1
August
1 Basmati Parimal Colam
R1 R1 ;
2
Ram 10000 20000 15000
R2 R2 R3 Rahim 12000 14000
19000
1 0 1 x 2 October
0 1 0 y = 2

0 0 1 z 1 Basmati Parimal Colam
Ram 11000 21000 16000
R1 R1 R3
Rahim 13000 19000 15000
1 0 0 x 1
0 1 0 y = 2
i) The total sale of the rice by Ram and
0 0 1 z 1
Rahim for each of the variety requires the
x 1 addition of these two matrices, i.e.,
y = 2
x = 1, y = 2, z = 1 10000 20000 15000
z 1 12000 19000 14000 +

11000 21000 16000
13000 19000 15000

10000 +11000 20000 + 21000 15000 +16000


=
12000 +13000 19000 +19000 14000 +15000

21000 41000 31000


=
25000 38000 29000

Matrices
26 Mahesh Tutorials Science

total sale of rice of each type by each


2.5 2.5 2.5
of them is given by : 21000 100 41000
100
31000
100
=
Basmati Parimal Colam 25000 2.5 38000
2.5
29000
2.5
100 100 100
Ram 21000 41000 31000
Rahim 25000 38000 29000 525 1025 775
=
Hence, the total sales for Ram are Rs. 625 950 725
21000 (Basmati), Rs. 41000 (Parimal), Rs. Hence, the profit for Ram are Rs. 525,
31000 (Colam) and for Rahim are Rs. Rs 1025, Rs 775 and for Rahim are Rs 625,
25000 (Basmati), Rs 38000 (Parimal), Rs. Rs 950, Rs 725.
29000 (Colam)
Q-4) The cost of 4 dozens pencils, 3 dozen pens
ii) The increase in sales for each variety
and 2 dozen erasers is Rs 60. The cost of 2
from August to October requires the
dozen pencils, 4 dozen pens and 6 dozen
subtraction of the two matrices, i.e.,
erasers is Rs 90 and the cost of 6 dozen
11000 21000 16000 pencils, 2 dozen pens and 3 dozen erasers
13000 19000 15000
is Rs 70. Find the cost of each item per
dozen by using matrices.
10000 20000 15000
12000 19000 14000 Ans. Let the cost if 1 dozen of pencils, 1 dozen of

pens and 1 dozen of erasers be Rs x, Rs y and
11000 10000 21000 20000 16000 15000 Rs z respectively.
=
13000 12000 19000 19000 15000 14000 Then, from the given conditions,
1000 1000 1000 4x + 3y + 2z = 60
=
1000 0 1000 2x + 4y + 6z = 90 i.e., x + 2y + 3z = 45
6x + 2y + 3z = 70
Increase in sales for each variety is given
These equations can be written in the matrix
by
form as :
Basmati Parimal Colam
4 3 2 x 60
Ram 1000 1000 1000 1 2 3 y = 45
Rahim 1000 0 1000
6 2 3 z 70
Hence the increase in sales for Basmati
By R1 R2,
is Rs(1000 + 1000) = Rs 2000, for Parimal
Rs (1000 + 0) = Rs 1000, for Colam Rs (1000 1 2 3 x 45
4 3 2 y = 60
+ 1000) = Rs 2000.
iii) Profit percentage for each of them and 6 2 3 z 70
for each of the variety is 2.5% and the
total sale is given in matrix form as : By R2 4R1, and R3 6R1,

Basmati Parimal Colam 1 2 3 x 45


0 5 10 y = 120
Ram 21000 41000 31000
0 10 15 z 200
Rahim 25000 38000 29000
By R3 2R1,
profit for each of them and each of
variety is given by 1 2 3 x 45
0 5 10 y = 120
2.5 21000 41000 31000
0 0 5 z 40
100 25000 38000 29000

x + 2y + 3z 45
0 5y 10z = 120

0 + 0 + 5z 40

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 27

By equality of matrices, By C3 2C2


x + 2y + 3z = 45 ...(i)
1 0 0 1 1 2
5y 10z = 120 ...(ii) 1 0 1 0 = 0 1 3
A
5z = 40 ...(iii)
1 2 6 0 1 2
from (iii), z = 8 in (ii), we get,
5y 80 = 120 1
By C3
5y = 40 y = 8 6
Substituting y = 8, z = 8 in (i), we get,
x + 16 + 24 = 45 1
1 1 3
x + 40 = 45 x=5 1 0 0
A 1 0 1 0 = 0 1
1
x = 5, y = 8, z = 8 2
Hence, the cost is Rs 5 per dozen for pencils,Rs 1 2 1
0 1 1
8 per dozen for pens and Rs 8 per dozen of
3
erasers.
By C1 C3 and C2 + 2C3
GROUP (D) CLASS WORK PROBLEMS
2 1 1
3
Q-1) Find inverse of the following by using 1 0 0 3 3

