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Children of beneficiary family

PAMANA and ARMMs IDP Shelter Assistance Project

Poblacion, Talayan, Maguindanao
Photo courtesy of: Office of the Presidential Adviser
on the Peace Process

Peace &
Security Peace & Security 291
Peace & Security
Peace and security shall be achieved in support to national development. The
government shall exert all efforts to win peace and ensure national security. The
peace process shall center on the pursuit of negotiated political settlement of all
armed conflicts and the implementation of complementary development tracks
to address its causes. This shall be anchored on conflict prevention and peace-
building in conflict-affected areas. On the other hand, national security shall
involve the whole-of-nation approach, focusing on internal stability, upholding
the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, capability and preparedness
against natural calamities and disasters, and reform and modernization of the
security sector.

with large Muslim population. While

Assessment and government instituted efforts to come
to a political settlement with the armed
Challenges groups and has worked to address
the causes of conflict, these conflicts
A stable national security environment is have persisted, thereby affecting the
crucial to achieving development, human delivery of basic services and creating
security and general welfare. Stability a large development gap between
can be threatened, however, by internal conflict-affected areas and the rest
security concerns such as recurring of the country. Among the causes
armed conflict and criminality, together of armed conflict are abject poverty,
with new global security threats such as poor governance, abuse of power,
terrorism, human trafficking, illegal arms corruption, failures of the justice
trade, and drug trafficking. system, human rights violations,
disputes over land ownership and use
The challenge, therefore, is for the country of natural resources, marginalization
to achieve national stability through an of lumad and indigenous cultural
appropriate and adequate response to communities, and the lack of respect
internal conflicts and external threats, and recognition of ancestral domain
so that it may become a responsible and indigenous peoples rights.
partner in promoting peace and good
relations among nations. All these must Government will continue to pursue
occur within the irreducible framework negotiated political settlements with
of national sovereignty and territorial the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
integrity. (MILF) and the Communist Party
of the Philippines-New Peoples
Internal Security Challenges Army-National Democratic Front
(CPP-NPA-NDF). There is also a
Of all security concerns, the most need to complete the implementation
pressing is the internal conflict involving of Final Peace Agreements with
armed groups with a capability to gravely the Cordillera Peoples Liberation
affect lives and properties in areas in Army (CPLA) (1986), Moro
Southern Philippines, especially those National Liberation Front (MNLF)

292 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

(1996), and the Rebolusyonaryong Other Security Challenges
Partido ng Manggagawa-Pilipinas/
Revolutionary Proletariat Army/ Other threats to peace and development
Alex Boncayao Brigade (RPMP/ in local communities arise from criminal
RPA/ABB) (2000). While this elements and other armed threats to
requires disposition of forces through peace and order, including politically
appropriate reintegration, it will also partisan armed groups (PAGS) that
involve provision of socioeconomic surface during the conduct of national
assistance to former rebels and and local elections. Putting an end to
delivery of basic services to conflict- these criminal activities shall be given
affected communities. Meanwhile, the prime importance.
Tripartite Implementation Review
of the 1996 Final Peace Agreement External Security Challenges
with MNLF is nearing completion,
during which common grounds and As global trade in goods and services
common proposals were formulated and international investment become
for adoption and implementation. important drivers of the countrys
economic growth, government shall
While formal negotiations with both continue to be vigilant in responding to
the MILF and the CPP-NPA-NDF crimes that thrive under an environment
have stalled in recent years, prospects of increasingly open borders, such as
have since improved for the resumption terrorism, human trafficking, arms and
of formal negotiations. These include: drug-trafficking, and smuggling.
(a) reconstitution by government of
the negotiating panels for the MILF The archipelagic nature of the country
and the CPP-NPA-NDF peace makes it both urgent and challenging for
talks; (b) continued implementation the government to uphold its territorial
of the agreements with the MILF integrity. Greater efforts shall be exerted
on ceasefire mechanisms, and to safeguard the countrys interests within
rehabilitation and development maritime areas, notably its Exclusive
of conflict-affected areas; and (c) Economic Zone (EEZ), through
agreement with the CPP-NPA-NDF heightened maritime security capabilities.
on respect for human rights and
international humanitarian law. Not
the least of the reasons, however, has
been the renewal of the governments
legitimacy through the democratic The administration will have to pick up the pieces and resume the quest
election of an administration that for peace with vigor and clarity of purpose. Our quest must not only
enjoys the peoples support and that focus on ensuring stability of the State and the security of our nation.
is willing to invest its political capital Our ultimate goal must be the safety and wellbeing of our people.
on peace.
We must revive the peace process on the basis of a comprehensive
While peace negotiations are pursued, understanding of the root causes of the conflict, under clear policies
the causes of conflict must also be that pave and clear the way ahead, and driven by a genuine desire to
addressed in order to reap dividends attain a just and lasting peace. We shall endeavor to restore confidence
from peace efforts. For conflict- in the peace process that is transparent and participatory, and renew
affected areas, the peace talks must our faith in our shared vision of a peaceful, secure and prosperous
be complemented by the delivery future under one sovereign flag.
of basic services, institution of good -President Benigno S. Aquino, April 22, 2010
governance, people empowerment,
Mandarin Hotel, Makati
assistance for the return or
resettlement of IDPs, policy reforms,
and local economic development.

