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Complement for PetroVietnam University

X Nip- on 011I Gas Exp ora on


JX Nippon Oil & Gas Explorat'ion

Contents of Guide Line for Training in NAKAJOGas & Oil Field

***** ***** ***'**

Chapter 1 : Over view of Nakajo Oil & Gas Field of JX Nippon Gas & Oil
Exploration Corporation
1.1 History
1.2 The Current Situation
1.3 Organization of Nakajo Oil & Gas Filed Office

Chapter 2 : The Characteristics of Non-AssociatedNatural Gas & Oil (NANG)


2.1 Stratigraphic Successions
2.2 Geological Structure
2.3 NANG Reservoir
2.4 Production System for NANG
2.5 Production Facilities for NANG

Chapter 3 : The Characteristics of Natural Gas Dissolvedin Water (NGDW)


3.1 Stratigraphic Successions
3.2 Geological Structure
3.3 NGDWReservoir
3.4 Production System for NGDW
_/
3.5 Production Facilities for NGDW

Chapter 4 : The Characteristics of Shiunji Crude Oil


4.1 Stratigraphic Successions
4.2 Geological Structure
4.3 Shiunji Oil Reservoir
4.4 Production System for Shiunji Oil Field
4.5 Production Facilities for Shiunji Oil Field

Chapter 5:Instrumentation Network


5.1 Comprehensive Instrumentation and Control Computer System (CENTUM)
5.2 Telemeter System

Contents-1
JX Nippon Oil It Gas Exploration

5.3 Telecommunication Cable Network


5.4 Power Supply

Chapter 6: Measurement and Control Instruments


6.1 Measurement Instruments
6.2 Control Devices

Chapter 7: Automatic Systems


7.1 Monitoring
7.2 Control
7.3 Daily Report

Chapter 8: Well Drilling, Workover, Well Service


8.1 Reviewof NK-66 (NANG),N21-5,6 &7 (NGDW)and NK-67(NANG)
8.2 Workover
8.3 Well Services

Chapter 9 : Facility Maintenance of Nakajo Gas & Oil Field


9.1 Facility Maintenance Control
9.2 Facility Maintenance, Repair & Replacement

Chapter 10: Iodine Factory in Nakajo Oil & Gas Field


11.1 Characteristics of Iodine
11.2Various Uses ofIodine
11.3 Production ofIodine in the world, Japan and Nakajo field
11.4 Production Facilities ofIodine Factory

Appendix 1: HSE of Nakajo Gas & Oil Field


Chapter 1: HSE rule of the Nakajo Oil and Gas Field
Chapter 2 : Operational Safety Rule
Chapter 3: PDCAfor safety of the Nakajo Oil and Gas Field
Chapter 4: Others.

Appendix 2: Drilling Program for Well, NK-67

Contents-2
0t JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Appendix 3:Industrial Measurement and Process Automation


Chapter 1 : Electromagnetic Flowmeter
Chapter 2 : Orifice Plate Flow Measurement
Chapter 3 Other Flow Measuring Devices
Chapter 4: Temperature Measurement
Chapter 5: Pressure Measurement
Chapter 6: Liquid Level Measurement
Chapter 7: Control Valves and Actuators
Chapter 8: Gas Chromatography
Chapter 9: Telemetry:Application

***** ***** . *****

Note) Chapter 1 and 2 will coverfor the first day oftraining period, Chapter 3 and 4 will
be for the 2nd day, Chapter 5-7 will be for the 3rd day, Chapter 8 and 9 will be for
the 4th day, and Chapter 10 and 11 will cover for the final day. However, this
schedule will be changed according to the actual progress.

Contents-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Chapterl
Overview of Nakajo Oil & Gas field of JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration
Corporation

1.1 History
The history of Nakajo oil/gas field(refer to attached location map) dates back to the
discovery of the NGDW(natural gas dissolved in water) reservoir with the drilling of the
R-l well at Muramatsuhama in Nakajo - town in 1957.
This success spurred further activity along the coast line to exploit the NGDWfield
and production commences in1961, by which time 15 bases, 54wells and both the North
and South processing stations and the pipe line to Nakajo - town has been constructed.
While exploitation of the NGDW continued, a gravity survey was started throughout
the whole kita-Kambara plain in 1958,
Followedby seismic surveys. In the stretch between Tsuiji and Seiro since 1959.
As a result, an anticline structure was discovered near Tsuiji-Nagaike, and after
further geological study, an exploratory well, NK-l, was drilled there in 1961. In
addition, a NANG(non-associated nature gas) reservoir was discovered un the Shiiya
Formation(Central district), followedin 19.65by a large reservoir which was discovered
by NK-13 well at the north extension of the anticline (North district).
Thus, by 1967, 11wells in the Central district and 13 wells in the North district were
completed.
As a result, in 1969 the Nakajo gas field produced a daily production of 1 million
Sm3 of natural gas and 150kl of crude oil to become the major gas field in Japan.
Subsequently, NK-53 well was drilled successfully into a new oil reservoir in the
Shiunji district in 1978 and, although development and production soon followed, the
production stopped in 1982(Details of the Shiunji district are not included in this text).

1.2 The Current Situation


The Nakajyo gas field is located near the coast in a calm place surrounded by pine
groves 7 km West of Central Nakajo-town.
The operational field extends throughout a ranging 12 km North-South and 2km '
East-West and has facilities which include the producing 14 wells of the NGDW field
along the coast, producing 9 wells in the NANG field inland, producing 2 wells in
Shiunji district, 3 processing stations (Central, South and North), oil storage tanks, a
central control room, substations and etc.
Natural gas, mainly in the form of products, is supplied to Mizusawa Chemistry's

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Nakajo factory and Shibata Gas Corporation etc. Crude oil is sent to INPEX
Corporation and interstitial water which is produced from the NGDW reservoir, it
supplied to the Iodine Factory in Nakajo Oil & Gas Field.
A computer control system was installed in the early stages, enabling the production
wells and the other facilities to be operated by a small number of operations.
In the current, three wells(N21-5,6&7)in the NGDWhad been drilled in 2014, the
productivity of these wells is 35,000 Sm3 to 50,000 Sm3, respectively.
As a further, one producer, this well NK-67, in NANGfield would be drilled in 2015
in order to contribute for the production rate in Nakajo.

1.3 Organization of Nakajo Oil & Gas Filed Office

ADMINISTRATION Administration
SECTION
Accounting

PRODUCTION
General HSE/ISO Staff
SECTION
Manager
---i Facilities/Pipeline Maint. Gr. I
NGDW Operation Gr.
NGDW: Natural Gas Dissolved in Water

CPS lOPS Operation Gr.


cps: Central Processing SI. OPS: Oil Processing SI.

Drilling I Wireline Gr.

Electrical/Electronics Maint. Gr.

Iodine Factory Gr.

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Location Map

Nakajo Oil/Gas Field is Located about 300 km North of Tokyo


and about 40 km North-East of Niigata City.
Gas/ Oil Concession Area is 12 km Nort to South and 2 km
West to East.
Natural Gas: is shipped by pipeline as a raw material for city
gas and industrial fuel.
Crude oil: is shipped to Oil Terminal Naoct u in tank lorry.
... Brackish Water: is extracted the iodine a d the iodine sells
(Kansui) abroad mainly as pharm ceutical raw
materials. ( Iodine business) and supplies I

close spas hot spring w ter as part.

o NANGWells
NGDWWelis
Oil Wells

NANG: Non-associated Na u al Gas


CPS:Central ProcessingSt tion NPS:North ProcessingStation

~ To User,
OPS:Oil ProcessingStation
...r_
SPS:South ProcessingStation

o 1 2 3 4km

0#

....\- _s,~J-e_
f'f' ( 'M
1 /(}\~ ,"'\

--f .t 00 K",-_ (
\r~l' )
r

I--
I! () II

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Chapter 2 :
The Characteristics of Non-Associated Natural Gas & Oil (NANG)

2.1 Stratigraphic Successions


The stratigraphic succession of the Nakajyo gas field are shown in Table 2.1-l.
The main feature of each
, formation .are as follows;

(1) Basement complex


The basement rocks of this area are composed of hornfels of the Palaeozoic era
and granite rocks of the Mesozoicera (Cretaceous period). The hornfels, which was
conformed at a depth of 3,014m in the NK-27well, show a slaty fabric.

(2) Tsugawa Formation


This formation distributes at the margin of the basement complex of the
hinterland and is mainly composed of coarse sediments such as arkose and
conglomerates etc.

(3) Nanatani Formation


This formation is predominantly composed of dark grey or black mudstone.
However, in some areas, acidic volcanic activity is found in the under part of this
formation and acidic rocks, such as dacite and rhyolite, or pyroclastic rocks are
distributed. These volcanicrocks are called "green - tuff'.
Al though "green - tuff' activity is not found in the North district of the Nakajyo
gas field, these activities were conformedat a depth of 2,850m in the NK-28well in
the Central district.

(4) Teradomari Formation


This form is mainly composedof dark grey or black mudstone partly intersesting
the dandy tuff, and conformablyoverlies the Nanatani formation.

(5) Shiiya formation


In the hinterland, this formation is composed of dark grey mudstone, and is
difficult to distinguish from the rock facies of the Teradomari formation. As it is
overlaid unconformably by the Nishiyama formation, most of this formation has
been eroded.
However,in some places in this gas field only 5 or 6 km from hinterland, there is

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

an enormous of sediment marking up a formation over 1,OOOm


thick. Sandstone
intercalated in this formation might be turbidite.
In the Nakajo gas field, we can recognize three different facies in this formation
characterized by alternation of sand and mud. The lower part prevails mostly in the
'Central district and forms a sand-rich alternation, mainly composed of relatively
coarse sandstone which mixes gradually into the surrounding mud-rich alternation.
The middle part is composed of an alternation of tuff or fine sandy tuff and dark
grey mudstone, and it is uniformly distributed all over the gas field.
The upper part prevails mostly in the North district and is composed of a
sand-rich alternation with tuffaceous sandstone prominent. This alternation gets
gradually richer in mudstone towards the Central district. The Shiiya formation in
south of the Central district, includes a lot of rock pieces, derived from the
Teradomari formation or Nanatani formation, as can be distinguished by the
difference in th~ fossil assemblage of the foraminifera.

(6) Nishiyama formation


This formation is composed mainly of dark grey or grey mudstone intercalating
an alternation of pebbly tuffaceous sandstone and mudstone. A sand-rich
alternation is developing predominantly in the area of the NGDW field along the
coast situated at the west-wing of the anticline, with the thickness of the formation
decreasing or diminishing toward the crest of the Tsuiji anticline. These sandstone
formations, consisting of coarse or medium sand with gravel, are rather
discontinuous and mostly distributed a lens-like form.
The thickness of this formation becomes gradually thicker from east to west and
local variation is also noticed.

(7).Haizume formation
This formation is composed mainly of grey-white or blue-white .siltstone,
although parallel to the coast, some sand and gravel beds are distributed.
It is difficult to distinguish this formation from the Nishiyama formation because
the lithofacies of Nishiyama formation chamges gradually into this formation, so
that they should be differentiated depending on the change of foraminiferalfossil
assemblage.

(8) Uonuma group


This group is quaternary, being largely composed of coarse sediment such as

---- 2-2

---
0X JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

sand and gravel etc. It overlies the Haizume formation with unconformity. It is a
fossil poor zone, and slightly intercalcated with lignite bed, and is covered
extensively by sandhills and alluvium.

Table 2.1-1 Standard geological columnar section of Nakajo gas field

Name of Gas Thickness


Geologic; colUtM of Main ithol
fonna ion rese.r:voir formatiOfi
m Light-brown
medi\D sand,
sand, 9ravel , clay

Gravel, sand,
130 clay, silt

81ue grey ail . one,


300 .mudstone,
sandstone

t I 150 +
Grey mudstone,
tuffaceous sandstone,
0

0
N
0
C
Q) ~
k
01'4
0
>.
~
,C7
t - conglcmerate

>ID
U

1
'- Alte.tnation of ark .r'
co Shi ya .),.t

.u FOl:m~tion 1000:!: grey mXJstone


~
'""
Q) o
z; k
tuffaceous sandstone
t-
'6!>
~
CJ
t'er~do1'l\~r:i I'JI
Formation CJ
k 350 Black rrudsU:lne
,\)
.2;
00(
;2;

Hard shale,
500 tuff, dacite

2 00 Conglcrnerates.

Gra:nite
Hornfels

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

2.2 Geological Structure


A part of the basement rocks of the Niigata sedimentary basin is exposed in the
Kushigata mountain range situated east of this gas field. A tertiary system on the
west-wing of this mountain range are distributed under the plan with thickness
increasing towards the south-west, generally near the center of the sedimentary basin.
In the Kita-Kambara plain, several north-south trending structures are developing,and
one of them forming a magnificent anticline deep under the Tsuiji area.This anticline is
known as the "Tsuiji Anticline" and it extends continuously from north-northeast to
south-southeast. The Tsuiji anticline generally has a steep inclination at its east-wing
accompaniesby faults, and continuing in a zigzagwith some culmination.
This gas field, being a part of an extensive anticline, ha~ separate culminations in its
northern and central parts, so that structurally, it can be separated into two parts,
called the North and Central districts.
The North district is situated at the west-wing of north culmination. The inclination
of the formation is 25 to 30 at the lower part of the Shiiya formation and 10 at the
upper part of the Nishiyama formation. Therefore, the inclination changes gradually
gentler towards the upper formation. In the Quaternary of Uonuma Group, a very
gentle anticline is also noticed.
The Central district is situated III the north and northwest of the southern
culmination and has similar tendency to the inclination of the formation in the North
district. JX Nippon recognize a Saddle between both districts.
The formations overlying the Shiya formation become thinner towards the axis of
the anticline and the intercalated sandstone beds also show the same tendency. In the
NGDWfield along the coastline, the volumetric ratio of sandstone bed increases and
each formation above the Nishiyama formation is thick. Development of the Tsuiji
Anticline was started in the Shiiya period, actively in the Nishiyama period, and
completed in the Uonuma period through the Haizume period. The underground
structure of the Nakajyo gas field is shown in Fig. 2.2-1
In addition, the Shiunji district which is situated at the west-wing of TsuijiAnticline
has oil reservoir at the depth of 2,100m. The inclination of the formation is 25 to 30,
and it becomesdeeper towards the west-northwest, Gross reservoir thickness is 20 to 35
m and it shows a alternation of sand and mud.

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JX 'Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Tainai

North district

Central
Japan Sea district

field

H2G

line of

Ochibori River Shiun)i


district

NI(.152

OHK-48

Kaji River
Branch

Fig. 2.2-1 Structural drawing of underground of Nakajo gas field


(Top of Shiiya Formation.)

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

2.3 NANG (Non-Associated. Natural Gas) Reservoir


The NANG reservoir is distributed on the Tsuiji Anticline and consists of reservoir
rock with sandstone of the Nishiyama and Shiiya formations. The reservoir rock of the
Shiiya formation is distributed almost equally in the North district, but only in the west
and north wing of anticline structure in the Central district and is thinned out in
culmination.
The trap of the North district is of the anticline type, while that of the Central
district is a combination of the stratigraphic and anticline types.
The reservoir of sandstone and pebbly sandstone in the Nishiyama formation has the
appearance of stratigraphic trap, while the reservoir rock of sandstone and tuff in the.
Shiiya formation can be said to be more of an anticline trap.
The thickness of the reservoir shows a general tendency to be thin at the axis of the
anticline and thick at the wing.
This tendency is common to each formation and each unit alternation, which is
division of the reservoir.
The drive mechanism IS a water drive, wherein gas reservoir pressure declines
relatively slowly in relation to production, while gas/oil ratio changes very little.
NANG reservoir is largely classified.by gas composition and gas oil ratio etc. into a
dry gas reservoir containing mainly methane at a depth of 510m to 1,130m in the
Nishiyama formation, a gas condensate reservoir at a depth of 1,590m to 2,000 m in the
Syiiya formation, and an oil reservoir at a depth of 1,880m to 2,OOOmin the lower part
of the Shiiya formation.
The dry gas reservoir, which is related to the NGDW reservoir, is subdivided into 5
zories from zone 11to zone 15 in the Nishiyama formation.
The gas condensate and oil reservoirs are similarly subdivided into a total of 10 '-._/
zones of F to M and N. 0, respectively.
Initial reservoir pressure corresponds approximately to depth with the exception
that zone Nand 0 of the North district are oil reservoirs with unusually high pressure.
The temperature gradient of the reservoir is the mean value of the Niigata district.
The specific gravity of the gas is 0.55 to 0.57 for dry gas, and 0.60 to 0.68 for wet gas.
The specific gravity of crude oil is 0.75 to 0.79 for condensate (colorless and transparent)
and 0.80 for black crude oil from the oil reservoir. Gas oil ratio is 8,500 to 3,000Sm3/kl
STO for condensate reservoir and decrease inversely with depth. It is ca, 450 Sm3/kl
STO for the oil reservoir.

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@t JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

2.4 Production System for NANG


(1) Well
Exploratory drilling for NANGwas conducted at the NK-l and NK-2 wells in 1961
and the NK-3 well in 1963in the Central district, and at the NK-13well in 1965in the
North district. Based on the result of the exploratory drilling, production well drilling
was carried out at a spacing of 700m to 800m. There are 22 installed production
bases(including 8 abandoned bases), 44 wells(including 15 abandoned wells) and 51
production tubing (including 21 abandoned) up to the present (except the Shiunji
distinct). At the beginning single completionwas generally used, wherein a mechanical
packer is set inside 5-112inch casing with 2-3/8inchtubing.
Multiple completion was tried only in wells NK-18,19and 23 and 24 in 1966 using
dual string 2 zone completion.Thereafter, techniques and completion equipment of this
Otis and Baker, was introduced in 1973and triple string, 3zone completionwas tried in
with NK-40,41and 42, dual string, 3 zone completionin wells NK-43and 44 and single
string, 4 zone completionin well NK-2 (workoverwell).
As a result single string, multi-zone completion using Otis's completion equipment
was generally adopted in this gas field as the more profitable form of multi zone
completion.
Multi zone completionwas applied to 9 wells; 5 single string completionwells, 3 dual
string completion wells and I triple string completionwell.
Subsequent immers'ion of water into the wells due to the water influx led to work
over and/or abandon operations so that at present only 4 single string and 1 dual string
multi zone completion wells remain in operation (exceptfor the Shiunji district).
The newest well for NANGis the NK-66 which was drilled in 2012. In response to
the geologicalstudy and reservoir simulation study in 2009 to 2011,the horizontal well
was applied to this well and it was successful in increasing gas production. This well is
still flagship production well.

(2) Production method


After the natural flow of NANGgas is controlled in production rate and reduced in
pressure by a long nose choke at the well head (adjustable choke),it is transferred to the
Central processing station through a gas gathering pipe line.
After dehydration it becomeslift gas, injection gas or sales gas. As NANGis used as
lift gas, the pressure of the gas gathering pipe line is about 3.1MPa (455.1psi) at the
Central processing station. However, for wells which cannot produce at such a high
pressure, the gathering pipe line pressure is reduced to 0.7MPa (99.6psi)at the Central

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

processing station.

(3) Production status


The injection gas rate and production rate of NANG is controlled in accordance with
user consumption.
Production rate is controlled by opening and closing the well or by adjusting the
opening of the bean under remote control from the central control room which is located
on the Central processing station.

2.5 Production Facilities for NANG


(1) NANG Base
In the Nakajo gas field, there are 7 NANG bases in the North district and 7 in the
Central district. At each base, there are 1 to 5 wells, long nose chokes to adjust
production rate and indirect heaters to prevent hydrate formation.

>- Christmas tree (Fig. 2.5-1)


A Christmas tree consists of a well-head master valve, (No.1 master valve, No.2
master valve) an emergency closing valve, a cross, a pressure gauge, a safety bean,
a bean nipple and so on, and is usually called a "Christmas tree" because of its
appearance. Normally 2 pressure rating types are used; API 10,000 psi and 5,000
psi ratings.

Fig. 2.5-1 Christmas tree of NANG well

>- Indirect heater (IDH)


1 or 2 indirect heaters are installed in each base to prevent the gas temperature
failing below the hydrate generating temperature due to adiabatic expansion via

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0X JX Nippon Oil & Gas xploration

the choke or a reduction in outdoor temperature.


The heater is of the water bath type, having a capacity of 0.2 to 1 million BTU.
The heater has a pilot burner and a main burner and the temperature is controlled
.by the burner control.
There are two control types, i.e. field control and remote control.

(2) Central Processing Station (Fig. 2.5-2)


Natural gas gathered through the pipe line from NANG wells to the Central
processing station initially enters into a high-pressure 3-phase separator where it is
separated into gas, oil and water on the basis ofthe differencesoftheir specificgravities.
Th_~pefore,
the separated gas, oil and water are processed as,follows.

Fig. 2.5-2 Central Processing Station

~ Gas treatment
After separation, the gas still includes oil and water, the amount depending on
the temperature (18Cto 30C)and pressure (3.1MPa (455.1psi of the separator.
Therefore, if the temperature drops after the separator outlet, this oil and water is
likely to condense in the pipe line and can be the source of the followingtroubles.
a) The oil retained in the pipe line cannot be collected,leading to economiclosses
as well as possibly causing trouble for gas users.
b) Water produces corrosion and generates hydrates in the pipe line to the point
where it can plug the pipe and prevent gas flow.
For the above reasons, the gas is further dehydrated to extract the water. The
dehydrated gas is supplied to NGDWbases as a lift gas for NGDWwells and to gas

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

users as a gas for sales after being mixed with NGDW in a blending tank via a
receiver tank.
The gas is partly supplied to injection gas compressoras an injection gas.

)i;> Crude oil treatment


As the crude oil contains a large amount of light components such as gasoline
etc., as well a great quantity of dissolvedgases such as methane and ethene etc,.the
.vapor pressure of crude oil is high, even after being held in a storage tank, making
it still dangerous to transport it in this state in a tank lorry.
Therefore, the crude oil is stored in stock tanks just after being stabilized by
separating methane, ethane and propane in the crude oil stabilizer.

)i;> Water (fromNANGwell) treatment


Natural gas is dissolved in water corresponding to separator pressure (3.1MPa
(455.1psi) in this case). Therefore, dissolved gas is released by introducing this
water into a low pressure separator (0.2MPa (28.4psi, and it is introduced into the
suction ofthe compressor at the North processing station.
Since a large quantity of water trapped in the pipe line is discharged toward the
separator at one time, it is received in a holding tank and then injected under
pressure into the ground at a constant rate.
The main facilities used in these treatments are as follows.

)i;> High-pressure 3-phase separator (Fig.2.5-3and Fig.2.5-4


It separates the gas, oil and water, with the gas being removed from the top, the
oil from the middle and the water from the bottom. The oil water interface is
e '-..../
controlled at a constant level by a pneumatic level controller and control valve, the
oil being supplied to a crude oil stabilizer and the water to a low-pressure separator.
Further, the separator pressure is maintained at a constant pressure by control
valve at the downtime of the separator.

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~ JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Fig 2.5-3 3 Phase Separators in Central Processing Station

To refrigerating
hydration unit

Frqrn well
-----~

Well water
Injected into ground
after gas removal

Fig 2.5-4 Schematic of 3 Phase Separators

~ Flon type refrigerating dehydration unit (Fig.2.5-5 and Fig.2.5-6)


In this unit, oil and water are separated from the gas out of the high-pressure
3-phase separator by condensing oil and water vapor after the gas temperature
has been reduced. Flon is used as a refrigerant and the unit is composed of a Flon
gas compressor, an air cooling Flon gas condenser, a gas cooler and a low
temperature separator.
Oil and water vapor condenses while the gas is cooled in the gas cooler. Water
is separated from oil in the low temperature separator by being absorbed into
glycol.
After Flon gas vaporized in the gas cooler has been pressurized by compressor,
it is re-Iiquefied in the cooler and supplied to the gas cooler again. Gas cooling

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

temperature is automatically controlled by Flon level and compressor load.


Dehydrated gas is then supplied to NGDW wells as a lift gas and enters the
gas transfer line to users through a receiver tank. Some gas is also supplied to
injection gas compressor as an injection gas.

Fig. 2.5-5 Flon type refrigerating dehydration unit

SOK Separator ------~

40K Header ~------__.

~.-.---.--.......
on



J;1, Q1 (Ev~;"+>
.i......~:;J~LCkl
..I. i i Natural gas
_ : .. , " . Flon gas
__u u .. ~.( Receiver ) .1 u. . Flon liquid
Condenser

Fig. 2-.5-6Schematic of Flon type refrigerating dehydration unit

)i> Crude oil stabilizer (Fig. 2.5-7 and Fig. 2.5-8)


This is a crude oil vapor pressure adjusting unit consisting of an oil receiver, a
medium pressure separator, a heat exchanger, a fractionating tower and heater.

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JX Nippon Oil & GasExploration

The crude oil coming out of the separator is fed to the oil receiver and then to a
medium pressure separator at a constant rate. Dissolved gas is extracted from
the crude oil by pressure deduction in the oil receiver (O.8MPa(113.8psi and
medium pressure separator (O.6MPa'(Sfi.Spsij).
Crude oil from the medil~~:pr~:ure separator enters into the tower (O.03MPa
(4.3psi after being heated, while gas is separated from oil by effectivegas-liquid
contact in the tower. After a part of the heavy content is recovered from the gas
by being cooledin the heat exchanger, the gas is transferred as a.tail gas to the
North processing station and pressurized by gas transfer compressor.
The crude oil is, on the other hand, transferred to the crude oil tank.
As it is necessary to keep the tower bottom temperature constant in order to
stabilize vapor pressure, the temperature of the heater is maintained at the'
appropriate level.

Fig. 2.5-7 Crude oil stabilizer

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

5Oi<SC separator

Oil feed,
Oil fE*ld
To oil tank
Oil reflux
MedilXll pressure gas '(6-8KSC)
U::M pressure gas (O.3KSC)

.'