column transformations A 1 0 1 0 =
1
0
1
2 2
1 0 1 7 6 2 0 0 1
18 16 5 1 1

1
i) 0 2 3 ii) 3 3 3
1 2 1 10 9 3
4 2 2
1
1 0 1 A 1 = 3 0 3
Ans. i) A = 0 2 3 6
2 2 2
1 2 1
7 6 2
= 1 (2 6) 0 + 1 (0 2) 18 16 5
= 4 2 = 6 0 ii)
10 9 3
A1 exists
We write A1A = I 7 6 2
1 0 1 1 0 0 A = 18 16 5
0 2 3 = 0 1 0 10 9 3
A1
1 2 1 0 0 1 = 7 (48 45) + 6 (54 + 50)
By C3 C1 2 (162 + 160)
= 21 24 + 4
1 0 0 1 0 1 =10
A 0 2 3 = 0 1 0
1
1
A exists
1 2 0 0 0 1 A1A = I
By C2 C3
7 6 2 1 0 0
A 1 18 16 5 = 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 1 0
A 0 3 2 = 0 0 1
1 10 9 3 0 0 1
1 0 2 0 1 0 C1 C1 + C2 , C3 3C3 C2
By C2 C3
1 6 2 1 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 0 1 1 0 A 2 16 5 =
1

A 1 0 1 2 = 0 1 1 1 9 3 0 0 1

1 2 2 0 1 0

Matrices
28 Mahesh Tutorials Science

C2 + 6C1 & C3 + 2C1 1 1 5


32 1 5
X =
1 0 0 1 6 2
2 4 1
A1 = 1 7 2 AY= B
1 3 1 0 0 1
5 2 0 1
1 6 y = 0 1
C2 3C3

1 0 0 1 0 2 R1 + 4R2

1 1 = 1 1 2
1 2
A 1 26 0 5
1 0 1 0 3 1 1 6 y = 0 1

C1 + 2C2 & C3 C2 R2 + R1

1 0 0 1 0 2 1 26 0 5
y = 0 6
1 0 1 1 = 3 1 1
0 32
A
1 0 1 6 3 4 R2/32
C1 + C3 0 1
1 6
0 1 Y =
1 0 0 3 0 2 0 3
0 1 0
1 16
A = 4 1 1
0 0 1 2 3 4 R1 R1 + 6R2

1 0 0 2 16
3 0 2 0 1 Y = 0 3 16
4 1 1
A1 =
2 3 4 1 0 1 0 2
0 1 Y = 16 0 3

3 0 2
1 4 1 1
A = GROUP (D) HOME WORK PROBLEMS
2 3 4

5 2 0 1 1 3 3
Q-2) If A = B= then find X & Y
1 6 0 1 Q-1) Find the inverse of 2 4 5 by using
such that XA = B , AY = B 3 5 6
Ans. XA = B column transformation
5 2 0 1 1 3 3
X =
1 6 0 1 Ans . Let A = 2 4 5
C1 2C2 3 5 6
1 2 2 1 A1A = I
X = 2 1
13 6 1 3 3 1 0 0
C2 2C1 A 1 2 4 5 = 0 1 0

1 0 2 5 3 5 6 0 0 1
X = 2 5
13 32 C2 3C1, and C3 3C1, gives
C2 / 32
1 0 0 1 3 3
1 0 2 5 / 32 A 1 2 2 1 = 0 1 0
X = 2 5 / 32
13 1 3 4 3 0 0 1
C1 + 13C2 C1 + 2C3, gives

1 0 1/ 32 5 / 32 1 0 0 5 3 3
X = 1/ 32 5 / 32 0 2 1 = 0 1 0
0 1 A 1

3 4 3 2 0 1

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 29

C2 C3, gives C2 3C3 , gives

1 0 0 5 0 3 1 0 3 2
0 1 1 = 0 1 0
X =
A 1
2 7 6 18
3 1 3 2 1 1 1
C2 , gives
C3 C2, gives 7
1 0 0 5 0 3 2
0 1 0 = 0 1 1 3
7
1
A 1 0
X =
3 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 6 18
7
1
2 gives C1 2C2 , gives

17 2
3 1 0 7 7
X =
5 0 2 0 1 6 18
1 0 0 7 7
A 1 0 1 0 =0 1
1
2
3 1 1 1 17 2
2 1 1 X=
7 6 18

AY = B
C2 + C3 , gives
3 1 7 3
1 2 Y = 0 6
3 3
5 2 2 R1 R2 , gives
1 0 0
A 1 0 1 0
= 0
3 1 1 2 0 6
2 2 3 1 Y = 7 3
3 0 1
2 2 1 R2 + 3R1 , gives

1 2 0 6
C1 + 3C3, and (1) C2, gives 0 7 Y = 7 21

1 3 3 1
2 2 2 R2 , gives
1 0 0 7
A 0 1 0
1
=
3 3 1

2 2 2 1 2 0 6
0 0 1 0 1 Y = 1 3
1 2 1
R1 2R2, gives
1 0 2 0
1 3 3 0 1 Y = 1 3

= 3 3 1
1 1
A (1) R1 , gives
2
2 4 2
1 0 2 0
0 1 Y = 1 3

3 1 7 3 2 0
Q-2) A= B= 0 6 . Find X and Y, such Y=
1 2 1 3
that XA = B & AY = B
Ans . XA = B
3 1 7 3
X =
1 2 0 6
C1 C2, gives
1 3 3 7
X =
2 1 6 0
Matrices
30 Mahesh Tutorials Science