Peace & Security 293

In addition to territorial threats, the forces and oversight government
overseas diaspora of Filipinos entails a institutions, but also by civil society
wider redefinition and understanding of and all the nations communities. This
threats to Filipino interests. In particular, shared responsibility can only emanate
the predicament of overseas Filipinos who from a shared concept of security.
come into conflict with the laws of other People-centered security within
countries poses complex new challenges to the framework of human security
the countrys conduct of foreign relations, puts peoples welfare at the center
with potential repercussions on issues of of its operations. It gives primacy to
sovereignty and territorial integrity. human rights while recognizing and
promoting local security and safety
A comprehensive response to these based on the needs and realities of
concerns involves initiatives to improve communities.
relations and forge cooperation with other
nations to preserve and protect national This framework shall be pursued under
security and interest, including the welfare the following guiding principles: (a)
of Filipinos living and working abroad. full respect, promotion and protection
Because peace and security are of human rights and human security;
indivisible, efforts toward their Nontraditional Security (b) primacy of the peace process at
attainment must be anchored Challenges all times; and (c) acceptance of social
through a whole-of-nation diversity and promotion of a culture
approach, which seeks to bring Nonmilitary and transnational threats, of peace. These principles shall be
about a concerted effort towards otherwise called nontraditional security adopted in all key aspects of the
national peace and security. concerns, also challenge the countrys implementation of strategies.
peace and security. Armed personnel of
government shall continue to assist other Overall, specific strategies shall support
government agencies during emergency governments National Security Policy
situations, such as during disasters caused and National Security Strategy. These
by natural hazards and health pandemics, two documents lay down the blueprint
as well as in securing vital development for the countrys national security
projects under threat of destabilization. vision and serve as the basis for the
preparation of the plans and programs
Strategic Framework of government agencies involving
national security.
As the challenges to national security
become more complex, effective strategies Section 1. Winning the
that would ensure the attainment of Peace
peace, public order and safety through the
cessation of armed conflict and prevention Promotion of the peace process shall
of crimes shall be continuously identified be the centerpiece of the internal
and pursued while communities are security program, as a testament
empowered and transformed into areas of to governments commitment to a
growth and productivity. policy of peace, reconciliation and
reunification. Peace is not just the
Because peace and security are indivisible, absence of war or conflict, rather it is
efforts toward their attainment must be the sum total of conditions that ensure
anchored through a whole-of-nation human and social wellbeing in all its
approach, which seeks to bring about a dimensions. This entails winning the
concerted effort towards national peace hearts and minds of the aggrieved and
and security. This approach is not about afflicted while retaining the allegiance
burden-sharing but rather about creating of the rest.
a consensus and understanding of security,
that is shared not just among core security

294 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

A. Goal d. Final disposition of arms of the
abovementioned armed groups and
While the governments ultimate aim mainstreaming of former rebels as
is to win the peace, the goal for the productive members of society, in
medium term shall be to bring all accordance with peace agreements;
armed conflict to a permanent and
peaceful closure. e. Establishment of mechanisms for
a participatory and accountable peace
B. Objectives process.

