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SECURITY BASED ATM THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:

A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional


mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function. Most of the
controlling systems, today, are embedded systems. The complexity of the systems
may differ from to the other
An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a
specific focused job. Appliances such as the air-conditioner, VCD player, DVD
player, printer, fax machine, mobile phone etc. are examples of embedded systems.
Each of these appliances will have a processor and special hardware to meet the
specific requirement of the application along with the embedded software that is
executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement. The embedded
software is also called firm ware. The desktop/laptop computer is a general purpose
computer. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games, word
processing, accounting, software development and so on. In contrast, the software in
the embedded systems is always fixed listed below:

Embedded systems do a very specific task, they cannot be programmed to do


different things. Embedded systems have very limited resources, particularly the
memory. Generally, they do not have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM
or the floppy disk. Embedded systems have to work against some deadlines. A
specific job has to be completed within a specific time. In some embedded systems,
called real-time systems, the deadlines are stringent. Missing a deadline may cause a
catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. Embedded systems are constrained for
power. As many embedded systems operate through a battery, the power consumption
has to be very low.

Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental


conditions such as very high temperatures and humidity.

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1.2 BRIEF HISTORY:

The first recognizably modern embedded system was the Apollo Guidance Computer,
developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT instrumentation Laboratory. The first
mass-produced embedded system was the autonetics D-17 guidance Computer for the
Minueteman (missile), released in 1961. It was built from transistor logic and had a
hard disk for main memory.

Since these early applications in the 1960s, embedded systems have come
down in price. There has also be an enormous rise in processing power and
functionality. For example the first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, which found
its way into calculators and other small systems, but required external memory and
support chips.

In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released the


standard for a programmable microcontroller. The definition was an almost any
Computerbased controller. They included single board Computers, numerical
controllers and sequential controllers in order to perform event-based instructions. By
the mid-1980s, many of the previously external system components had been
integrated into the same chip as the processor, resulting in integrated circuits called
microcontrollers, and wide spread use of embedded systems became feasible.
Presently, a lot of varieties of embedded systems are available at very low costs.

1.3 OVERVIEW OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

Every embedded system consists of custom-built hardware built around a Central


Processing Unit (CPU). This hardware also contains memory chips onto which the
software is loaded. The software residing on the memory chip is also called the
firmware.

The operating system runs above the hardware, and the application
software runs above the operating system. The same architecture is applicable to any
computer including a desktop computer. However, there are significant differences. It
is not compulsory to have an operating system in every embedded system.

For small appliances such as remote control units, air conditioners, toys etc., there is
no need for an operating system and you can write only the software specific to that

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application. For applications involving complex processing, it is advisable to have an


operating system. In such a case, you need to integrate the application software with
the operating system and then transfer the entire software on to the memory chip.

Once the software is transferred to the memory chip, the software will continue to run
for a long time you dont need to reload new software.

Now, let us see the details of the various building blocks of the hardware of an
embedded system. As shown in Fig. the building blocks are;

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Memory (Read-only Memory and Random Access Memory)

Input Devices

Output devices

Communication interfaces

Application-specific circuitry

1.3.1CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU):

The Central Processing Unit (processor, in short) can be any of the following:
microcontroller, microprocessor or Digital Signal Processor (DSP).

A micro-controller is a low-cost processor. Its main attraction is that on the chip itself,
there will be many other components such as memory, serial communication
interface, analog-to digital converter etc.

So, for small applications, a micro-controller is the best choice as the number of
external components required will be very less. On the other hand, microprocessors
are more powerful, but you need to use many external components with them. DSP is
used mainly for applications in which signal processing is involved such as audio and
video processing.

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1.3.2 MEMORY:

The memory is categorized as Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only
Memory (ROM). The contents of the RAM will be erased if power is switched off to
the chip, whereas ROM retains the contents even if the power is switched off. So, the
firmware is stored in the ROM. When power is switched on, the processor reads the
ROM , the program is program is executed.

1.3.3 INPUT DEVICES:

Unlike the desktops, the input devices to an embedded system have very limited
capability. There will be no keyboard or a mouse, and hence interacting with the
embedded system is no easy task. Many embedded systems will have a small keypad-
you press one key to give a specific command. A keypad may be used to input only
the digits. Many embedded systems used in process control do not have any input
device for user interaction; they take inputs from sensors or transducers 1fnd produce
electrical signals that are in turn fed to other systems.

1.3.4 OUTPUT DEVICES:

The output devices of the embedded systems also have very limited capability. Some
embedded systems will have a few Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) to indicate the
health status of the system modules or for visual indication of alarms. A small Liquid
Crystal Display (LCD) may also be used to display some important parameters.

1.3.5 COMMUNICATION INTERFACES:

The Embedded systems may need to interact with other embedded systems at they
may have to transmit data to a desktop. To facilitate this, the embedded systems are
provided with one or a few communication interfaces such as RS232, RS422, RS485,
Universal Serial Bus (USB), and IEEE 1394, Ethernet etc.

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1.4 PERIPHERALS:

Peripherals are the various devices that are connected to the CPU, for performing
various functions. Embedded systems talk with outside world via peripherals, such as:

Serial communication interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-458 etc.


Synchronous Serial communication interfaces (SSCI): I2C, JTAG, SPI, SSC
and ESSI.
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Networks: Controller Area Network, etc.
Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing units.
Discrete I/O: General Purpose Input/output (GPIO).

1.5 PROCESSORS:

Processors are the key elements in any embedded system. They interact with the
memory, where the various instructions of useful functions into a single IC package.

These functions are:

The ability to execute a stored set of instructions to carry out user defined
tasks.
The ability to be able to access external memory chips to both read and writes
data from and to the memory.

1.6 RELIABILITY:

Embedded systems often reside in machines that are expected to run continuously for
years without errors and in some cases recover by themselves if any error occurs.
Therefore the software is usually developed and tested more carefully than that for
PC, and unreliable mechanical moving parts such as Disk drives, switches or buttons
are avoided.

Specific reliability issues may include:

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The system cannot safely be shut down for repair, or it is too inaccessible to repair.
Solutions may involve subsystems with redundant spares that can be switched over
to, or software limp modes that provide partial function. Examples include space
systems, undersea cables, navigational beacons, bore-hole systems and
automobiles.

The system must be kept running for safety reasons. Limp modes are less
tolerable. Often backups are selected by an operator. Examples include Aircraft,
Navigation, Reactor control systems, safety-critical Chemical factory controls,
Train signals and engines on single-engine Aircraft.

The system will lose large amounts of money when shutdown: Telephone switches,
Factory controls, Bridge and elevator controls, funds transfer and market making,
automated sales and service.

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CHAPTER 2
OVERVIEW OF PROJECT

2.1 OVERVIEW:

The Idea of Designing and Implementation of Security Based ATM theft


project is born with the observation in our real life incidents happening around us. In
todays technically advanced world, autonomous systems are gaining rapid
popularity. As the social computerization and automation has been increased and the
ATM and credit card has been installed and spread out to simplify the activity for
financial activity, the banking activity has been simplified, however the crime related
with financial organization has been increased in proportion to the ratio of spread out
of automation and devices. Those crimes for the financial organization have been
increased gradually from year 1999 to 2003, little bit decreased in 2004, and then
increased again from year 2005. In the year of 2007, 212,530 of theft and 4,439 of
robber cases are happened, and 269,410 of theft and 4,409 of robber cases are
happened in year 2010 and also in the year 2011, 270,109 of theft and 4,509 of robber
cases are happened .so that the cases of theft and robber have been increased
gradually during past 12 years. Among the crime for financial organization, the cases
of theft and robber have very high proportion of over 90% and the crime for the ATM
has been increased because the external ATM has been increased and it is always
exposed to the crime. Therefore, this study is going to suggest the method of rapid
reaction and minimization of ATM Theft.