BASIC ASSIGNMENTS (BA) : Q-3) Find the inverse of the following matrices
3 10
BA 1 (if they exist)
2 7
1 1 3 10
1 2 3 1 2 Ans. Let A =
Q-1) Find AB, if A = and B = . 2 7
1 2 3 1 2
3 10
Examine whether AB has inverse or not. A = = 21 + 20 = 1 0
2 7
1 1 A1 exists
1 +2 3
Ans. AB =
1 2 3 1 2 Since AA1 = I

1 2
3 10 1 1 0
A = 0 1
1 (1) + 2 (1) + 3 (1) 1 ( 1) + 2 ( 2 ) + 3 ( 2 ) 2 7
Applying R1 R1 R2,
1 (1) +1 ( 2 ) + ( 3 )(1) 1 ( 1) + ( 2 ) 2 + ( 3 )( 2 )
1 3 1 1 1
1 + 2 + 3 1 + 4 6 6 3 2 7 A = 0 1
=
=
1 2 3 1 4 + 6 4 1 Applying R2 R2 2R1,
6 3 1 3 1 1 1
AB = = 6 12 = 6 0 0 1 A = 2 3
4 1
A is a non-singular matrix. Applying R1 R1 3R2,

Hence, (AB)1 exists. 1 0 1 7 10


0 1 A = 2 3

Applying R2 R2,
1 2
Q-2) If A = and X is a 2 2 matrix such 1 0 1 7 10
3 4 0 1 A = 2 3

that AX = I, then find X.
Ans. Since, AX = I 1 7 10
A =
1 2 1 0 2 3
X = 0 1
3 4
Applying R2 R2 3R1,
1 2 1 0
0 2 X = 3 1

1 0
1 1 2
By R2 , 0 1 X = 3 1
2
2 2
Applying R1 R1 2R2,

2 1 2 1
1 0 3
0 1 X = 1 X = 3 1


2 2
2 2

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 31

Q-4) Find the inverse of the following matrices Applying R1 R1 + 2R3 and R2 R2 4R3,

2 0 1 1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 0 A 1 = 15 6 5
(if they exist) 5 1 0
0 1 3 0 0 1 5 2 2

2 0 1 3 1 1
1
= 15 6 5

Ans. Let A = 5 1 0 A
0 1 3 5 2 2

2 0 1 Q-5) Find the inverse of the following matrices


A = 5 1 0 =605=10
1 2 2
0 1 3
(if they exist) 0 2 1
A1 exists 1 3 0
Since AA1 = I
1 2 2
2 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 1
5 1 0 A 1 = 0 1 0 Ans. Let A =
3 0
0 1 3 0 0 1
Applying R1 R2, 1 2 2
A = 0 2 1 = 3 2 + 4 = 1 0
5 1 0 0 1 0
2 0 1 A 1 = 1 0 0 1 3 0

0 1 3 0 0 1 A1 exists
Since AA1 = I
Applying R1 R1 2R2,
1 2 2 1 0 0
1 1 2 2 1 0 0 2 1 A 1 = 0 1 0
2 0 1 A 1 = 1 0 0

0 1 3 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 1
Applying R3 R3 + R1,
Applying R2 R2 2R1,
1 2 2 1 0 0
1 1 2 2 1 0 0 2 1 A 1 = 0 1 0
0 2 5 A 1 = 5 2 0

0 1 3 0 0 1 0 5 2 1 0 1

Applying R2 2R2 + R3,


Applying R2 R2 + 3R3,
1 2 2 1 0 0
1 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 0 A 1 = 1 2 1
0 1 4 A 1 = 5 2 3
0 5 2 1 0 1
0 1 3 0 0 1
Applying R1 R1 2R2 and R3 R3 5R2,
Applying R1 R1 R2 and R3 R3 R2,
1 0 2 1 4 2
1 0 2 7 3 3 0 1 0 A 1 = 1
0 1 4 A 1 = 5 2 3 2 1
0 0 2 4 10 4
0 0 1 5 2 2

Applying (1) R3, R3


Applying ,
2
1 0 2 7 3 3
0 1 4 A 1 = 5 2 3 1 0 2 1 4 2
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 2 1
0 0 1 5 2 2
0 0 1 2 5 2

Matrices
32 Mahesh Tutorials Science

Applying R1 R1 + 2R3, a33 = 1

1 0 0 3 6 2 1 1
0 1 0 A 1 = 1 2 1 M 33 = = 3 2 = 1 and A33 = (1)3+3 (1)
2 3

0 0 1 2 5 2 =1
Matrix of the co-factors of the given matrix
3 6 2 is
A
1
= 1 2 1
A11 A12 A13 3 12 6
2 5 2 A
21 A22 A23 = 1 3 2
BA 2 A31 A32 A33 11 9 1