Toward this end, the following Negotiations with armed groups shall
objectives shall be met by the end of be guided by the principles laid down in
the Plan period: EO 3 (series of 2001), with reference to
a comprehensive peace process which:
1. A negotiated political settlement (a) is community-based, reflecting
of armed conflicts; and the sentiments, values and principles
important to all Filipinos; (b) aims to
2. The causes of armed conflict and forge a new social compact for a just, To put in place a transparent
other issues that affect the peace equitable, humane and pluralistic society; and accountable peace process,
process being effectively addressed. and (c) seeks a principled and peaceful civil society organizations shall
resolution to the internal armed conflicts, be involved in various peace
C. Specific Strategies with neither blame nor surrender, but processes.
with dignity for all concerned. The
In pursuit of the abovementioned following parameters for peace talks are
goal and objectives, two tracks shall be further specified:
followed, each with its corresponding
strategies and programs, as follows: a. the Constitution, inclusive of
the flexibilities provided within its
1. A Negotiated Political Settlement provisions;
of all Armed Conflicts
b. the experience and lessons learned
This track shall involve the following: from past negotiations and with the
creation and operation of the ARMM;
a. Resumption and completion of
negotiations with the MILF and c. Governments ability to deliver -
CPP-NPA-NDF, respectively; politically, economically and socially -
commitments made and agreed on; and
b. Completion and
implementation of signed final d. Inclusiveness and transparency,
closure agreements with the CPLA sensitivity to general public sentiment
(1986) and the Rebolusyonaryong as far as practicable, with the aim of
Partidong Manggagawa-Pilipinas restoring full confidence and trust in
/ Revolutionary Proletariat Army / the peace process.
Alex Boncayao Brigade (RPM-P/
RPA/ABB) (2000), respectively; In order to put in place a gender-
responsive mechanism for transparent
c. Adoption and implementation and accountable peace process, civil
of actions agreed upon in the society organizations shall be involved,
Tripartite Implementation Review with government support if necessary,
of the 1996 Final Peace Agreement in the establishment of a Consultative
with the MNLF; Body defining its own structures and
mechanisms to fully participate in various
peace processes. Alongside this body

Peace & Security 295

led by civil society organizations, the social cohesion. Over a period of four
government shall establish an Advisory years, PAMANA shall cover 218
Body with representatives from Congress, municipalities in 43 provinces. Some
members of the 1987 Constitutional 3,500 conflict-affected barangays and
Commission, retired Justices of the an estimated 400,000 households
Supreme Court, local government will benefit from this intervention.
executives, and former government chief This will be implemented through
negotiators. This shall serve as venue for collaboration between national
dialogues to address issues of discontent, government agencies, LGUs and
inhibition, and agitation, facilitate development partners. PAMANA
conflict resolution and, prevent armed rests on three main pillars:
confrontations in conflict-affected areas.
Pillar 1 refers to interventions at
2. Complementary Track the macrolevel that help establish
the foundations of peace and the
A complementary track will be followed building of communities capable
to address the causes of conflict and of addressing peace issues. Among
Government will implement issues affecting the peace process. This the policy issues the framework
a converged peace-building includes: seeks to address are:
program focused on the
development of conflict-affected a. Focused development in conflict- Dialogues and policy
areas to address the causes of affected areas through the PAMANA formulation to improve
armed conflict. Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan governance and address threats
Program; to identity and marginalization;

PAMANA (Peaceful and Resilient Ancestral domain, agrarian

Communities) is the national reform and natural resource
governments peace and development conflict resolution; and
framework to respond and strengthen
peace building, reconstruction and Security guarantees and
development in conflict-affected areas transitional support especially
(CAAs). Under the guiding principles of to internally displaced persons
PAMANA, government will implement (IDPs).
a converged peace building program
focused on the development of conflict- Pillar 2 refers to microlevel
affected areas to address the causes interventions focused on
of armed conflict. The main strategy households and communities.
is to bring back government in these These include delivery of basic
communities by ensuring that they services at the community level
benefit from improved basic services through conditional cash transfer
delivery and are served by responsive and approaches, community driven
accountable government. This will ensure reconstruction and development
that these communities feel the presence and community livelihood.
of government in their lives. The design
of specific interventions shall recognize Pillar 3 refers to mesolevel
cultural practices and traditions. interventions that address
local development challenges,
PAMANA aims to: (a) reduce poverty including constraints to local
and vulnerability in conflict-affected economic development, economic
areas; (b) improve governance; and (c) integration of poor areas with
empower communities and strengthen more prosperous areas and physical
their capacity to address issues of conflict and economic connectivity
and peace through activities that promote improvements. These include