Heater

I
Oil transfer .PlJllP
LTS
tI
I
i
.'IV
SOOk! tank: North processing s-tation

Fig. 2.5-8 Schematics of Crude oil stabilizer

);;> Receivertank (Fig. 2.5-9)


Response to rapid fluctuations in user consumption is made by adjusting the
production rate of the NANGwell and the injectiongas rate.
However, as it is difficult to respond completely to small fluctuations in
consumption and, because it takes time from adjustment of the production rate to
the appearance of the control result, a receiver tank is installed to absorb the
differencebetween consumption and production so that fluctuation in the pressure
of gas transferred to users can be prevented.
That is, if the user's consumption rate is greater than the production rate, the

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JX .Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

receiver tank pressure decreases and if smaller, the pressure increases.


A computer and/or an operator control the production rate or gas injection rate
while surveying the balance so that the receiver tank pressure is kept within a
predetermined range.

~ Blending tank (Fig. 2.5-9)


Gas compositionand heating value of NGbW, NANGand the crude oil stabilizer
off-gasesvary widely.
Therefore, a blending tank mixes these gases to provide a homogeneous gas for
subsequent use or sale.

Fig. 2.5-9Receivingand Blending Tanks

~ Gas injection compressor (Fig. 2.5-10)


This is a horizontal 2-stage balanced compressor,which smoothies out.the rapid
fluctuations in production rate.
It has an injection capacity of 100,800 Sm3/D at an output of 260 kW. The
compressor induces a part of user supply gas of 0.6MPa (87.0psi)pressurizes it up
to about 2.5MPa (362.6psi) after the 1st stage, then pressurizes it further up to
8.1MPa (1174.8psi) after it is intercooled to improve the compression efficiencyat
the 2ndstage before supplying it to the injection well.
In order to control the injection rate, load can be selected from 0%, 50%, 75%,
100%by unloader system and can be changed by remote operation.

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Fig. 2.5-10Gas injection compressor

);;> Crude oil stock tank (Fig. 2.5-11)


Two cone roof tanks with a capacity of 500 kl and 1,000 kl respectively are
installed to store crude oil supplied by pump from the crude oil stabilizer.

Fig. 2.5-11Crude oil stock tank

);;> Crude oil loading facility (Fig. 2.5-12)


Crude oil produced in this gas' field is loaded by tank lorry or tank' car. In the
same yard, a tank lorry loading facility is installed and crude oil is loaded from the
crude oil tank to the tank lorry by loading pump, volume is metered by volumetric
flowmeter.
On the other hand, when using tank cars, crude oil is transferred by central
transfer pump to the tank car loading yard located 8 km from the central yard and

2-16
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

then loaded to the tank car.

Fig. 2.5-12Crude Oil Loading Facility

(3) Pipe L~ne(Fig. 2.5-13)


Natural gas produced in this gas field is delivered to users through a pipe line. The
structure and function of pipe line are as follows.

>- NGDWgathering line


In this line, separated gas is transferred from the open separator at the NGDW
base to the North or South processing station by compressor suction. As oxygenis
likely to be induced through pin holes in the pipe, thereby possibly creating a
dangerous situation and therefore, the oxygen contentin the gas is monitored at
the North and South processingstations.
Water draining facilities are also installed at 10 places in the North district and
11 places in the South district since water is condensed in the pipe due to the
reduction in gas temperature.
Diameter of the pipe is 10 to 24 inches and pressure is usually -100 to +200
mmH20.

>- NGDW transfer line .


This line transfers pressurized gas from the North and South processmg
stations to the Central processingstation.
Pipe diameter is 10 to 12inches and line pressure is about 0.6MPa (85.3psi).

2-17
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

);> NANGgathering line


This line transfers natural flow NANG to the Central processmg station.
Untreated gas flowin the pipe so that when the line temperature falls in winter, the
pipe line is likely to be plugged by hydrate.
Therefore, in the North district, the pipe line is heated by means of line heaters
(L.R.) installed at 3 places to ensure that gas temperature does not fall; below the
hydrate generating temperature. Line heaters of the bath type, similar to indirect
heaters, with a capacity of 0.5 to 2.5 million BTU are used. They are controlled in
the same way as indirect heaters.
At present there are three 3 inch lines in the Central district, two 4 inch line and
one 3 inch line in the North district.

);> Lift gas line


This line supplies lift gas to NGDW wells. It transfers NANG treated at the
Central processing station, or NGDWpressurized by 100 kW lift gas each NGDW
base at a pressure of about 3MPa (440.9psi).
Pipe diameter is 4 inch the main line and 2 or 3 inches in branch line.

);> User supply gas line


Natural gas is supplied at present to Kyowa Gas Chemical Industry, Mizusawa
Gas Chemical Industry and Nakajo Municipal Gas through the 12 inch main route
line. In addition, there is route 1 (4 inch) to KyowaGas Chemical Ind. And rout 2(4
and 6 inches) to Nakajo Municipal Gas. The crude oil line for tank car loading runs
along the 4 inch line to KyowaGas Chemical Industry.

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JX Nippon Oil & GasExploration

87 psi (O.6MPa)
NANG Wells Low WHP r::=:=:=:::>
~------------------------------~

HighWHP I
NANGgathering line

435 psi (3.0MPa)


CPS
87 psi (O.6MPa)
tr;::::;===========f.---i-... ---- ... User
User supply ga line

Gas Injector

NGDWtransfer line
Compressor

Fig. 2.5-13 Gas distribution system in Nakajo Field

'-

2-19
@lX JX Nippon Oil 8, Gas Exploration

Chapter 3:
The Characteristics of Natural Gas Dissolved in Water (NGDW)

3.1 Stratigraphic Successions


Please refer to 2.1 Stratigraphic Successions.

3.2 GeologicalStructure
Please refer to 2.2 Geological Structure

3.3 NGDW(Natural Gas Dissolvedin Water) Reservoir


The NGDW reservoir is distributed in a syncline west of the Tsuiji Anticline
stretching south-north and forming the reservoir rock of sandy conglomerates and
sandstone in the Haizume and Nishiyama formations. These reservoir rocks have a
tendency to thin out gradually towards the Tsuiji Anticline from the NGDW reservoir.
The gas reservoir is distributed throughout a depth from 200m to 1,700m and is divided
into 11 reservoirs ranging from zone 5 to zone 15.
As a number of useful elements are contained in the "interstitial water", which
dissolves the NGDW, "interstitial water" is gathered in the field as a source material,
especially for iodide recovery. This NGDW is also characterized by a very high level of
C02.
The thickness of each gas reservoir is about 30 to 70m. Porosity is 20 to 30% and
gas/water ratio is 1.0 to 1.7(Sm3/k1).

3.4 Production System for NGDW


(1) Well
After success with the exploratory drilling of the R-l well, development of the
NGDW field was carried out and bases N20 to N26(South district) were installed at a
spacing of 300m along the coast line as a production base.
2 to 7 wells were drilled at each base and a well was completed for each gas reservoir.
The perforated pipe completion method is used, wherein perforated pipe, connected to
8-5/8"casing is set into the well and cementing is applied around the casing above the
perforated pipe.

(2) Production method


Although the NGDW wells produced naturally at the beginning, th pressure
decreased as production progressed, so that the method was changed to a gas lift and

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

recently ESP (Electric Submersible Pump) has been adopted to the new 3 wells.
Gas lift production is a method in which high pressure gas is injected through a lift
pipe into the well and interstitial water (specific gravity = 1.0) is lifted up due to
reduced apparent specific gravity. For this purpose, a 1 inch lift pipe is set into the
casing and lift gas (NANGis utilized for the lift gas, but if there is a shortage of NANG
supply,gas is pressurized by a 100-kwgas compressor)is injected.
ESP is an artificial lift which consists of downhole centrifugal pumps, an electrical
motor which transforms the electrical power into kinetic energy to turn the pump, a
separator or protector to prevent produced fluids from entering the electrical motor, and
an electric power cable that connects the motor to the surface control panel. In 2014,
ESP has been introduced for the first time in this field. Currently the effect is being
monitored.
After being lifted up to the surface, the natural gas interstitial water are separated
in an open separator. Natural gas is induced and pressurized by 200kw gas transfer
compressors at the North and South processing stations and transferred to the Central
processing station after dehydration.

(3) Production status


As NGDWis produced by the gas lift method, production rate is usually constant.
Therefore the rate is determined on the basis of the minimum requirement of a
minimum consumption time-band.
Consequently,the normal production rate of 11 or 12 wells is about 21,000 Sm31D
gas and 13,000kllD interstitial waters and the required lift gas amount to 50,000
Sm3/D.

3.5 Production Facilities for NGDW


(1) NGDWbase
NGDWbase are installed at a spacing of 300m along the coast and there is a total of
15 bases consisting of R-1, N10-16 (North district) and N20-26 (South district). At each
base there are 2-7 wells.
Interstitial wateI)and natural gas are separated in an open separator in this base.
The separated gas is induced by compressors at each North and South processing
station and the degassed interstitial water is transferred to Iodine production plant.
The facilities installed at each NGDWbase are described in detail in the following.

~ Well (Fig. 3.5-1)

3-2
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

As described in chapter 3.4, NGDWis produced by the gas lift method. Therefore,
III NGDW wells, a i' inch lift pi~ is installed inside an 8 inch casing and the
interstitial water is lifted up through the outside of the lift pipe by injecting lift gas
which is produced from the well-head to the open separator through a steel or FRP
pipe.
____.
Lift gas

____. To separator

0 0 Lift g"8S

0
0
0 0
0
0
0 I" ll! t pipe
0
0
0

I I
_)/
I
~1 Re e e r vo I r

Fig. 3.5-1Wellfor NGDWwith gas lift

~ Open separator (Fig. 3.5-2)


In this type an open bottomed container is put down into a water tank. The mixed
flow of natural gas and interstitial water from the well-head enters the separator
through a pipe installed at the center of the separator and the gas separated and
interstitial water by the differences in their specific gravities. The bottom of the
separator is always filled with interstitial water in order to seal.

Natural gall to North or


South proees$ln& station

-- Interstitial
water

Fig. 3.5-2 Open separator

3-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

);> Chemical injection pump (Fig. 3.5-3)


As, in the NGDWwells, scale deposits gradually build up on the inner surface of
the casing with the continued flow of interstitial water and will eventually plug the
casing and make production impossible. In order to prevent such a build-up of scale
an anti-scale agent (condensedphosphate) is injected into the lift pipe of each well by
chemical injection plunger pump at each base. Pump suction is connected directly to a
chemical line from each South and North processing station.

Fig. 3.5-3 Chemical injection pump

(2) North Processing Station


As the pressure of gas separated III the separator at each NGDW base nears
atmospheric pressure, it cannot enter directly into the gas transfer line which has a
pressure of about 0.6MPa (85.3psi). Therefore, 200 kW gas transfer compressors are
installed for pressurizing at each North and South processing station.
Gas from wells R-l and NIO-N16is gathered to the North processing station and gas
from wells N20-N26 to the South processing station. As the pressure of the gas in the
gathering line is controlled to within a range of -100 to +200 mmH20, it sometimes
reaches a vacuum.
Consequently,if there are any pin holes in the piping of gas gathering line system at
this time, air is induced into the piping, creating the possibility of an explosion.
Therefore the 02 percentage in the gas is always analyzed, and when it is over 0.3%,the
gas transfer compressoris stopped by a sequence of emergency stops.
After the gas gathered to each North and South processing station is cooledby direct
cooler,it is pressurized by a gas transfer compressor and fed into the gas transfer line
after dehydration.

3-4
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

The facilities installed at the North processing station are described in detail as
follows.
_);;> Direct cooler (Fig. 3.5-4)
The gas temperature is reduced by direct contact with sprayed coolingwater
as the gas rises through the shower.The object of reducing gas temperature is as
follows:
The conde~sed water in the gas gathering pipeline sometimes causes
o damage to the compressor; therefore, the condensed water should be
removed before the gas is induced by compressor.
Gas volume can be reduced by lowering the temperature, thereby improving
compressor efficiency.
Water content can also by lowered by reducing the gas temperature so that
the succeeding processes become easier. . o0

Fig. 3.5-4Direct cooler ,Q


)

_);;> 200-kw gas transfer compressor (Fig. 3.5-5)


The horizontal two-stage balanced compressor has capacity of about 50,000
Sm3/D. It consists of two cylinders, as intercooler and an aftercooler. The
intercooler improves the efficiencyof the second stage by coolingthe compressed
gas after the first stage, while the aftercooler cools the compressed gas about
gOoe after the second stage by up to 15e to 20 e and, as a result, water vapor
0

is condensed and removed.


This 2-stage compressor pressurizes gas from atmospheric pressure to about
O.lMPa (21.3psi) in the first stage and to about 0.6MPa (88.2psi) in the second
stage. At present 2 compressors are installed at the North processing station, one
of them being a spare for emergencies.

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Fig. 3.5-5 200-kwgas transfer compressor

~ Glycoldehydrator (Fig. 3.5-6)


A glycoldehydrator is installed to further remove water from the gas coming
out ot the compressor after cooler.Glycolis injected at the avsorber top to absorb
moisture in the gas coming-downand is drawn out at the bottom.
Glycolcontaining absorbed water is transferred to a glycolreboiler, where it
is heated up to 180't to 200 C before being returned to the original state after
D

releasing its water (this process is called "regeneration").The regenerated glycol


is supplied again to the absorber by motor-driven pump.
In this dehydrator triethylene-glycolis used as an absorbent.
On the other hand, the gas flowsfrom the absorber to the gas transfer line after
glycoldehydration. The dew point of such dehydrated gas is about -7C.

Fig. 3.5-6Glycoldehydrator
);;> Anti-scale agent supply unit (Fig. 3.5-7)

3-6
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

The anti-scale agent for the North district NGDWis prepared in a batch at
the North processing station and supplied by motor-driven pump to each base
where is mixed with water to the correct concentration.
When the line pressure drops, the supply pump is automatically engaged and
the agent is supplied to each base.

Fig. 3.5-7Anti-scale agent supply unit

(3) South Processing Station


The facilities installed at the South processing station are basically the same as at
the North processing station

(4) Central Processing Station


~ 100-kWlift gas compressor (Fig. 3.5-8)
This is a horizontal one-stage balanced compressor with a capacity of about
34,000 m31D.
Although lift gas for NGDW wells is usually dehydrated NANG from the
Central processing station, it can also be obtained by pressurizing the gas from
the NGDWline (about 0.6MPa (88.2psi up to about 3MPa (440.9psi)by 100-kW
lift gas compressor. However,when NGDWis pressurized, it is likely to produce
a hydrate because the pressure dew point of gas is high, so that a glycol
dehydrator is also installed, even for 100-kWlift compressor.

3-7
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Fig. 3.5-8 100-kWlift gas compressor

)0>- Amine gas treating unit (Fig.3.5-9)


This is a' gas sweetening unit consisted of inlet scrubber, amine contactor,
amine flash tank, amine cooler, amine still, amine reboiler etc. . The amine
contactor is a trayed tower, 20 Nutter valve trays and mist pad at the top. The
lean amine enters the tower at the top and flowsdown, contacting with sour gas
and removes the acid gas from the inlet sour gas. NGDW contents 5% of C02
and 10 ppm of H2S. Using this amine gas treating unit, C02 is removed to 0.5%
and H2S is removed to less than 2 ppm.

Fig. 3.5-9Amine gas treating unit

3-8
0X JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Chapter 4:
The Characteristics of Shiunji Oil Field

4.1 Stratigraphic Successions


Please refer to 2.1 Stratigraphic Successions.

4.2 GeologicalStructure
Please refer to 2.2 GeologicalStructure

4.3 Shiunji Oil Reservoir


From 1960s to 1970s, NANGform Tsuiji district was a main production of our field,
while exploration activities were also performed to neighboring region to find another
gas reservoir. In 1978, not gas but oil reservoir was found in the Shii a formation of
Shiunji district by exploration well of NK-53, and then production test was succeeded.
The oil from Shiunji district is not condensate but medium crude oil with 0.83 of specific
I

gravity. An oil processing station was newly built in Shiunji district for the process,
storage and unloading of produced crude oil.

4.4 Production System for Shiunji Oil Field


(1) Well (Fig. 4.4-1)
In the Shiunji district, there are 5 installed production bases and-g.wells (including 4
abandoned wells) was drilled from basis. Due to the low productivity of the oil reservoir,
it was difficult to achieve stable production. However,some wells including NK-53 were
re-completed to horizontal well and achieved to gain the productivity. ~_wells are
currently producing and the new drilling project was in the planning stage.

Fig4.4-1 Oil well (NK-53)at Shiunji District

4-1
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(2)Production method
Produihon method is natural flow.After the natural flow of ~il and associated gas
are controlled in production rate and reduced in pressure by a long nose choke at the
well head (adjustable choke), they are transferred to the oil processing station in
Shiunji district. In the oil processing station, processed oil was storage in oil tank and
directly shipped by tank lorry, while the processed associated gas .is transferred to
central processing station and blended with gas from NANGand NGDW.

4.5 Production Facilities for Shiunji Oil Field


(1) Shiunji Oil Field Base
In the Shiunji Oil Field, there are 5 bases in the Shiunji district. At each base, there
,.ar.e 1 to 4 wells, long nose chokes to adjust production ,,'ate and indirect heaters to
prevent hydrate formation were installed to each bases as well as NANGbases. Due to
the proximity of oil processingstation and also lowpressure, line heater is not installed.
If there is a possibility of the hydrate formation, methanol was injected to prevent it.

(2) Oil Processing Station


2 indirect heaters are installed in oil processing station to prevent the gas
temperature falling belowthe hydrate generating temperature. Produced fluid gathered
through the pipe line from each Shiunji oil field base to the oil processing station
initially enters into the indirect heater and heated to 50C, and then enters into
high-pressure 3-phase separator where it is separated into gas, oil and water on the
basis ofthe differencesoftheir specificgravities. Separated gas enters into the pipe line
to North Processing Station and blended with NGDW,after that processedwith NGDW.
Separated oil enters to the secondheater and heated to 60C,then the light components
was separated and enters the second 3 phase separator. And the separated oil enters in
the storage tank. There are two oil storage tank of 295kl. The oil was shipped by tank
lorry with oil loading unit. Separated gas from the 2nd separator enters flon type
refrigerating dehydration unit and the gas is used as supply gas for the fuel of heaters.

4-2
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

3 Phase Separator Crude Oil Loading Station

Figure 4.2 Facilities on Oil Processing Station for Shiunji Oil Field

4-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Chapter 5 :
Instrumentation Network

Asdescribed in Chapter 1, the Nakajo gas field consists of the NANG wells, the Central
processing station which is the processing facility for NANG,the NGDWwells, and the North and
South processing stations which are the processing facilities for NGDW.
In addition to these facilities, in the Central processing station monitoring room, all of the
facilities, including the pipelines that connect the supply destination points, are monitored and
controlled in an integrated setup. This monitoring and control system is comprised of the
comprehensive instrumentation control computer system (CENTUM) that is installed in the
Central processing station along with the telemeters and the communications network that
supports this system.

5.1 Comprehensive.Instrumentation and Control Computer System (CE~TUM)


CENTUM, which forms the core of the instrumentation network of the Nakajo gas field, was
introduced in December of 1984 as CENTUM-Vfirst. And CENTUMCS1000was replaced in 2000
second, and then CENTUM CS3000was again done in 2010 last.
The CENTUM system was designed with the aim of ultimately providing "panel-free"
instrumentation, and total redundancy provided for all important components. Provisions have
been taken so that in the unlikely event of any trouble, the system will not go down and will be able
to continue operation.

The main system consists of the follows;


(1) Field control station
(2) Operator's station

In 2015, the existing CENTUM CS3000 will be replaced with the new CE TUM VP. The
hardware and the diagram of the monitoring and control network for CENTUMVP are shown in
Fig.5.1-I.

5-1
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

:f(~ f z

~.e.
111
I2SI
t!:!"Q) :!l "\';:: _= _-.

*Q I
.g~ ~
"...
$
0 c;
Z 'I
I ~I
o
Z
i .. ~ .

-
ro ~ I
o
<ll
- _.

1r1
~ ~I

~~
I
~I
.,..,.1-,

z
0
0(

~
~ Z
o
o

~~ S.. 5~
@t JX Nippon on. Gas Exploration

5.2 Telemeter Systems


Among the input signals that are input to CENTUM, a large proportion are electric current
signals and set point signals that are sent directly via telecommunication (telephone, optical fiber,
etc.) cables.

The main telemeter systems consist of the follows;


(1) North processing station telemeter
(2) South processing station telemeter ..
(3)Users telemeter
(4) Optical fiber telecommunications telemeters for NGDWwellpads

5.3 TelecommunicationsCable Network


The signalsthat carry out the monitoring and control tasks in the central monitoring room are
all transmitted via dedicated telecommunications cables. The telecommunications cables are
.. . ,
usually 5 to 75 paired anti-corrosion cables having a thickness of 0.9 mm dia. and 1.2 mm dia.
Which of these is used is determined by the distance of transmission.
With respect to the methods for installing these cables, both burying them underground and
suspending them at a certain height are used, but the major portion is buried underground.
In the case of burying them underground, subsidence beneath the surface of the earth IS

prepared and the cable is laid by the snaking method.

5.4 Power Supply


The instrumentation power supply in the Central processmg station is fully redundant.
Ordinarily the supply of power is received from TohokuElectric Power co.,inc. (an electric utility).
In preparation for the unlikely event of a failure such as a power stoppage, occurring, the following
backup systems are provided.

(1) Uninterrupted power system (UPS)


This equipment is an uninterrupted power system that contains a built-in battery. During
ordinary periods, the battery is kept fully charged so that when a power stoppage occurs, electric
power can be instantaneously supplied from the battery.
This provides assurance that the measurement instruments will never be stopped. Moreover,
the capacity of this UPS is approximately 30 minutes at 10 kVA.

5-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(2) Emergency generator (EACG)


An emergency generator powered by a diesel engme having a capacity of 100 kVA is also
available. In the event of a power stoppage, this generator is automatically activated in

approximately 40 seconds.
For long power stoppages, this generator not only assure the instrumentation power supply, it
also provides power to the power supply unit in the Central processing station (with the exception
of the gas injection compressor) and the lights.
After recovery from a power stoppage, the power supply is automatically switched back from the
generator to the regular power supply system and the generator is turned off. When this switch
back is made, another instantaneous power stoppage occurs and the power supply components are <:>

halted: The UPS backup of the measuring instruments, however, is not affected whatsoever.

5-4
@t JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Chapter 6 :
Measurement and Control Instruments

6.1 Measurement Instruments


In general, the use of the word measurement instrument refers to a "machine that measures
some object,"such as the quantitative measurement oflength, weight, temperature, time and so on.
These measurement instruments are used for most frequently for measuring such things in
particular as flowvolume, temperature, pressure, and level.
These meters were used at first just as separate units and only to display the process status.
Recently,however, they have become to be employedfor the measurement of "process variables"
that are measured quantitatively and then are used as automatic control to automatically adjust
the value so that it meets a target value.
The meters in use at the Nakajo gas field can be broadly divided into two types, those that
provide on-the-spotindications and those that provideindications to remote locations.
The latter groups are basically those that are linked to CENTUM.The data that is measured by
these meters is controlled in a variety of combinations.
The principles and the applications of these meters as employedat this processing station are
describedbelow.

(1)Temperature measurement device


As methods to measure the temperature of equipment, both the method that utilizes changes of
electrical resistance caused by temperature and thermal e.m.f well as the method that uses the
expansion and contraction of materials are frequently used.
Using the former method are temperature detecting resistance element thermometers and
thermocouple-typethermometers. Using the latter method are pressure gauge type thermometers
and liquid-filled thermometers. The temperature measurement devices that are in use at the
Nakajo gas field are described below.

1) Temperature detecting resistance thermometers


The electric resistance value of metals changes according to changes in temperature. By
utilizing these characteristics, a temperature detecting element that can measure the
temperature is available and it is suitable for measurements in the range of 50C to 200C.
Platinum is used for reasons oflinearity and the measurement range.
6-1
@c JX Nippon Oil & Ga.s Exploration

In order to use this principle for the measurement of temperatures, in addition to supplying an
electrical current to the resistance element, it is also necessary to combinethis with a converter
for measurement of the resistance value. This combination is then installed in an
instrumentation room that is closeto the measurement point.
In this gas field, all temperature data that is sent to the Central processingstation, including
that for remote automatic control,is detected by the temperature resistance detecting element.

2) Liquid filled thermometers (Fig.6.1-1)

CapL_1a_ry

Ai ;d:Jt;;'~h!,' ;. "'L'~ ~
Sca_e

Fig. 6.1-1Liquid thermometer

The most common type of thermometer is the so-called "bar" thermometer. This is a
bar-shaped device in which liquid is sealed in a glass-tube and the temperature caused by
heat-induced expansionis indicated by the length of the liquid column. /

As the liquid used for filling the tube, mercury, alcohol,and other materials are used. This
type of thermometer is employed for measuring the atmospheric temperatures, vessel
temperatures, there is the method that employs a thermo-well which is attached to the
measurement point and the thermometer is inserted into this. The method that securing the
thermometer on the vessel or pipeline surface using putty is also available.
This is a simple and low-costthermometer that is widelyused for on-the-spotindication ofthe
temperature.

3) Pressure gauge type thermometers (Fig.6.1-2)


This may be called a Bourdon tube thermometer and is available in three utilizing either
liquid expansion, gas expansion, or vapor expansion. In the case of using liquid expansion, the
6-2
@c JX Nippon Oil " Gas Exploration

expansion of sealed liquid is converted into the movement of a needle through a Bourdon tube.
Mercury is used for the sealed liquid.
This type of thermometer is used for the measurement of heater temperatures, pipeline
temperatures, and separator temperatures. The measurement location and taking
measurements by inserting the thermometer into the thermo-well. This type of thermometer is
in wide use for on-the-spot indication of temperatures.

Dial

Bourdon-tube

Temperature sensing

Fig. 6.1-2Pressure type thermometer

(2)Pressure gauges
Pressure gauges can be viewed according to the measurement range and broadly divided into
gauges:
Vacuumgauges and compoundgauges. Gauge pressure (MPa)is generally used y these meters,
but types that employ
For the purpose of measuring pressure, a force called pressure is used and a solid object is
./

moved;methods which use conversioninto a shape that can be seen by the eye or conversioninto an
electrical signal are both utilized.
Currently, for pressure data that is transmitted to the Central processing station, the pressure.
is converted into an electrical signal by a force balance or an electrostatic capacity type pressure
transmitter. For indication on site, a Bourdon type or liquid-filledtube pressure gauge is used.