Q-1) Find the matrix of co-factors for the


1 1 2
1 1 2
Q-2) Find the adjoint of matrices 2 3 5
matrices 2 3 5 2 0 1
2 0 1
1 1 2
Ans. Here
Ans. Let A = 2 3 5
a11 = 1
2 0 1
3 5
M 11 = = 3
0 1 1 1 2
and A11 = (1)1+1 (3) = 3 |A| = 2 3 5
a12 = 1 2 0 1

2 5 = 1 (3) + 1 (2 + 10) 2 (6)


M 12 = = 2 +10 = 12 and
2 1 = 3 + 12 12
A12 = (1)1+2 (12) = 12 = 3
a13 = 2 Here, a11 = 1

2 3 3 5
M 13 = = 6 and A13 = (1)1+3 (6) = 6 M 11 = = 3 0 = 3 and
2 0 0 1

a21 = 2 A11 = (1)1+1 (3) = 3


a12 = 1
1 2
M 21 = = 1 and A21 = (1)2+1 (1) = 1 2 5
0 1 M 12 = = 2 +10 = 12 and
2 1
a22 = 3
A12 = (1)1+2 (12) = 12
1 2
M 22 = = 1 + 4 = 3 and a13 = 2
2 1
2 3
A22 = (1)2+2 (3) = 3 M 13 = = 0 + 6 = 6 and
2 0
a23 = 5
A13 = (1)1+3 (6) = 6
1 1
M 23 = = 2 and A23 = (1)2+3 (2) = 2 a21 = 2
2 0
1 2
a31 = 2 M 21 = = 1 0 = 1 and
0 1
1 2
M 31 = = 5 6 = 11 and A21 = (1)2+1 (1) = 1
3 5
a22 = 3
A31 = (1)3+1 (11) = 11
1 2
a32 = 0 M 22 = = 1 + 4 = 3 and
2 1
1 2
M 32 = = 5 + 4 = 9 and A22 = (1)2+2 (3) = 3
2 5
a23 = 5
A32 = (1)3+2 (9) = 9
Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 33

1 1 0 0
M 23 = = 0 2 = 2 and A21 = (1)2 + 1 M21 = = (0 0) =0
2 0 2 1
2+3
A23 = (1) (2) = 2 1 0
a31 = 2 A22 = (1)2 + 2 M22 = = 1 0 = 1
5 1
1 2
M 31 = 3 5 = 5 6 = 11 and 1 0
A23 = (1)2 + 3 M23 = 5 2 = (2 0) = 2

A31 = (1)3+1 (11) = 11
a32 = 0 0 0
A31 = (1)3 + 1 M31 = = 0 0 = 0
3 0
1 2
M 32 = = 5 + 4 = 9 and
2 5 1 0
A32 = (1)3 + 2 M32 = = (0 0) = 0
A32 = (1)3+2 (9) = 9 3 0
a33 = 1 1 0
A33 = (1)3 + 3 M33 = =30=3
1 1 3 3
M 33 = = 3 2 = 1 and
2 3 Hence, the co-factor matrix
A33 = (1)3+3 (1) = 1
A11 A12 A13 3 3 9
Hence, the co-factor matrix A A22 A23 = 0 1 2
= 21
A11 A12 A13 3 12 6 A31 A32 A33 0 0 3
= A21 A22 A23 = 1 3 2
A31 A32 A33 11 9 1 3 0 0

(adj A) = 3 1 0
3 1 11 9 2 3
adj A = 12 3 9

6 2 1 3 0 0
1
3 1 0
1
1
A = (adj A) =
A 3
9 2 3
Q-3) Find the inverse of the following matrices

1 0 0 1 1 2
by the adjoint method : 3 3 0 Q-4) If A = 3 0 2 , verify that

5 2 1 1 0 3
A (adj A) = (adj A)A =|A| I
1 0 0
3 3 0
Ans. Let A = 1 1 2
5 2 1 A = 3 0 2
Ans.
1 0 3
1 0 0
|A| = 3 3 0 = 1(3 0) 0 + 0 1 1 2
5 2 1 |A| = 3 0 2 = 1 (0) + 1(9 + 2) + 2(0)
1 0 3
= 3 0
A1 exists. = 0 + 11 + 0 = 11
3 0 0 2
A11 = (1)1 + 1 M11 = = 3 0 = 3 A11 = (1)1 + 1 M11 =1 = 1(0 0) = 0
2 1 0 3
3 0 3 2
A12 = (1)1 + 2 M12 = = (3 0) = 3 A12 = (1)1 + 2 M12 = 1 = 1 (9 + 2) = 11
5 1 1 3
3 3
A13 = (1)1 + 3 M13 = = 6 15 = 9
5 2

Matrices
34 Mahesh Tutorials Science

3 0 1 0 0 11 0 0
A13 = (1)1 + 3 M13 = 1 = 1 (0 + 0) = 0
1 0 |A| I = 11 0 1 0 = 0 11 0 ...(iii)
0 0 1 0 0 11
1 2
A21 = (1)2 + 1 M21 = 1 = 1 (3 0) = 3
0 3 From equations (i), (ii) and (iii), we get
A (adj A) = (adj A) A = |A|I
1 2
A22 = (1)2 + 2 M22 =1 1 3 = 1 (3 2) = 1
Q-5) Find the inverse of the following matrices