296 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

high-impact local development e. Support the enhancement of
projects, such as ancestral domain ARMM governance, including greater
management plans, support accountability to citizens living in
services for farmers and farm- remote and poorest areas. This shall
workers, including roads and be accompanied by efforts to end
post-harvest facilities, or culturally patronage politics, dismantle all private
sensitive industries, such as armies, ensure free, responsible and
development of community-based clean elections, strengthen democratic
tourism and the halal industry. processes and the rule of law in the
electoral system, and fully integrating
b. Support efforts to end impunity ARMM in all Mindanao-wide and
and extra-judicial killings through national development plans;
decisive action of the government
in dealing with grave human rights f. Support the implementation of UN
violations as well as political or Security Council Resolution 1325,
election-related violence; which entails close collaboration
with the CSOs to fully comply with
c. Support the indigenous the governments commitment to
peoples agenda which includes: increase participation of women in
professionalizing the service peace processes and address sexual
bureaucracy; the review of violence against women in armed
Certificate of Ancestral Domain conflict situations. More specifically,
Titles (CADTs) issuances; delivery efforts shall be exerted to: (i) ensure
of basic services and review/ the protection of womens rights and
redress IPs in conflict areas and prevent the violation of these rights
realization of the Indigenous in armed conflict and postconflict
Peoples Masterplan (IPMAP) situations; (ii) empower women and
2011-2016 with particular stress on ensure their active and meaningful
Human Rights Protection of IPs; participation in areas of peace
implementation and compliance building, peace keeping, conflict
with the International Convention prevention, conflict resolution and
on the Elimination of All Forms of postconflict reconstruction; (iii)
Racial Discrimination (ICERD) promote and mainstream the gender
and the Convention of the Rights perspective in all aspects of conflict
of the Child; and advocacy of the prevention, conflict resolution and
ratification of ILO Convention peace building; and (iv) institute a
No. 169, or the Convention on system to monitor, evaluate and report
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples; the implementation of the national
action plan to enhance accountability
d. Support an affirmative action for successful implementation and the
agenda for Muslims including the achievement of its goals;
development of a halal industry,
institutionalization of the Hajj g. Address the needs of children in
management system, establishment situations of armed conflict by setting
of economic and financial up an effective mechanism to monitor,
mechanisms, such as Islamic report and immediately respond
banking and microfinance, speedy to the identified seven grave child
resolution of cases involving children rights violations in conflict situations,
and women languishing in jails, namely: recruitment and use of minors
putting an end to discriminatory by armed groups, killing and maiming,
practices in work places, and the abduction, denial of humanitarian
establishment of Shariah Courts; assistance, rape and sexual abuse,
and attacks on schools and hospitals.

Peace & Security 297

Protecting children in situations of are envisioned to secure internal and
armed conflict will likewise entail external peace that will contribute
monitoring of implementation and to the development efforts of the
compliance to the International government and ensure that Filipinos
Convention of the Rights of the Child; will be able to take part in the process
of economic growth and development.
h. Support the reform of the security
sector, which entails mainstreaming a A. Goal
people-centered approach to human
security and developing policies to Throughout the Plan period, the
institutionalize Democratic Control government shall create and sustain a
of the Armed Forces (DCAF); safer and more secured environment
conducive to national development.
i. Support the settlement of land
disputes aimed at rationalizing national B. Objectives
land policies and strengthening
conflict resolution mechanisms on In particular, the following objectives
Secure internal and external the ground, recognizing the fact that shall be pursued:
peace that will contribute to internal armed conflicts are largely
development efforts and ensure rooted in long-standing disputes over 1. Promotion of sustained internal
that Filipinos will be able to take land and resources. stability;
part in the process of economic
growth and development. Legislative Agenda 2. Full capability to uphold the
sovereignty and territorial integrity
During the Plan period, the of the state assured;
administration shall work toward the
passage of legislation to achieve the 3. Highest standard of capability
following outcomes, among others: and preparedness against natural
calamities and disasters achieved;
1. An Organic Act for the ARMM as and
amended to ensure full implementation
of the GRP-MNLF Final Peace 4. Security sector reformed and
Agreement; modernized.

2. Protection of women and children C. Specific Strategies

in situations of armed conflict; and
1. To promote and sustain
3. Human rights and human security internal stability, the following
of persons in conflict-affected areas strategies shall be pursued:
fulfilled and protected.
a. Capabilities of armed groups
Section 2. Ensuring National must be reduced at a level where
Security they can no longer threaten the
stability of the state. These shall be
Apart from the peace process, the done through the following:
government shall create and sustain
an enabling environment conducive End activities of Abu
to development. This will be done by Sayyaf Group (ASG), Jemiah
involving the whole government, other Islamiyah( JI) and their allied
institutions, and the entire citizenry armed groups and other criminal
in addressing national integrity, public elements; and
order and safety, and governance reforms.
These mutually-reinforcing strategies