1) Force balance type pressure transmitter


For pressure transmitters, changes in pressure are detected as displacements in the position
of the diaphragm. With this type of transmitter, a fixed disk is movedby the diaphragm and the
interval from the differential transformer is converted.
By effecting a current change on the secondary side of the differential transformer the
6-3
0c JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

pressure is converted into an electrical signal.

2) Electrostatic capacity type pressure transmitter (Fig.6.1-3)


This type of pressure tra~smitter operates by the displacement of a movable electrode which
IS fixed to the diaphragm caused by changes in pressure. Since the interval with the fixed
electrode changes, changes in the electrostatic capacity between the electrodes also appear and

this phenomenon is used by this type.


For pressure transmitters used at the processing stations are all the electrostatic capacity

type.
Power supply equipment (distributors) that read the transmitter output along with the power
supply in combination with these transmitters is required.

Distributo!: Signal conditioner


Transmitter (SHOO) card (an)

CHl
AC p::JWer
SUW1y
+ -
4---20mA
24V DC
1--5V DC

.... Inside converter-+ .

+
Inside CENTUM
Field --------3IM:;---- board in .' cubicle '
control room,

Fig. 6.1-3 Instrumentation example of electrostatic capacity type pressure transmitter

3) Bourdon type pressure gauges (Fig.6.1-4)


As meters that provide an on-site indication, these are the most widely used type of pressure
gauges. By utilizing the expansion of the Bourdon tube according to pressure, the pressure is
directly connected to an indication needle, thus enabling measurement of the pressure.
This type uses a metal tube which is rounded so as to be close to a circular shape and has a
cross-section that is elliptical in shape. The metal tube is manufactured from brass, phosphor

6-4
~ JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

bronze, or stainless steel.


For usage, it is necessary the materials of the Bourdon tube are selected according to the
properties of the object being measured.

Fig. 6.1-4 Bourdon-tube gauge

At the Nakajo gas field, almost all ofthe pressure gauges are the Bourdon tube type.

4) Liquid pressure gauges (Fig.6.1-5)

A B

.. I..
Fig. 6.1-5Liquid column manometer

With this type, the pressure can be directly'seen in the liquid-filled tube and both sides of
U-shaped tube are filled by the liquid to an even level. When pressure is applied from one side,
the differencein the height of the liquid in the two tubes can be determined. The liquids that are
most frequently used are water and mercury.
At the Nakajo gas field, this type of gauge is used for the measurement of pressure in NGDW
gathering lines. In all cases, the liquid used in the gauge is water and these are gauges for the
on-site indication of low pressures (kPa).

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0t JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(3) Flow-measurement
In the production and control of natural gas and crude oil, measuring the quantity of the \

material is the matter of greatest importance.


Flowmeters are one of the following two types:
a. Meters that measure the total volume of all of the liquid.
b. Meters that-measure the velocity of the flow of the liquid.
Type 1 is represented by the rotator type meters, while

Type 2 is represented by the orifice (differential pressure) flowmeters.

1) Rotary flow meters (Fig.6.1-6)

Fig. 6.1-6 Rotary displacernens meter

With this type of flow meter, the rotary flow meter is installed in the pipe and the fluid is
passed through the space that is formed in the area between the rotor and the casing.

This type measures the flow volume from the volumetric capacity of the space and the
number of rotations.
In general this is used for measuring the volumetric capacity, but there are also types that
can provide a reading of the instantaneous value. Oval toothed gear types, Roots-types, and
rotary piston types are available.
Although the accuracy of these meters is very high, when measuring the flow volume of a
liquid, if gases are mixed with the liquid, an accurate value is not displayed. Moreover, unless a
strainer is installed in the upstream of the flow meter, foreign matter cannot be removed,
thereby causing malfunction.

In the event of a malfunction, since the flow in the pipe is plugged, it is necessary to exercise
precaution.

6-6
JX Nippon Oil ,. Gas Exploration

At the Nakajo gas field, these meters are used mainly for measurmg the flow of
non-compressibleliquids such as crude oil and well water. In addition, these meters are also used
for measuring gas at low pressure and/or in small amounts. Almost all of these are used as
integrating meters that provide on-site readings.
However,for flow measurement of the oil fed to the stabilizer, a pulse transmitter (1 pulse/l0
cc) is attached to the flow meter and this information (pulses) is sent to the Central processing
station (Fig.6.1-7).

S':'qr.a.l cxmditianer
card (C'B )

Rotary" pistcn type fl~ter


(Pulse qeo.erator) - ,N2 p::Mer supply'

2502

1 pllse/lOcc 1--5V

Field side Central Processing station side


Fig. 6.1-7Instrumentation example ofrotary piston type flowmeter (with pulse generator)

2) Orifice (differential pressure) flowmeters (Fig.6.1-8)


If the fluid that is flowingin the pipe is restricted at some point, a change in pressure before
and after that point will result. This change in the pressure is determined by the flowvelocityif
the type of fluid, the specific gravity, and the size of the opening are constant. Therefore,
differential flow meters use the method of determining the flowrate by measuring the pressure
change from just before and after the opening.
For the opening, an orifice is by far the most widely used. The structure of the orifice is
illustrated in Fig.6.8.

6-7
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Fig. 6.1-8 Construction of orifice(flange-tagtype)

An orificeis a disk that is 3 to 5 mm thick and has a precisely machined round hole in the
center.
The dimensions and the materials are selected according to the type, the temperature, the
pressure, and the density of the fluid used in the operation. When measuring the flow rate by
means of an orifice, a laminar flow at the point that the liquid passes through the orifice is
required. For this reason, sufficient straight pipes must be installed in the upstream and
downstream. Moreover,if the type, temperature, pressure, and density of the fluid change, the
relationship between the differential pressure and the actual flowrate will be changed.
It is therefore necessary to provide compensation when measuring under conditions such as
these factors are changing.
Although the accuracy of these meters is quite high, when the flowr~te is 10%or more below
the measurement range, linearity with the differential pressure is lost and a large degree of
error results.
Although these restrictions exist, the equipment is quite simple and the accuracyis very high,
so measurement of the flowrate by the orifice method is in fairly wide use. Particularly for the
measurement of the flow rate of gas under high pressure, the simple construction of this
equipment makes it far superior to any other method.
At the Nakajo gas field, the gas flow rate that is measured and controlled in the Central
processingstation is measured by these orificedifferential pressure flowmeters. Detection ofthe
differential pressure depends on the pressure transmitters.
Nonetheless, the principle is identical to that of pressure transmitters.
6-8
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

The change in the position of the diaphragm is converted into an electrical signal by the force
balance method or the electrostatic capacity method for transmission. The differential pressure
detected is read by CENTUM along with the data on pressure and the temperature at the
measurement point.
Temperature and pressure compensation are carried out within CENTUMand converted to
flow data.
For transmitting data to the processing station, the orifice plate has been designed so that a
differential pressure of 25 kPa will be reached when the, maximum flow rate within the
measurement range is flowing.
As a result, when there are large changes in the measurement flow rate, changing the plate
can be easily accomplishedat the location where the orificefitting is installed (Fig.6.1-9).

...

Downstream . Straightening vane

Orifice fitting,

Fig. 6.1-9 Orificefitting

(4) Level meters


For level measurement of separators, towers and tanks, the followingmethods are commonly
used: the method that allows the level to be directly observed (level gauge), the method in which a
float is set afloat on the liquid surface and its movement up and downis transmitted to the outside
(float type level meter), and the method in which the level is detected from the differential pressure
between the upper and lower parts of a vessel (differential pressure type level meter).

1)Level gauge (Fig.6.1-1O)


This is the most basic type of gauge for liquid level measurement and consists of a glass tube
6-9
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

for low pressure measurement and or a hardened glass tube for high pressure nieasurement that
is surrounded by thick copper plates.
When this type of level gauge is installed in a unit of equipment, it allows the liquid level to
be directly observed.
At the Nakajo gas field, all of the closed separators and tanks are equipped with level gauges.

Fig. 6.1-10Level gauge


2) Float type (Fig.6.1-11)
The float is floated in the tank and its movement is transmitted to the outside by means of a
wire. This arrangement causes an externally attached meter to rotate when the wire moves.
At the Nakajo gas field, this type oflevel gauge is equipped in the crude oil tanks.

CD Instrument
Instrument support
@ Special valve
@ Guide-knob

Tape
Float
Q) Guide-wire
Hook

Fig. 6.1-11Float type level gauge


6-10
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

3) Differential pressure level meter (Fig.6.1-12)


When measuring the pressure inside a vessel in which the top part is filled with gas and the
bottom filled with liquid, the pressure at the bottom is calculated by adding the product of the
specific gravity and height of the liquid at the bottom to the pressure at the top. By this means, if
the specific gravity of the liquid is constant, the height of the liquid level can be determined from
the differential pressure between the top and the bottom,
Currently the levels that are monitored and controlled in the Central processing station take
measurements by this method.
The differential pressure is transmitted by the differential pressure transmitters and the
set-up is the same as that used for the differential flow meters. The signal from the transmitter
is multiplied by the specific gravity of the liquid within CENTUM and displayed as the height.
The low-pressure side of the transmitter, for a pressurized vessel, contacts with the gas at the
upper part of the vessel. Therefore, drain accumulated in the lead pipe on the low-pressure side
may cause a level error. In order to prevent this error, the above lead pipe is sometimes filled
with a sealing liquid beforehand.

<D Low pressure side gate valve

130%
b!--t=::::lj::===========;::::::l:t:=l>==! High pressure side gate v Lv e
Seal-pot
~ Signal generator

Check plug
Check. plug

100% <V High pressure side drain valve


Low pressure side drain v lYe
Zero adjustment screw

Fig. 6.1-12 Differentialpressure type level gauge

6-11
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(5) Other meters


1) Magnetic oxygen density meters
As described in 3.5 (2) & (3), air should not be mixed in gathering pipe lines for NGDW, so
that oxygen density is measured at the North and South processing stations, and for these
measurements magnetic oxygen density meters are used.
This meter employs the principle of operation that ordinary gases are diamagnetic substances,
but on the contrary, oxygen is a magnetic substance.
By attracting only oxygen to magnetism, other gases are allowed to flow through a different
route. Resistance is placed on that flow route and is cooled by the flow of the oxygen.
In other words, if the density of the oxygen is high, the temperature of the resistance will
drop, while if the density is low, the temperature will rise. On the other hand, the size of the
resistance value will change according to the temperature. Therefore, if this resistance can be
measured, the oxygen density can be known.
Currently meters of this type are installed in the North and South processing stations, and
the oxygen density is monitored in the Central processing station.

2) Process gas chromatography


The components of the gas that is flowing in a pipeline are continuously measured and this is
referred to as gas chromatography.
In gas chromatography, the sample gas and carrier gas are flowed through a column which
contains fillers. Each of the components in the sample is analyzed by using the length of time
required for it to flow through the column.
The quantity of each component is measured by a thermal conduction system.
In this system, the measuring filament is cooled by blowing the gas through it, and the
temperature change of the filament is measured by the resistance value of the filament. From
this measurement, the gas blown through the filament, that is, the quantity of each component,
can be determined. The principles of this system are the same as that of the magnetic oxygen
density meter.
For this process gas chromatography, the sample line is connected to the pipeline and
measurement of the samples is conducted for a fixed time interval. With this system, therefore,
six different samples can be measured.
Currently four different samples are being measured and this is used for controlling the

6-12
0t JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

operating conditions by checking the components of the sales gas, pre-processed NGDW gas,
post-sweetened gas and consignment gas from JAPEX.

3) Switches for various alarms


With respect to methods for monitoring the process status, one method gathers data by
analog means and so that the status may be known at all times. Another method judges the
status by whether or not a particular value is above or below a pre-set alarm point.
For the latter method, alarm switches are used and digital signals are transmitted.
Regarding the principals involved, in either case, an electric circuit is opened or closed by a
physical force, and sensing of the process conditions differs according to the measured object.
For example, in the case of one method that is used, if the level is being measured and if a
switch is moved by the motion of a float, Contact is made between two electrodes. For
temperature, the motion of a bimetal or Bourdon tube is used.
For flow or pressure, a pressure sensing device is moved by utilizing the force of the liquid
itself.
In addition to the above, a relay is activated by sensing the strength of a current flowing in an
electric circuit, thereby transmitting any abnormal condition in an electric motor.

6.2 Control Devices


Regarding control devices, the device must have functions that actually enable it to change the
process conditions so that the conditions of a given process match the desired target.
In crude oil and natural gas production facilities, these are used for the control of flow. rate,
pressure, temperature, and level.
In conducting process control, since it is assumed that the current conditions are necessary to be
known, ordinarily a controller is used in combination with a measuring instrument.
The difference between the set value and the target value is observed and as a result, an output
signal is sent to the controller.
In case it is acceptable to keep a process variable in the controlled object almost constant, no
problem arises even if the variable is controlled by a field-mounted pneumatic controller.
However, in case the set-point of the process variable must frequently be changed or high accuracy
is required, field -mounted pneumatic controllers are not appropriate.
For this need, where this type of control is required even at the Nakajo gas field, the process
variables are sent to CENTUM by transmitters, control calculations are performed, and the output

6-13
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

is sent to the control devices by electrical signals, thereby accomplishing the desired control.
The principles and the applications of the control devices that are in use at the Nakajo gas field
are described below.

(1) Control valves (Fig.6.2-1)

Pneum~t~c f~nal control


element

Flange rating ASA 600


(R~ng joint type)

Fig. 6.2-1 Control valve (pneumatic)

With control valves, by changing valve opening, the volume of the fluid that is flowing the pipe
can be controlled.
Therefore, these valves are in wide use for controlling such variables as flow rate, pressure,
temperature, and level.
The control valve consist of a drive unit that opens or closes the valve according to a signal
received fron{ a controller and the valve body that changes fluid volume adjusted by the drive unit.
Drive units can be self-actuated, air-driven, electrically driven or use some other principle.
The self-actuated -type used here at the Nakajo gas field are used to control pressure. Control is
accomplished through maintaining a balance between the pressure and the strength of a spring.
Although air for instrumentation is not necessary, in changing the settings, the strength of the
spring must be changed while observing the downstream conditions, so it is somewhat troublesome.
The air-driven drive units are the most commonly used .
. 6-14
JX Nippon Oil "Gas Exploration

.'valve is moved via a piston that is directly linked to the diaphragm.


Not only field mounted types but. CENTUM are used to drive control valves. For CENTUM
pplication, an electro-pneumatic positioner is attached to the control valve. Electric signals from
CENTUMare then converted to pneumatic pressure.
Electrically driven control valves use an electric motor to adjust valve opening.
Currently at the Nakajo gas field, these are used for the remote control of the production rate of
wells. Motor-driven long-nose chokes, in the broad sense of the word, fall into this category.

(2) Electro-pneumatic positioners


! When the control valve is controlled from CENTUM,a device which receives an output signal of
4 to 20 rnA and converts the signal to a pneumatic signal to drive the diaphragm or to an electric
signal to drive a motor is called an "electro-pneumaticpositioner" or "electro-electropositioner".
The electro-pneumatic positioner compares the output signal from CENTUM with the valve
opening and changes pneumatic pressure to be supplied to the diaphragm so that the opening
matches the output signal (Fig.6.2-2).

Clamp

Unit:rrm

Screw eMS)

Terminal box Bod.y

I?ressuregauge Pressure gauge


(Supply air pressure) (OUtput) Screw (MS)
I \
Supply air connection output connection
Manifold
PT--l/4 female PT-l/4 female

Fig. 6.2-2 Electro-pneumatic positioner

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(3) Devices activated by digital output signals from CENTUM


There are solenoid valves and motors. A solenoid valve is opened and closed by turning on and
off a current flowing through its electromagnet. This type of valve is used for opening and closing
the main burner of the heater, switching the supply air-gas system, opening and closing the
shutdown valve of NANG wells, and operating the unloader of the gas injection compressor. For
these operations, three-way solenoid valves are used for the shutdown valve and the unloader.
On the other hand, a motor is started and stopped by turning on and off a current flowing
through its circuit.
This type of valve is used for starting and stopping the pump for tower level control of the
stabilizer unit, and for emergency shutdown of the compressors in the North and South processing "-
stations.
These circuits are opened and closed via a relay that is operated when a digital output signal is
received from CENTUM.

6-16
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Chapter 7 :
Automatic Systems

At the Nakajo gas field, the followingthree type tasks are assigned to computers to enable the
integrated management and control of natural gas and crude oil production facilities.

Monitoring
This task consists of constantly monitoring,the important process conditions in the operation
and informing the operator by alarm when any abnormal conditions occur. There is approx.1600
monitoring points.

Controlling
Automatic-control of the system so that the pressure in the pipeline is always kept constant
even if external disturbances occurs. '

Preparation of the daily report


An hourly report covering the items among the process conditions that should be stored (values
for a one hour period) is kept in the computer and a daily report is printed each day.
These tasks are performed in an integrated mannerby what is called an automatic system. The
details of this system are described below. Moreover, to ensure that these tasks are performed
smoothly,a Tag number is assigned to each point.
The explanation belowwill be made with reference to these Tag numbers.

7.1 Monitoring
At the Nakajo gas field, the monitoring of data at remote sites has a particularly important
meaning. Where the point of monitoring is located for each station will be described below.

(1) North processing station


The North processing station and the regional NGDWbases have particular monitoring points
so that abnormal process conditions at them are judged by DCS of the North processing station.
The important process points for the followingsare also monitored to manage the North processing
station and the regional NGDWbases by DCS.
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

1) Gas production volume


The gas productionvolumeis determined by measuring the volume oflift gas, the volumeof gas
transferred, and the volume of gas sent to the Central processing station.

2) Gas gathering pipelines


The pressure and the oxygen density in gas gathering lines is measured, and any abnormal
conditions are sensed and notified.

3) Transfer gas pipeline


The pressure in the transfer gas line is measured, and any abnormal conditions are sensed and
notified.

4) 200kWgas transfer compressor


The conditions of operating service, the load factor (50%,100%),and any failures (mild failures
and serious failures) are transmitted by digital signals.

5)Anti-scalingagent transfer unit


The amount of chemicals residue is monitored from the chemicals tank level; the chemicals
injection rate is monitored from the descendinggradient ofthe tank liquid level; and also leakage is
monitored from pressure decrease in the chemicals injection line, all of which are converted to
digital signals to sense their abnormal conditions.

6) Peripheral devices
The operating conditions of the coolingwater pump for the compressor,any failure conditions
(mild failures and serious failures), the liquid level of the glycol dehydrator and the reboiler
temperature as well as the level are transmitted by digital signals to sense their abnormal
conditions.

7) NGDWbase
No monitoring points are provided at the NGDWbases, but lift gas rate and pressure in the lift
gas lines, pressure, oxygen density and transfer gas rate in the gas gathering pipe lines, and
chemicals injection rate and pressure in the chemicals lines are monitored to judge the presence or
absence of their abnormal conditions.
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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(2) South processing station


Monitoring is conducted at the processmg station in the same manner as at the North
processing station.
In other words, the gas production volume in the South NGDW field is calculated, the difference
between the total volume of NGDWproduction and the quantity of production in the North NGDW
field is taken to be the quantity of production in the South NGDWfield.

(3) NANGbase
1) Wellhead pressure
By measuring the well head pressure, the production capacity is monitored.

2) IDH (In-direct heater) water temperature


By measuring the water temperature loss of the pilot burner flame (water temperature LO) is
monitored.

3) Opening/closingwell SDV (Shut down valve)


The opening/closingconditions of the well are judged by detecting the opening/closingsignals
sent to the well SDV.

(4) Central processing station


Since there are many monitoring points at the Central processing station, the various pieces of
equipment are described below accordingto their classification.
Furthermore, the devices that are used for control are described in detail in Chapter 7.2.

1) Separator
For the No.1 thru No.4 separators, monitoring of the separators is performed by checking the
pressure and the temperature, and at the same time preventing hydrate formation in advance.

2) Supply header
The header and the line connected to it are monitored for any abnormalities by checking the
pressure.

7-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

3) Freon type refrigerating dehydration unit


A variety of data required for control can be measured (refer to Chapter 7.2 (5), (11.
In addition to the above, compressor suction and discharge temperatures as well as Freon
receiver temperature are monitored to check whether or not any abnormality exists in the

unit.

4) Crude oil stabilizer


In the crude oil stabilizer, oil receiver, reflux separator and stabilizer tower pressures as well
as tower top and intermediate temperatures and oil receiver liquid level are monitored, all of
which are referred to when stabilizer control loop settings are made (refer to Chapter 7.2 (2) and

(3.

5) Gas flow rate


The production rate of NANG wells is determined from the flow rate, the injection gas rate,
and the low-pressure production gas rate.

Then the NGDW production rate is determined by subtracting the central lift gas rate from
the total of the NGDW transfer gas rate and the central supply gas rate.
In addition, in order to monitor the internal operating conditions, the gas rate in each line is
measured.
Moreover, to make appropriate compensation for both pressure and temperature, the
temperature and pressure are measured in the area of the flow rate measurement points.

6) Gas injection compressors


For the gas injection compressor, outlet temperatures and discharge pressures along with
inter-cooler and the after-cooler temperatures and cooling water pressure are measured.
For gas injection wells, the injection gas rate, the pressure, and the temperature are
measured.

Moreover, the casing pressure at the well and the external casing pressure are also measured.

7) lOO-kWlift gas compressor

When the lift compressor is in operation, it is monitored by analog signals for the lift gas
quantity, pressure, and temperature, and by digital signals.

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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(8)Pipelines and supply destinations


1) NANGgathering pipelines
For gathering lines, line pressures are measured at four points, thereby checking the line for
blockage or leakage. Moreover,for line heaters installed at three locations, inlet -temperatures
and outlet temperatures are measured, thereby enabling the monitoring of the inlet
temperatures so that they do not fall belowthe point that would cause hydration.
At the same time, these measurements make it possible to monitor the burner to make sure
that loss of the flame does not occur.

2) Supply destinations
For the supply destinations, the gas flow rates received and the arrival pressures are
measured, thus facilitating monitoring of the operating conditions of transfer gas pipelines and
the supply destinations.
Furthermore, with respect to the operator making adjustment to gas production volume, with
there is a sudden change in the volume used at the supply destination, such adjustment is made
before the effects of this change reach the receiver tank.
For detail on the monitoring points of each NGDWpipeline, refer to the sections that describe
(1)the North processing station.

7.2 Control
(1) Feed control of the crude oil stabilizer (Fig.7.1)

Separator
PID control
unit

Oil receiver

Reflux pressure separator


Fig. 7.1 Crude oil feed control

7-5
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

The crude oil stabilizer conditionis stabilized easier if the constant amount of crude oil is fed.
However,the feed rate of crude oil varies accordingto the production rate of NANG.Therefore, this
crude oil is first retained in the oil receiver and then is fed always at the constant flow rate by
means of a flowcontroller and a control valve installed at the receiver outlet line.

(2) Temperature control at the stabilizer tower bottom


The following two methods are available to control the temperature at the tower bottom
(Fig.7.2).
i) The crude oil is first fed into the tower, and then the oil rate through the heater is controlled to

control the tower bottom temperature.


ii) The total quantity is first passed through the heater and then fed into the tower to control the <:>

bottom temperature by heater temperature.

7-6
JX Nippon Oil Ii Gas Exploration

Tower

r........
..._
....,j

~
TIC field unit

I
;i

I
;
,1
"

i Supply 9

Fig. 7.2 Towerbottom temperature control of crude oil stabilizer

With method i), a control valve is installed in the line leading from the tower to the heater and
the tower bottom temperature is taken as the input value and the PID controller sends an output
signal to the control valve.
In the case of method ii), on the other hand, there is no direct measurement of the temperature
at the tower bottom, but heater temperature is kept constant through heater control described
below.In this case, since setting of the heater temperature is done manually by the operator, it is
necessary for the operator to constantly checkwhether the bottom temperature is appropriate.
In comparison with method ii), this method does not involve directly observing the bottom

7-7
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

temperature, and the flowrate that is sent to the heater is fixed.


Although this method has the disadvantage of its being very difficult to maintain a high
temperature, it has superior stability at bottom temperature. Method ii), therefore, is usually used
for operations at low temperature.

(3) Stabilizer tower liquid level control


Currently, at the tower of the stabilizer, operations are carried out at a pressure that is closeto
atmospheric pressure.
It is, therefore, necessary to operate a pump to transfer the crude oil in the tower to the stock
tank. &

At the same time, it is necessary to keep the liquid level of the tower constant.
For this reason, upper and lower limits are set for the level in advance, and when the level rises
and exceedsthe upper limit, a pump begins to operate and transfers oil to the stock tank. The pump
ceases to operate when the lower limit is exceeded,and by this means the liquid level is controlled,

(4) Temperature control for Freon type refrigerating dehydration unit (Fig.7.3)
In order to dehydrate natural gas, the most important point is the temperature to which the gas
IS cooled by the gas cooler. The temperature is determined by the quantity of latent heat of
vaporization deprived when the gas is heat-exchanged with Freon (refrigerant) in the gas cooler.
This quantity oflatent heat ofvaporization can be controlled by changing the level ofthe Freon and
by changing the quantity that comesinto contact with the gas.
For this reason, the coolingtemperature of the gas is controlled by a cascaded control system
that actually combinestwo control systems in series, one for the outlet temperature of the gas and
one for the level of the Freon.
An output value is obtained through PID computation performed by detecting the deviation
between the set-point and input value (Gas outlet temperature). This output value is used as the
Freon level set-point, and the control valve is activated through output value calculation performed
by detecting a deviation between the above set-point and input value (Freon level)
Further, vaporized Freon gas is sucked and compressed by the compressor.As a result, it is
necessary to change the load ofthe compressorto accommodatethe changes in the amount of Freon
that is lost through vaporization.
The compressorcapacitative control devicethat performs this operation is described below.