1 1 1 2 3
A23 = (1)2 + 3 M23 = 1 1 0 = 1 (0 + 1) = 1 by the adjoint method : 0 2 4

0 0 5
1 2
A31 = (1)3 + 1 M31 = 1 = 1 (2 0)= 2
0 2 1 2 3
1 2 Ans. Let A = 0 2 4

A32 = (1)3 + 2 M32 = 1 = 1(2 6) = 8 0 0 5
3 2

1 1 1 2 3
A33 = (1)3 + 3 M33 = 1 = 1 (0 + 3) = 3
3 0 |A| = 0 2 4
Hence, the co-factor matrix 0 0 5

A11 A12 A13 0 11 0 = 1(10 0) 2 (0 0) +3 (0 0) = 10 0


A
A23 = 3 1
= 21 A22
1 1
A exists.
A31 A32 A33 2 8 3 2 4
A11 = (1)1 + 1 M11 = = 10 0 = 10
0 5
0 3 2
11 1 8 0 4
adj A = A12 = (1)1 + 2 M12 = = (0 0) = 0
0 1 3 0 5

0 2
1 1 2 0 3 2 A13 = (1)1 + 3 M13 = =00=0
3 0 2 0 0
A (adj A) = 11 1 8
1 0 3 0 1 3 2 3
A21 = (1)2 + 1 M21 = = (10 0) = 10
0 5
0 +11 + 0 3 1 2 2 8 + 6
0 + 0 + 0 9 + 0 + 2 6 + 0 6 1 3
= A22 = (1)2 + 2 M22 = = 1 (5 0) = 5
0 + 0 + 0 3 + 0 3 2 + 0 + 9 0 5

1 2
11 0 0 A23 = (1)2 + 3 M23 = = (0 0) = 0
0 11 0 0 0
= ...(i)
0 0 11 2 3
A31 = (1)3 + 1 M31 = =86=2
2 4
0 3 2 1 1 2
11 1 8 3 0 2 1 3
(adj A)A = A32 = (1)3 + 2 M32 = = (4 0) = 4
0 4
0 1 3 1 0 3
1 2
0+9+2 0+0+0 0 6+6 A33 = (1)3 + 3 M33 =
0 2
=20=2
= 11 + 3 + 8 11 + 0 + 0 22 2 + 24
Hence, the co-factor matrix
0 3 + 3 0 0+0 0 + 2 + 9
A11 A12 A13 10 0 0
11 0 0 A 10 5 0
= 21 A22 A23 =
0 11 0
= ...(ii) A31 A32 A33 2 4 2
0 0 11

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 35

10 10 2 1 1 1 4
X=

(adj A) = 0 5 4 3 2 1 5
0 0 2
x 1 4 + 5 1 9 3
X= = = =
y 3 8 5 3 3 1
10 10 2
1 1
A1 = (adj A) = 0 5 4 x = 3, y = 1
A 10
0 0 2
Q-2) Solve the equation by inversion method
BA 3 x + 3y = 2, 3x +5y = 4.
Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is
Q-1) Solve the equation by inversion method 1 3 x 2
3 5 y = 4
x + y = 4, 2x y = 5.
Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is Applying R2 R2 3R1,
1 1 x 4 1 3 x 2
2 1 y = 5 0 4 y = 2

This is of form AX = B x + 3y 2
=
1 1 x 4 0 4y 2
where A = 2 1 , X = y , B = 5
Comparing both sides , we get
x + 3y = 2 ...(i)
To determine X, we have to find A1
4y = 2 ...(ii)
1 1
|A| = = 1 2 = 3 0 1
2 1 From equation (ii), y =
2
A1 exists.
1 3
Since AA1 = I Putting y = in equation (i), we get x + = 2
2 2
1 1 1 1 0 3 1
A = 0 1 x =2 =
2 1 2 2
Applying R2 R2 2R1,
1 1
1 1 1 1 0 x= ,y =
2 2
0 3 A = 2 1

Q-3) Solve the equation by reduction method
R
Applying R2 2 5x + 2y = 4, 7x +3y = 5.
3
Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is
1 0
5 2 x 4
1 1 1
0 1 A =
2 1 7 3 y = 5

3 3
Applying R2 2R2 3R1,
1 1 1 1 3 0 5 2 x 4
0 1 A = 2 1 1 0 y = 2
3
Applying R1 R1 R2,
5x + 2y 4
1 0 1 1 1 1 =
0 1 A = 3 2 1 x 0y 2
Comparing both sides , we get
1 1 1 5x + 2y = 4 ...(i)
1
A =
3 2 1
x + 0y = 2 ...(ii)
From equation (ii), x = 2
pre-multiplying AX = B by A1, we get Substituting x = 2 in equation (i), we get
A1 (AX) = A1B 5(2) + 2y= 4
(A1A) X = A1B 10 + 2y = 4
IX = A1B 2y = 6
X = A1B