2.1.1 AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM):

The Automated Teller Machine, or ATM, is such a Complicated piece of


technology that it does not have a single inventor. Instead, the ATMs we use today are
an amalgam of several different inventions. Some of these proto-ATMs dispensed
cash but did not accept deposits, for example, while others accepted deposits but did
not dispense cash. Todays ATMs are sophisticated computers that can do almost
anything a human bank teller can, and have ushered in a new era of self-service in
banking.

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Today, there are almost 2 million ATMs


around the globe. Although use of the machines has
declined in recent years, likely because more people
make purchases using credit and debit cards instead
of cash, the ATM continues to have a place in
modern culture. Todays machines sell everything
from airline tickets to movie tickets to medicine.

2.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE:

Antitheft security system utilizes an embedded system design and a GSM to


monitor and safeguard the ATM. The main building block of any electronic system is
the power supply to provide required power for their operation.

For the microcontroller, LCD, GSM +5V are required and for driving buzzer +12V
is required. The power supply provides regulated output of +5V & non-regulated output of
+12V. The hardware part consists of the components and the sensors used in the system. This
part mainly collects the status of the sensors and stores it into the micro controllers
EEPROM. For the Closing the ATM door, we are using DC motors. It is operated by 12VDC
power supply. In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A
current carrying conductor generates a magnetic field, when and to the strength of the external
magnetic field.

Here we are placing DC Motor for closing the ATM door while thieves are
trying to broke the ATM machine. The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage,
high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels
and drive inductive loads and switching power transistors. To simplify use as two
bridges each pair of channels is equipped with an enable input. A separate supply
input is provided for the logic, allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal
clamp diodes are included. This device is suitable for use in switching applications at
frequencies up to 5 kHz. The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic package which
has 4 centre pins connected together and used for heat sinking. The chip is designed to
control 2 DC motors. There are 2 Input and 2 output pins for each motor.

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Radio frequency (RF) is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300
GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents
which carry radio signals. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical
oscillations. The energy in an RF current can radiate off a conductor into space as
electromagnetic waves (radio waves) this is the basis of radio technology.

2.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Functional Block diagram of the proposed system in which the


microcontroller is interfaced with IR sensor, GSM Modem, DC Motor, motor
driver, RF module, buzzer, LCD display.

(i) ATM MONITERING SECTION

Fig. 2.3 (a)

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(ii) MOBILE UNIT

Fig.2.3 (b)

(iii) RECEIVER SECTION

Fig. 2.3 (c)

Fig. 2.3 Blocks of ATM Security System

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2.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

Fig. 2.4 (a) Monitoring System Circuit Diagram

Interfacing the microcontroller to coordinate the entire system:


Port zero (P0) of the microcontroller is used for collecting DTMF converted
data for programming analysis. Port three bit zero (P3.0) is used as DTMF valid tone
signalling.

Port zero bit zero (P0.0) and Port zero bit one (P0.1) respectively are used as
input for doors sensor and boot sensor. Port two bit zero through Port two bit three
(P2.0 P2.3) are used as output pins for text message (feedback) control.

Port two bit four (P2.4) of the microcontroller is used for controlling the
alarming unit and finally the actuator which demobilizes the ATM is controlled
through Port two bit five (P2.5).

CONTROL AND MONITERING SECTION:


During the theft, the GSM sends a text message to the nearby police station and
the corresponding Bank, which is controlled and monitored at the police station as
well as the bank.

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Fig. 2.4 (b) Interfacing AT89S52 to RF transmitter section:

INTRUDER ALARM SYSTEM USING RF RECEIVER:

If the telephone line fails or is cut, then the alarm system should automatically
generate an alarm signal which makes the control system alert.
The doors of the ATM cant be open until the authorised person sends a text to
the ATM to deactivate. A counter has been placed outside the ATM where it counts
the number of people entering or exiting.
A warning light is also been placed at the entrance outside the ATM centre,
when the alarm system is triggered then control pulse also turns ON the warning light
to alert the outside area.

Fig. 2.4 (c) Intruder alarm section using RF Receiver with AT89S52

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CHAPTER 3

MICROCONTROLLERS

3.1. INTRODUCTION:

Circumstances that we find ourselves in today in the field of microcontrollers


had their beginnings in the development of technology of integrated circuits. This
development has made it possible to store hundreds of thousands of transistors into
one chip. That was a prerequisite for production of microprocessors, and the first
computers were made by adding external peripherals such as memory, input-output
lines, timers and other. Further increasing of the volume of the package resulted in
creation of integrated circuits. These integrated circuits contained both processor and
peripherals. That is how the first chip containing a microcomputer, or what would
later be known as a microcontroller came about.

3.2. DEFINITION OF A MICROCONTROLLER:

Microcontroller, as the name suggests, are small controllers. They are like
single chip computers that are often embedded into other systems to function as
processing/controlling unit. For example, the remote control you are using probably
has microcontrollers inside that do decoding and other controlling functions.

They are also used in automobiles, washing machines, microwave ovens, toys etc,
where automation is needed.

The key features of microcontrollers include:

Integration of Functionality
Microcontrollers sometimes are called single-chip computers because they
have on-chip memory and I/O circuitry and other circuitries that enable them
to function as small standalone computers without other supporting circuitry.
Field Programmability, Flexibility.
Microcontrollers often use EEPROM or EPROM as their storage device to
allow field programmability so they are flexible to use.

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Once the program is tested to be correct then large quantities of


microcontrollers can be programmed to be used in embedded systems.
Easy to Use

Assembly language is often used in microcontrollers and since they usually follow
RISC architecture, the instruction set is small. The development package of
microcontrollers often includes an assembler, a simulator, a programmer to "burn" the
chip and a demonstration board. Some packages include a high level language
compiler such as a C compiler and more sophisticated libraries.

Most microcontrollers will also combine other devices such as:

A Timer module to allow the microcontroller to perform tasks for certain time
periods.

A serial I/O port to allow data to flow between the microcontroller and other
devices such as

A PC or another microcontroller.

An ADC to allow the microcontroller to accept analogue input data for


processing.

Fig 3.2: Showing a typical microcontroller device and its different subunit

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3.3. MICROCONTROLLERS VERSUS MICROPROCESSORS:


Microcontroller differs from a microprocessor in many ways. First and the
most important is its functionality. In order for a microprocessor to be used, other
components such as memory, or components for receiving and sending data must be
added to it. In short that means that microprocessor is the very heart of the computer.
On the other hand, microcontroller is designed to be all of that in one. No other
external components are needed for its application because all necessary peripherals
are already built into it. Thus, we save the time and space needed to construct devices.
3.4 FEATURESOF 8051:

Following are the main features of Micro controller 8051 which makes it most
efficient Microcontroller chip:

It Includes Boolean Processing Engine. Thus internal registers and RAM can
carry Boolean logic operations directly and efficiently.