7-8
JX Nippon Oil "Gas Exploration

PIO Control
Unit

P"lon gas
1-
... -......
---- -i

Gas ( Gascoole:r _. _

: .;:~:~~;~:-
.. ~.::~.:. .": i
t ~.... ,. ....
. J
Flon l'quid -------- .-----~_.__j
Fig. 7.3 Gas coolingtemperature control of Freon type refrigerating dehydrator unit

(5) Compressor capacitative control devicefor Freon type refrigerating dehydration unit, control of
the number offans
In the gas cooler,Freon that is in the form of a gas is compressed by the compressor and then
cooledand liquefied by the condenser.The amount of Freon that .is lost through vaporization must
be adjusted by switching the' capacity of the compressor, since such factors as the volume of gas
production and the temperature of the outside air are constantly fluctuating.
Since the pressure of the gas cooler is kept constant by using a pressure control valve, the
suction pressure of the compressor on the downstream side of the valve rises when the amount lost
through vaporization increases, and, similarly, falls when the amount lost through vaporization
decreases.
By this means, the capacitative control system for the compressor senses the suction pressure
and raises the load when this pressure is high. It lowers the load when this pressure is low.
The Freon that is compressed by the compressor,on the other hand, is cooledby the air-cooling
condenser.
However,since the Freon gas will not liquefy when there is insufficient cooling,the discharge
pressure ofthe compressor rises. By regulating the number offans, which determine the amount of
coolingperformed by the condenser,through checkingthis compressor discharge pressure, control
with the optimum number of fans can be achieved.
In addition to the above, when the discharge becomes excessivelyhigh, or when the gas cooler
inlet temperature becomes excessivelylow,operation of the compressoris immediately shutdown.
In addition, when a digital signal is receivedthat indicates that oil supply pressure is too low,the

7-9
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

same result takes place, e.g., operation is immediately shutdown.

(6) Heater temperature control


This is by using the TIC field unit to control the heaters for the IDH unit, the LH (Line heater)
unit, and stabilizer unit.
The heater for the stabilizer unit is to control water temperature. However,for the IDH and LH
units, emphasis is put on temperature control at a point where the gas passed through that heater
enters the next heater. Also temperature upper and lower limits are preset, and if the temperature
reaches the lower limit, the main burner is ignited by opening the TCV (Temperature control valve),
while if it reaches the upper limit, the main burner is extinguished by closing the solenoidvalve.
In this way, the heater for the stabilizer unit is controlled so as to keep the temperature
constant and for the IDH and LH units, the gas temperature is controlled so that it does not become
below the hydrate generation temperature.

(7) Sales gas control (Fig.7.4)


It is desirable that the gas pressure that is sent to the user be kept constant. However,the gas

quantity consumed by the consumer fluctuates, while the amount of gas transferred from NGDW
wells is constant. Due to this, it is necessary to control the quantity from NANGwells to respond to
changes in the amount consumed by the consu;mer.
Toaccomplishthis, a control valve is installed between the receiver tank and the blending tank,
and it is controlled through PID computation performed from the deviation between the set-point
and input value (pressure on the blending tank side).

(8) Lift gas flowrate, pressure control (Fig.7.5)


The flowrate oflift gas that is injected into NGDN wells is always to be constant by using FCV
(flowcontrol valve) for each well, and then in order to continue water lifting from NGDWwells, it is
also necessary to control the pipeline pressure.

7-10
JX Nippon Oil8r Gas Exploration

Separator
/
PID Control
Unit

NGDl"

User

Fig. 7.4 Transfer gas pressure control

prD Control PID Control


Unit Unit

High-selector
Unit

I
I
I

header "'-----000411 .....----'---~)~ lift gas

Fig. 7.5 Lift gas flow and pressure control

For this reason, both the pressure and the flowrate of lift gas are controlled.

7-11
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

In the first place, PID control is conducted for each of pressure and flow rate. In other words,
this control consists of two loops: one control loop for pressure that calculates the output value
(MVl) from the deviation between the pressure set-point (SVl) and pressure input value (PVl) and
the other control loop for flow rate that calculates the output value (MV2) from the deviation
between the flow set-point (SV2) and flow input value (PV2).
Either MVI or MV2, whichever is greater, is selected by a high selector, and then outputs it to
the control valve.
The valve used in this control loop is the type that closes when the output increases. Control is
carried out in the direction such that the valve opening is made smaller according to the pressure
and flow conditions.

(9) 200 kW gas compressor injection gas flow rate control (Fig.7.6)

prD Control
Unit

Gas injection compressor

Fig. 7.6 Gas injection flow rate control

There is a method for controlling the injection gas flow rate which involves regulating the load
of the compressor.

(10) Receiver tank pressure control (Fig.7.7)

When the amount of gas used by the consumer fluctuates, the receiver tank at the Central
processing station functions and changes in the transfer gas pressure are limited.
However, if the gas flow rate supplied to the tank is not controlled, the tank pressure will
become abnormal and regulation of the transfer gas pressure will become impossible.
Although it is not necessary to keep the receiver tank pressure perfectly constant, the supply
flow rate of gas must be controlled so that the above pressure is within a constant range.
The gas produced by NANG wells is classified into lift gas, gas that goes into the receiver, and

7-12
JX Nippon Oil It Gas Exploratio.n

injection gas. Of these, since lift gas is usually sent at a constant flow rate, for receiver gas control a

method of regulating the production rate at NANG wells and that of regulating the rate of injection
gas are available.

choke
fElectrically-driven
-.----------------- ------1 ,-_._- -_ ---------- .. -----,-------------------------------
--------------1

,


.
I

.
,
.

r
,

Shut-down Gas injection


valve ' compressor --. -_
..----- ..- - -- _--_
I
........ - .. ---- -- - -----_ .. -_ .. -. - -_ .. -- --- ---- - -- _ ----_ - - ---

Gas injection User


well Consumption

Fig. 7.7 Receiver tank pressure control

Currently, in the automatic system at the Nakajo gas field, these two control functions are

provided and are used to respond to various conditions.


The first method is applied to control the production at NANG wells, while the second method is
used to control the capacity of gas injection compressors. Each will be described in detail below
separately.

(11) Control of production rate at NANG wells

As described above, the task of keeping the receiver tank pressure virtually constant IS

performed to maintain constant gas supply conditions (between approx.O.85-1.45MPa).


The production rate of wells is adjusted by using RM wells that permit remote control of the

bean opening and SD wells that allow remote control of the shutdown valve, that operate manually
from the central control room in accordance with the calorific value and quantity of sales gas
consumed by the consumers.

7-13
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(12)Compressoremergencyshutdown at the North and South processingstations


At the North and South processing stations, the 200kW transfer compressor increase NGDW
gas at near atmospheric pressure to 0.6MPa. Although the capacity of the compressor is
automatically adjusted by the suction (gathering) gas pressure, there are times during operation
when the pressure of the suction (gathering) gas is vacuum and air will be mixed in through pin
holes in the gas gathering pipeline, bringing about the risk of explosions.
In this situation, just as"in the case of a blockage in the pipeline",when the gas gathering
pressure drops too severely,continued operation of the compressoris dangerous.
At times when conditions such as this occur, a built-in sequence immediately shutdown the
compressor. In other words, when the oxygen density exceeds 0.3% or when the gathering gas
pressure falls below -500 mmH20, a digital output signal is sent if the conditions continue for ten
or more secondsto shut downthe compressor.

(13)Solenoidvalve control for supply switching


Since supply air in the Central processing station is used to operate the air compressor,if there
is an air compressormalfunction, the control system within the station will be adversely affe,cted.
Therefore, when the pressure of the supply air falls, supply line gas is fed into the air line, thereby
maintaining the pressure.
In other words, when the pressure in the air line falls, a digital input signal is sent from a
pressure switch. When this signal is received, a digital output signal is sent to open the solenoid
valve. The line is thus designed so that gas will flowis.

7.3 Daily Report


(1)Production report
The daily report records the production of gas, The production rate at each NANGwell and the
production rate for each total ofthe North district NGDWwells and the South district wells as well
as the gas flowrate separated from oil by the stabilizer unit is recorded each hour.
In addition to each daily production rate, the productionrate of oil from GOR(gas oil ratio) data
by production testing is recorded and the water flowrate is also recorded.
Sincethis production rate data on NANGwell is based on data taken from productiontesting, it
varies from the actual production rate. Therefore, the rates for gas and oil that are received at the
Central processing station are measured and proportionally distributed accordingto the production
7-14
JX .Nippon Oil It Gas Exploration

rates obtained from the production testing data.

(2)Well monitoring report


The pressure at the NANGwell head along with the pressured in gathering gas lines is recorded
every hour. This data enables changes in the production capacity of NANGwells to be monitored.

(3)Pipeline report
The amount of gas used by each consumer,the lift gas rate to NGDWwells, and the transfer gas
rate from wells are recorded by every hour and the total for each day is calculated each day and
recorded.

(4) Injection gas report


The injection gas rate is recorded each hour and the total for each day is calculated. In addition,
the temperature and pressure at each part of the compressor and the pressure at injection wells is
recorded, thus allowing monitoring of conditions at injection compressors and injection wells.

(5)Temperature monitoring report


The IDH water temperature of NANGwells and the gas temperature at various points on the
gas gathering pipeline are recorded, thus enabling monitoring of temperature changes.

7-15<
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Chapter 8 :
Well Drilling, Workover, Well Services

8.1 Review of NK-66 (NANG), N21-5,6 &7 (NGDW) and NK-67(NANG)

8.1.1 NK-66 Well


Well, NK-66 was planned as horizontal well of side tacking from the existing
5-112"casing. The location of NK-66 was at NK-I0 base in central district of NANG(Non
associated Natural Gas) field in attached, 1) Location of NK-66 Well.
The target reservoir of NK-66 is Shiya formation, "
The casing program was proposed as the order of 20", 13-3/8", 9-5/8* and q_-1I2"casingfor
horizontal section in attached, 2) Well Schematic.

For the purpose of drilling operation, JX Nippon Oil and Gas Exploration Co made a drilling
contract with SK engineering and hired.rig, NE-2000./

In actually, the NK-66 was spudded in on 9th September 2012, ana. 26"hole section was
drilled to 355m and 20" casing was immediately run to 347m. 17-1I2"holesection was continued
to be drilled to 1,030m, and 13-3/8"casingwas set at 1,025m.
12~1I4hole section was drilled to 1,668m and 9-5/8" casing was set at 1,663m. 8-1I2"hole
section was drilled to 2,185m as total depth(TD) and 5-1I2"casingwas set at 2,179m.
For the purpose of the side tracking, the Whipstock in 5-1I2"casingwas set at 1,865m and made
window at 1,865m for 5-1I2"casing.
The sidetracking was immediately carried out in order to drill hori~~l-hole and drilled
horizontal hole section to 2,120m ~Pth on 9
th Novembe~.201~
Since the well was spudded in on 9th September, total operation days were 65days. The
actual operational days, 65day?'were behind schedule for planned day,51days in attached, 3)
Drilling Chart.

The reason of the behind schedule was mainly due to hard to handle of BOP stack] spend
time for reaming of hole and malfunction of electric logging and so on.

8-1
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

1) Location Map for NK-66 Well

o NANG Wells
NGDWWells
OilWell.s

NK-66 <NK-IO base)

8-2
JX 'Nippon Oil & GasExploration

2) Well Schematic

G.L.

30" Conductor @ 20m


X-56, W/T:1.00"

26"Hole to 348m
20" is cemented to Surface 20"CSG
J-55, 106.5#, BTC

17-1/2"Hole to 1,030m
13-3/8" is cemented to Shoe 13-3/8"CSG
N-80Q, 68#, BTC

12-1/4"Holeto 1,668m
9~5/8" is cemented to 9-5/8"CSG
the previous casing shoe N-80Q, 40#, BTC

~'\.~ ,{o,,.y;. "

~indow Cut @1(7~


4-314"Hole to2_120~)
Bare Hole

8-1/2"Hole to 2185m
5-1 It' is cemented to 5-1/t'CSG
the previous casing shoe
N-80Q, 17#, VAMTOP

8-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

3) Drilling Chart
NK-66H_Plan --0- NK-66H_ActuaJ I
o
- .::f- -~ -H- -+- =t=l=+
;-+++-
-r-
2.00
+:2~ 26"'TDat355m@12thSep2012 =i=i=l=::j::H$t$!=t~-:;+-:t:t.-~~'-' =!=l= 3- -+-
_+: -+ Set20"CSG at3478m~ 14th S:P2012 ;; - _ : -_::g: l ~+:' --~
-- - R:: =t-=:L+
=::::.
__ '- -

-+ - -+- _, -t- . R=
400

600
IIJ~ =ft. r-f-r ~- : " f-)-, ,,- ~n-

800

1I,Ot}{)

~CD
m -;:: _ Ff:__ =~ -~ =E=f-=t= -
1,200
-H-+- -,-- -+- - -- -- - - -+- c:::j=j::: -- - +-
g - ::t_++_ -I=I=R: =*:1:: ~~- -- :- : =$ Li= .= = -
Q
~ r+ __
~ ++-_ H~ - -

~~. W~j 1
1,400
=i= - ~i=i=l= =t: '
:-ttJ - - q:-l=i: +-' ;- c+++- _ -+ '

I=~tt-~_ t:~t-i$~--t-+-$'
-~~$-
__ ~_~~~1~1;4:~:~~~~~~~Jf't
~;~~::':~-~~-~~:
__$~1~
1,600
-+~-.--r.'-- -I~i= Set9-518"CSGat1663m@9thOct2012
=t-~- ' , ,+-++-1--1- .. --+-
-'-. -+-+-
- ~--H-- -~.;"_H+ '=tt ~~~
- --t--t- =I:--t::I=FF _ =:R= ~
-I-j-
'_;==- ~=
- -- - :~-,.
f=-
_E __ .setWhiPStocKat1l765.7m@30thOct2012
-1-- - -T-
,-r-.

i,SOO
-I-l=t- - - =t--!- -- =i= : =:=I-+.- - ::j:- -+ '~;:_':i::j: -- - -- -~=1=t=: ::-1::
p- -+- - -+
~~'
H +- -- =t:
,
~ r++- -
-;-+----
::t=- --.+
2,000 -=1=
::j:: -~- - FaultTDSfrom 4th to 7th Nov 2012, ~ - I-H-
1-++
=t:
- -t- .,.~+__ f$f:~tm~m~=:~I-=t=l=-
-t - ~-~~_
~t=:tn:1
2,200 H-t +-I-H-++ 4-314"TDat2,120m@9thNov2012
S--1I2'"TDat2,lB5m@16thOct2012 ~ Setcompl,etion@13thNov201l2

++-++-
-F-!:H-i--t-t-t--H::::t=i=j:
Set5-1I2'"CSGat2179m.@22ndOct2012
...-+, ",
-+f=l+=i=++:j::j:=t=I=i=R=~
R:tf-:~
2,400
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~
Daysfinm Spud

8-4
~ JX Nippon Oil It Gas Exploration

8.1.2 N21-5, N21-6 & N21-7 (Natural Gas Dissolved in Water: NGDW)
The purpose of drilling for the three wells, N21-5, N21-6 & N21-7 was to increase gas
volume and iodine volume' and to make a further improvement for NGDW field(refer to
attached No.1).
In this fiels, drilling operation had not been carried out for last 50 years, and these three
wells was drilled since 50 years ago. These wells would contribute further information of the
characterize of NGDWfield.
These three wells were drilled in N21base, respectively.
Well,N21-5 was spudded in in March 2014, and the target was "Nishiyama" formation.( refer to
attached No.1 Location Map)
Prior to spud in of N21-5 in 2014, these three wells were designed as follows;

Designing of Well, N21-5,6 &7

No. Item N21-5 N21-6 N21-7


1 Location NGDWN-21base NGDWN-21base NGDWN-21base
2 Drilling Target 1,300m 1,OOOm 1,200m
3 KOPNertical 500m 500m 500m
20"Condutor 20"Condutor 20"Condutor
4 Casing 13-3/8"Casing 13-3/8"Casing
. 13-3/8"Casing
8-5/8"Casing 8-5/8"Casing 8-5/8"Casing
5 Completion ESP(REDA) ESP(REDA) <-
ESP(REDA)

Geologicalstructure
Nakajo oil and gas filed is located in Tainai city of Nigata prefectural(Tainai city is
50km far for North direction from Nigata city). The concession is 13area for drilling
operation, and there is 13 applicated concession, and 20%share holder of offshore
concession. First well, R-l was drilled as Natural gas dissolved in water in 195~, after
that, 7 bases(from NlO base to N16 base) at Soutt East direction of well, R-l with each
300m intervals, and further 7 bases(from N20 base to N26 base) at Soutt West direction of
well, R-1 with each 300m intervals were constructed and drilled as Natural gas dissolved
in water(NGDW). The base at Northwest side direction including well,R-l is called as
North NGDW district, and the base at Southwest side direction is called as South

8-5
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

~Ci1)~ district
The targetted reservoir IS corespnding with Haizume and Nishiyama formation on
Nigata prefucture standard formaion lithology.
From top side, the sand stone reservoir is distinighed from 5 reservoir to 15 reservoir.
In the meanwhile, 10 reseroir is corespond with the top of Nishiyama formation, and the
top of 15 reservoir is corespondwith 1)5of NonAssociated Natural Cias(NAN(j).
About geologycalcircumastance, the geologicalstructure is situation which is slopped
to Northwest side as single structure. and the structure is continuing to Tsuiji of NANGOil
& Gas.
Regarding the produced brackish water, low temerature brackish water is from 5
reservoir to 8 reserovir, and modreate temperture is from 9 reservoir to 14 reservoir. and
high temperature is from 15 reservoir. The targetted reservoir for this time is from 11
reservir to 14 reservoir( refer to attached No.2 Formation Lithology)

..
1) LocationMap

o 500 1000 1500 2000 2500m


loi.oI ......, ......,
157220

8-6
JX .Nippon Oil It Gas Exploration

2) Formation Lithology

"Nishiyama" Formation
Target: 11+12reservoir (N21-6)
13 reservoir (N21-7)
14 reservoir (N21-5)

o 500

Opeation for Well, N21-5

The said well was spudded in on 25th March 2014, prior to spud in, 20"conductor pipe was
piled to 22m.
~ 17-1I2"holewas drilled to 161m and set 13-3/8"casingwas set.
~ 10-5/8"holewas drilled to 1,345m with several drilling problems.
The followingproblems coused while drilling 1O-5/8"holesection
1) Lost circulation coused while drilling at 226~230mOost volume: 3kl), spotted lost
circulation rnateril.
2) Lost circulation caused while drilling at 444m(0.5kllhr), and lost circulation caused at
468m~498m(1.0~1.6kllhr).Total lost circulation caused at 499m.
3) While reaming down at 334m~499m, Down hole motor was malfunction dueto sand
problem.
4) After kicking off at 507m, the bottom hole assembly was changed with two times.

8-7
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

5) The bottom hole assembly was changed with 3 times due to bit balling.
6) Lost circualtioncaused while drilling at 813m-892m(1.5-1.0kl/hr).
7) Lost circualtioncaused while drilling at 892m-1,01lm(1.0-0.5kllhr).
8) Lost circualtioncaused while drilling at 1,01lm-1,128m(0.5kllhr).
9) The bottom hole assembly was changed at 1,321mdue to bit, stabilizer balling.

~ Set 8-5/8"casinginside 1O-5/8"holesection.


~ Conducted completion and test.

Plan vsActual operaiton day for N21-5


Plan day for N21-5 was 32 days, on the other side, actual day was 39days. Actual day was
7days behiond for plan. Each job category is as follows;
No. Job Categoly Plan Actual Difference
1 Prepare to Spud 1 1
2 Drill 17~112"Hole to 100m 3 3

3 Run and Set 13-3/8"CSG 4 6
2
4 Drill 10-5/8"Hole to 1500m 21 28 7
5 Run Electricalloggings 22 29 7
6 Run and Set 8-5/8"CSG 24 31 7
7 Clean up the Well 25 32 7
8 Completion 29 36 7
9 Test 32 39 7

(referred to the attached No.3)Drilling Chart)

Opeation for Well, N21-6


The said well was spudded in on 12thMay 2014, prior to spud in, 20"conductor pipe was
piled to 22m.
~ 17-1/2"holewas drilled to 161m and set 13-3/8"casingwas set.
~ 10-5/8"holewas drilled to 1,023mwith several drilling problems.
The followingproblems coused while drilling lO-5/8"holesection
1) The bottom hole assembly(BRA) was pulled in order to change for kick off assembly at
507m(Normalcondition, not drilling problem).
2) The BRA was pulled in order to change for the build up assembly at 604m(Normal
condition, not drilling problem).

8-8
JX Nippon Oil" Gas Exploration

3) The BHAwas pulled due to bit balling at 641m.


4) The bottom hole assembly(BHA) was pulled in order to change for tangent assembly at
729m(Normal condition, not drilling problem).
5) The bottom hole assembly(BHA) was pulled in order to change for bit at 863m(Normal
condition, not drilling problem).

~ Set 8-5/8"casinginside 10-5/8"holesection.


~ Conducted completion and test.

Plan vs Actual operaiton day for N21-6


Plan day for N21-6 was 29 days, on the other side, actual day was 17days. Actual day
was 12days ahead for plan. Each job category is as follows;
s
No. Job Categoly Plan Actual Difference
1 Prepare to Spud 1 1 0
2 Drill 17-112"Hole to 161m 3 2 -1
3 Run and Set 13-3/8"CSG 5 4 -1
4 Drill 10-5/8"Hole to 1,023m 19 14 -5
5 Run Electricalloggings 20 15 -5
6 Run and Set 8-5/8"CSG 22 17 -5
7 Clean up the Well 25 17 -8
8 Completion 26 17 -9
9 Test 29 17 -12

(referred to the attached No.41Drilling Chart)

Opeation for Well, N21-7


The said well was spudded in on 11th June 2014, prior to spud in,
20"conductor pipe was piled to 20m.
~ 17-1I2"holewas drilled to 161m and set 13-3/8"casingwas set.
~ 10-5/8"holewas drilled to 1,209m.
~ Set 8-5/8"casinginside 10-5/8"holesection.
~ Conducted completion and test.

8-9
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Plan vs Actual operaiton day for N21-7


Plan day for N21-7 was 24 days, on the other side, actual day was 18days. Actual day
was 6days ahead for plan. Each job category is as follows;

No. . Job Categoly Plan Actual Difference


1 Prepare to Spud 1 1 0
2 Drill 17-112"Hole to 161m 3 2 -1
3 Run and Set 13-3/8"CSG 4 4 0
4 Drill 10-5/8"Hole to 1,209m 13 14 1
5 Run Electricalloggings 14 16 1
6 Run and Set 8-5/8"CSG 16 17 1
7 Clean up the Well 17 18 1
8 Completion 21 18 -3
9 Test 24 18 -6

(referred to the attached No.5) Drilling Chart)

8-10
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

3) Drilling Chart for N21-5

Days from Spud


o 25 March Spud in 20 30 40
o - -j--r---- Depth Plan
Planned Operations
(mMDGL) days (cum.)
.; Prepare to Spud 2~
100 - -1_ - r- - - 13-3/8"CSG set :156m,
M 17-112" Hole to 100m 100 3
Run. and Set 13-3 'S"CSG 100 1 4
200 -'--- ;...
---.....
- --;--,..-
- - - --,..-,..-.,.-
- -- -.- - ~ Dril11o..5'S" Hole to ljOOm 1350 17 21
Run Ele'Gt:ricallogltings 1350 J')

Run and Se,t &-5'8"CSG 1350 24


300 -;--- --.- - ~""-lil----
.... --- -- Clean up the Wen 1350 25
.. Completion 1350 4 29
Test 1350 n
400 -,..-
- --:----i"t--- ....
-r----r-

17-112"hole
section: 161m
-- r----f-
600 - - - ---- --;-- - - - -- -
---
3700 - - --. - - - ---- - -.-- _ ... - -
- -'--,..- -
o
Esoo
~ mMDGL
j1Ct!;~~J:~E*5
jl:~~(O
'"
) 1iii'i:("
--
---r-"

- -- -,. - -
f-- ..
..

