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Material Science and Chemistry

Chemistry Strand

Week Two Tutorial

The Mole Concept

1. Graphite is the crystalline form of carbon used in lead pencils. How many moles of carbon are
in 315 mg of graphite?
2. A soda can contains about 14 g of aluminum (Al), the most abundant element in Earths crust.
How many soda cans can be made from 52 mol of Al?
3. At rest, a person inhales 9.72x1021 nitrogen molecules in an average breath of air. How many
moles of nitrogen atoms are inhaled? (Hint: In air, nitrogen occurs as a diatomic molecule.)
4. A tank contains 325 mol of compressed helium (He) gas. How many He atoms are in the tank?
5. Manganese (Mn) is a transition element essential for the growth of bones. What is the mass in
grams of 3.22x1020 Mn atoms, the number found in 1 kg of bone?

Formulas and Chemical Equations

6. A sample of a white solid contains 0.170 mol of boron and 0.255 mol of oxygen. What is the
empirical formula?
7. A sample of an unknown compound contains 6.80 mol of carbon and 18.1 mol of hydrogen.
What is the empirical formula?
8. One of the most widespread environmental carcinogens (cancer-causing agents) is
benzo[a]pyrene ( = 252.30 g/mol). It is found in coal dust, cigarette smoke, and even charcoal-
grilled meat. Analysis of this hydrocarbon shows 95.21 mass % C and 4.79 mass % H. What is the
molecular formula of benzo[a]pyrene?
9. Caffeine ( = 194.2 g/mol) is a stimulant found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate.
Elemental analysis of caffeine shows 49.47 mass % C, 5.19 mass % H, 28.86 mass % N, and 16.48
mass % O. What is the molecular formula of caffeine?
10. Write a balanced equation for each of the following:

(a) A characteristic reaction of Group 1A (1) elements: chunks of sodium react violently with
water to form hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide solution.

(b) The destruction of marble statuary by acid rain: aqueous nitric acid reacts with calcium
carbonate to form carbon dioxide, water, and aqueous calcium nitrate.

(c) Halogen compounds exchanging bonding partners: phosphorus trifluoride is prepared by the
reaction of phosphorus trichloride and hydrogen fluoride; hydrogen chloride is the other
product. The reaction involves gases only.

11. Write a balanced equation for each of the following:

(a) Explosive decomposition of dynamite: liquid nitroglycerine (C3H5N3O9) explodes to produce


a mixture of gasescarbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen.
(b) A reaction that takes place in a self-contained breathing apparatus: solid potassium
superoxide (KO2) reacts with carbon dioxide gas to produce oxygen gas and solid potassium
carbonate.

(c) The production of iron from its ore in a blast furnace: solid iron (III) oxide reacts with carbon
monoxide gas to produce solid iron metal and carbon dioxide gas.

Stoichiometry

12. Thermite is a mixture of iron (III) oxide and aluminum powders that was once used to weld railroad
tracks. It undergoes a spectacular reaction to yield solid aluminum oxide and molten iron. How many
moles of iron (III) oxide are needed to form 3.60x103 mol of iron?

13. The tarnish that forms on objects made of silver is solid silver sulfide; it can be removed by reacting
it with aluminum metal to produce silver metal and solid aluminum sulfide. How many moles of
aluminum are required to remove 0.253 mol of silver sulfide from a silver bowl?

14. Marble (calcium carbonate) reacts with hydrochloric acid solution to form calcium chloride solution,
water, and carbon dioxide. Find the percent yield of carbon dioxide if 3.65 g is collected when 10.0 g of
marble reacts.

15. Sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash, is used in glassmaking. It is obtained from a reaction
between sodium chloride and calcium carbonate; calcium chloride is the other product. Calculate the
percent yield of sodium carbonate if 92.6 g is collected when 112 g of sodium chloride reacts with excess
calcium carbonate.