It gives us many functions in a single chip. (For example: CPU, RAM, ROM,
I/O, Interrupt, Timer etc.)

It have 8 bit Data bus.

It have 8 bit Stack Pointer.

It have 16 bit Program Counter.

It has 16 bit address bus which can access almost 65,536 memory locations.

Data memory or RAM of 128 bytes. (On-Chip).

Program Memory or ROM of 4 KB. (On Chip).

Bi-Directional I/O port of 4 bytes.

It has 4 separate Register Sets.

Serial Port or UART.

It features Power Saving Mode which saves power.

Two Timers/Counters each of 16 bit.

Internal and External Interrupt Sources.

2 level interrupt priority.

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3.5 PIN DIAGRAM OF 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER:

Fig. 3.5 Pin Diagram

Although 8051 family members (e.g., 8751, 89C51, 89C52, DS89C4xO) come in
different packages, such as DIP (dual in-line package), QFP (quad flat package), and
LLC (leadless chip carrier), they all have 40 pins that are dedicated to various
functions such as I/O, RD, WR, address, data, and interrupts. It must be noted that
some companies provide a 20-pin version of the 8051 with a reduced number of I/O
ports for less demanding applications.

3.6 PIN DESCRIPTION:

8051 Microcontroller is a 40 PIN Integrated Circuit.

Following are the Pins of IC of 8051 micro-controller with explanation of each pin.

Pin1 to 8(Port 1): The pins 1.0 to 1.7 are 8 pins of port1.each of them can be
configured as input or output pins.

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Pin9: It is used to reset microcontroller 8051. A positive pulse is given on this pin to
reset microcontroller.

Pin 10 to 17(Port3): These are similar to Pins of port 1. These pins can be used as
universal input or output. These are dual function pins.

Function of each pin is given as:

Pin 10: It is serial Asynchronous communication input or Serial Asynchronous


communication output.

Pin 11: Serial Asynchronous Communication Output or Serial Synchronous


Communication Output.

Pin 12: Interrupt 0 input.

Pin 13: Interrupt 1 input.

Pin 14: Counter 0 clock input.

Pin 15: Counter 1 clock input.

Pin 16: Writing Signal for writing content on external RAM.

Pin 17: Reading Signal to read contents of external RAM.

Pin 18 and 19: These are input output PINS for oscillator. An internal oscillator is
connected to Micro controller through these pins.

Pin 20: Pin 20 is grounded.

Pin 21 to 28 (Port 2): These Pins can be configured as Input Output Pins. But this is
only possible in case when we don't use any external memory. If we use external
memory then these pins will work as high order address bus (A8 to A15).

Pin 29: If we uses an external ROM then it should has a logic 0 which indicates
Micro controller to read data from memory.

Pin 30: This Pin is used for ALE that is Address Latch Enable. If we uses multiple
memory chips then this pin is used to distinguish between them. This Pin also gives
program pulse input during programming of EPROM.

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Pin 31: If we have to use multiple memories then by applying logic 1 to this pin
instructs Micro controller to read data from both memories first internal and
afterwards external.

Pin 32 to 39(Port 0): Similar to port 2 and 3, these pins can be used as input output
pins when we don't use any external memory. When ALE or Pin 30 is at 1 then this
port is used as data bus, when ALE pin at 0, then this port is used as lower order
address bus (A0 to A7).

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CHAPTER 4

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

4.1 MOTORS:

A motor is a machine which converts energy into rotating motion. The


dictionary definition of motor is broader than that but when engineers and mechanics
talk about motors they are almost always talking about rotating motion. There are
different names for devices which convert energy into other types of motion.

A DC motor is a motor that uses direct electrical energy (DC) as the


source of its energy. An AC motor is a motor that uses alternating electrical current
(AC) as the source of its energy. AC current is the type of electricity provided by
household wall outlets. DC current is the type of electricity provided by batteries.

A gear motor is a motor with an attached set of gears driving a secondary


drive shaft. Practical motor designs result in motors that spin too fast for most uses.
As a result, almost all gear sets are used to gear down the motor. The geared down
drive shaft spins slower than the direct motor drive shaft. The geared down drive shaft
also spins harder.

Motor speed is generally measured in revolutions per minute (RPM).


Rotating force is called torque and for hobby motors is generally measured in inch-
ounces or centimetre-grams. For now, just remember that the higher the number the
harder the motor turns. Gearing down a motor reduces its RPM (speed) but increases
its torque.

When you apply energy to a motor, it spins as fast and hard as its design
allows for that energy level and output load. If you increase the energy supply it spins
faster and harder. If you attach a load the motor will slow down. If you continue
increasing the load it slows ever more until the motor capability to work is exceeded.
When the extreme load causes the motor to stop it is said to be stalled. Reducing the
load causes the motor spin faster. If you entirely remove the load the motor is said to
be free running and operates at its maximum speed for that input energy level.

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Electric motors both ac and dc motors, come in many shapes and sizes.
Some are standardised electric motors for general-purpose applications. Other electric
motors are intended specific tasks. In any case, electric motors should be selected to
satisfy the dynamic requirements of the machines on which they are applied without
exceeding rated electric motor temperature. Thus, the first and most important step in
electric motor selection in determining load characteristicstorque and speed versus
time. Electric motor selection is also based on mission goals, power available and
cost.

An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy.


The reverse process for using mechanical energy to produce electrical energy is
accomplished by a generator or dynamo. Electrical motors are found in household
applications such as fans, refrigerators, washing machines, pool pumps, floor
vacuums and fan-forced ovens. They are also found in many other devices such as
computer equipment, in its disk drives, printers and fans and in some sound and video
playing and recording equipment as DVD/CD players and recorders, tape players and
recorders. Electric motors are also found in several kinds of toys such as some kinds
of vehicles and robotic toys.

The classic division of electric motors has been that of Direct current (DC)
type Vs Alternating current (AC) types. This is more a de facto convention, rather
than a rigid distinction. For example, many classic DC motors run on AC power,
these motors being referred to as universal motors.

4.2 DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE:

It is based on the principle that when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a


magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force whose direction is given by
Flemings left hand rule and whose magnitude is given by,

Force, F = BIL Newton

Where B is the magnetic field in weber/m.

I is the current in amperes and L is the length of the coil in meter.

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The force, current and the magnetic field are all in different directions. If an Electric
current flows through two copper wires that are between the poles of a magnet. An
upward force will move one wire up and a downward force will move the other wire
down.

An Electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. The


reverse process that of using mechanical energy to produce electrical energy is
accomplished by a generator or dynamo. Electric motors are found in household
appliances such as fans, refrigerators, washing machines, pool pumps, floor vacuums
and fan-forced ovens.

A DC motor is designed to run on Dc electric power. Industrial applications


use dc motors because the speed-torque relationship can be varied to almost any
useful form for both Dc motor and regeneration applications in either direction of
rotation. Dc motors are often applied where they momentarily deliver three or more
times their rated torque. In emergency situations, dc motors can supply over five
times rated torque without stalling (power supply permitting).

