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Angklung

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The angklung is a musical instrument from Indonesia made of a


varying number of bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame. The Angklung
tubes are carved to have a resonant pitch when struck and are tuned to
octaves, similar to American handbells. The base of the frame is held in
one hand, whilst the other hand shakes the instrument. This causes a
repeating note to sound. Each of three or more performers in an
angklung ensemble play just one note or more, but altogether complete
melodies are produced.

The angklung is popular throughout Southeast Asia, but it originated in


what is now West Java and Banten provinces in Indonesia, and has been
played by the Sundanese for many centuries. Angklung and its music
has become the cultural identity of Sundanese communities in West Angklung with eight pitches
Java and Banten.[1] Playing the angklung as an orchestra requires Percussion instrument
cooperation and coordination, and is believed to promote the values of
teamwork, mutual respect and social harmony.[2] Classification Idiophone
HornbostelSachs 111.232
On November 18, 2010, UNESCO officially recognized the Indonesian classification (Sets of
angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of percussion tubes)
Humanity, and encouraged the Indonesian people and the Indonesian
government to safeguard, transmit, promote performances and to Developed Indonesia
encourage the craftsmanship of angklung.[2]

Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Balinese gamelan angklung
4 Outside Indonesia
5 World record
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and
Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

Etymology
The word "angklung" may have originated from Sundanese "angkleung-
angkleungan", suggesting the movement of the angklung player and the Music of Indonesia
"klung" sound that comes from the instrument.[3]

Another theory suggests that the word "angklung" was formed from two
Balinese words angka and lung. Angka means "tone", and lung means
"broken" or "lost". Angklung thus means "incomplete tone".[3]
History
According to Dr. Groneman, angklung had
already been a favorite musical instrument
of the entire archipelago even before the
Hindu era. According to Jaap Kunst in
Music in Java, besides West Java, angklung
also exists in South Sumatra and Kempul gongs from Java
Kalimantan. Lampung, East Java and
Central Java are also familiar with the Genres
instrument.[3] Classical Kecak Kecapi suling
Tembang sunda Pop Indo Dance-pop
In the Hindu period and the time of the Dangdut Hip hop Kroncong
Daeng Soetigna in 1971
Kingdom of Sunda, the angklung played an Gambang kromong Gambus
important role in ceremonies. The angklung
Jaipongan Langgam jawa Pop Batak
was played to honor Dewi Sri, the goddess
Pop Minang Pop Sunda Qasidah
of fertility, so she would bless their land and lives.[4] The angklung also
signaled the time for prayers, and was said to have been played since the modern Rock Tapanuli ogong
7th century in Kingdom of Sunda. In the Kingdom of Sunda, it provided Tembang jawa
martial music during the Battle of Bubat, as told in the Kidung Sunda.[5] Specific forms
The oldest surviving angklung is 400 years old Angklung Gubrag. It was
Gamelan Angklung Beleganjur
made in the 17th century in Jasinga, Bogor. Other antique angklung are
Degung Gambang Gender Wayang
stored in the Sri Baduga Museum, Bandung.[5] The oldest angklung
tradition is called "Angklung Buhun" (Sundanese: "Ancient Angklung") Gong gede Gong kebyar Jegog
from Lebak Regency, Banten [6] Angklung buhun is an ancient type of Joged bumbung Salendro Selunding
angklung played by Baduy people of inland Banten province during Seren Semar pegulingan
Taun harvest ceremony. Regional music

In 1938, Daeng Soetigna [Sutigna], from Bandung, created an angklung Bali Borneo Java Moluccan Islands
that is based on the diatonic scale instead of the traditional plog or slndro Papua Sulawesi Sumatra Sunda
scales. Since then, the angklung has returned to popularity and is used for
education and entertainment, and may even accompany western instruments in an orchestra. One of the first
performances of angklung in an orchestra was in 1955 during the Bandung Conference. In 1966 Udjo Ngalagena, a
student of Daeng Soetigna, opened his "Saung Angklung" (House of Angklung) as a centre for its preservation and
development.[5]

UNESCO designated the angklung a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on November 18,
2010.[7]

Balinese gamelan angklung


In Bali, an ensemble of angklung is called gamelan angklung (anklung). While the ensemble gets its name from
the bamboo shakers, most modern compositions for Gamelan Angklung do not use them. An ensemble of mostly
bronze metallophones is used instead, generally with about 20 musicians.