__ . .. - - ---- - - - -- - - - - -- - -
~900 504 1.5 254 _ __"'1 - - - ;;;-;;t=;;;c -,;- '-
514 3 226 .
523 4.75 226
1000 533 6 227 - --,..- - - - - ~1~;;;~~-
-r-
-- - - - - -- - - - - --

1100
958
1015
1063
18
18
17.75
237
237
237
-. - lO-5/8"hole final TD :
1,345m

1200
1082
1130
18
18
236
237 --~~- - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - -
1178 18 239
1300 1226
1274
18
18
238
238
I~;..- -- -- - - .......--- - - - -- - - - - -- - -
1331 18 240
1400 1345 18 240 I - -~ -. -.- - -- - - - - -- - --- -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - -

~timi I 18 I 240 8-5/8"CSG set


<; _/ 1500

8-11
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

4) Drilling Chart for N21-6

Days from Spud


I
o 12 May Spud in I 20 30 40
o
17-112"hole section :
100 -------------- 161m ~------------- ---------------------
200 ---------- ....-------
13-3/8"CSG set (156.3m) &
300 ---------- Cemening

400 ------------ -------~---------------------~---------------------


---------------------

500 -------------- ------ --------------------- --------------------- ---------------------

600 ------------------~- ---~---------------- --------------------- ---------------------

3700
o
---------------------~--.-------------- .....
- 10-5/8"hole section: 1,023m
&00
~ I
~900

1000
mMOGL
490
iJt;+t:~J~~.5
ftU=W)
l':
'J5"i"il;(O
325
,--.~--------- ....-~--~-~----~---------------------;

8-5/8"CSG set
27
n_-'-=--+_-'=-'='-_+----=-2.:...7 ----I ,---------------- --------------------- ---------------------
I
26
26
26
26
tt---=--=--+_..:..::;.._+---=-2.=;._6---i ,---------------- ---------------------.;.---------------------;
25
25

8-12
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

5) Drilling Chart for N21-7

o 10 20
Days from fcPud 40 5
o Depth Plan
Planned Operations
(rnBRT) days (cum)
100 rrepare to Spud 20 I
17-112"hole section:161m Prill 17-112"Hole to 100m 100 3
k?unand Set 13-3/8"CSG 100 4
200 I;;;;:;.~~~ - ........ ' -.,;.- .. -;.. ...- .. -.;.-;-..;-.;-+-;-......... -:0"- ':~-.; Drill10-5/8" Hole to 1500m 1200 13
EEf.3 Run Electricalloggings 1200 14
~ Run and Set 8-5/8"CSG 1200 16
300 13-3/8"CSGset ~i=-1=t Clean up the Well 1200 17
-:0----1--1--;--- _..---.--..-. ~~ Completion 1200 21
1200 24
400 :-;:;.. .. _._~ ..... _.::-=. _,_ _ .. _ .. _ ...... _ .. _ .. _ ...... ~ ~_~~ Test

...-.-.--.
500 --1--+-+-1-_' - -"'_ -+-1--1--1--+-+-1--1-
- -::__-I-+-I--I--I-

600
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~900
=
r- - c- -r--r---r-.---.--.--
1000 ,..-- - -1-_.-1-+-1-_- -,., -1--1--+--' 10-5/8"hole section 1,209m
- r-
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r-;-----;----
1500

8-13
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

8.1.3 NK-67 (NonAssociated Natural Gas: NANG) Coming Well


The NK-67 well will be drilled on the NK-28 well pad. The well will produce on natural flow
completion in the M layer of theShiiya Formation.
Once the hole is logged and cased off with 5-1/2" casing, a Perforator will be run and
Perforate into M layer of the Shiiya formation, Single completion will be run and set to
maintain the oil and gas production.
The well is planned to come on stream as soon as possible after completion and Xmas tree
installa tion.
The well is designed to provide additional information about the Shiiya reservoir.
A proper pressure map for the Nakajo gas filed does not exist. Therefore the porepressure
and fracture gradient profiles used in this program contain an error margin and the rig
personnel must be alarmed for possible losses or kick that may occur while drilling this well.

l.Name of Well : NK-67


2.WellLocation : NK-28 WELL SITE
3.Type of Well : NATURALPRODUCTION
,

'\
4.Expected Drilling Days : 33 DAYS
5.Expected Completion Days : 7DAYS
6.8-112"Hole
7.Total Drilling Depth : 2,130.0 m (BGL)
8.True Vertical Depth : 2,069.81 m (BGL)
9.Formation of Target : M Layer of "SHIIYA"Formation
1O.TrueVertical Depth of Target : 1,690.9-1,726.1 mSS
11.Expected Rotary Table Elevation : -7.0m
12.UTMCo-Ordinate of Wellhead (UTM ZONE 54)
Latitude(Northing) : 4,212,183.0 niN
Longitude(Easting) : 354,057.0 mE

13.UTMCo-Ordinate of Target eM Layer of SHIIYAFormation)


(UTM ZONE 54)
Latitude(Northing): 4,212,523.0 mN
Longitude(Easting): 354,673.0 mE
14.Directional Plan
Type of Wellbore Trajectory : S-Curve
Kick off point : 390.0 m (BGL)

8-14
JX Nippon Oil & Ga.s Exploration

Max DogLeg : 3.0 Degrees/30 m


Maximum Inclination : 25.4 Degrees
Displacement : 351.6 m
Azimuth : 63.4Deg (Relative to True North)

Lead Angle Before spudding -in, must be discussed carefully considering position of off
set wells(NK-28 and NK-38 wells have been drilled on the NK-28 well site)

15. Hole Size, Terminal Depth (BGL) and Drilling


RT-GL -7.0 m # ..

26" 360.0 m ROTARY


17-1/2" 1,000.0 m MOTOR
12-114" 1,660.0 m MOTOR
8-112" 2,180.0 m MOTOR

16. Casing Program and Set Depth (BGL)


30" 310 LBS/FT X-56M WELD 24.7m
20" 106.5 LBS/FT J-55 BUTTRESS 360.0 m
13-3/8" 68 LBS/FT N-80Q BUTTRESS 1,000.0 m
9-518" 40 LBS/FT N-80Q BUTTRESS 1,660.0 m
5-112" 17 LBS/FT N-80Q VAMTOP. 2,180.0 m

17. Mud program


26" Gel MUD SG 1.20
17-112" KCL I LIGNATE MUD SG 1.20 - 1.50
12-114" KCL I LIGNATE MUD SG 1.45 - 1.55
8-112" KCL I LIGNATE MUD SG 1.45 - 1.55
COMPLETION KCL I LIGNATE MUD SG 1.45 - 1.55

8-15
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Drilling Chart

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8-16
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Explorat:ion

8.2 Workover

Reason to perform a work over

Workovers rank among the most complex,difficult and expensive types of wellwork. They
are only performed if the completion of a well is terminally unsuitable for the job at hand. The
production tubing may have become damaged due to operational factors like corrosion to the
point where well integrity is threatened. Downholecomponents such as tubing, retrievable
downhole safety valves, or electrical submersible pumps may have malfunctioned, needing
replacement. In other circumstances, the reason for a workover may not be that the completion
itself is in a bad condition, but that changing reservoir conditions make the former completion
unsuitable. For example, a high productivity well may have been completed with 5Y2"tubing to
allow high flow rates (a narrower tubing would have unnecessarily choked the flow).Some .
years on, declining productivity means the reservoir can no longer support stable flow through
this wide bore. This may lead to a workover to replace the 5Y2"tubing with 4Y2"tubing. The
narrower bore makes for a more stable flow.

Operation

Before any workover, the well must first be killed. Since workovers are long planned in
advance, there would be much time to plan the well kill and so the reverse circulation would be
common.The i;;_tensenature of this operation often requires no less than the capabilities of a
drilling rig. The workover begins by removing the wellhead and possibly the flowline, then
lifting the tubing hanger from the casing head, thus beginning to pull the completion out of the
well. The string will almost always be fixed in place by at least one production packer. If the
packer is retrievable it can be released easily enough and pulled out with the completion string.
If it is permanent, then it is commonto cut the tubing just above it and pull out the upper
portion of the string. If necessary, the packer and the tubing left in hole can be milled out,
though more commonly,the new completion will make use of it by setting a new packer just
above it and running new tubing down to the top of the old.

Workovers on casing

Although less exposed to wellbore fluids, casing strings too have been known to lose
integrity. On occasion, it may be deemed economicalto pull and replace it. Because casing
strings are cemented in place, this is significantly more difficult and expensive than replacing

8-17
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

the completion string. If in some instances the casing cannot be removed from the well, it may
be necessary to sidetrack the offending area and recomplete, also an expensive process. For all
but the most productive well, replacing casing would never be economical.

8.3 Well Service

Well services is a department within a petroleum production company through which


matters concerning existing wells are handled. Having a shared well services department for
all (or at least multiple) assets operated by a company is seen as advantageous as it allows the
pooling of talent, experience and resources for managing wells.

The term may sometimes be used to encompass the larger section of the industry
responsible for wells including the supplier companies as well the operating company's wells
department.

Remit

A well is initially drilled and completed under the control of the drilling and completions
department operating under the request of the asset. Once the well is completed, control is
transferred to the asset's production team, who will operate the well as appropriate for their
purposes. Should any issues of well integrity or any requirement for well work arise, the asset .
will refer the issue to the well services. During interventions, control of affected well is handed
over from production to the well services crew at the well site, a practical action involving
transferring control lines from the production control panel to the well services control panel.

Structure

When well work is required, it is the responsibility of the WOE to assemble the team and
arrange their dispatch to the well site. The team will consist of a well services supervisor and
other operators. The well services supervisor is a dedicated worker who is sent to oversee well
services operations at well sites and take responsibility for all well services personnel. At
offshore sites, there will commonly be two, to cover both day shift and night shift. The other
operators will usually consist of personnel from supplier companies, who are trained in the
relevant field, such as wireline, coiled tubing, wellhead maintenance, etc.

8-18
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Chapter 9: )

_ r <c>: T () r:
Facility Maintenance of NAKAJO Oil and Gas Field

9.1 Facility Maintenance Control


I make ISO Manual in a place based on IS09001 which is a standard of quality
management systems by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and
apply it to secure supply, gas, crude oil, quality of iodine to sell for a user in NAKAJO,
and maintenance, the check of a periodical plant (management facilities) is carried out
based on this.
"The maintenance check standard" that showed the management facilities name,
check contents, a check method, check frequency is established to maintain the
performance of the plant continuously in ISO Manual in the place.
When abnormality is discovered by check or when something wrong is recognized in
operating conditions, performs the repair by the company and/or by the outside order.
Main maintenance, check carried out regularly in each workplace is showed as below.

~ntenance G;
(1)American regulator periodic inspection
(2) Periodic inspection (well head, heater) of production oil equipment
(3) Periodical opening and closing check the valve of the wellhead base
(4) Periodic inspection of a separator for natural gas dissolved in water, KANSUi (the
water produced with dissolved gas) waterway and the outlet port
(5) Periodic inspection of a KANSUI (the water produced with dissolved gas) waterway
and the pipeline
(6) Lift pipe check of wells for natural gas dissolved in water
(7) Check of a little dangerous materials amount to be stored
(8) Leak check of the pipeline (Gastec)
(9) Periodic inspection (draining water device, water seal valve) of the pipeline
(10) Thickness gauging of the pipeline
(11) Periodic inspection of whist
(12) Check of the valve in the pit

Wells Gr
(1) Check and maintenance of the drilling equipment

Natural gas dissolved in water Gr

9-1
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(1) Periodic inspection of Glycoldehydrator for Natural gas dissolvedin water


(2) Check and maintenance of the compressor for Natural gas dissolved in water
(3) Check of fire extinguishing facilities
(4) Check of a little dangerous materials amount to be stored

Central processing plant and Gas compressor station Gr


(1) Check of production oil equipment
(2) Check of the oil storage tank
(3) Check of CENTUM
(4) Check of the Seismometer
(5) Check of the instrumentation apparatus
(6) Check of a little dangerous materials amount to be stored
(7) Check of fire extinguishing facilities
(8) Check of the 200KWcompressor
(9) Check of the 260KWcompressor
(10) Check of the infrared sensor
(11)Check of lTV (industrial surveillance camera)

Facilities Gr
(1) Check of the oil storage tank
(2) Check and maintenance of the telecom telemeter
(3) Check of UPS
(4) Check and maintenance of the electric apparatus
(5) Check and maintenance of the instrumentation apparatus
(6) Check of the electrical generator for emergency
(7) The measurement of the leak current
(8) Check of the radio machine
(9) Check of the company house electric circuit
(10) Check of electric facilities-proof
(11)The measurement of the electricpotential-proof
(12)VDT environmental measurement result and lighting equipment check

I introduce maintenance and check contents about the maintenance of CD Lift pipe
check of wells for natural gas dissolved in water and @Check of the 200KWgas
compressor among the above.

9-2
@c JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

CD Lift pipe check of wells for natural gas dissolved in water

In the case of periodical repair, Lift pipe check of wells for natural gas dissolved in
water is carried out once a year.
The purpose of lift pipe check is to confirm the follows.
The damage or not damage to lift pipe
The plug or not inside lift pipe
The outsidelinside condition of the well-head equipment.
The work procedure is as follows.
(1) Preparations before work
(2)Pull out of hole pipe operation
(3)Lift pipe maintenance
(4)Running in hole pipe operation
(5) Summary of putting in order and the work record

Figure 9.1-1 State of lift running in hole operation

9-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Figure 9.1-2 State of the lift pipe maintenance

@ Check of the 200KW gas compressor


For the check maintenance of the 200kW gas compressor, there are voluntary
maintenance to perform every 2,000 driving time and maker maintenance to
perform every 8,000 driving time.
The purpose of these check maintenance confirms whether a valve and the cooling
line do not have damage and this is because it changes a part.

The work procedure of the voluntary maintenance is as follows.


(1) Interception of the main switch
(2) Discharge valve disassembly, assembling
(3) Inhalational valve disassembly, assembling
(4) Oil-extracted of the outside oil filter
(5) Intercooler strainer cleaning
(6) Confirmation of the cylinder, piston and the oil leak of the grand packing
(7) Check of the pressure gauge and thermometer
(8) Check of the motor connection point coupling, bolt and the slack of the nut

9-4
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

(9) Check of compressor, foundations of motor, bolt and the slack of the nut
(10) Check of the leak of the coolant pipe
(11)Compressor pressure test
(12)Discharge valve maintenance
(13) Connection of the main switch

..
_

Figure 9.1-3 gas compressor

9.2 Facility Maintenance, Repair & Rental


Repair and the update of the plant are carried out based on a result of the periodical
check mentioned above.
In addition, repair and update is carried out urgently when a plant is damaged by
troubles.
I introduce an example of repair and update carried out in late years.

CD Repair of the pipeline


Because the leak from a pipeline caused by the exterior corrosion occurred, I
changed a part.

The work procedure is as follows.


(1) De-pressure
(2) Digging and identification of the leak point
(3) Pipe inside washing
(4) Cutting
(5) Welding

9-5
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Explorat.ion

(6) X-ray check


(7) Leak test
(8) Pressurization

Figure 9.2-1 Pin hole which occurred in a pipeline

9-6
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Figure 9.2-2 State of the laying of the new pipe

@ Update ofthe pipeline


Because it passed more than 30 years after laying pipe and, plural leak from a
- .
pipeline caused by the internal corrosion and exterior corrosion occurred, I updated it.

The work procedure is as follows.


(1) Plan
(2) Digging
(3) Welding
(4) Leak test
(5) Connecting to the existing line
(6) Pressurization

9-7
o JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Figure 9.2-3 State of an existing pipe (the left) and the new pipe (the right)

Well casing for natural gas dissolved in water repair


Because leak caused by the corrosion occurred, a casing of well for natural gas
dissolved in water cut this part and performed repair to connect a new casing.
A part contacting with a water vein at 10m depth under the ground is damaged by
the corrosion.

The work procedure is as follows.

(1) Disassembly of neighboring facilities


(2)YAlTA(sheet piles) piling
(3)Digging
(4) Cutting
(5)Welding
(6) Backfill
(7)Assembly of neighboring facilities

9-8
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Ex loration

Figure 9.2-4 State of the YAlTA (sheet piles) piling work

Figure 9.2-5 State after the digging

9-9
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Figure 9.2-6 the casing which I cut

9-10
~ JX Nippon Oil It Ga.s Exploration

Chapter 10 :
Iodine Factory in Nakajo Oil & Gas Field

11.1 Characteristics of Iodine


The Iodine, a halogen, occurs sparingly in the form of iodides in KAN-SUI (brackish water),
which is produced with dissolved gas at a concentration of 75 milligrams per liter. The crude Iodine
is recovered from KAN-SUI and exported to customers worldwide.

Product Specifications (Nakaio):

Purity More than 99.7%


Non-VolatileMaterials Less than 0.05%
Sulfate Less than 0.02%
Chlorine/BromineLess than 0.005%

Iodine
Atomic No. : 53
Melting Point : 113.6C
Boiling Point : 182.8C
Density : 4.93 g/cm

Iodine

Fig. 11.1 Elemental Periodic Table and Specificationsof Nakajo' Product

11.2 Various Uses of Iodine


The Iodine has a wide variety of uses in our lives. The main areas of use include the medical
field such as X-ray contrast media and gargles, sterilizers, fungicides, feed additives,
photo-sensitizers and polarizing films
.
for liquid crystal displays.
.

10-1
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Herbicides 2%
Salt
additives 4%
24%
Stabilizers 6%
Feed
additives 7%
LCD 10%
--- Antimicrobial
ag.ents 17%
Pharmace
utlcats
11%

catalysis 16%

* By Kanto Natural Gas DevelopmentCo. Ltd.

Fig. 11.2Various Uses ofIodine

11.3 Production of Iodine in the world, Japan and Nakajo field


Iodine is a nonmetallic element, and only is extracted from the natural resources.
Iodine is present in the sea water and soil.
Currently, the worId production of iodine IS conducted only in areas where the iodine
concentration is high in caliche from the Chile nitre and brines from the Natural Gas dissolved in
water field such as Japan.
The iodine production in Japan covers as much as approx. 30%of the total iodine production in
the world.
And then the iodine production of Nakajo field is approx. 3% of the total iodine production in
the Japan.

Russia

China
Azerbaijan USA
Turkmenistan


Indonesia Chile

:8: By Kanto Natural Gas DevelopmentCo. Ltd.

Fig. 11.3 Map of Iodine Producing Countries

10-2
0c JX Nippon Oil & Gas Explorat.ion

Supplier:
Total Production : 31 ,000 t (Year 2012)
Chile : 18,500 t (60%)
Japan : 10,000 t (32%)
Nakajo 300 t ( 3%)

IDA Production Facilities of Iodine Factory


The Iodine is extracted from the KAN-SUIby means of the blowout method.
CD The KAN-SUI is fed to the mixing tanks where an oxidant is added.
~ The mix fluid is fed to the Blowing Tower where the iodine is evaporated
into the air by 2 blowers.
The Iodine in air is absorbed with a reducing agent in the Absorbing Tower,
leading to the absorbent solution.
The Iodine is crystallized using an oxidant, melted to remove impurities, cooledto solidify,then
flaked and packed into the drums.

..
KAN-SUI

..
Oxidation

Melting
& Cooling

NGDW wellpads
Blowing & Absorbing Towers

Fig. lO.4-i Production Flow

10-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

odine Process Flow Diagram


fSodium
fHydrochlor ic fSuIfur ic fSodium hydrogen
acid J acid J hyooch lor i tej sulfite J fChlorineJ

NaCIO I CL

:---------1111, (Iodine Molecule)

/ .=====z...,-, Absorbing I)
Gasify
/t"" / ~I" Solution

120'C Heating

Impurities

Tanks
Melt!
liquefy
Orainage ......
__ --1

Iodine
Iodine Oxidation Iodine absorption Iodine Products
ReleaseReaction Reaction Separation
Iodine Refinement

Fig. 10.4-2Iodine Process Flow Diagram

10-4
@t JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Appendix 1

HSE of Nakajo Gas & Oil Field


Appendix 1:
HSE of The Nakajo Oil and Gas Field

Chapter 1 HSE rule ofThe Nakajo Oil and Gas Field


The Nakajo Oil and Gas Field is divided into Nakajo mine of the oil, natural gas
business and Crude iodine factory of the Crude iodine business by a product and each
competent authorities are Regional Industrial Safety and Inspection Department in
charge ofMinistry of Economy,Trade and Industry and High-pressure gas security man
and a person in charge of Pharmaceutical affair instruction of Niigata prefectural
government office. The laws and ordinances applied about safety vary according to
business and Operational Safety Rule is prescribed as follows with each application
laws and ordinances.

1. Nakajo mine (oiland natural gas)


Operational Safety Rule (MiningSafetyAct)
2. Nakajo iodine factory (Crude iodine)
(1) High-pressure gas hazard prevention regulations (High Pressure Gas Safety Act)
( 2) Poison, dynamite hazard prevention regulations (Poisonous and Deleterious
Substances ControlAct)
Here, explain the summary of Operational Safety Rule ofthe Nakajo mine which is
oil and natural gas business in a followingchapter.

Chapter2 Operational SafetyRule


1. General rule
(1) Purpose
It determines the protection ofthe worker, prevention ofthe work-related accident
and the environmental disruption caused by mining to secure safety.
(2) Use
I carry out the activity to secure safety basically by a cycleof a plan, do, check, and
action.
( 3 ) Observance duty
All miners must followthese officialregulations.

2. The contents that it is prescribed that I establish it in Operational Safety Rule


legally
(1) Safety management systems

Al-l
CD Organization for safety management:
I elect a general safety controller, safety controller and a safety supervisor in
consideration of an organization in the company to carry out securing of safety
systematically.
@ Safety and health Committee:
I install it to do an investigation, the deliberation and a report about an
important matter about safety and carry out the hearing of the opinion toa miner,
the notice to a miner and discussion. I elect half of committees from a miner.
(2 ) The enforcement of the present situation investigation (risk assessment)
( 3 ) Activity to promote safety:
1 build Safety management systems by the PDCA cycle. to promote safety and
devise the enforcement point appropriate to each mine. The example of the safety
promotion activity of this field is described in Chapter 3.
(4) Safety education:
About safety education to carry out when a miner works, I establish the following
content.
CD Work which need safety education and education contents
@ The qualification that safety education is exempted from
(5) Emergency response
CD In any of the report matter(a serious accident, a disaster) to establish in rule
Article 45 and Article 46, I report it with emergency communication chart
established promptly.
@ It determines a method of initial response and the evacuation.
I set up the organization for state of emergency measures and a task force.
@ It determines afflicted people relief.
I perform analysis and the preventive measures against contents of accident and
disaster
(6) The measures that mining industry incarnation should take measures
The disposal of gas, the use of a machine, an appliance and equipment, the
handling of explosives, the relief at the time of the disaster, processing of mining
industry waste, well waste water and the smoke from a mine, digging of the land, a
round of inspection and check
(7) The training and visit
Securing of safety of the trainee and the visitor
( 8 ) Measures for prevention of other hazard
CD Prevention of the hazard in the work

Al-2
Measures during a high place, heavy industrial machine work, the prevention of
the electrician crops electric shock and construction interruption
@ Prevention of the traffic accident in check rounds of inspection
(9) Review the evaluation method of measures to secure safety and measures
And builds the system which a general safety controller is in charge of a situation
investigation.

Chapter 3 PDCAfor safety of The Nakajo Oil and Gas Field


The Mine Safety Act was revised in 2004. As revised content, a major deregulation
from old law was performed and introduced a way of thinking (present situation
investigations) of the risk management and it was with the rule systems which put an
important point for the independent safety measures of the mine more such as the
construction of the safety management system by the PDCAcycle.
Here, Main contents of safety PDCAof this field is as follows.

1. Health, Safety and Environmental management policy


A general safety controller decides Health, Safety and Environmental policy every
year and makes order of implementation. The main point of the policy of 2015 is as
follows.
(1) I understand JX Group Mission Statement (cf. document 1) and our HSE policy
(document 2) enough.
( 2) In each workplace, I devise effective action plan on the basis of the actual situation
of the workplace and achieve an aim by the steady practice.
(3) I set following three points as an important point item of HSE
CDThereinforcement of disaster precautionary measures (correction of the potential
danger place, thorough safety awareness)
Active utilization ofthe HIYARI-HATTO(near miss accident)
@ Thorough health care.
Promotion of environmental measures
(4) I always have an awareness (Ethics:) of JX group employee and keep in mind with
legal compliance in the everyday life.

2. Active use of HIYARI-HATTO(near miss accident)


I carry out the following measures to realize the active use of HIYARI-HATTO(near.
miss accident) performed by the Policy mentioned above.
(1) I establish a commendation system for an annual majority reporter (to the higher

Al-3
third place) and am conferred a testimonial and the prize money in front of all
staff members.
(2) The workplace group comment of HIYARI-~TTO(near miss accident) report from
each person is performed basically by positive finding.
(3) HIYARI-HATTO(near miss accident) report is developed by an email in a mass
regularly to all staff members.
(4) I carry out the measures of HIYARI-HATTO (near miss accident) surely and the
motivation of reporting it is roused to each person by keeping the utility of the
report.
( 5) I gather HIYARI-HATTO(near mISS accident) III the year and analyze the
tendencies of contents.
A result, the number of reports of 2014 became 106 cases and grew 43 from 63 cases
of 2013.

3. Training for emergency response


I carry out the training that all staff members participate in for emergency response
once a year including head office task force and, through a follow-up ofthese training,
push forward the construction of the oil and gas field which is strong in a disaster.
As training content of 2014, for the assumption that fire of the oil and gas well base,
the strong sulfuric acid leak of the iodine factory and the injured person outbreak of an
employee during device check was happened successively by "an earthquake
occurrence of seismic intensity 5", training was performed. By these training, I
realized appropriate action to each accident, certain safety confirmation, quick
communication (intention transmission) and the cooperation with the head office task
force again. After these training ended, I cope for 18 points of improvement matters
pointed out one by one.

4. Safety meeting before periodical repair construction and Rules training all at once
I perform a safety meeting in the cause of the participation (29 people participate in
the results from 24 companies in 2014) of all subcontractors before periodical repair
construction which is no steady work largest in this oil and gas field, every year.
The purpose of a safety meeting is follows
CD I publicize a HSE policy of this oil and gas field
Prevention such as work conflicting by communalizing periodical repair
construction schedule of each group, and doing a horizontal connection thickly.
Close cooperation by the good communication between the people concerned

Al-4
including a subcontractor,
We think that this meeting contributes to accident prevention of the no steady work.

5. Mine safety week


Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry set (from 1 to 7 on July) for whole country
mine safety week on "day (July 1) of the nation security" for the purpose of
contributing to prevention of a mine disaster and the mining environmental
disruption by promoting the voluntary safety activity in the mine and planning uplift
of the safety awareness.
To it, I perform the event of the week premeditatedly every year in this oil and gas
field.
The special safety round of inspection of the president, the lecture by TAl Al police
station road safety section manager and other company plant tour were performed for
planning uplift of the safety awareness.
In addition, review and improve the contents of an action plan through a follow-up
after the end every year, too.

6. Safe & Health Committee


I hold a Safe & Health Committee as a member in a safety controller, a production
manager, Section Manager of general affairs, the maintenance and dissolved gas
charge senior staff and the representatives of the miner of four others as the
chairperson in people of general safety controller every month.
An important matter concerned with the safety such as HSE policy,HSE management
action plan, follow-up of that action plan and present situation investigation is
discussed in Safe & Health Committee.
In addition, the main content reviewed in the committee is as follows.
(1) The achievement situation of HSE results (annual aims of the nonstop operation
disaster such as 0)
(2) The presentation situation of HIYARI-HATTO(nearmiss accide?t) report
(3) Pointed matter by the workplace rounds of inspection of production and each
wellsite base
(4) Follow-upprogress of the emergency response training
( 5) the report from each committee such as 5S and careful driving promotion
committee.