Dc motors features a speed, which can be controlled smoothly down to zero,


immediately followed by acceleration in the opposite direction. The Dc motor
performs the application which is been given by the Microcontroller like on/off and
the period of rotation.

4.3 ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL DATA BUS (UART) INTERFACE:

A UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) is the microchip with


programming that controls a computer's interface to its attached serial devices.
Specifically, it provides the computer with the RS-232C Data Terminal Equipment
( DTE ) interface so that it can "talk" to and exchange data with modems and other
serial devices. As part of this interface, the UART also:

Converts the bytes it receives from the computer along parallel circuits into a
single serial bit stream for outbound transmission.
On inbound transmission, converts the serial bit stream into the bytes that the
computer handles.

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Adds a parity bit (if it's been selected) on outbound transmissions and checks
the parity of incoming bytes (if selected) and discards the parity bit.
Adds start and stop delineators on outbound and strips them from inbound
transmissions.
Handles interrupts from the keyboard and mouse (which are serial devices
with special ports).
May handle other kinds of interrupt and device management that require
coordinating the computer's speed of operation with device speeds.

More advanced UARTs provide some amount of buffering of data so that the
computer and serial devices data streams remain coordinated. The most recent UART,
the 16550, has a 16-byte buffer that can get filled before the computer's processor
needs to handle the data. The original UART was the 8250. If you purchase an
internal modem today, it probably includes a 16550 UART (although you should ask
when you buy it). According to modem manufacturer US Robotics, external modems
do not include a UART. If you have an older computer, you may want to add an
internal 16550 to get the most out of your external modem.

The UART function may also be done on a chip that does other things as well. On
older computers like many 486's, the chips were on the disk IO controller card. Still older
computer have dedicated serial boards.

When PCs all had parallel bus architecture, the UART's purpose was to
convert bytes from the PC's parallel bus to a serial bit-stream. The cable going out of
the serial port is serial and has only one wire for each direction of flow. The serial
port sends out a stream of bits, one bit at a time. Conversely, the bit stream that enters
the serial port via the external cable was converted to parallel bytes that the computer
can understand. UARTs deal with data in byte sized pieces, which is conveniently
also the size of ASCII characters.

Say you have a terminal hooked up to a serial port on your PC. When you
type a character, the terminal gives that character to its transmitter (also a UART).
The transmitter sends that byte out onto the serial line, one bit at a time, at a specific
rate. On the PC end, the receiving UART takes all the bits and reconstruct the byte
(parallel on older PCs) and puts it in a buffer.

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For newer PCs that might have a PCI-e serial port, the UART doesn't need to convert
parallel-to-serial since the PCI-e "bus" is already a serial line. But the PCI-e line
carries an encoded signal which must be decoded and then greatly slowed down to the
speed of the RS-232 serial line.

4.3.1 UART MODEL NUMBERS:

Here's a list of some UARTs. TL is Trigger Level

8250, 16450, early 16550: Obsolete with 1-byte buffers


16550, 16550A, 16C552: 16-byte buffers, TL=1,4,8,14; 115.2 kbps standard,
many support 230.4 or 460.8 kbps
16650: 32-byte buffers. 460.8 kbps
16750: 64-byte buffer for send, 56-byte for receive. 921.6 kbps
16850, 16C850: 128-byte buffers. 460.8 kbps or 1.5 mbps
16950
Hayes ESP: 1k-byte buffers.

For V.90 56k modems, it may be a several percent faster with a 16650 (especially if
you are downloading large uncompressed files). The main advantage of the 16650 is
its larger buffer size as the extra speed isn't needed unless the modem compression
ratio is high. Some 56k internal modems may come with a 16650??

Non-UART and intelligent multiport boards use DSP chips to do additional buffering
and control, thus relieving the CPU even more. For example, the Cyclades Cycle, and
Stallion Easy boards use a Cirrus Logic CD1400 RISC UART, and many boards use
80186 CPUs or even special RISC CPUs, to handle the serial IO.

4.4 SENSORS:

A sensor is a transducer whose purpose is to sense (that is, to detect) some


characteristic of its environs. It detects events or changes in quantities and provides a
corresponding output, generally as an electrical or optical signal; for example,
a thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage. But a mercury-in-glass
thermometer is also a sensor; it converts the measured temperature into expansion and
contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube.

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Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile
sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable
applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micro
machinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have
expanded beyond the more traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow
measurement, for example into MARG sensors. Moreover, analog sensors such as
potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used. Applications include
manufacturing and machinery, airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine and robotics.

4.4.1 INFRARED SENSOR:


An infrared sensor is an electronic instrument which is used to sense certain
characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting
infrared radiation. Infrared sensors are also capable of measuring the heat being
emitted by an object and detecting motion.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Fig 4.5.1 (a) Principle of Operation behind IR Sensors


Detecting Brightness

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IR Sensors work by using a specific light sensor to detect a select light


wavelength in the Infra-Red (IR) spectrum. By using an LED which produces light at
the same wavelength as what the sensor is looking for, you can look at the intensity of
the received light.

When an object is close to the sensor, the light from the LED bounces off
the object and into the light sensor. This results in a large jump in the intensity, which
we already know can be detected using a threshold.
Since the sensor works by looking for reflected light, it is possible to have a
sensor that can return the value of the reflected light. This type of sensor can then be
used to measure how "bright" the object is. This is useful for tasks like line tracking.

Fig.4.5.1 (b) Depiction of IR Sensor to measure brightness

An IR sensor consists of an emitter, detector and associated circuitry. The


circuit required to make an IR sensor consists of two parts; the emitter circuit and the
receiver circuit.

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The Emitter is simply an IR LED (Light Emitting Diode) and the detector is
simply an IR photodiode which is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength as that
emitted by the IR LED. When IR light falls on the photodiode, its resistance and
correspondingly, its output voltage, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR
light received. This is the underlying principle of working of the IR sensor.

4.4.2 PRESSURE SENSOR:

A pressure sensor measures pressure, typically of gases or liquids. Pressure is an


expression of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated
in terms of force per unit area. A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it
generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed. For the purposes of this
article, such a signal is electrical.

Pressure sensors are used for control and monitoring in thousands of everyday
applications. Pressure sensors can also be used to indirectly measure other variables
such as fluid/gas flow, speed, water level, and altitude. Pressure sensors can
alternatively be called pressure transducers, pressure transmitters, pressure
senders, pressure indicators, piezometers and manometers, among other names.

Pressure sensors can vary drastically in technology, design, performance, application


suitability and cost. A conservative estimate would be that there may be over 50
technologies and at least 300 companies making pressure sensors worldwide.

There is also a category of pressure sensors that are designed to measure in a dynamic
mode for capturing very high speed changes in pressure. Example applications for this
type of sensor would be in the measuring of combustion pressure in an engine
cylinder or in a gas turbine. These sensors are commonly manufactured out
of piezoelectric materials such as quartz.

Some pressure sensors, such as those found in some traffic enforcement cameras,
function in a binary (off/on) manner, i.e., when pressure is applied to a pressure
sensor, the sensor acts to complete or break an electrical circuit. These types of
sensors are also known as a pressure switch.