While the instrumentation of gamelan angklung is similar to gamelan gong kebyar, there are several critical
differences. The instruments in angklung are tuned to a 5-tone slendro scale, although most ensembles use a four-
tone mode of the five-tone scale played on instruments with four keys. An exception is the five-tone angklung from
the north of Bali. In four-tone angklung groups, the flute players will occasionally use an implied fifth tone.
Additionally, whereas many of the instruments in gong kebyar span multiple octaves of its pentatonic scale, mosts
gamelan angklung instruments only contain one octave, although some five-tone
ensembles have roughly an octave and a half. The instruments are considerably
smaller than those of the gong kebyar.

Gamelan angklung is heard in Balinese temples, where it supplies musical


accompaniment to temple anniversaries (odalan). It is also characteristic of rituals
related to death, and therefore connected in Balinese culture to the invisible
spiritual realm and transitions from life to death and beyond. Because of its
portability, gamelan angklung may be carried in processions while a funeral bier is
carried from temporary burial in a cemetery to the cremation site. The musicians
also often play music to accompany the cremation ceremony. Thus, many Balinese
listeners associate angklung music with strong emotions evoking a combination of
sacred sweetness and sadness.

The structure of the music is similar to gong kebyar, although employing a four- Single pitch angklung, for use
tone scale. Jublag and jegog carry the basic melody, which is elaborated by gangsa, in orchestras
reyong, ceng-ceng, drum, and flute. A medium-sized gong, called kempur, is
generally used to punctuate a piece's major sections.

Most older compositions do not employ gong kebyar's more ostentatious virtuosity and showmanship. Recently,
many Balinese composers have created kebyar-style works for gamelan angklung or have rearranged kebyar
melodies to fit the angklung's more restricted four-tone scale. These new pieces often feature dance, so the gamelan
angklung is augmented with more gongs and heavier gongs. Additionally, some modern composers have created
experimental instrumental pieces for the gamelan angklung.

Outside Indonesia
The angklung was first invented in West Java, Indonesia; with a possibility
of cultural transmittance to various other places such as Malaysia & the
Philippines over the course of several centuries. In the early 20th century
during the time of Dutch East Indies, the angklung was adopted in
Thailand, where it is called angkalung (). It was recorded that
angklung was brought to Siam in 1908 by Luang Pradit Pairoh, royal
musician in the entourage of HRH Field Marshal Prince Bhanurangsi
Savangwongse of Siam, who paid a royal visit to Java that year (27 years
after the first state visit of his elder brother, King Chulalongkorn to Java in
1871.) The Thai angklung are typically tuned in the Thai tuning system of Sundanese boys playing the Angklung
seven equidistant steps per octave, and each angklung has three bamboo in 1918.
tubes tuned in three separate octaves rather than two, as is typical in
Indonesia.

In 2008, there was a grand celebration in the Thai traditional music circle, to mark the 100th anniversary of the
introduction of angklung to Thailand. Both the Thai and Indonesian governments supported to celebration.

Angklung has also been adopted by its Austronesian-speaking neighbors, in particular by Malaysia and the
Philippines, where they are played as part of bamboo xylophone orchestras. Formally introduced into Malaysia
sometime after the end of the Confrontation, angklung found immediate popularity.[8] They are generally played
using a pentatonic scale similar to the Indonesian slendro, although in the Philippines, sets also come in the
diatonic and minor scales used to perform various Spanish-influenced folk music in addition to native songs in
pentatonic.
At least one Sundanese angklung buncis ensemble exists in the United States. Angklung Buncis Sukahejo is an
ensemble at The Evergreen State College, and includes eighteen double rattles (nine tuned pairs) and four dog-dog
drums.