Chapter 4 Others

Al-5
1. EMS activity
Based on the JX group EMS guidelines, I am based on EMS promotion Committee and
carry out EMS activity.
About the greenhouse gas reduction, it becomes the environmental aim of the company
and carries in particular out measures for accomplishment energetically.

2. Health activity
The health activity of this oil and gas field is carried out in culture and sport
Committee. I carry out the competition of softball and a tennis and a bus ski trip for
the purpose of CD mental health care and health making exercise and @ the
aggressive development of promotion event in culture and sport Committee.

3. 1S09001
This oil and gas field acquires 1S09001 of the product quality management. I
advocate "the stable operation" as one of the quality policies and assume essential "no
disaster without an accident" quality target for the practice.
A quality policy, quality target of 1809001 of this oil and gas field shows in document 3.

List of documents

Documentl. JX Group Mission Statement


Document2. HSE Policy
Document3. 1809001 quality policy, quality target

Al-6
JX Group Mission Statement

[JX Group Slogan]

The Future of Energy, Resources and Materials

[JX Group Symbol]

[JX Group Mission Statement]

JX Group will contribute to the development of a


sustainable economy and society through innovation
in the areas of energy, resources and materials.

[JX Group Values]

Our actions will respect the EARTH.

Ethics
A dvanced ideas
Relationship with society

Trustworthy products/services

Harmony with the environment


HEALTH, SAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
OF JX NIPPON OIL & GAS EXPLORATION CORPORATION

General Policy

We, ]X Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration Corporation, as a member of JX Group, whose mission statement is to
contribute to the development of a sustainable economy and society through innovation in the areas of
energy, resources and materials, are undertaking oil and gas exploration and production operations as one of
the core businesses of JX Group.

We, as a member of the society, are committed to providing oil and gas for the society's needs in a manner
that avoids injuries and illnesses to our employees, contractors and neighbours while acting in armony with
the environment of the Earth.

Strategies

We implement this policy by conducting the following strategies:

Ensuring that Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) considerations are given prevailing status over our
other business considerations.
Ensuring compliance with all relevant legislations and other requirements to which we subscribe.
Applying a systematic approach to HSE management to achieve continual HSE performance
improvement including setting strict HSE objectives and performing regular audits and reviews.
Designing our workplaces to minimise the risks to personnel and developing work practices to further
reduce the risks as low as reasonably practicable.
Encouraging the use of the best available technology to reduce the impact of our operations to the
environment, particularly with regard to the efficient use of energy and materials, the minimisation of
waste and the prevention of pollution.
Ensuring our personnel to be competent for their tasks and further providing HSE training and
awareness programmes to mana.ge HSE risks. .
Developing communication channels to ensure the HSE policy and its objectives are understood by all
our personnel, contractors and customers, and to actively seek their input and feedback.

Application

'The President of JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration Corporation is accountable for ensuring the HSE policy is
implemented and that its effectiveness is reviewed annually.

All personnel and contractors of our Group Companies in all areas of the activities under our operational
control are responsible for applying the HSE Policy.

Shunsaku Miyake
Representa tive Director, President and CEO
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration Corporation
June 2014
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JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Appendix 2

Drilling Program for Well, NK-67


)

JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Appendix 2:
NK-67 (NonAssociated Natural Gas: NANG) Coming in 2015

CONTENTS

[1] Drilling Summary


Operation Organization Chart
Drilling Summary
Drilling Chart
Time Estimation
Well Schematic
Completion Well Profile

[2] Geological Data


Contour map "
Forecast Formation Top
Formation Pressure & Temperature Prognosis

[3] Well Plan


Well Trajectory

[4] Job Out line

[5] Completion and Flow test

[6] Detailed job instruction


BHAList
Bit Program(BHI.)
Casing & Centralizer Program
Mud Logging and Electrical Logging Program

[7] Others
. Completion program
Wellhead specification

A2-1
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

[1] Drilling Summary

Operation Organization Chart

Well Site

Oifice

Opeiratialill"'ana~
Mt lslilig;e

Draling SUlpenn_dent lfKhniiQI Support

r. r. H. Wa'hUHlOO Pf"(Ji~t e:oordinatrli)QI & alili~jn~5


~ OIwflopm.m Ot!pL.4.

A2-2
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Drilling Summary

The NK-67 well will be drilled on the NK-28 well pad. The well will produce on natural flow
completion in the M layer of the Shiiya Formation.
Once the hole is logged and cased off with 5-112"casing, a Perforator will be run and Perforate
into M layer of the Shiiya formation, Single completion will be run and set to maintain the oil
and gas production.
The well is planned to come on stream as soon as possible after completion and Xmas tree
installation.
The well is designed to provide additional information about the Shiiya reservoir.
A proper pressure map for the Nakajo gas filed does not exist. Therefore the pore pressure, and
fracture gradient profiles used in this program contain an error margin and the rig personnel
must be alarmed for possible losses or kick that may occur while drilling this well.

NAME OF WELL : NK-67


WELL LOCATION : NK-28 WELL SITE
TYPE OF WELL : NATURAL PRODUCTION
EXPECTED DRILLING DAYS : 33 DAYS
EXPECTED COMPLETION DAYS : 7DAYS
8-112"HOLE
TOTAL DRILLING DEPTH : 2,130.0 m (BGL)
TRUE VERTICAL DEPTH : 2,069.81 m (BGL)
FORMATION OF TARGET : M LAYER OF SHIIYA FORMATION
TRUE VERTICAL DEPTH OF TARGET : 1,690.9 - 1,726.1 mSS
EXPECTED ROTARY TABLE ELEVATION : -7.0m
UTM CO-ORDINATE OF WELLHEAD
(UTM ZONE 54)
LATITUDE (NORTHING) : 4,212,183.0 mN
LONGITUDE (EASTING): 354,057.0 mE
UTM CO-ORDINATE OF TARGET eM LAYER OF SHIIYA FORMATION)
(UTM ZONE 54)
LATITUDE (NORTHING): 4,212,523.0 mN
LONGITUDE (EASTING): 354,673.0 mE
DIRECTIONAL PLAN
TYPE OF WELLBORE TRAJECTORY : S-CURVE

A2-3
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

KICK OFF POINT : 390.0 m (BGL)


MAX DOG LEG : 3.0 DEGREES/30 m
MAXIMUM INCLINATION : 25.4 DEGREES
DISPLACEMENT : 351.6 m
AZIMUTH : 63.4 DEG (RELATIVE TO TRUE
NORTH)

LEAD ANGLE BEFORE SPUDDING-IN, MUST BE DISCUSSED CAREFULLY


CONSIDERING POSITION OF OFF SET WELLS. (NK-28 AND NK-38
. WELLS HAVE BEEN DRILLED ON THE NK-28 WELL SITE.)

HOLE SIZE, TERMINAL DEPTH (BGL) AND DRILLING


RT-GL -7.0 m
26" 360.0 m ROTARY
17-112" 1,000.0 m MOTOR
12-114" 1,-660.0 m MOTOR
8-112" 2,180.0 ill MOTOR

CASING PROGRAMME AND SET DEPTH CBGL)


30" 310 LBS/FT X-56M WELD 24.7m
20" 106.5 LBS/FT J-55 BUTTRESS 360.0 m
13-3/8" 68 LBS/FT N-80Q BUTTRESS 1,000.0 m
9-5/8" 40 LBS/FT N-80Q BUTTRESS 1,660.0 m
5-1/2" 17 LBS/FT N-80Q VAMTOP 2,180.0 m

MUD PROGRAMME
26" Gel MUD SG 1.20
17-112" KCL I LIGNATE MUD SG 1.20 - 1.50
12-114" KCL I LIGNATE MUD SGl.45 - 1.55
8-112" KCL I LIGNATE MUD SG1.45 - 1.55
COMPLETION KCL I LIGNATE MUD SG 1.45 - 1.55

A2-4
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Drilling Chart

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A2-5
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Time Estimation
NK-67 Time Estimation
2015.03.02 ...

Job Acc. Job duration Job Job Description


NO. From To Time
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A2-6
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A2-7
JX .Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

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A2-8
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

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A2-9
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

[2] Geological Data

Contour map

349600 350400 351200 352000 352800 353600 354400 355200 356000


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349600 350400 351200 352000 352800 353600 354400 355200 356000

A2-10
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Forecast Formation Top

(mTVOG )
o

200 ---~

400

600

11690
1700
I I MU-2
"fIfl
7Mt
171>
11710 V MU-l 1114
I
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11720 ",:<;
1730 Ml-2 7)J;,<;
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IliSO ,
11760
I1770
Planned TO 2200 .1--__ '---_--' 11780

@213 mMO 11790


(2051 mTVDGL)
1800
I
law 1820
~l;
1830 N-t 1I'1..'~
I
I
"I~~
1840 N-2 1~2

11850 '0'"
N-3 ,!!54S
11860

A2-11
o JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Formation Pressure & Temperature Prognosis

cr ~~ j ~I
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A2-12
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

[3] Well Plan

NK-67 Well Trajectory


o L

100
f
!
.; .;
200

r' I' 'I


200
~
. + 1'--' W I""
I
300
.... KOP@36 m
I
.~
.~
150

" V
400 ~.1t

500
~
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j i 100
/
600
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I
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t \. ~ 50

c
aoo
-, End of Build @ 9000"1
V I' I
~ 900
> -, 0 V
1,000

i,. ", ....


-.\
, :.
1,100
t I " t
I
1,200
+ -50
50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300,350 4g0
1,300
E-W(m)

1,400
.. I \ ~
t
~ 1t
\ ! r t
' ....
1,500
f

1,600 +
,:
!"
I . ~ ..
1,700
I ~
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r.eoo
1,900
1 :
,
.,
2,000
i f
~ . I ~
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.... .~ .
t
2,100.
t
r
t
,
Hole TD@2,130m
. I
j +. !.
.. t
t
2,200
-100 o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1.000

VerticalSection(m) @ 63.38.degtrueNorth

A2-13
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

C!

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A
0X JX Nippon Oil & Ga.s Ex!ploration

JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration CO


NK-67

Measured Angle Azimuth TVD Rectangular Coordinates Vertical Dog


Depth Deg Deg m m Section Leg

o 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


30.00 0.000 0.000 30.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 60.00 0.000 0.000 60.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 90.00 0.000 0.000 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
4 120.00 0.000 0.000 12.0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

5 150.00 0.000 0.000 150.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00


6 180.00 0.000 0.000 180.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 210.00 0.000 0.000 210.00 0.00 0.00 0:00 0.00
8 240.00 0.000 0.000 240.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
9 270.00 0.000 0.000 270.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10 300.00 0.000 0.000 300.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


11 330.00 0.000 0.000 330.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
12 360.00 0.000 0.000 360.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
13 390.00 1.000 63.360 390.00 0.08 0.16 0.17 1.00
14 420.00 2.500 63.360 419.98 0.49 0.97 1.09 1.50

15 450.00 4.000 63.360 449.94 1.25 2.49 2.79 1.50


16 480.00 5.500 63.360 479.83 2.37 4.72 5.28 1.50
17 510.00 7.000 63.360 509.65 3.83 7.63 8.54 1.50
18 540.00 8.500 63.360 539.38 5.64 11.25 12.59 1.50
19 570.00 10.000 63.360 568.99 7.81 15.56 17.41 1.50

20 600.00 11.500 63.360 598.46 10.32 20.56 23.00 1.50


21 630.00 13.000 63.360 627.77 13.17 26.25 29.37 1.50
22 660.00 14.500 63.360 656.91 16.37 32.62 36.50 1.50
23 690.00 16.000 63.360 685.86 19.91 39.68 44.39 1.50
24 720.00 17.500 63.360 714.58 23.78 47.40 53.04 1.50

25 750.00 19.000 63.360 743.07 28.00 55.80 62.43 1.50


26 780.00 20.500 63.360 771.31 32.54 . 64.86 72.57 1.50
27 810.00 22.000 63.360 799.27 37.42 74.58 83.44 1.50
28 840.00 23.500 63.360 826.93 42.62 84.95 95.04 1.50
29 870.00 25.000 63.360 854.28 48.14 95.96 107.36 1.50

30 900.00 25.460 63.360 881.39 53.91 107.46 120.23 0.46


31 930.00 25.460 63.360 908.48 59.69 118.99 133.12 0.00
32 960.00 25.460 63.360 935.56 65.48 130.51 146.02 0.00
33 990.00 25.460 63.360 962.65 71.26 142.04 158.91 0.00
34 1020.00 25.460 63.360 989.74 77.04 153.56 171.80 0.00

35 1050.00 25.460 63.360 1,016.82 82.82 165.09 184.70 0.00


36 1080.00 25.460 63.360 1,043.91 88.61 176.61 197.59 0.00
37 1110.00 25.460 63.360 1,071.00 94.39 188.14 210.49 0.00
38 1140.00 24.440 63.360 1,098.18 100.08 199.48 223.18 1.01
39 1170.00 23.240 63.36.0 1,125.62 105.52 210.32 235.31 1.20
A2-15
JX Nippon on & Gas Exploration

40 1200.00 22.040 63.360 1,153.31 110.70 220.65 246.86 1.20


41 1230.00 20.840 63.360 1,181.23 115.62 230.45 257.83 1.20
42 1260.00 19.640 63.360 1,209.38 120.27 239.73 268.21 1.20
43 1290.00 18.440 63.360 1,237.73 124.66 248.48 277.99 1.20
44 1320.00 17.240 63.360 1,266.29 128.78 256.69 287.19 1.20

45 1350.00 16.040 63.360 1,295.03 132.64 264.37 295.78 1.20


46 1380.00 14.840 63.360 1,323.95 136.22 271.51 303.77 1.20
47 1410.00 13.640 63.360 1,353.03 139.53 278.11 311.15 1.20
48 1440.00 12.440 63.360 1,382.25 142.56 284.16 317.92 1.20
49 1470.00 11.240 63.360 1,411.61 145.32 289.67 324.08 1.20

50 1500.00 10;.040 63.360 1,441.10 147.81 294.62 329.62 1.20


51 1530.00 8.840 63.360 1,470.69 150.02 299.02 334.54 1.20
52 1560.00 7.640 63.360 1,500.38 151.95 302.86 338.84 1.20 \._J
53 1590.00 6.440 63.360 1,530.15 153.60 306.15 342.52 1.20
54 1620.00 5.240 63.360 1,560.00 154.96 308.88 345.57 1.20

55 1650.00 4.040 63.360 1,589.90 156.05 311.05 348.00 1.20


56 1680.00 2.840 63.360 1,619.84 156.86 312.66 349.80 1.20
57 1710.00' 1.640 63.360 1,649.82 157.39 313.71 ~ - 350.98 1.20
58 1740.00 0.440 63.360 1,679.81 157.63 314.20 351.52 1.20
59 1770.00 0.000 0.000 1,709.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.44

60 1800.00 0.000 0.000 1,739.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00


61 1830.00 0.000 0.000 1,769.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00
62 1860.00 0.000 0.000 1,799.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00
63 1890.00 0.000 0.000 1,829.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00
64 1920.00 0.000 0.000 1,859.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00

65 1950.00 0.000 0.000 1,889.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00


66 1980.00 0.000 0.000 1,919.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00
67 2010.00 0.000 0.000 1,949.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00
68 2040.00 0.000 0.000 1,979.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00
69 2070.00 0.000 0.000 2,009.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00

70 2100.00 0.000 0.000 2,039.81 157.65 314.24 351.57 0.00


71 2130.00 0.000 358.980 2,069.81 ,157.65 314.24 35~.57 0.00
72
73
74

75
76
77
78

The dogleg severity is in degrees per 30 meters


Rectangular coordinates given relative to well system reference point
The vertical section origin is the wellhead
The vertical section was computed along 194.98 degrees (true)
The calculation method is Minimum Curvature
A2-16
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

[4] Job Outline

Drilling
o. Preparation / Guidelines
0.1. NK-28 and NK-38wells are in close proximity to the planned NK-67well path.
Ensure wells are shut in prior to spud in, and remain shut in during drilling and
completion operation.
0.2. 30"stovepipe was set before rig units installations.
0.3. Check drill logger and all instruments before spud in.
0.4. Prepare 50 KL Gel mud in accordance with mud program.
0.5. Make-up enough number of 5"DPstands for cementing and set back.
0.6. Make up the cement stinger and rack back.
0.7. Check recommended make up torque for all connections of drilling assembly.

1. Drilling 26" Hole and set 20" Casing


Drilling
1.1. Make up 26"rotary assembly as per BRA program. Ensure that all tubular are
drifted, including DCs.
1.2. Drill 26"holesection to 360 m MDBRTas follows:
~ Run TOTCOID~to make sure the angle is less than 1.0 deg before spud.
~ Run TOTCO/Drat first single down, every +/-90m, TD.
~ Depth will change depending on the length of casing and required sump hole.
~ Perform short trips every 180m.
~ Cuttings will be checkedby JX Geologistto confirm there are no sand formations
around casing shoe depth.
1.3. Circulate the hole clean. Pump Hi-Vismud, if required.
1.4. POOH 26"rotary assembly to surface.
1.5. Run back 26"rotary assembly in the hole to check fill.
1.6. Circulate the hole clean and condition the mud.
1.7. POOH 26"rotary assembly.

Casing run and Cementing


1.8. Rig up casing running equipments.
1.9. Run 20"casing in accordancewith casing running procedure.
~ Followingto casing running procedure and centralizer installation procedure.

A2-17
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

>- When the last joint of casing is landed on the table with the elevator, do not use
slips for landing. Put 2" iron plate between elevator and rotary table, to check
slack after WOCand to release elevator.
1.10. Run cement stinger assembly.
>- Prepare special bowl and slips for running 5"DP.
- >- Ensure a 20" centralizer is attached on the 5" DP approx. 1 to 2m above the cement
stinger.
>- Ensure circulation through string before stinging into the 20" shoe.
-1.11. Carry out cementing as per program, POOH with stinger assembly.WOC.
1.12. Wait on cement until surface samples are firm.
>- During WOC,roughly cut 30"casingby cutting torch and centralize 20"casing
inside 30"casingwith iron plates. Make a final cut of 30"casing as per well head
installation procedure.
>- After WOC,slack offelevator by removing -2"iron plates to confirm the cement
becomeshard. If 20"casingis stationary, 'make a final cut of 20"casing as per well
head installation procedure.
1.13. Install 21-114"casing head, Weld 30"x 20" SOWwlbase plate casing head assembly.
1.14. Wait on cooldown to pressure test for welding portion and test with 580 psi from
test port.
1.15. Nipple up 21-1I4"BOPstack and carry out BOP test as per JX instructions
1.16. Mix sufficient new KCL-Lignate mud as per mud program.
>- Change screens on the shaker in accordance with mud program.

2. Drilling 17-112"Hole and set 13-3/8"Casing


Drilling
2.1. Install wear bushing
2.2. Make up 17-112"drilling assembly as per BHAprogram.
2.3. "RIH 17-112"drilling assembly to the top of float shoe.
->- Take care when running both the bit and stabilizers through the BOPs
>- Pick up sufficient additional 5" DP to drill entire hole section.
2.4. Tag cement and pressure test casing to __ psi.
2.5. Drill out cement and 20" shoe track, rat hole and 5m of new formation.
2.6. Pump 5KLof Hi-Vismud and circulate to clean up the well.
>- Dress up around 20"shoewhile circulating.
2.7. Displace well to KCL-Lignate mud.

A2-18
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

2.S. Perform shoe bond test as per JX instructions.


~ Pull back inside the 20" casing shoe.
~ Perform shoe bond test against the pipe rams.
2.9. Drill ahead 17-112"hole section to 1,000 m MD BRT in accordance with
Sperry-sun directional program as follows:
~ Adjust tool face to the desired direction by scribe line drawn on 5"HWDP.
~ Take long survey and check magnetic interference. Rig up GYRO,if required.
~ Kick offwith 3.0 /30m dog leg on an azimuth of 63.36to 25 inclination by S70
0

m MD BRT.Then drill tangent to section 'rn ofI,OOOm MD BRT.


~ MWD surveys to be taken at each connection to control build rat.
~ Record drilling parameters every stand (up, down and rotating weights, drilling
and offbottom torque, pump pressure).
~ Perform short trips every 300 m.
2.10. Circulate to clean up the well.
2.11. POOH with 17-112"drilling assembly.
2.12. Make up wiper trip / reaming run assembly and RIH to TD.
2.13. Circulate to clean up the well and condition the mud.
2.14. POOH wiper trip assembly.
2.15. Retrieve wear bushing.

Casing run and Cementing


2.16.Rig up casing running equipment.
2.17.Run 13-3/S"casingin accordance with casing running procedure.
~ Following to casing running procedure and centralizer installation procedure.
2.1S.Carry but cementing in accordance with cementing program.
2.19. Flow check the annulus for 15minutes.
2.20. Pick up 21-114"BOP stack and set the 13-3/S"casing slips and slack offtension as
per wellhead instruction.
2.21.Rig down cementing head and circulating lines.
2.22. Rough cut as per well head installation procedure and recover the excess string.
2.23. Nipple down 21-114"BOP stack.
2.24. Final cut and prepare the 13-3/S"casing as per wellhead installation procedures.
2.25. Nipple up 21-114"2K x 13-5/S"5K casing spool.Test with 3,000 psi from test port.
2.26. Nipple up 13-5/S"5K BOP stack.

A2-19
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

~ Test choke and kill lines to 5000psi.


2.27.Pressure test 13-5/8"5K BOPs and surface equipment as per JX instructions.
~ Make up and run the 13-3/8"combination test tool on 5" DP.
~ Open the casing spool side outlet valve and monitor for leaks during testing.
~ Test the BOP stack as per the test schedule.
~ Retrieve 13-3/8"combination test tool on 5" DP.
2.28.Install 13-3/8"wear bushing.
2.29.Mix sufficient new KCL-Lignatemud as per mud program.
~ Change screens on the shaker in accordance with mud program.

3. Drilling 12-114"Hole and set 9-5/8"Casing


Drilling
3.1. Make-up enough number of 5"DPstands.
3.2. Make up 12-1/4"drilling assembly as per BHApr,ogram.
3.3. RIH 12-114"drilling assembly to the top of float collar.
~ Take care when running both the bit and stabilizers through the BOPs
3.4. Tag cement and pressure test casing to __ psi.
3.5. Drill out cement, 13-3/8"collar and shoe track, rat hole and 5m of new formation.
~ Record drilling parameters.
3.6. Pump 5KLof Hi-Vismud and circulate to clean up the well.
~ Dress up around 13-3/8"shoewhile circulating.
3.7. Perform shoe bond test as per JX instructions.
~ Pull back inside the 13-3/8"casing shoe.
~ Perform shoe bond test against the pipe rams.
3.8. Displace well to new KCL-Lignatemud.
3.9. Drill ahead 12-114"hole section-to1,660 m MD BRTin accordancewith
Sperry-sun
directional program as follows:
~ Drill tangent section to 1,llOm MD BRT.
~ Drill Drop to section of TD 1,660mMD BRT.
~ MWDsurvey to be taken at each connection.
~ Record drilling parameters every stand (up, down and rotating weights, drilling
and offbottom torque, pump pressure).
~ Perform short trips every 300 m.
3.10. Circulate to clean up the well.

A2-20
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

3.11. POOH with 12-114"drilling assembly.


3.12. Make up wiper trip /'reaming run assembly and RIH to TD.
3.13. Circulate to clean up the well and condition the mud.
3.14. POOH wiper trip assembly.
3.15. Retrieve wear bushing.

Casing run and Cementing


3.16.Rig up casing running equipment.
~ Change pipe ram to 9-5/S".
3.17.Run 9-5/S"casingin accordance with casing running procedure.
~ Following to casing running procedure and centralizer installation procedure.
~ Fill casing with mud everyfive joints.
~ The casing tally should place 9-5/S"stick up lm above the rotary table and ensure
no couplings are across the wellhead area.
3.1S.Carry out cementing in accordance with cementing program.
3.19. Flow check the annulus for 15minutes.
3.20. Set back 13-5/S"5KBOP stack and set the 9-5/S"casing slips and slack offtension as
per wellhead instruction.
3.21.Rig down cementing head and circulating lines.
3.22.Rough cut as per well head installation procedure and recover the excess string.
3.23. Final cut and prepare the 9-5/S"casing as per wellhead installation procedures.
3.24. Nipple up 13-5/S"5K x 11"5K casing spool. Test with 3,000 psi from test port.
3.25. Nipple up 11"5Kx 13-5/S"5Ksub flange and 13-5/S"5K BOP stack.
~ Test choke and kill lines to 5000psi.
3;26.Pressure test 13-5/S"5K BOPs and surface equipment as per JX instructions.
~ Make up and run the 13-3/S"combination test tool on 4-112"DP.
~ Open the casing spool side outlet valve and monitor for leaks during testing.
~ Test the BOP stack as per the test schedule.
~ Retrieve 13-3/S"combination test tool on 4-112"DP.
3.27. Install 9-5/S"wear bushing.
3.2S.Mix sufficient new KCL-Lignate mud as per mud program.
~ Change screens on the shaker in accordance with mud program.

4. Drilling S-1I2"Hole and set 5-112"Casing


Drilling

A2-21
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

4.1. Make up 8-112"drilling assembly as per BHA program.


4.2. RIH 8-112"drilling assembly to the top of float collar.
~ Take care when running both the bit and stabilizers through the BOPs
~ Pick up sufficient 5" DP to drill entire hole section.
4.3. Tag cement and pressure test casing to __ psi.
4.4. Drill out cement, 9-5/8" collar and shoe track, rat hole and 5m of new formation.
~ Record drilling parameters.
'0."

4.5. Pump 5KL of Hi-Vis mud and circulate to clean up the well.
~ Dress up around 9-5/8"shoe while circulating.
4.6. Perform shoe bond test as per JX instructions.
~ Pull back inside the 9-5/8"casing shoe.
~ Perform shoe bond test against the pipe rams.
4.7. Displace well to KCL-Polymer mud.
4.8. Drill ahead 8-1/2"hole section to 2,130 m MD BRT in accordance with Sperry-sun
directional program as follows:
~ Drill drop section to 1,750m until 0 degree.
~ Drill vertical hole to section TD of 2,130m MD BRT.
~ Actual TD will be confirmed by the Well Site Geologist.
~ MWD survey to be taken at each connection.
~ Record drilling parameters every stand (up, down and rotating weights, drilling
and offbottom torque, pump pressure).
~ Perform short trips every 300 m.
4.9. Circulate to clean up the well.
4.10. POOH with 8-112"drilling assembly to 9-5/8" shoe.
4.11.' Run back to bottom.
4.12. Circulate to clean up the well and condition the mud.
4.13. POOH with 8-112"drilling assembly.