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PRESSURE-SENSING TECHNOLOGY:

Force collector types:

These types of electronic pressure sensors generally use a force collector (such a
diaphragm, piston, bourdon tube, or bellows) to measure strain (or deflection) due to
applied force (pressure) over an area.

(I). Piezoresistive strain gauge :

This is the most commonly employed sensing technology for general purpose
pressure measurement.

(II) Capacitive :

Uses a diaphragm and pressure cavity to create a variable capacitor to detect strain
due to applied pressure.Generally, these technologies are most applied to low
pressures (Absolute, Differential and Gauge)

(III) Electromagnetic :

Measures the displacement of a diaphragm by means of changes


in inductance (reluctance),

LVDT, Hall Effect, or by eddy current principle.

(IV) Piezoelectric :

Uses the piezoelectric effect in certain materials such as quartz to measure the
strain upon the sensing mechanism due to pressure. This technology is commonly
employed for the measurement of highly dynamic pressures.

(v) Optical :

This technology is employed in challenging applications where the measurement


may be highly remote, under high temperature, or may benefit from technologies
inherently immune to electromagnetic interference.

(VI) Potentiometric

Uses the motion of a wiper along a resistive mechanism to detect the strain caused by
applied pressure.

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4.5 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY:

The alphanumeric 16character X 2line LCD requires 8data lines and also 3 control
signals and they are interfaced to 3664.By using 2 ports, port 0&3 data pins are
connected to LCD as data bus. Port0 can be basically used as I/O port i.e. it can be
programmed as an input or as an output port.

That means if it is programmed as output port, suppose if it is required to read


data from LCD immediately it is not possible. Before reading the data it is required to
make the port as an input port. Data reading from LCD gives an erroneous reading &
should not be implemented. Because of this port5 is made as input / output port
depending on the situation. The control signals are connected to port 3 pins. They are
EN bar & RS bar, RW bar. At different instance such as data write / command write /
data read etc. Various signals are to be provided as indicated by the by the LCD
manufacturers.

To interface the LCD, to the Micro controller it require an 8 bit and also three
control signals differentiate the data from the control words send to the LCD. The
Micro controller has to send the necessary control words followed by the data to be
displayed.

Depending on the operation to be performed the control words are selected and
passes to the LCD. The data to be displayed on the LCD is to be sent in the ASCII
format. Thus all the character to be displayed are converted into ASCII form and then
sent to the LCD along with different control words. The control words differentiated
the various operations and are executed. It is also possible to read the LCD data if
required.

The control signals to the LCD are also provided by the Micro controller. This is
also done through pins 3.5,3.6&3.7.Through program necessary control signals are
passed to the LCD by using the bits of the port. The remaining can be used for some
other purpose if there is a need. The software controls the necessary ports and
performs the task it is designed for. The software and associated hardware perform the
LCD interface.

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A liquid crystal is a material (normally organic for LCDs) that will flow like a
liquid but whose molecular structure has some properties normally associated with
solids. The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is a low power device. The power
requirement is typically in the order of microwatts for the LCD. However, an LCD
requires an external or internal light source.

Fig 4.5 (a) Liquid Crystal Display

It is limited to a temperature range of about 0C to 60C and lifetime is an area of


concern, because LCDs can chemically degrade.

There are two major types of LCD s which are:

1) Dynamic-scattering LCD s

2) Field-effect LCD s

Field-effect LCD s are normally used in such applications where source of


energy is a prime factor (e.g.ortable instrumentation etc.).They absorb considerably
less power than the light-scattering type. However, the cost for field effect units is
typically higher, and their height is limited to 2 inches.

On the other hand, light-scattering units are available up to 8 inches in height.


Field-effect LCD is used in the project for displaying the appropriate information. The
turn-on and turn-off time is an important consideration in all displays. The response
time of LCD s is in the range of 100 to 300ms.The lifetime of LCD s is steadily

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increasing beyond 10,000+hours limit. Since the colour generated by LCD units is
dependent on the source of illumination, there is a wide range of colour choice.

4.6 LIGHT EMITING DIODES:

It is a semiconductor diode having radioactive recombination. It requires a


definite amount of energy to generate an electron-hole pair. The same energy is
released when an electron recombines with a hole. This released energy may result in
the emission of photon and such a recombination. Hear the amount of energy released
when the electro reverts from the conduction band to the valence band appears in the
form of radiation. Alternatively the released energy may result in a series of phonons
causing lattice vibration. Finally the released energy may be transferred to another
electron.

The recombination radiation may be lie in the infra-red and visible light
spectrum. In forward is peaked around the band gap energy and the phenomenon is
called injection luminescence. I n a junction biased in the avalanche break down
region , there results a spectrum of photons carrying much higher energies . Almost
White light then gets emitted from micro-plasma breakdown region in silicon
junction.

Diodes having radioactive recombination are termed as Light Emitting Diode ,


abbreviated as LEDs. In gallium arsenide diode, recombination is predominantly a
radiation recombination and the probability of this radioactive recombination far
exceeds that in either germanium or silicon.

Hence GaAs LED has much higher efficiency in terms of Photons emitted per
carrier. The internal efficiency of GaAs LED may ba very close to 100% but because
of high index of refraction, only a small fraction of the internal radiation can usually
come out of the device surface. In spite of this low efficiency of actually radiated
light , these LEDs are efficiency used as light emitters in visual display units and in
optically coupled circuits, The efficiency of light generation increases with the
increase of injected current and with decreases in temperature. The light so
generated is concentrated near the junction since most of the charge carriers are
obtained within one diffusion length of the diode junction.

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The following are the merits of LEDs over conventional incandescent and other types
of lamps :

1. Low working voltages and currents


2. Less power consumption
3. Very fast action
4. Emission of monochromatic light
5. small size and
6. No effect of mechanical vibrations
7. Extremely long life
Typical LED uses a forward voltage of about 2V and current of 5 to
10mA.GaAs LED produces infra-red light while red, green and orange lights are
produced by gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAs) and gallium phosphide (Gap) .

4.7GSM (GLOBAL SERVICE FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION)

Figure 4.8 (a) GSM Module

4.7.1 INTRODUCTION TO GSM:

GSM was first introduced in 1991. As of the end of 1997, GSM service was
available in more than 100 countries and has become the best standard in Europe and
Asia.

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Global System for Mobile communications is the most popular standard for
mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 82% of
the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 3 billion people
across more than 212 countries and territories. Its ubiquity makes international
roaming very common between mobile phone modulators, enabling subscribers to use
their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that
both signalling and speech channels, and thus is considered a second generation (2g)
mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication was easy to build
into the system.

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is an open, digital cellular


technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. GSM differs from
first generation wireless systems in that it uses digital technology and time division
multiple access transmission methods. GSM is a circuit-switched system that divides
each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots. GSM supports data transfer
speeds of up to 9.6 kbps, allowing the transmission of basic data services such as
SMS (Short Message Service).

Another major benefit is its international roaming capability, allowing users to access
the same services when travelling abroad as at home. GSM satellite roaming has also
extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not available There are
five different cell sizes in a GSM network they are macro, micro, Pico, femto and
umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation
environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is
installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells
whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban
areas. Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they
are mainly used indoors. Femto cells are cells designed for use in residential or small
business environments and connect to the service providers network via a broadband
internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller
cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.