Matrices
36 Mahesh Tutorials Science

2y = 4 10 1 2
y = 3 Now, A = = 3 4 = 1 0
2 3
x = 2, y = 3
A1 exists.
Q-4) Express the equations in matrix form and Since AA1 = I
solve them by the method of reduction 1 2 1 0
x y + z = 1, 2x y = 1 and 3x + 3y 4z = 2 A1 = 0 1
2 3
Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is Applying R2 R2 2R1,

1 1 1 x 1 1 2 1 1 0
2 1 0 y = 1 0 1 A = 2 1

3 3 4 z 2 Applying (1)R2
Applying R2 R2 2R1, and R3 R3 3R1 1 2 1 1 0
0 1 A = 2 1
1 1 1 x 1
0 1 2 y = 1 Applying R1 R1 2R2,

0 6 7 z 1 1 0 1 3 2
0 1 A = 2 1
Applying R3 R3 6R2,

1 1 1 x 1 3 2
0 1 2 y = 1 A1 =
2 1

0 0 5 z 5 Pre- multiplying AX = B by A1 we get
A1 (AX) = A1B
x y+z 1 (A1 A) X = A1B
0 + y 2z = 1
IX = A1B
0 + 0 + 5z 5 X = A1B
Comparing both sides , we get 3 2 2
xy+z =1 ...(i) X = 2 1 3

y 2z = 1 ...(ii)
x 6 + 6 0
5z = 5 ...(iii) = =
y 4 3 1
From equation (ii), z = 1
Substituting x = 2 in equation (i), we get x = 0 and y = 1
y 2 = 1
ADVANCED ASSIGNMENTS (AA) :
y = 1
Substituting y = 1 and z = 1 in (i), we get
AA 1
x1+1=1
x=1 cos sin 0
x = 1, y = 1, and z = 1
Q-1) Find the inverse of A = sin cos 0
0 0 1
Q-5) Solve the equation by method x + 2y = 2, by
2x +3y = 3. i) elementary row transformations
Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is ii) elementary column transformations.
1 2 x 2
2 3 y = 3 cos sin 0
A = sin cos 0
Ans.
This is of the form AX = B, 0 0 1
2
where A =
1 2 x = cos (cos 0) + sin ( sin 0) + 0
, X = and B =
2 3 y 3 = cos2 + sin2 = 1 0
To determine X, we have to find A1 A1 exists.

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 37

i) Elementary row transformations


1 0 0 cos sin 0
Since AA1 = I 0 1 0 A 1 = sin cos
0
cos sin 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
sin 1
cos 0 A = 0 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 1 cos sin 0

A 1
= sin cos 0
Applying R1 R1 cos
0 0 1
cos 2 sin cos 0 cos 0 0
1
sin cos 0 A = 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 1 0
Q-2) If A = ,B = , find AB and (AB)
1

1 2 3 1
Applying R1 R1 + R2sin
Verify that (AB)1 = B1A1
1 0 0 cos sin 0
sin cos 0 A 1 = 0 2 3 1 0 2 + 9 0 + 3 11 3
1 0 Ans. AB = = =
1 2 3 1 1 + 6 0 + 2 7 2
0 0 1 0 0 1
11 3
Applying R2 R2 R1sin AB = = 22 21 = 1 0
7 2
(AB)1 exists.
1 0 0 cos sin 0 Since, (AB) (AB)1 = I
0 cos 0 A 1 = sin cos cos 2 0
11 3 1 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 ( AB ) =
7 2 0 1
R Applying 2R1,
Applying 2
cos 22 6 1 2 0
7 2 ( AB ) = 0 1
1 0 0 cos sin 0
0 1 0 A 1 = sin cos Applying R1 R1 3R2
0
0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 3
7 2 ( AB ) = 0 1

cos sin 0
sin Apply R2 R2 7R1
A1 = cos 0
0 0 1 1 0 1 2 3
0 2 ( AB ) = 14 22

ii) elementary column transformations :
Applying C1 C1 cos
1
Applying R2,
2
cos sin 0 1 0 0
sin 1 1 0 2 3
cos 0 A = 0 1 0 1
0 1 ( AB ) = 7 11
0 0 1 0 0 1

Applying C1 C1 C2 sin
1 2 3
( AB ) = ... (i)
7 11
1 sin 0 cos 0 0
0 cos 0 A 1 = sin 1 0
2 3
Now, A = =4 3 =1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2
Applying C2 C2 + C1 sin
A1 exists.
Since AA1 = I
1 0 0 cos sin cos 0
0 cos 0 A 1 = sin 0
cos 2 2 3 1 1 0
1 2 A = 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1

C2
Applying
cos
Matrices
38 Mahesh Tutorials Science

Applying R1 R2 , = 1 (7 20) 2 (7 10) + 3 (4 2)


1 2 1 0 1 = 13 + 6 + 6 = 1 0
2 3 A = 1 0 A1 exists.