Logging
4.14. Open hole logging.
~ The following open hole logs required: DLL-FWS-GR,GRN, CDL-GR,XRMI
~ Run a reaming assembly and ream down prior to xxx survey, in order to reduce the'
stacking risk.
4.15. Make up wiper trip / reaming run assembly and RIH to TD.
4.16. Circulate to clean up the well and condition the mud.

A2-22
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

4.17. POOH with wiper trip assembly.


4.18. Retrieve wear bushing.

Casing run and Cementing


4.19. Rig up Weatherford casing running equipments.
~ Change pipe ram to 5-1/2".
4.20.Run 5-1I2"casingin accordance with casing running procedure.
~ Followingto casing running procedure and centralizer installation procedure.
~ Fill casing with mud every five joints.
The casing tally should place 5-112"stick up lmabove the rotary table and ensure
no couplings are across the wellhead area.
4.21. Carry out cementing in accordance with cementing program.
4.22. Flow check the annulus for 15minutes.
4.23. Pick up 13-5/8"5KBOP stack and set the 5-112"casing slips and slack offtension as
per wellhead instruction.
4.24.Rig down cementing head and circulating lines.
4.25. Rough cut as per well-head installation procedure and recover the excess string.
4.26. Nipple down 13-5/8"5KBOP stack.
4.27. Final cut and prepare the 5-1/2"casing as per wellhead installation procedures.
4.28. Nipple up 11" 5K x 7-1116"5K tubing spool. Test with__ psi from test port.
4.29. Nipple up 7-1116"5K x 7-1116"10K sub flange and 7-1116"10K BOP stack.
~ Test choke and kill lines to 5000psi.
4.30. Pressure test 7-1116"10K BOPs and surface equipment as per JX instructions.
~ Make up and run the 5-112"combination test tool on 5" DP.
~ Open the tubing spool side outlet valve and monitor for leaks during testing.
~ Test the BOP stack as per the test schedule.
~ Retrieve 5-112"combination test tool on 5" DP.
4.31. Install 5-112"wear bushing.
4.32. Lay down excess 5"DP.

5. Clean up the well.


Drill out cement
5.1. Make-up enough number of 2-7/8"HWDP and 2-7/8"DP stands.
5.2. Make up 4-3/4"bit assembly as per BHAprogram.
5.3. RIH 4-3/4"bit assembly to the top of float collar.

A2-23
JX .Nippon Oil & Gas Ex.ploration

~ Take care when running the bit through the BOPs


~ Pick up sufficient 2-7/8" DP to drill entire hole section.
5.4. Tag cement and pressure test casing to __ psi.
5.5. Drill out cement to 5-112"collar.
~ _Record drilling parameters.
5.6. Pump 5KL of Hi-Vismud and circulate to clean up the well.
5.7. POOH with 4-3/4" bit assembly.
5.8. Make up 5-1/2" scraper assembly as per BHAprogram.
5.9. RIH 5-112"scraper assembly to the top of float collar.
~ Take care when running both the bit and scraper through the BOPs
5.10. Circulate to clean up the well.
5.11. POOH with 5-112"scraper assembly.

Logging
5.12. Cased hole logging.
~ The followingcased hole logs required: RCBL-GL

[5].Run Completion and Flow test

5.13. Rig up Weatherford tubing running equipments.


5.14. Make up 5-112"SC-2 packer assembly as per BHI instructions.
~ Use water to make sure it is clear and no debris inside assembly.
5.15. Rig down BJ tubing running equipments.
5.16. RIH 5-1/2" SC-2 packer assembly with 2-7/8"DP.
~ Before RIH inspect packer for damage to slip or element and re-check all-shear
pms,
~ Running trip tank during RIH to check hole conditions.
~ Record pick up weight and slack offweight at packer setting depth.
5.17. Set 5-112"SC-2 packer assembly at __ m as per BRI instructions.
5.18. Circulate to clean up the well.
5.19. POOH with packer setting tool.
5.20. Retrieve wear bushing.
5.21. Rig up BJ tubing running equipments.
5.22. Make up and RIH EBH-22 anchor seal assembly while picking up 2.;3/8" VAMTOP
tubing.

A2-24
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

~ Following to completion tally and profile.


~ Running trip tank during RIH to check hole conditions.
~ Record pick up weight and slack offweight at packer setting depth.
5.23. Space out, Make up tubing hanger with landing joint, and Land on.
~ ...Record final weight with out hook.
5.24. Rig down BJ tubing running equipments.
5.25. Screw in tie down volts and pressure test annuals.
~ Pressure up annulus to 1,000psi to check the leakage of seal assembly and tubing
connections.
5.26. Lay down landing joint and install H-2 back pressure valve.
5.27. Carry out pressure test for hanger with 1,000 psi.
5.28. Nipple down 7-1/16" lOKBOP stack.
5.29. Nipple up Xmas tree and pressure test to 3,000 psi.
5.30. Lay down 2-7/8" HWDPand DP.
5.31. Rig up coiled tubing and fabricate surface line as per Halliburton instructions.
~ ~
5.32. RIH 1.25"coiled tubing while pumping fresh water. (KCL_%)
5.33. Circulate to clean up the well and displace fresh water. (KCL_o/c)
5.34. N2 lift at _m and flowtest as per JX instructions.
5.35. POOH with 1.25"coiledtubing and Rig down.
5.36. Rig down all and demobilizations

[6] Detailed job Instruction

BHAList

DRILLING

DRL-l: Spudding
26"Bit + Bit sub + 8" Float sub + 8" Saver sub + 8" NMDC+ 8" Saver sub + 8" DC x 6
+XlO

DRL-2: Drill 26" Hole


26"Bit + 26"Stabilizer + B/S+ 18"Float sub + 8" Saver sub + 8" NMDC+ 8" Saver sub
+ 8" DC x 6 + XlO

A2-25
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

DRL-3: Kick-offand drill 17-1/2"hole


17-1/2"Bit + 9-5/8"Sperry-drill motor (17-114" STB, 0.78 adj bent, Lobe=617,
Stage=5.0) + 17-1I4"Stab + XlO (7-5/8"Reg Pin x 6-5/8"Reg Box) + 8"F/S + 8"HOC
w/Pulsar & PCDC + 8"SNMDC + XlO (6-5/8"RegPin x NC50 box) + XlO (NC50 Pin x
4"IF Box) + 6-1I2"DCx 12 + XlO + 5"HWDP x 12 + 6-3/4"Jar + 5"HWDP x 2

DRL-4: Reaming 17-112"Hole


17-1/2"Bit + 9-5/8"Sperry-drill motor (17-114" STB, 0.00 adj bent, Lobe=617,
Stage=5.0) + 17-1/4"Stab + XlO (7-5/8"Reg Pin x 6-5/8"Reg Box) + 8"F/S + XlO
(6-5/8"RegPin x NC50 box) + XlO (NC50 Pin x 4"IF Box) + 6-1I2"DCx 12 + XlO (4"IF ~
Pin x NC50 Box) + 5"HWDP x 12 + 6-3/4"Jar + 5"HWDP x 2
,..
DRL-5: Drill 12-1/4"hole
12-1I4"Bit + 8"Sperry-drill motor (12-1I4"STB,0.78 adj bent, Lobe=617,Stage=4.0) +
12-1/4"Stab + 8"F/S + 8"HOC w/Pulsar & PCDC + 8-1I2"SNMDC+ XlO (6-5/8"RegPin
x NC50 box) + XlO (NC50 Pin x 4"IF Box) + 6-1/2"DC x 12 + XlO (4"IF Pin x NC50
Box) + 5"HWDP x 12 + 6-3/4"Jar +5"HWDP x 2

DRL-6: Reaming 12-114"hole


12-1I4"Bit + 8"Sperry-drill motor (12-1I8"STB,0.0 adj bent, Lobe=617,Stage=4.0) +
12-1I4"Stab + 8"F/S + XlO (6-5/8"RegPin x NC50 box) + XlO (NC50 Pin x 4"IF Box) +
6-1I2"DCx 12 + XlO (4"IF Pin x NC50 Box) + 5"HWDP x 12 + 6-3/4"Jar +5"HWDP x 2
DRL-7: Drill 8-1/2"hole "-"

8-1I2"Bit + 7"GeoForce motor (8-1I4"STB, O.Ooadjbent, Lobe=617, Stage=4.5) +


6-3/4"Float sub + 8-1I2"Stab + 6-3/4"HOC w/pulsar & PCDC + 6-3/4" SNMDC +
8-1I2"Stab + XlO (NC50 Pin x 4"IF Box) + 6-112"DC x 12 + XlO (4"IF Pin x NC50 box)
+ 5"HWDPx 12 + 6-3/4"Jar + 5"HWDP x 2

DRL-8: Reaming 8-112"Hole


8-1I2"Bit+ Bit sub + 6-3/4" Float Sub + 8-1I4"STSTB + 6-3/4"DC+ 8"Stab + 6-1I2"DC
x 11+ XlO (4" IF Pin x NC50 box) + 5"HWDP x 12 + 6-3/4"Jar + 5"HWDP x 2

A2-26
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

COMPLETION

CMP-1 : 4-3/4" bit assembly


4-3/4"Rock bit (open nozzle) + 4-1I2"Junk sub + BIB + 3-3/4"DC (IF) x 12 + 2-7/8"DP
(IF)

CMP-2 : 5-112"scraper assembly


4-3/4"Bit (open nozzle) + 5-1I2"Scraper + 4;1I2"Junk sub + XJO + XJO + 3-3/4"DC x 12

A2-27
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Bit Program

TSK
IADe 124

s= Type (lADO 12- )


z: Z-series Bearing
C: Center Jet

FORMATIONS
Soft with IQw compteElltlVestrenJtb.
(soft 6alce, clays, rod bed." $&.1t., uneoXl801idat.od ea ads)

DES/GN SPEC/FlCA nONS


Bit Size 26" (UO ..... )

aear Inl Type Sialed Roller BeariAI


Journll Anil e 33
Of het ( ) 'l4.4
Nu.ber 0' Gaie Rows/Inner Row. 3 / a
Iv.be, of Teeth ----------------------------------------------------------------
t3S
Bit Connectlo. Type 1-S/a- ~el

GeNERAL OPBRA TION PA/lAMJ;JTe/M


81 t Size
%6" (660.4 )
lei,ht on BIt
Lb, I 1."Uh 20 - 65
ToftS. 9 - 29
Rotary Speed(rpa) 80 - 150

CUTTING ST1WCTURB

This type features widely ;spaced, hll'ge tooth heigh.t


and width for drilling _ott Corm.tione.

Large eone offset promotes gouging- and scraping actiou


to increase ROP.

Hardfaced a.feu are shown in loft figuro.


(yellow portion)
Note: The gace surface and. the backface of innc.r teesh
are also hardfaced.

A2-28
JX Nippon Oil It: Ga.s Explora.tion

I
<t: z
I
I
'$
s
__. a _'-1
...-' I

C$
o N
"1), ''''''''
('\.II

("r')
..::c'
,I .-,,1,
~:u:
<:).
<:::> NN"
oq
N E
<:::>
<:::>
(V) -c:!"

.........
~NX
'" >-, ,_, <l:1
Q. <::> o&~ (V) ~ ul_'
I I
c: <=) x
U 00
CQ
q-
X ~MK "":ul
IN,
co I , 1
- 10'* r-<r-<=- ,_of (/)1
-.::r-.:r. ...... "<-~ I I
u**,w! :i:"t :i:"t , I
N**(!!! ..ot~r-<
-,.
I
,
I
I
." X*iW
~U')
~.
*.....:.
x *E ~
l#.".
----,.~
r-< r-<
m< t ,,)
I _ __!__L
~~O
~NlI6lm .......

0- .9z ~
.lE 1 +

N
Q:
ci LU
:z l-
I-
:::J
(,.)

. ,,~
I"<
N
;:1\ (V)
<,
~,-,
:t:--
<N
M
N
K <,

...r-<l~"" ...... "'" co


c--
~- ~I~I
~ ..,._,.
...
c.o
.;:011- ~I
~

A2-29
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Ex.ploration

171/2" (444rnm) EBXT1GRC

A2-30
Gc JX Nippon Oil & Ga.sExploration

. -

121/4" (311mm) EQHC1GRC


PRODUCT ~:\A-""'''n.~
IAOCC-Odf 111\V
4
-~

83_44
30-447
.QmerJmd) :
so 813
6-... (API :Re,,)