298 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

Contribute to the promote cooperative projects in
establishment of conditions the political, economic and military
for civil authorities to take fields, as well as assuring the security
responsibility for the safety and and welfare of Filipinos working
wellbeing of their constituents. and living abroad; and

b. Continuous and intensified Expand and improve

police and other law enforcement participation in UN Peace
agencies operations must be Operations.
implemented to address criminality
including organized crime groups. b. Capability on border management,
To ensure the safety of the citizenry surveillance and detection against
from becoming victims of unlawful lawless elements must be improved
acts, the following shall be carried through the following:
Enhancement of border security
Enforce the law effectively through the strict enforcement of
and credibly and anticrime the Philippine immigration laws
strategies in partnership and and upgrading of surveillance and
collaboration with stakeholders detection capacity to thwart the
and other pillars of the Criminal entry of foreign terrorists and other
Justice System; lawless elements as well as human
trafficking and smuggling of anti-
Improve performance in social goods and weapons of mass
solving crimes; and destruction; and

Dismantle private armed Ensuring that maritime assets,

groups. maritime practices, territorial
integrity and coastal areas are
2. To assure full capability to protected in accordance with the
uphold the sovereignty and Baselines Law (RA 9522) and
territorial integrity of the state, by upgrading air and maritime
the following strategies shall be capability.
3. To achieve the highest standard of
a. International relations and capability and preparedness against
external security must be sustained natural and man-made calamities
and cultivated through the and disasters, the following will be
following: undertaken:

Strengthen cooperative Strengthen the role of the

security arrangements with security sector in emergency relief
neighbors and other countries and rescue operations to maintain
by adopting mechanisms in public order and safety during
the regional and global setting calamities. Mechanisms to improve
in building confidence and alert warning and monitoring
promoting consultations and before and during disasters will
interactions. be enhanced to pre-empt loss to
lives and properties. The sector will
Pursue friendly and peaceful be transformed to become more
bilateral and multilateral dynamic, proactive, and responsive
relations with other nations to prevent and prepare for disasters
and international agencies to through improvement on technical

Peace & Security 299

and institutional capacity, and Strengthening of the rule of
by promoting synergy among law throughout the country by
stakeholders and building resiliency ensuring a strong, independent
of communities to disasters; and judicial system and a better
functioning of correctional
Support national development systems so that justice is applied
programs by securing and protecting to all. The Philippine government
critical infrastructures and facilities, recognizes the need to strengthen
and other high value projects of the the rule of law to assure the people
public and private sector. of the basic protective services
with an effective and reliable
4. To carry out Security Sector response mechanism from the
Reform and Modernization law enforcement agencies as well
initiatives that shall adhere to as a functioning and dependable
the principle of transparency justice system.
and accountability, the following
strategies shall be implemented: b. Pursue the upgrading and
modernization of the defense and
a. Pursue reforms in the security security establishments to perform
sector by adopting policies, programs the full spectrum of roles and
and activities that contribute to: mandates in accordance to the
more comprehensive and updated
Strengthening the civilian control definition of National Security. This
and oversight of the security sector; entails the following:

Orienting the security forces, to Capability to perform all

include, among others, programs types and levels of internal and
designed to train soldiers, police and external operations as well as non-
other security sector personnel on their traditional and development roles;
respective responsibilities, respect on
human rights and international law, Capability to perform air, land
and ethnic sensitivity; and sea operations, as mandated;

Strengthening the internal security Capacity building of the

system. Pursue and support the security sector particularly on
reform efforts in both the AFP and non-traditional skills on conflict
PNP through programs such as the resolution and peace-building,
Philippine Defense Transformation democratic accountability, gender
Program of the AFP and the and development issues, ethnic
Integrated Transformation Program- sensitivity, and indigenous peoples
Performance Governance System of rights; and
the PNP. The security sector must
rebuild themselves as institutions Education, training, and
by reorganizing, retooling, and preparation of all officers
reorienting the approaches to keep up (including non-commissioned
with the constantly changing policy officers) and civilian employees,
and security strategy environment; in accordance with the highest
and standards of personal integrity
and professional competence
required in all the leadership,
officer, technical and rank and file
positions in the armed and other
uniformed services.

300 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

Legislative Agenda
During the Plan period, the
administration shall work toward the
passage of legislation or amendments to
existing laws such as:

1. Amendment of the
AFP Modernization/Development
Program (RA 7898) to extend its

2. Enactment of the National

Defense and Security Act to make it
relevant to the contemporary global
and regional environment;

3. Enactment of a law declaring

the countrys maritime zones
(Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone
and Exclusive Economic Zone) to
ensure Philippine Maritime interests;

4. Enactment of PNP
Reorganization Law; and

5. Enactment of Comprehensive
Law on Firearms, light Weapons and

Peace & Security 301

302 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016