Applying R2 R2 2R1, 1 5
A11 = (1)1 + 1 M11 = 1 = 1 (7 20) = 13
1 2 1 0 1 4 7
0 1 A = 1 2
1 5
Applying (1)R2, A12 = (1)1 + 2 M12 = 1 2 7 = 1 (7 10) = 3

1 2 1 0 1
0 1 A = 1 2 1 1
A13 = (1)1 + 3 M13 = 1 2 4 = 1(4 2) = 2

Applying R1 R1 2R2,
2 3
1 0 1 2 3 A21 = (1)2 + 1 M21 = 1 = 1(14 12) = 2
0 1 A = 1 2 4 7

1 3
1 2 3 A22 = (1)2 + 2 M22 = 1 = 1(7 6) = 1
A = 2 7
1 2
1 2
1 0 A23 = (1)2 + 3 M23 = 1 = 1(4 4) = 0
Also, B = =1 0 = I 0 2 4
3 1
B1 exists. 2 3
A31 = (1)3 + 1 M31 = 1 = 10 3 = 7
Since BB1 = I 1 5

1 0 1 1 0 1 3
B = 0 1 A32 = (1)3 + 2 M32 = 1 = 1(5 3) = 2
3 1 1 5
Applying R2 R2 3R1, 1 2
A33 = (1)3 + 3 M33 = 1 = 1(1 2) = 1
1 0 1 1 0 1 1
0 1 B = 3 1
Hence, the cofactor matrix

1 0 A11 A12 A13 13 3 2


B1 = A
3 1 A22 A23 = 2 1 0
= 21
A31 A32 A33 7 2 1
1 0 2 3
Now, B A = 1 1
3 1 1 2
13 2 7
2 0 3 + 0 2 3 adj A = 3 1 2
=
= ...(ii) 2 0 1
6 6 9 + 2 7 11
From equations (i) and (ii), we get 1
(AB)1 = B1 A1. A1 = (adj A)
A

1 2 3 13 2 7
1
Q-3) Find the inverse of 1 1 5 by adjoint = 3 1 2
1
2 4 7 2 0 1

method. 13 2 7
1 2 3 A = 3 1 2
1

2 0 1
Ans. Let A = 1 1 5
2 4 7

1 2 3
A = 1 1 5
2 4 7

Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 39

4 5 1 2 3
Q-4) If A = 2 1 , then show that
Q-5) Find the inverse of 1 1 5 by using

1 2 4 7
A1 = ( A 5I ) .
6 elementary row transformations.
4 5
Ans. |A| = 1 2 3
2 1 = 4 10 = 6 0 1 1 5
Ans. Let A =
1
A exists. 2 4 7
Since AA1 = I
Since AA1 = I
4 5 1 0
2 1 A1 = 0 1 1 2 3 1 0 0
1 1 5 A 1 = 0 1 0

Applying 1 R1, 2 4 7 0 0 1
4
Applying R2 R2 R1and R3 R3 2R1,
5 1
1 4 A 1 = 4 0 1 2 3 1 0 0
0 1 2 A 1 = 1 1 0
2 1 0 1
0 0 1 2 0 1
Applying R2 R2 2R1,
Applying R2
5 1
1 4 1 4 0 1 2 3 1 0 0
A = 0 1 2 A 1 = 1 1 0
0 3 1 1
2 2 0 0 1 2 0 1
2 Applying R1 R1 2R2,
Applying R2,
3 1 0 7 1 2 0
0 1 2 A 1 = 1 1 0
1
5 4 0 0 0 1 2 0 1
1
4 A =
1
1 2
0 1 Applying R1 R1 7R3and R2 R2 + 2R3,
3 3
1 0 7 13 2 7
5 0 1 2 A 1 = 3 1 2
Applying R1 R1 R2,
4 0 0 1 2 0 1
1 5

1 0 1 6 6 13 2 7
0 1 A = 1 2

A = 3 1 2
1

3 3 2 0 1

1 1 5 AA 2
6 2 4
A1 = ...(i)

Q-1) Solve the following equation by inversion


1 1 4 5 1 0
Now, (A 5I ) = 5 method 2x + 6y = 8, x + 3y = 5.
6 6 2 1 0 1
Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is
1 4 5 5 0 2 6 x 8
= 1 3 y = 5
6 2 1 0 5

1 1 5 This is of the form AX = B,


= ...(ii)
6 2 4 2 6 x 8
where A = , X = and B =
1 1 3 y 5
From equations (i) and (ii) A1 = ( A 5I )
6