Before looking at the GSM specifications, it is important to understand the


following basic terms:

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Bandwidththe range of a channel's limits; the broader the bandwidth, the faster
data can be sent .

Bits per second (bps)a single on-off pulse of data; eight bits are equivalent to
one byte

Frequencythe number of cycles per unit of time; frequency is measured in Hz

Kilo (k)kilo is the designation for 1,000; the abbreviation kbps represents 1,000
bits per second

Megahertz (MHz)1,000,000 hertz (cycles per second)

Milliseconds (ms)one-thousandth of a second

Watt (W)a measure of power of a transmitter


Frequency bandthe frequency range specified for GSM is 1,850 to 1,990
MHz (mobile station to base station).

Duplex distancethe duplex distance is 80 MHz. Duplex distance is the distance


between the uplink and downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies, 80
MHz apart.

Channel separationthe separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In


GSM, this is 200 kHz.

ModulationModulation is the process of sending a signal by changing the


characteristics of a carrier frequency. This is done in GSM via Gaussian minimum
shift keying (GMSK).

Transmission rateGSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270


kbps.

Access methodGSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA)


concept. TDMA is a technique in which several different calls may share the same
carrier. Each call is assigned a particular time slot.

Speech coderGSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC is
to reduce the bit rate. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the
vocal tract. The signal passes through this filter, leaving behind a residual signal.
Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.

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For gsm enhanced data rate for 900 1800 gsm 900 1800 1900 Gsm900 dual
band triple band 1800 MHz dual band gsm1900 gsm1800 antenna tri band 1900 MHz
iden800 dcs1800 tri band pcs1900 gprs gsm850 1900 egsm900 uhf antennas 1800 900
MHz units wave COM vhf tc35 MHz gsm800 gsm+ frequency band single band 900
Quad band 900 MHz dcs.

4.7.2 GSM MODULE:

Global System for Mobile communications is the most popular standard for
mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 82% of
the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 3 billion people
across more than 212 countries and territories. Its ubiquity makes international
roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use
their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that
both signalling and speech channels are digital, and thus is considered a second
generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication
was easy to build into the system.

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is an open, digital cellular


technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services.

Fig.4.8.1 (a) Interfacing GSM to 8051 MC board

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GSM supports data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kbps, allowing the


transmission of basic data services such as SMS (Short Message Service).

There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network they are macro, micro,
Pico, femto and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the
implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base
station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro
cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically
used in urban areas.

Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they
are mainly used indoors. Femto cells are cells designed for use in residential or small
business environments and connect to the service providers network via a broadband
internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller
cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells

4.7.3 OVERVIEW AT COMMANDS ACCORDING TO GSM:

The GSM 07.05 commands are for performing SMS and CBS related
operations.SIM300II supports both text and PDU modes.

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4.8 SOLDERING:
Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by
melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a
lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Soldering differs from welding in that
soldering does not involve melting the work pieces.

Fig 4.9 (a) Soldering

4.8.1 SOLDERS:

Soldering filler materials are available in many different alloys for differing
applications. In electronics assembly, the eutectic alloy of 63% tin and 37% lead (or
60/40, which is almost identical in melting point) has been the alloy of choice.

Fig 4.9.2 (a) Solders for Different Applications

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Other alloys are used for plumbing, mechanical assembly, and other applications.
Some examples of soft-solder are tin-lead for general purposes, tin-zinc for
joining aluminium, lead-silver for strength at higher than room temperature,
cadmium-silver for strength at high temperatures, zinc-aluminium for aluminium and
corrosion resistance, and tin-silver and tin-bismuth for electronics.

Having the lowest possible melting point minimizes heat stress on electronic
components during soldering. And, having no plastic phase allows for quicker wetting
as the solder heats up, and quicker setup as the solder cools. A non-eutectic
formulation must remain still as the temperature drops through the liquidus and
solidus temperatures. Any movement during the plastic phase may result in cracks,
resulting in an unreliable joint.

4.8.2 SOLDERING GUN:

A soldering gun is approximately pistol-shaped, electrically powered tool


for soldering metals using tin-based solder to achieve a strong mechanical bond with
good electrical contact.

Fig 4.9.3 (a) Soldering Gun

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The tool has a trigger-style switch so it can be easily operated with one hand.
The body of the tool contains a transformer with a primary winding connected to
mains electricity when the trigger is pressed, and a single-turn secondary winding of
thick copper with very low resistance

A soldering tip, made of a loop of thinner copper wire, is secured to the end of
the transformer secondary by screws, completing the secondary circuit. When the
primary of the transformer is energized, several hundred amperes of current flow
through the secondary and very rapidly heat the copper tip.

4.8.3 APPLICATIONS:

Soldering is used in plumbing, electronics, and metal work from flashing to jewellery.
Soldering provides reasonably permanent but reversible connections between copper
pipes in plumbing systems as well as joints in sheet metal objects such as food
cans, roof flashing, rain gutters and automobile radiators.

Jewellery components, machine tools and some refrigeration and plumbing


components are often assembled and repaired by the higher temperature silver
soldering process. Small mechanical parts are often soldered or brazed as well.
Soldering is also used to join lead came and copper foil in stained glass work. It can
also be used as a semi-permanent patch for a leak in a container or cooking vessel.

Electronic soldering connects electrical wiring and electronic components to printed


circuit boards (PCBs).

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CHAPTER 5
SOFTWARE

5.1 KEIL SOFTWARE FOR C PROGRAMMING :

WHAT'S NEW IN VISION ?

Vision3 adds many new features to the Editor like Text Templates, Quick Function
Navigation, Syntax Coloring with brace high lighting Configuration Wizard for dialog
based start-up and debugger setup. Vision3 is fully compatible to Vision2 and can
be used in parallel with Vision2.

WHAT IS VISION ?

Vision3 is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that helps you write,


compile, and debug embedded programs. It encapsulates the following components:

A project manager.
A make facility.
Tool configuration.
Editor.
A powerful debugger.

To help you get started, several example programs (located in the \C51\Examples,
\C251\Examples, \C166\Examples, and \ARM\...\Examples) are provided.

HELLO is a simple program that prints the string "Hello World" using the Serial
Interface.
MEASURE is a data acquisition system for analog and digital systems.
TRAFFIC is a traffic light controller with the RTX Tiny operating system.
SIEVE is the SIEVE Benchmark.
DHRY is the Dhrystone Benchmark.
WHETS is the Single-Precision Whetstone Benchmark.

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BUILDING AN APPLICATION IN VISION2 :

To build (compile, assemble, and link) an application in Vision2, you must:

1. Select Project-(for example, 166\EXAMPLES\HELLO\HELLO.UV2).


2. Select Project - Rebuild all target files or Build target.
Vision2 compiles, assembles, and links the files in your project.

5.2 CREATING YOUR OWN APPLICATION IN VISION :


5.2.1 TO CREATE A NEW PROJECT IN VISION2, YOU MUST:

1. Select Project - New Project.


2. Select a directory and enter the name of the project file.
3. Select Project - Select Device and select an 8051, 251, or C16x/ST10 device
from the Device Database.
4. Create source files to add to the project.
5. Select Project - Targets, Groups, Files. Add/Files, select Source Group1, and
add the source files to the project.
6. Select Project - Options and set the tool options. Note when you select the
target device from the Device Database all special options are set
automatically. You typically only need to configure the memory map of your
target hardware. Default memory model settings are optimal for most
applications.
7. Select Project - Rebuild all target files or Build target.