World record
On July 9, 2011 5,182 people from many nations played angklung together in Washington DC and are listed in the
Guinness Book of Records as the largest angklung ensemble.[9]

See also
Calung
Bell choir

References
1. Spiller, Henry (2004). Gamelan: The Traditional Sounds of Indonesia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 140.
ISBN 9781851095063. "Angklung has become a veritable symbol of Sundanese culture"
2. " "Indonesian Angklung", Inscribed in 2010 (5.COM) on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural
Heritage of Humanity" (http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/00393). UNESCO. Retrieved 10 October
2014.
3. "Angklung : Harmony in a Bamboo Orchestra" (https://web.archive.org/web/20140928195329/http://indones
ia.travel/en/destination/596/saung-angklung-udjo-village-nature-and-culture-in-perfect-harmony/article/89/a
ngklung-harmony-in-a-bamboo-orchestra). Archived from the original (http://www.indonesia.travel/en/desti
nation/596/saung-angklung-udjo-village-nature-and-culture-in-perfect-harmony/article/89/angklung-harmon
y-in-a-bamboo-orchestra) on 28 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
4. Banten Angklung Buhun (http://ujungkulon-tour.com/article/banten-angklung-buhun/)
5. Awi-Awi Mandiri, The Spirit of Angklung, 2010
6. Kesenian Angklung Buhun (http://bantenprov.go.id/get_page.php?link=dtl&id=3129) Archived (https://web.
archive.org/web/20111002075717/http://bantenprov.go.id/get_page.php?link=dtl&id=3129) October 2, 2011,
at the Wayback Machine.
7. "Unesco to Declare Indonesias Angklung World Heritage" (http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/unesco-t
o-declare-indonesias-angklung-world-heritage/400274). The Jakarta Globe. October 8, 2010.
8. Koh, Lay Tin (17 April 1999). "Angklung" (https://web.archive.org/web/20081014061707/http://infopedia.nl
b.gov.sg/articles/SIP_843_2005-01-11.html). National Library Board Singapore. Archived from the original
(http://infopedia.nlb.gov.sg/articles/SIP_843_2005-01-11.html) on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 2 September
2009.
9. Bayuni, Endy M. (July 10, 2011). "Washington DC shakes to angklung world record" (http://www.thejakarta
post.com/news/2011/07/10/washington-dc-shakes-angklung-world-record.html). The Jakarta Post.

Further reading
Tenzer, Michael (1998). Balinese Music (https://books.google.com/books?id=T6oTAQAAIAAJ&q=balinese
+music&dq=balinese+music). Hong Kong: Periplus Eds.

External links
Gamelan Sekar Jaya (excerpt about angklung) (https://web.archive.org/web/20060519203523/http://www.gs
j.org:80/gsj/index.cfm?fuseaction=Window.DisplayDescription&Entity=Description&EntityID=2) from
Michael Tenzer's book Balinese Music
Musical sample (http://www.gsj.org/windha/swf/tabuh_telu.swf) composed by I Nyoman Windha
Saung Angklung Udjo (http://www.angklung-udjo.co.id/)
Angklung Orchester Hamburg, Germany (2003/2004) (http://www.sabilulungan.org/angklungde)
Angklung Web Institute (http://Angklung-Web-Institute.com/)
Lancaster Angklung Orchestra, Lancaster, UK (http://www.angklung.org/)
Angklung Hamburg (http://www.sabilulungan.org/angklung3)
Keluarga Paduan Angklung SMA Negeri 3 Bandung (http://angklung3.org/)

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This page was last edited on 11 September 2017, at 06:26.


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