Matrices
40 Mahesh Tutorials Science

To determine X, we have to find A1


1
2 6 x +y +0
A= = 66=0 0 + y + z = 5
1 3 3
0 + 0 + 2z
A1 does not exist. 2
Hence, x and y not exist. Comparing both sides we get
x+y = 1 ...(i)
Q-2) Solve the following equation by inversion
method 3x y = 1, 4x + y = 6. 5
y+z= ...(ii)
Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is 3
2z = 2 ...(iii)
3 1 x 1
4 1 y = 6 From equation (iii) z = 1 in equation (ii), we

get
Applying R1 R1 + R2,
5
7 0 x 7 y+1 =
3
4 1 y = 6

2
y =
7x + 0y 7 3
4x + y = 6
2
Substituting y = in (iii), we get
Comparing both sides we get 3
7(x) + 0(y) = 7 ...(i) 2
x = 1 ...(ii) x+ =1
3
4x + y = 6
1
y = 2 y =
3
x = 1, y = 2
1 2
x = , y = ,z =1
Q-3) Express the equations in matrix form and 3 3
solve them by the method of reduction Q-4) A person has Rs. 30,000 to invest. He wants
5 4 to invest some amount in the fixed deposit
x + y = 1, z + y = ,z + x = .
3 3 and remaining in saving account. The
Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is interset rates are 7% and 5% p.a. for the
fixed deposit and the saving account

1 respectively. Find how he should divide the
1 1 0 x
0 1 1 y 5 total amount Rs. 30,000 in two accounts if
=
3 he wants to get to get the annual interest
1 0 1 z 4
as

3 i) Rs. 1800
ii) Rs. 2000
Applying R3 R3 R1,
Ans. Amount for investment = Rs 30,000
Let x be the part to be invested as fixed
1
1 1 0 x deposit.
0 1 1 y =
5
3 7
Interest at 7% = Rs x
0 1 1 z 1 100

3 Let y be the part to be invested as savings
account.
Applying R3 R3 + R2,
5
Interest at 5% = Rs y
1 100
1 1 0 x
0 1 1 y = 5 i) At the end of 1 year, if annual interest
3
0 0 2 z = Rs 1800
2
Matrices
Mahesh Tutorials Science 41

7x 5y Q-5) Solve the following equation by the method


Then, + = 1800
100 100 of inversion 5x y + 4z = 5, 2x + 3y + 5z = 2
7x + 5y = 180000 ...(i) and 5x 2y + 6z = 1.
Also, x + y = 30, 000 ...(ii) Ans. Matrix form of the given equation is
Putting the above equations in matrix 5 1 4 x 5
form, 2 3 5 y = 2

7 5 x 180000 5 2 6 z 1
1 1 y = 30000
This is of the form AX = B, where
Applying R2 R1 7R2,
5 1 4 x 5
7 5 x 180000 2 3 5 y 2
A = ,X= and B =
0 2 y = 30000
5 2 6 z 1
Since the above matrix is an upper
To determine X, we have to find A1
triangular matrix,
7x + 5y = 180000 ...(i) 5 1 4
and 2y = 30000 i.e. 2y = 30000 A = 2 3 5
y = 15000 5 2 6
Putting y = 15000 in (i), we get = 5(18 + 10) + 1(12 25) + 4( 4 15)
7x = 180000 75000 = 140 13 76 = 51 0
105000 A1 exists.
x = = 15000
7 3 5
The amount of Rs 30000 should be divided A11 = (1)1+1 M11 = = 18 + 10 = 28
2 6
as Rs 15000 each for Fixed Deposit and 2 5
A12 = (1)1+2 M12 = = (12 25) = 13
Savings Account. 5 6
ii) At the end of 1 year, if annual interest 2 3
A13 = (1)1+3 M13 = = 4 15 = 19
= Rs 2000 5 2

7x 5 1 4
Then, + = 2000 A21 = (1)2+1 M21 = = ( 6 + 8) = 2
100 100 2 6
7x + 5y = 200000 ...(i)
5 4
Also, x + y = 30000 ...(ii) A22 = (1)2+2 M22 = = 30 20 = 10
5 6
Putting the above equations in matrix
form, 5 1
A23 = (1)2+3 M23 = = (10 + 5) = 5
5 2
7 5 x 200000
1 1 y = 10000
1 4
A31 = (1)3+1 M31 = = 5 12 = 17
Applying R2 7R2 R1, 3 5

7 5 x 200000 5 4
0 2 y = 10000 A32 = (1)3+2 M32 = = (25 8) = 17
2 5
7x + 5y = 200000 ... From (i)
5 1
and 2y = 10000 A33 = (1)3+3 M33 = = 15 + 2 = 17
2 3
y = 5000
Hence, the cofactor matrix
Putting y = 5000 in (ii), we get
x = 30000 5000 = 25000 A11 A12 A13 28 13 19
A A23 = 2 10
The person should invest Rs 25000 in = 21 A22
5
Fixed Deposit and Rs 5000 in Savings A31 A32 A33 17 17 17
Account.

Matrices
42 Mahesh Tutorials Science

28 2 17

adj A = 13 10 17
19 5 17

28 2 17
1 1
A = 1
(adj A) = 13 10 17
A 51
19 5 17

Premultiplying AX = B by A1, we get


A1 (AX) = A1B
(A1A)X = A1B
IX = A1B
X = A1B

28 2 17 5
1
X = 13 10 17 2
51
19 5 17 1

x 140 4 +17
y 1
= 60 + 20 +17
z 51
95 + 10 17

153 3
1
= 102 = 2
51
102 2

Hence by equality of matrices,


x = 3, y = 2, z = 2.

Matrices