5.2.2 DEBUGGING AN APPLICATION IN VISION2 :


To debug an application created using Vision2, you must:

1. Select Debug - Start/Stop Debug Session.


2. Use the Step toolbar buttons to single-step through your program. You may
enter G, main in the Output Window to execute to the main C function.
3. Open the Serial Window using the Serial #1 button on the toolbar.
Debug your program using standard options like Step, Go, Break, and so on.

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5.2.3 STARTING VISION2 AND CREATING A PROJECT :

Vision2 is a standard Windows application and started by clicking on the program


icon. To create a new project file select from the Vision2 menu

PROJECT New Project. This opens a standard Windows dialog that asks you for
the new project file name. We suggest that you use a separate folder for each project.
You can simply use the icon Create New Folder in this dialog to get a new empty
folder. Then select this folder and enter the file name for the new project, i.e. Project1.
Vision2 creates a new project file with the name PROJECT1.UV2 which contains a
default target and file group name. You can see these names in the Project.

WINDOW FILES :

Now use from the menu Project Select Device for Target and select a CPU for your
project. The Select Device dialog box shows the Vision2 device database. Just select
the microcontroller you use. We are using for our examples the Philips 80C51RD+
CPU. This selection sets necessary tool options for the 80C51RD+ device and
simplifies in this way the tool Configuration.

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5.2.4 BUILDING PROJECTS AND CREATING A HEX FILES :

Typical, the tool settings under Options Target are all you need to start a new
application. You may translate all source files and line the application with a click on
the Build Target toolbar icon. When you build an application with syntax errors,
Vision2 will display errors and warning messages in the Output Window Build
page. A double click on a message line opens the source file on the correct location in
a Vision2 editor window.

Once you have successfully generated your application you can start debugging.

After you have tested your application, it is required to create an Intel HEX file to
download the software into an EPROM programmer or simulator. Vision2 creates
HEX files with each build process when Create HEX file under Options for Target
Output is enabled. You may start your PROM programming utility after the make
process when you specify the program under the option Run User Program #1.

5.2.5 CPU SIMULATION :

Vision2 simulates up to 16 Mbytes of memory from which areas can be mapped for
read, write, or code execution. The Vision2 simulator traps and reports illegal
memory access.

In addition to memory mapping, the simulator also provides support for the integrated
peripherals of the various 8051 derivatives. The on-chip peripherals of the CPU you
have selected are configured from the Device

5.2.6 DATABASE SELECTION :

You have made when you create your project target. Refer to page 58 for more
information about selecting a device. You may select and display the on-chip
peripheral components using the Debug menu. You can also change the aspects of
each peripheral using the controls in the dialog boxes.

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START DEBUGGING :

You start the debug mode of Vision2 with the Debug Start/Stop Debug Session
command. Depending on the Options for Target Debug configuration, Vision2 will
load the application program and run the start up code Vision2 saves the editor
screen layout and restores the screen layout of the last debug session.

If the program execution stops, Vision2 opens an editor window with the source text
or shows CPU instructions in the disassembly window. The next executable statement
is marked with a yellow arrow. During debugging, most editor features are still
available.

For example, you can use the find command or correct program errors. Program
source text of your application is shown in the same windows. The Vision2 debug
mode differs from the edit mode in the following aspects:

_ The Debug Menu and Debug Commands described on page 28 are available. The
additional debug windows are discussed in the following.

_ The project structure or tool parameters cannot be modified. All build commands
are disabled.

DISASSEMBLY WINDOW :

The Disassembly window shows your target program as mixed source and assembly
program or just assembly code. A trace history of previously executed instructions
may be displayed with Debug View Trace Records. To enable the trace history, set
Debug Enable/Disable Trace Recording.

If you select the Disassembly Window as the active window all program step
commands work on CPU instruction level rather than program source lines. You can
select a text line and set or modify code breakpoints using toolbar buttons or the
context menu commands.

You may use the dialog Debug Inline Assembly to modify the CPU instructions.
That allows you to correct mistakes or to make temporary changes to the target
program you are debugging.

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5.3 VIEWING CODING AND DATA :


The Vision Debugger offers a number of different views into the code and data that
comprise your target application.

5.3.1 OVERVIEW OF SOURCE CODE EDITOR:


The Vision3 editor offers many standard and advanced software editing features.
Colour syntax highlighting and text indentation are optimized for editing C source
code. Most editor functions may be quickly accessed from the toolbar or the context
menu. Program debugging is directly controlled in the editor . This natural
environment allows you to quickly integrate and test source code changes.

ADVANCED FEATURES:
Functions and Templates Source Code EditorVision3 adds many new editor features
like:

Incremental Find positions the cursor while you type the search phrase.
Active Brace Checking shows nesting and highlights mismatches while
entering parentheses, braces, or brackets.
Text Block Functions that Comment, Indent, Uppercase, Tabify , and
Remove Whitespace from text blocks.
Document-Selective Settings for tab spacing and syntax coloring in
Assembler C, and other file types.
Detailed Syntax Highlighting that allows you to define a user keyword list.
Colours are used in printed output.
Document Outlining that provides a quick overview of complex source files.

FUNCTIONS AND TEMPLATES:


The Functions Tab in the Project Workspace displays all functions in either your
project or open editor files. You may click on a function to jump to its definition. The
Function Tab alphabetically lists functions in your project. Click to jump to the
function definition.

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The Templates Tab shows user-defined text blocks (templates). To insert a template
into your source file, type the first few letters of the name followed by Ctrl + Space or
click the item in the Templates Tab..

1. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r


own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\

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2. Then Click on Save button above.

3. Select the component for u r project. i.e. Atmel

4. Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel

5. Select AT89C51 as shown below

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SECURITY BASED ATM THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM

6. Then Click on OK

7. The Following fig will appear

8. Then Click either YES or NOmostly NO

9. Now your project is ready to USE

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10. Now double click on the Target1, you would get another option Source
group 1 as shown in next page.

11. Click on the file option from menu bar and select new

12. The next screen will be as shown in next page, and just maximize it by
double clicking on its blue boarder.

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13. Now start writing program in either in C or ASM


14. For a program written in Assembly, then save it with extension . asm and
for C based program save it with extension .C

15. Now right click on Source group 1 and click on Add files to Group
Source

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16. Now you will get another window, on which by default C files will
appear.

17. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file
18. Click only one time on option ADD
19. Now Press function key F7 to compile. Any error will appear if so happen.

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20. If the file contains no error, then press Control+F5 simultaneously.


21. The new window is as follows

22. Then Click OK


23. Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar, and check your required port
as shown in fig below

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SECURITY BASED ATM THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM

24. Drag the port a side and click in the program file.

25. Now keep Pressing function key F11 slowly and observe.
26. You are running your program successfully

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SECURITY BASED ATM THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM

5.3.2 DISASSEMBLY WINDOW:

Click the Disassembly Window button on the toolbar to toggle display of this
window. The Disassembly Window shows mixed high-level source code and its
associated assembler code. Each instruction is marked with code coverage indicators
that show execution status.

5.3.3 SYSTEM REGISTERS :


The Register Tab of the Project Workspace Window displays the microcontroller
registers and their contents. Registers changed by the last instruction or source code line
are highlighted.

You may change register contents as follows:

1. Single-click on the value you want to change.


2. Single-click again or press F2 to enter edit mode.
3. Enter the new value.

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SECURITY BASED ATM THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 6

PROGRAMMING CODE

PROGRAMMING PART:

#include<reg52.h>

#include<string.h>

extern void delay(unsigned int );

void delay1(void);

void serial_init(void);

void sertxd(char *);

void sertxd1(int);

void clrbuff(char *);

char rxdbuff[50];

char ok[]="OK";

char r[]=">";

char i=0;

char m=0;

char count=0;

sbit pin = P2^0;

sbit alarm = P2^1;

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sbit led = P2^2;

sbit m1 = P2^3;

sbit m2 = P2^4;

sbit rf1 = P2^5;

sbit rf2 = P2^6;

sbit sw = P2^7;

void main()

pin = 0;

alarm = 1;

led = 0;

m1=0;

m2=0;

rf1=1;

rf2=1;

sw=0;

serial_init();

while(1)

if(pin==1)

alarm=0;

led=1;

rf1=0;

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rf2=0;

m1=1;

m2=0;

delay1();

m1=0;

m2=0;

do

sertxd("AT\r\n");

delay(50);

}while((strstr(rxdbuff,ok))==NULL);

clrbuff(rxdbuff);

do

sertxd("AT+CREG=1\r\n");

delay(50);

}while((strstr(rxdbuff,ok))==NULL);

clrbuff(rxdbuff);

do

sertxd("AT+CMGF=1\r\n");

delay(50);

}while((strstr(rxdbuff,ok))==NULL);

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clrbuff(rxdbuff);

do

sertxd("AT+CMGS=\"9652318062\"\r\n");

delay(50);

}while((strstr(rxdbuff,r))==NULL);

sertxd("ALERT..!! ALERT..!! CODE RED..SANKETIKA ATM THEFT");

sertxd1(0x1A);

delay(50);

clrbuff(rxdbuff);

while(sw==0);

alarm=1;

led=0;

m1=0;

m2=1;

delay1();

m1=0;

m2=0;

rf1=1;

rf2=1;

else

alarm=1;

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led=0;

m1=0;

m2=0;

rf1=1;

rf2=1;

void serial_init(void)

IE=0x90;

SCON=0x50;

TMOD=0x20;

TH1=0xFD;

TR1=1;

void isr_serial (void) interrupt 4

if(TI==1)

TI=0;

if(RI==1)

RI=0;

rxdbuff[i]=SBUF;

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i++;

if(i>50)

clrbuff(rxdbuff);

void sertxd(char *p)

while(*p)

SBUF=*p;

delay(1);

p++;

void sertxd1(int n)

SBUF=n;

delay(1);

void clrbuff(char *q)

while(*q)

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*q='\0';

q++;

i=0;

void delay1(void)

char i;

for(i=0;i<30;i++)

TMOD=0x21;

TH0=0x4B;

TL0=0xFE;

TR0=1;

while(TF0==0);

TF0=0;

TR0=0;

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CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION
The progress in science &technology is a non-stop process. New things and new
technology are being invented. As the technology grows day by day,

we can imagine about the future in which thing we may occupy every place. As we all
know, these days most of the ATM has been attacked by the robberies. Also gradual
increases the theft of ATM after the year by year.

This paper demonstrates how an automation of ATM THEFT prevention from


robbery (or) thief can be implemented using GSM Technology, IR & PI sensors, Dc
motor, LCD display, buzzer and warning light with Keil micro vision 3.0 can be
implemented in ATM Machines centre.

Our proposed model uses certain factors which would be monitored right from the
initiation, to the end of the respective transaction. With the help of these factors, we
would declare the status of the ATM security.

Unlike the existing proposals, the method proposed here realizes both the security and
integrity services in the ATM layer. By implementing this project we can catch thief
and robbery in ATM itself and also we can save our precious time.

It is always better to start every design with a good proposal, which will stand as a
reference point to the work as it proceeds. The result of any design gives joy if aims
and objectives are gotten. Since the project performed its proposal, it indeed
satisfactory. Now from the input to the output of each stage was a success.

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SECURITY BASED ATM THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 8

FUTURE SCOPE

The Existing Self Banking System has got very high popularity with 24 hours service.
The automated teller machine, or ATM, is such a complicated piece of technology
that it does not have a single inventor .

Todays ATMs are sophisticated computers that can do almost anything a human
bank teller can, and have ushered in a new era of self-service in banking.

ATM Security has always been one of the most prominent issues concerning the daily
users and the not so frequent ones as well. This paper emphasizes on the hypothetical,
yet very possible scenario of ATM theft.

This project has a wide ranges of advantages in which the Security can be provided to
banks, shopping mall lockers and public lockers where security is highly needed.

This project emphasis real time applications which can be used externally to
Safeguard the ATM through certain implementations like by using a counter which is
used to count number of persons entering and exiting from the ATM center.

We can also use LCD and LED displays at respective receiver sectors to enhance the
better security vision over thefts.

We can also implement and enhance the security through different sensors like PIR
sensor , vibration sensor , ultrasonic sensor and we can also implement RFID access
through each and every customer.

We can also take the security to a whole new level by implementing IRIS scanner to
each and every customer for transactions.

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REFERENCES

[1]. Sakr, Sharif. "ARM co-founder John Biggs". Engadget. Retrieved December 23,
2011. "[...] the ARM7-TDMI was licensed by Texas Instruments and designed
into the Nokia 6110, which was the first ARM-powered GSM phone."
[3]. Kim, Bo-Ra, Domestic ATM status and meanings, Payment and Settlement,
and IT, Vol. 44, pp. 76, 2011.
[4]. Karki, James (September 2000). "Signal Conditioning Piezoelectric Sensors"
(PDF). Texas Instruments. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
[5]. "GSM UMTS 3GPP Numbering Cross Reference". ETSI. Retrieved 30 December
2009.
[6]. "Gsmd Openmoko".openmoko.org. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
[8]. Liptak, Bela G. (2005). Instrument Engineers' Handbook: Process Control and
Optimization. CRC Press. p. 2464. ISBN 978-0-8493-1081-2.
[9]. Herman, Stephen. Industrial Motor Control. 6th ed. Delmar, Cengage Learning,
2010. Page 251.
[10].Laughton M.A. and Warne D.F., Editors. Electrical engineer's reference book.
16th ed. Newnes, 2003
[11].William H. Yeadon, Alan W. Yeadon. Handbook of small electric motors.
McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001
[14].Robbery at Automated Teller Machines by U.S. Department of Justice.

[15].Malik Sikandar Hayat Khiyal, Aihab Khan, and Erum Shehzadi. SMS Based
Wireless Home Appliance Control System (HACS) for Automating Appliances
and Security, Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology. Vol. 9.
[16].Al-Ali, A.R. Rousan, M.A. Mohandes, M. GSM-Based Wireless Home
Appliances Monitoring & Control System, Proceedings of International
Conference on Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to
Applications, pp 237-238, 2004.

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