U?s. .3Kg,)
53 3. 5t'J6463

A2-31
JX .Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

8-1/2" (216mmJ QHC1GR


PRODUCTSPECFICA
17\V

t.oOOlu~
~~~_~to;p:mjde~~\"e
, !3CDQC.a!-~ROP.
! -~arl:L:Se! ':5Df' ~:lD P:~ teeth fk.addied~'
~~dy:m __ ~~m~
~"' ........'" _ .. ~ tl"; . Vb arl:adit m:idt:m:md,~

-.._

seal'C!d:!:~_~~
CO!::xll: pr;!5SDIl'M4:Ja'O!~
be!i~om~~
edps of_l\m f!lehigben
sa!lll~:U.is

A2-32
~ JX .Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Casing & Centralizer Program

NK-67 20" Casing CentralizerPlan 2015/07/10

Centralizer Spacing = 12m (1 pc I it)

2" Iron Plate


Bushing(W/ford)
XXm

Lube Seal

No. XX

Lube Seal Centralizer


(Last centralizer)

No.5

Lube Seal Centralizer

No.4

Lube Seal Centralizer

WeidA
(Tack Weld btm of conn.) Centralizer

WeidA Centralizer
(Tack Weld btm of conn.)

Centralizer
wI stop collar tack welded

A2-33
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

NK-67 13-3/8" Casing Centralizer Plan 2015/07/10

Centralizer
Spacing

No. XXXj No
Centralizer

t
(( II
Lube Seal Over the coupling
(Last centralizer)
No.XXXj
<F=
~
((
No. XXjt

Ir
""
Lube Seal Over the coupling
1 pc 12 its
No. XXjt (24m)

Lube Seal

No. XX it

Lube Seal II ))
Over the coupling

No. xx jr
::::=
~ No.7 [t 1/
(( Ir ))
Lube Seal Over the coupling

No. Git

Lube Seal
(( II Over the coupling

No.5 it

Lube Seal
(( lr Over the coupling

No.4 jt

WeidA
(Tack Weld btm of conn.)
(( .11 Over the coupling

No.3 it 1 pc I jt
. _j_
(12m)
(( )~ Centralizer with stop collar
WeidA 1.5m
-r- lFloat cOlla1
_j_
WeidA 1.5m
(Tack Weld btm of conn.) ---r- (( Centralizer with stop collar

No.2 it
_j_ (( )) Centralizer with stop collar
Weld A 1.5m
(Tack Weld btm of coim.) -r-
NO.1 it

(( Centralizer with stop collar

WeidA
[ Shoe 1

A2-34
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

NK-67 9-5/8" Casing Centralizer Plan 2015/07/10

Thread compound Centralizer Spacing

No. XX JT
No
Centralizer
Lube Seal

No. XX JT
...==
~ ~
No. XX JT

Lube Seal Cased ole

No. XX JT

Lube Seal
(( II Over the coupling
(Last centralizer)
No. XX JT Open hole
== ~ ,.;
No. XX JT
1 pc 12 jts
Lube Seal (24m)
No. XX JT
...==
~ ~
No.7 JT
Top of XX (formation)
)) ---+---
Lube Seal Over the coupling

"
NO.6 JT

(( II
Over the coupling
Lube Seal
1 pc 1 jt
(12 m)
No.5 JT
Over the coupling

II
Lube Seal

No.4JT

Over the coupling


WeidA
(Tack Weld btm of conn.)

No.3 JT

(( )) Centralizer with stop collar


WeidA 1.5 m
. .....,- [Float cOllarJ
WeidA __L
(Tack Weld btm of connt5 m
.....,- (( ):
Centralizer with stop collar

No.2 JT
__l_ (C
Centraliz.er with stop collar

WeidA
1.5 m
.....,-
(Tack Weld btm of conn.)
No.1 JT

WeidA
1r
~
Centralizer with stop collar

A2-35
Gc JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

NK-67 5-1/2" Casing Centralizer Plan 2015/07/10

Thread compound Centralizer Spacing

lNo.XX JT
No
Centralizer
Lube Seal
No. XX JT
=~ k""
No.XX JT

Lube Seal Cased hole

No. XX JT

(( ))
Lube Seal Over the coupling
(Lastcentralizer)
No. XX JT Open hole
.,,:==
~ ~
No.XX JT
1 pc 12 jts
Lube Seal (24m)

No. XX JT

__ +-_T_o_p
of XX (formation)
Lube Seal
(( Over the coupling
No.XX JT
,::=
~ V
No.6 JT
(( Over the coupling
Lube Seal
1 pc 1 jt
(12 m)
No.5 JT
Over the coupling
((
Lube Seal

No.4 JT
Over the coupling
WeidA
(( II ))
(TackWeld btm of conn.)

No.3 JT

1.5 m
(( J Centralizer with stop collar

-r [Float cOllarJ
WeidA _j_
(TackWeld btm of connt5 m
Centralizer with stop collar
-r ((

No.2 JT
J

_j_ (( '/ Centralizer with stop collar


Weld A 1.5 m
(TackWeld btm of conn.) -r
No.1JT

(( ); Centralizer with stop collar

WeidA
~

A2-36
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Mud logging plan

Monitoring data from 360m: Measuring for every 1m or 1min

>- WHO
>- WOB
>- SPP
>- TORQUE
>- PIT LEVEL
>- HOOK HEIGHT
>- TOTAL GAS
~ ROP ..

Electrical logging
Open Hole Logging (8 1/2"Hole Only)
~..
>- GR-FWS-DLL
>- GRN
>- GR-CDL
~ XRMI

Cased Hole Logging (5-1/2" Casing Only)

>- RBT-GR-CC

Perforation

A2-37
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

[7] Others
Completion program, Wellhead specification

A2-38
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Completion program

Design of CompJetton (or NK-67


CONFIDENTIAL

~l~Uf1I
~.~r. IIIIIla'
~dCiq(;
,111
31 Co!Vc,
La.. ,PrO<tIlCt'
lO,d c;

~Ptft.W,.
t"''''''
OhP
r ~ ltlOf
, \tP
fl6.1l
J
r
)Ii
OP! l?'" ~ lfI.I
,~~ .iiJ Ot-I 'GG3"s 061 '"
sa lIS
1"~~" P
A.,NAW filAld 1 ">051 JI' I~~C."W '~sc. ,Jd
tz<.t< '21..<. CPJ 11~ PJ
IBHP(twum VDt I&.. a t! ~"'~. .!S3 P.t
?'J ~ 'l7 '" 1'''' LlI't
laHT( IeooM lVO) 111" '<l( c 1I2H~ C 1tl"O C
2'30&' if Z3 _~ J 2;l4t1. IF

A2-39
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

ltem Material Leg.ac:y Oescription Qty UOM


Number Humber
10 TBD T80 PHL Hydraulic-Set Perma.. 2 EA
lach Refrievable Pac Bt,5
1/2 in 1317 tWit We~ht
I

Range, 4.700 in. Max 00.


1.917 in. Min 10. 41XX LOW
AllOY STEEL Matt. 80000 psi
Min Yield. Hydrogenated nitrile
rubber Element Matt,
Fluorocarbon rubber aRin.g
Matt, 2'318-4.6 VAMTOP .Box x
2 318-4.60 VAMTOP Pin, 325
Oeg. F, H2S Service,
7500; 7500;5000-psi Pressure
Rating. _._

20 T80 TaO HaUiburton Durasleeve 2 EA


Sliding. S e Door Crrculating
and Production Oevice, 2.375
in., 46.01 in. leng1h, 2318-
4.60 VAMTOP BOXPIN.
Connection, X. 41XX LAS
Matt. 1.875 in. Seat Bore 10-
Min, 3.220 in. Max 00. 41XX
lAS Closing Sleeve Matt.

30 T80 T80 B.last Nip.pte. eN, 2 318 in. 6 EA


2.138 in. Max 00.1.907 in.
Min 10, 121.0 in. Length,
41XX lOW ALLOY STEEL
Matl, 80000 psi Mjn Yield,
H.2S S'ervce. 2 318-4.60
VAMTOP Box x Pin.

40 101753384 12PNZ2753 No-Go Seal Unit Lecator, 1 EA


5-E 2.750 in. Seal Bore tt)..Min. 2
318-4.60' VAMTOP Box x 2 3/8...
4.60 API-NU Pin, 3.07 in. Max
00.1.875 in. Min..ID. 14.10 in.
length. 41XX lOW AllOY
STEEL Matt, 110000 psi Min
Yield.

50 100014761 212MSN275 MSN Molded Nitrile Seal Unit, 3 EA


OO-A 1.920 in. Min 10. 2.750 in. Seal
Bore ,IO-Min. 13.18 in. Length,
12.00 in. Mak,e-up Length.
41XX LOW..ALLOY STEEL
Malt, Nitrite rubber Seal Matt.
Molded. 2 318API-NU Box x 2
3/8-4.60 API-NU P x . 40-215
Oeg. F. Std SaNiee.
10000"psi Pressure Rating.

A2-40
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

ftem Matedat Legacy Description Q UOM


Number Number
60 101044056 212M320 Wire line Re-entry Guide, 2 318 1 EA
APJ..NUE Box. 1.920 In. Min
10; 2.710 in. Max 00, 5.00 in.
length, AllOY Matt~80000
psi Min Yiefd, .. H2S Service

70 101782768 12VTA5502 vt Versa-Trieve(R) 1 EA


7.Z Retrievable Sand Control
Packer, 5112 in., 14- 7 Jbltt
Weight Range. 2.750 in Seal
Bore 'Oo-Min, 41XX lOW
AllOY ..sTEEL Matl. 110000
psi MlO Yield. Hydrogenated
nitrile rubber Element Mat!, 4
3/16 ..12 UNS-2B 4.670 in.
I

Max 00.2.750 in. Min


IDf..'73~68in. length. 35116-6
STUB AC-LH Type Latch, 275
Oeg. F.

80 'reo leo Sottom Sub for Versa-Trieve 1 EA


Packet, 4 3/16-12 UNS-2A
Pin x 2 3/&-.4.60 VAMTOP Pin,
4.470 in. Max 00, 2.750 in.
Min 1,0 28.04 in. length, AHoy
1

MaU. 80000 psi Min Yield.


H2S Service.

90 TBD TBD 01is XN landing Nipple 1 EA


with ,Boltom No-.Go. 1.875 in .
2.707 in. Max 00. 1.791 in.
Min No-Go 10. 16.69 in.
L'ength. 41XX LAS Matl.80000
.psiMin Yield. H2S Service, 2
318-4.60 VAMTOP Box x Pin.
10200 psi Pressure Rating.

100 TBD TBD Muleshoe Guide. 2. 970 in. 1 EA


Max 00, 1:947 in. Min 10, 6.00
in. Length. 41XX low Alloy
Steel MatJ, 80000 psi Min
Yield, 2 3/8-4.60 VAMTOP
Box. H2S Service.

A2-41
JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration

Wellhead Specification
.fi9?. ? 953

A2-42
JX Nippon OilBr Gas Exploration

Appendix 3

Industrial Measurement
,

and
Process Automation
CONTENTS

GIAPTER 1 ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETERS I 1- 3


1.1 Introduction . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. " . I I- 3
~,
1.2 P r inc i pie 0 f Op era t ion ~. . . I I- 5

1.3 Veloci ty Profi l e Effects ... I 1- 9


1.4 Si gna 1 Process i ng ... I I- 12
1.5 Ins t a I 1 a t ion Re qui r erne n t s . I I - 21
1.6 Factors Influencing Choice of an Electromagnetic
F 1owme t e r , . I I - 23
1.7 Industrial Applications ........ I I - 26

CHAPTER 2 ORIFICE PLATE FLOW MEASUREMENT ... I 1- 29


2. 1 Notat ion .. .. I I- 29
2.2 Introduction .. . I 1- 29
2.3 Or if ice Pla t e s and Pressure Tapp i ngs .. I 1- 33
=. 2.4 Dis c h a r g e Co e f f i c i en t s 0 fOr i f ice P I ate s ... I I - 37
2.5 Installation and Other Effects .. I I- 41
2.6 Co n c 1u s ion iii .. iii I 1- 42
Acknowl edgemen t s . I 1- 43

CHAPTER 3 OTHER FLOW MEASURING DEVICES .... I I- 45


3.1 Introduct ion I 1- 45
3.2 Positive Displacement Flowmeters . I I -:-45
3.3 Tu r bin e F 1 owrne t e r s ~ . . . .. .. I I- 47
3 4 U I t r a son i c F 1owrne t e r s '............. . I 1- 48
35 Va ria b 1e Ar e a F 1owme t e r s . I 1- 61
3.6 Vortex Shedding Flowmeters ._ ......... I 1- 63

I I -1
CHAPTER 4 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT ............... 11- 65
4.1 The Concept of Temperature and the
Thermodynami ca 1 Sea 1 e ......................... I I - 65
4.2 The International Practical Temperature Scale
(IPTS) ....... 11 tII
I I- 66
4.3 Dissemination of the Temperature Scale . I I - 68
4.4 Types of Thermometer I I - 68
4.5 Installation and Use of Immersion Thermometers. II- 80

CHAPTER 5 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT ................... II- 85


5.1 Introduction .................................. I I - 85
52 Ma n orne t e r ... ~ . . . . . . . I I - 87
5 3 De a d We i gh t Te s t e r .. I I - 88
5 4 Bo u rdon Tu be s , Ca p sII I esan d Be 1 1ow s ........... I I - 89
5.5 Pressure Transducers . II- 92
5.6 Capacitance Type Press~re Transducer . I I - 93
5 7 Re I u c t i ve Ty peP res sIIreT ran sdu ce r I I - 94
5.8 Force Balance Pressure Transducer I I - 95
5.9 Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer ............. I I - 95
5 lOS tr a i n Ga ug e Pre s sur e T ran sduce r I 1- 96
5.11 Other Pressure Measuring Methods and
Transducers .............................. I I - 98

GIAPTER 6 L I QU ID LEVEL NIEASUREMENT ........ . 11-101


6.1 Introduction ............................ 11-101
6.2 Methods of Level Measurement . 11-101
6 3 S unma r y . 11-112

GIAPTER 7 CONTROL VALVES AND ACTUATORS ~ . 11-115


7.1 Introduction .................................. 11-115
1.2 The Restricting Element ....................... 11-116
1.3 Actuators .. .... .... . ..... .
. . .. .. . . . . . .. .. ... . 11-123 . . .
GIAPTER 8 GAS CHRCMATOGRAPHY ............................. 11-133

CHAPTER 9 TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS ................. 11-139

11-2
Chapter 1

ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETERS

1.1 Introduction
The e lec t romag ne ti c flowmeter was developed for measuring
the flow rate of fluids in installations where the more common
methods of measurement were unsatisfactory. Its principal
feature is that it does not present any obstruction to the flow
of fluid and provided that the liquid is an electrolyte, it is
relatively insensitive to changes in fluid density, viscosity
and the flow profile. It also has an essentially linear
response and is particularly suitable for measuring the flow of
aggressive acids and alkalis as weI I as slurries wit coarse or
fine suspended materials.
Recent general information regarding the usage or applica-
tion of the various methods of flow meaaurement in t e process
industries suggests the breakdown shown in Fig.I.I.

Miscellaneous (H%)
~/
_ Ultrasonic
Electromagnetic-r Fiololllleters (1j %)
Flo\lllleters (9%) Vortex
'\ Flo1o'1lleters (2%)
Variable Area Turbine
Flo"i.lmeters (8%) Positive Flo1Jll1eters (5%)
Displacement.
Flowmeters (6%)

Fig. 1.1 Relative usage of the prinCipal


types of flowmeters
It should be emphasised that this information is very
approximate because the method of reporting varies not only
from one industry to another but also from country to country.

11-3
Also, the understanding of which industries are included in the
definition of process industries is vague. However the broad
indications are sufficie~t for the present purpose.
Th ere are rnan y goo d rea son s for the dom ina nee the 0f

orifice phate in combination with a differential pressure


transmitter in the field of flow measurement. This technique
has a very long history starting with the work of Bernoulli
published in 1738 on which the hydraulic equations for differen-
tial pressure meters are based. In 1797, Venturi described his
basic work on the principles of the Venturi tube. However nearly
a century was to elapse before Herschel developed a commercial
venturi tube for measuring large volumes of flowing fluid. The
o r i f ice p la te ernerged as thep rima rye 1ernen t duri ng the fir s t ~J

decade of this century, and since then a vast amount of


operational experience and performance data has been accumulated.
On the other hand, although Faraday recognised that his
law of magnetic induction applied not only to metallic
conductors, but also to conductive fluids, his attempts in 1832
to measure the flow of the River Thames at Westminster Bridge
by observing the voltage developed between two large plate
electrodes as a result of the water flowing through the vertical
Gomponent of the earth's magnetic field were unsuccessful.
Wool aston claimed success in 1881 when he made.a simi lar
experiment using a telegraph cable that had recently been laid
across the English Channel.
The f.irst experiments to investigate the effect of a
transverse field on the fluid flowing in a circular pipe were
reported by Williams in 1930, but apparently his interest was
academic and he did not recognise the extent to which the concept
could be exploited for practical measurements. It was in the
medical field that the first practical designs were evolved,
from 1936 onward, principally by Kolin, who identified many of
the features which are to be found in modern electromagnetic
flowmeters. Subsequent researchers in this field have made
important contributions to the design and method of operation
of these flowmeters and Wyatt and his colleagues at Nuffield
College, Oxford, have made very detailed studies of many of the
problems which arise in applying electromagnetic flowmeters,

11-4
particularly in the medical field.
The industrial use of these flowmeters appears to have
originated in the Netherlands where the dredging industry
needed a means for measuring the flow of sand/water slurries.
The practical success of some very rudimentary equipment led
to the application of the technique to other difficult flow
measurements and the subsequent evolution of a commercial range
of flowmeters, starting about 1955.
During the same period, several workers wer.e studying the
theoretical aspects of the flowmeter performance. For exrunple,
Thurlemann determined the response with a of a flowmeter
uniform magnetic field to axis~etric flow velocity profiles,
and Shercliff studied various applications associated with
nuclear energy, including the measurement of the flow of liquid
sodium. His theoretical studies and other work are collected
in his book, which still provides a standard reference on the
subject.

1.2 Principle of Operation


Electromagnetic flowmeters comprise two basic parts,
namely the flowtube or primary element which provides the means
-of transducing the flow into an emf and the transmitter which
converts this emf into a signal suitable for transmission over
longer distances such as a proportional dc current in the
range 4 to 20 rnA, a frequency in the range 0 to 10 kHz, or a
I~

pulse, in which case each pulse represents a predetermined


volume of fluid.

Electrode

Flanged Metal Tube

Fig. 1. 2 E sse n t i a I c omp 0 n en t S 0 fan


electromagnetic flowmeter

11-5
The essential components of a practical electromagnetic
flow tub ear e shown in
Fig. 12 Th e me ta I tub e , f ab ric ate d from
non-magnetic material such as stainless steel and fitted with
flanges, provides the essential mechanical strength for the
unit. It is lined with ptfe, polyurethane or other insulating
material to minimise the short circuiting or diversion of ~he
relatively small flow signal to the metal tube. The transverse
magnetic field is generated by a pair of coils located on
opposite sides of the tube (the core that completes the magnetic
circuit is not shown), and the emf induced by movement of the
fluid through the magnetic field is detected by a pair of
electrodes located diametrically opposite each other with their
axis perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the axes of ~,I

the tube.
The electrodes are usually fabricated in non-magnetic
stainless steel, although other alloys such as Monel and
Hastel loy, or those based on platinum, titanium, or tantalum are
s ome t imes used.
The kinetics of the interface between the metal electrode
and the fluid are not only complex but also variable and
unpredictable. The only practical method of reducing the effect
of these spurious signals is to measure the change in inter-
electrode emf resulting from a known change in the magnetic
field strength; in other words, to generate a flow measurement
signal that is proportional to the flow emf divided by the
magnetic field strength.
The simplest form of excitation is to use the mains
supply to energise the coils of the electromagnet, in which
case the flow signal is an alternating emf of the same frequency
and in phase with the magnetic flux.

Thus, the induced emf is

e = B.d.v.sin wt + Kw.B.cos wt

where B mean flux


wt = angular frequency
d diameter of the flowtube

11-6
v mean velocity of fluid
and K constant

The first term is flow dependent and in phase with the


magnetic flux. The second term is known as the transformer
signal and is not only in phase respect to the
quadrature with
flow Signal, but is also independent of the flow rate. It
arises from the fact that the leads to the measuring circuit
combined with the effective current path through the fluid form
~ complete loop that is cut by the alternating flux, as shown
in Fig. 1.3.

-. Magnetic
~.. flux

Area
giving
rise to
transformer
signal

Fig. 1.3 Source of the transformer effect signal

Although careful attention to positioning the leads can


reduce this signal appreciably, it is still necessary to arrange
the measurement circuits so that this unwanted component is
rejected. However, the phase of the flux within the tube
compared with that produced by the coils and the associated
laminated yoke is modified by eddy currents in the metal tube
and a Itho ugh the e f f ec tis rei at ivel y sma II, itis not con s tan t
because changes of temperature change the conductivity of the
metal and hence the magnitude of the eddy currents whilst
variations of frequency change the mutual coupling, with the
result that there is a variable zero error.
The wave forms for this type of excitation are shown in
Fig.l.4, with the errors due to changes in mains frequency and
tempera~ure exagerated. For a typical flowtube 100 mm diameter

11-7
the f)ux density would be 0.01 Tesla and the flow signal about
1 mV for a mean velocity of 1 m/s.

Mains
Voltage
~~--~~----~------~----~

Mains
Current

Magnetic
Flux
0.01 Tesla

Flow .
Signal!
4-~~--~~:~~~~~+-~~~
1 mV

Fig. 1.4 Waveforms for an electromagnetic flowmeter


with sinusoidal excitation

Referring again to the transformer signal induced by


imperfect location of the signal leads, this is proportional to
the projected area cut by the flux and the rate at which the
flux density changes with time. If the excitation is 50 Hz,
the flux 0.01 Tesla and the projected area is 3 mm2 then this
transformer signal would be approximately 10 uV. This
represents 1% of the flow signal that would be developed in a
typical electromagnetic flowmeter system. Since the general
accuracy of these systems is usually better than 1 %, the
importance of restricting this error by stable mechanical
construction is apparent, although the signal conditioning
circuits can ease this requirement.
One possibly unexpected aspect of flowtube design arises
from the fact that the flow signal is a function of the total
flux, rather than the flux density that is cut by the flowing
fluid. Consequently, if the same measuring circuit is to be
used for a range of flowtubes, then one of the prinCipal
problems in designing the small flowtubes is how to concentrate
the necessary total flux into the test section, whilst for the

1I-8
large sizes, the problem is that of minimising the copper loss
in the coils which, although they need only to produce the same
total flux, must, of necessity,- extend over a much larger area.

1.3 Velocity Profile Effects


It is seldom possible to arrange the installation of a
flowmeter so that the flow profile is axisymmetric. There is
usually a valve, bend, or junction upstream of the flowmeter
which di~torts the flow profile. Extensive theoretical studies
have been made to determine the relationship between the signal
generated in an electromagnetic flowmeter, the velocity profile,
the shape of the magnetic field and the shape of the electrodes.
Although the detail of these analyses is beyond the scope of
\_.-)
t his pap e r , its e ems a p pro p ria t e t 0 i n t rod u c e the sub j e c t.

Fig.l.5 shows a wire of length (1) moving at a velocity (V)


in a direction perpendicular to the flux (B) of a permanent
magnet. The voltage generated between the ends of the wire is
B. 1. V.

Fig. 1.5 Ge nera t ion 0 f em fin a w ire


moving in a magnetic field

If the wire is now removed and a length of non-conducting


tube is placed in the magnetic field as shown in Fig.l.6, we
have the basic coniponents of an electromagnetic flowmeter and
we may imagine filaments of liquid spanning the tube and each
generating a voltage b~tween their ends as they pass through
the magnetic field.

11-9
b ---+-

a ---+-
-- Electrodes

FlOW\;

Fig. 1.6 Ex ten s ion 0 f the Fig. 1.7 Effect of position


concept to a flowtube on induced emf

Referring now to Fig.1.7, a transverse filrnnent (a ) at


the centre will generate a voltage between its ends of B.I.V,
whereas a filament (b) located nearer to the side of the tube
is shorter in length and will probably move at a lower
velocity so that the generated voltage is, say, B.I.V/2 whilst
a filament (c) nearer to the edge of the magnetic field will
probably move at a velocity (V) but be in a magnetic field
.strength B/3 so that the voltage generated between its ends is
B/3. 1. V.
Thus, the potential across each filament will be different,
so that if the ends of all the filaments are connected
together, currents will flow in various directions and the
signal developed across the filament (a) will be reduced. In
spite of the complexity of these Circulating currents, the
actual signal (U) developed by the flowmeter for a range of
ideal conditions, including a uniform magnetic field and
axisymmetric flow, is

U B.D. Vm
where B the flux density
o the diameter of the tube
and Vm the mean velocity

Shercliff suggested the weight function (W) as a means


for predicting the effect of distorted flow profiles such that

11-10
'U 1/y_ Y:l. dr
where V the velocity
W the weight function
and r the radius

Fig.I.8 shows this weight function for a uniform magnetic field.


Bevir has shown theoretically that

W ::: B x I

wheje B is the magnet i c flux dens i t y and I the curren t

w"'"

Fig. 1.8 Weight function for uniform magnetic field

density that would be set up in the liquid if unit current was


passed from one electrode to the other through the liquid. The
requirement for the actual signal (U) developed in the flowtube
to be independent of the velocity profile and only dependent on
the total or mean flow rate is that ~ W o.
Flowtubes have been designed with weight functions much
more uniform than those depicted by Shercliff for a uniform

I 1-11
magnetic field. Consequently there is no need for such long
straight upstream lengths of pipe or the inclusion of flow
conditioners, as is the case for orifice plate systems,
turbines, and other types of flowmeters.

1.4 Signal Processing


From a signal processing viewpoint, the flowtube can
be represented as shown it were possible to
in Fig.l.ga. If
provide an alternating magnetic flux of stable amplitude, then
measurement of the signal at the electrodes would be sufficient
to provide the indication of the mean flow velocity. In
practice, this is not possible; therefore the actual values of
the flux and flow signals must be measured simultaneouly and the
flow velocity determined by dividing the flow signal by the
flux signal.

r----------,
I . r
I I
I I
I I
I
I
I Gain Ratio CXltput
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I , o flow
~ I alance~------
L. _. J
Flowtube

~ ~ ~=~~:r +--Mains Supply

Fig. 1.9a

Fig. 1.9b
-
\.AA.A..)

Fig. loge
Voltage Current
Reference Reference

Fig. 1.9 Basic components of Signal processor


for ac excitation

The two principal methods of deriving a signal that is


proportional to the flux involve measuring either the current

11-12
that flow s.th r0 ugh the co i 1 s 0 r the vol tag e t hat i sap p lie d
across them (as shown in Figs.l.9b and 1.9c respectively).
Both methods represent a compromise, because in neit er case is
the reference signal strictly proportional to the flux within
the tube. The eddy currents in the metal tube as well as varia-
tions in temperature and supply frequency introduce their
individual errors and it is a matter of opinion whic provides
a better reference. Suffice it to say that over the past
decade the current referenc.e system has become more widely used.
Other methods that have been used include the provision of
an add i t ion a I "s ear ch reo iIi nth e rna gnet icc i rcui tan d the use
of a Hall effect probe to measure the magnetic field. However
both suffer from the limitation that they do not measure the
o
\

field within the tube and in other respects do not show


advantages which would justify the additional cost and
complication.

(1) Systems with sinusoidal excitation of the electromagnet


The functional diagram of a transmitter involving this
mode of operation is shown in Fig.I.IO. The flowtube
electrodes are connected via a special double screened cable,
shown in Fig.l.ll to the balanced inputs of the high impedance
input amplifier. To minimise the loading effect of the cables,
the screen associated with each input signal is driven by the
HIGH IMPEOANCE
INPut AMPLIFllRS'

VOLTA E OUTPUT
[E96R ONL YI-

CALIBRATION OUTPUT CURR ENT


ZeRO ZEROADJUST
ADJUSTMENT '-lENT
.__---~
MINIMUM
"QVTPUTISSELECTEIl SIGNAL
BV LINK ARRANGEMENT LOCK

Fig. 1.10 Functional diagram of transmitter

I 1-13
OUTER SCREEN-
__ ---<>TRANSMITTEA POWER
EARTH

DRIVEN
SCREEN

DCHROME
VINVL. JACKET
~
~
ALUMINUM
MYLAR SCREEN

Fig. 1.11 Screened cable used for the


electrode connections

output from the first stage. Even so this loading does have an
effect on the overall performance of the system, an effect which
is determined mainly by the length of the screened cable and the
conductivity of the measured fluid.
The output signals from the first stage are also applied to
a differential amplifier, which provides an overall gain of about
10 but has a very high common mode rejection. The reference
signal which provides the measure of the magnetic flux in the
flowtube is derived from a voltage transformer connected across
t he sup ply _tot he flow tub e
The signal is first shifted in phase by 900 and then
applied to the zero crossing detector to generate the
synchronising signal for the two synchronous rectifiers, one of
which operates on the flow Signal and the other on the reference {'--
signal to generate a dc signal proportional to the magnetic
flux. The same phase shifted signal is applied to an inverting
amplifier with a potentiometer connected between the input and
output to provide an adjustable voltage which can be combined
with the output from the differential amplifier to balance out
the residual no-flow signal in the system. After synchronous
rectification and buffering, the two signals are applied to a
circuit that produces a square wave having a duty cycle linearly
proportional to the flow signal.
This comprises an integrator, a comparator and a reference
signal amplifier whose gain is switched between +1 and -1 as
shown in Fig.l.12. In operation, when the flow signal is zero,

11-14
COMPARATOR

FINE SPAN
ADJUSTMENT

REFERENCE
SIGNAL

Fig. 1.12 Signal dividing stage in the transmitter

the reference voltage alone drives the integrator until its


output reaches the trigger level of the comparator, whereupon
the polarity of the output from the reference amplifier is
reversed; as a result the integrator output is driven in the
opposite direction until the comparator resets. Under these
conditions the comparator output is a square wave having equal
mark/space ratio (or unity duty cycle) as shown in Fig.I.13.
~en a flow signal is applied, the integrator ramps more quickly
in one direction and more slowly in the other caUSing the mark/
space ratio of the comparator to vary in proportion as shown in
Fig.I.14.

,vtvA A
-v ~
INTEGRATOR

V
L
INTEGRATOR

COMPARATOR (TRIGGER) COMPARATOR (TRIGGER)

'lJiltjl
Fig. 1.13 Waveforms
.v~

Fig.
~

L 14
~

Waveforms
L
wi th no f low wi th f low

This pulse drives a photo-coupler to provide the necessary


galvanic isolation between the input and output circuits.
Thereafter the signal is shaped and applied to a 'mark/space'

I I -15
ratio-to-voltage converter which generates a proportional signal
in the range 0 to 10 V dc, which may be used .as input to a
variety of controllers, alarms and signal conditioners. The
same signal is also used within the transmitter to operate a
moving coil meter if this feature is specified and to drive a
vol tag e - t 0 - cur ren teo nv e rte r wh ich ge nera t est he s tan dar d 4 to
20 rnA dc (0 rIO to 50 rnA dc ) s Ign a I for t ran sm iss Ion p u.r po se s .

(2) Systems with unidirectional excitation of electromagnet


Systems of the genera] type described in the previous
section have been in service for more than two decades during
wh ich nume r0 us ref i n ernen ts have been i n trod ucedin bo t h the
me chan ical con s t ruc t.i on and the .meas u rernen t c ircui t s . Bu t the
need to improve the zero stability and to reduce the power
consumption led to the introduction of alternative modes of
operation. An improvement in both respects was effected by
replacing the sinusoJdal excitation of the magnetic field at
mains frequency with a system shown in Fig.l.15.

~Q_{-
Sample
I I
l-- ,...-.....,I'~-' I I -
-- .,..-......
Hold _. I ,1_.1 I_L_

pmcted I.------.
l1easurement
Signal

~ Flow
Signal
:><:_ 7 Zero
Signal

F'Ig , 1.15 Waveform for electromagnetic flowmeter


with unidirectional excitation

In this system, the electromagnet is energised by applying


the rec t i fie d rnains and the n, a ft era few cyc 1 e s duri n g w hie h
the current stabilises at a value determined by both the

1I-16
impedance of the electromagnet and the magnitude of the supply
voltage, the signal at the electrode is sampled and stored.
The excitation is then switched off and when the current in the
electromagnet has fallen to zero the electrode signal is
sampled again. Subtracting this signal from that obtained and
stored when the electromagnet is energised provides a measure
of the flow rate. In this way, errors due to the variable
kinetics of the electrode/liquid interface are greatly reduced
and a zero adjustment is not required.
The flowtubes requiredfor this mode of operaion are
virtually the same as those used for the ac excited systems.
However, since the measurement signals are sampled when the
flux is steady except for the samll ripple at twice mains
frequency, the transformer effect signal is virtually eliminated
and the rnag net ic flu xis sely rei ate d to. the co iI
rnareel 0

current because the eddy currents which are induced by the


alternating magnetiC field have fal len to a relatively small
value by the time the flow signal is sampled and the magnetic
field which they create has a negligible effect on the main
magnetic field. Fig.l.16 shows the functional diagram of the
transmitter.
Flowtube
r __
-_- -- -- _--,
I !
I

1----- ..... f out


o to 10 KHz

f out
Engineering
Units

4 to 20 rnA de

Mains Supply

Fig. 1. 16 Fun c t ion a I d i agram 0f tran sm itt e r

'11-17
A signal from the mains is applied to a counter which
provides two output signals, one of which synchronizes the
trigger generator and the other, the detector circuit. The
signal to the trigger generator makes it operative for eight
cycles of the mains supply, after which it is held inoperative
for the next eight cycles of the mains and the sequence is then
repeated. As a result, the transformer is energized from the
mains supply causing a direct current with a mains frequency
ripple superimposed on it to build up in the flowtube coils.
The magnetic field which this creates causes a small voltage,
proportional to the flow rate of liquid through the flowtube to
be developed across the electrodes. After amplification, the
signal is applied as one of th~ inputs to a summing junction.
Referring again to the counter, its second output is
generated, starting at the beginning of the fourth mains cycle
to the end of the eight and again 'from the twelfth through to
the sixteenth cycle. It is used to synchronize the detector,
(which is in effect an integrator) so that it is only operative
during the period when the magnetic flux is either zero or has
stabilised at the high value butwith the small superimposed
ripple.
The detector output is applied to a dc-to-frequency stage
which generates a pulse of constant duration and at a repetition
rate proportional to the dc input. During the period of the
second output from the counter, the signal developed across a
resistor, connected in series with the coils, is used to generate
a reference voltage that is proportional to the magnetic flux.
In the frequency/reference circuit, this reference voltage is
modulated by the pulses generated'by the dc-to-frequency stage.
The resultant signal is combined with the amplified signal from
the electrodes and the difference is applied to the detector.'
The detector is 'gated' by the sync signal so that it only
integrates the signals which appear during the periods when the
magnetic flux is zero or at its essentially constant high value.
This feedback system ensures that the frequency output
signal is accurately proportional to the liquid flow rate in the
flowtube, regardless of variations in mains voltage. The signal
from the dc-to-frequency circuit is also used to drive a scaling

11-18
counter so that the output which it generates is in engineering
units such as pulses per litre. In addition there is a
frequency-to-dc stage which generates a current in t e range 4
to 20 rnA dc into a resistive load up to about 1500 0 ms.

(3) -Systems with bi-polar excitation of the electromagnet


A further refinement of the concept involves energisation
of the magnetic circuit first with one polarity for a fixed
period, then removing the excitation for a similar period
~efore energising it in the reverse direction, and so on. The
advantage claimed for this system is that it further reduces
the errors due to polarisation at the electrode fluid interface.
\ Also, the coil drive circuits are arranged to optimise the speed
_)
at which the current reaches a stable value at which it is held
during the signal sampling process.
Thus, the speed of response is enhanced and the effect of
eddy currents is eliminated because these only have an effect
whilst the current is changing and the measurement signal is
taken after they have died away_ AI~o the transformer Signal is
virtually eliminated.
PULSERATE .' I'I!AINSFRE()U~NC'l'
CLOCK
(LOGIC
CIRCUITI

~ __~ ~r-
POSITIVE
CUARENTON
I
CURAENT, !
ON I J
PULSES J NEGATtVECURRENTON
fROM LOGIC
crncorr

OVE!,O,RIVE
1
1 I I......_ _
r :STABLf! I
I
I
I
COil CURRENT I
FROMCOil
DRIVER

REFERENCE
VOlTAG~
FROM COIL
DRIVER
C ACUITS:
ACTIVATED
TIMING PULSES
FOR !.lEAS,ANO REF_:
LAGAND ~OLD
CIRCUIT I
ACTIVATED
TIMING PULSES :

;'~=;~~~~~TTIC I
;-.------'
TIMINGPtJlSES
FOR SYNCHRONOUS
RECTIFIER
;.-1
I
--;
'------
-
---'1
Fig. 1.17 Waveforms for an electromagnetic flowmeter
with bipolar ex c i t a tf on

11-19
Fig.!.17 shows how the excitation of the magnetic circuit
is synchronised with the mains supply. The coil current is
switched on for a period of four cycles of the mains after which
it is switched off for four cycles. After this quiescent period
the coil current is switched on again for four eycles but the
c u rre n t now flows in tbe reverse direction. At the end of this
period it is switched off fo~ four cycles and then the entJre
sequence is repeated.
During each period in wh ich current is app li ed to the coi I t
.t he lo-gic circuits synchronise the sampling and holding for
botb the flow signal and the coil curren-t, as well as the
ope rat ion oft he vol tag era t i 0 to .d u t Y cY c I e 'c0 nve rs ion Th i s
latter circuit operates at a nominal kHz with the d ut y cycle
arranged to be 15% for the lower range value and 85% for the
upper range value.
Fig.l.18 shows how other optional feat~res are provided.
These include an integral moving coiL meter to monitor the
output signal, a digital flow rate meter and pulse output for
dr Jv i ng an electromechanical .coun t e r . This circuit is adjustable
be tween O. 1 and .1 0 Hz (-corres pond i ng to the upper r.an ge va 1ue)
and pro v ide s a 24 V s ign a 1 5 0 ms d u rat i.o.n a to. 2 5 A. I not her
respects, the instrument has evolved from previous designs.

--<l E.. PTY TOSE


~~~~T~:~IJ OU'PuT ---0 "'LAlit.! CONTACTS
i ?:;~~~~~ RA ~
.NChCATO"
ro"'TROI.CO~TlON"'ll - r4 r01O""AIIllPUTI

L..- --'-
1
NIGH 1 GAI~ ..lND
'5OLUTIO~ EAAT~ IMP(D"'NCE I _j(>. __ RANGE
~~ I~PUT ~>'- AD.."\)5rMl""
" WF eUFfER STAGl.5

~ ELECTROO:>ES
.~
4U10
lEAD
..ATIC

'''TEGRATO~
-1'"
1 4--_
_jf ~:';;';'::"__'!-----I

1----1
Il"TlO"".
OI(jIT.AL
RAl[
",rnA

~
FLOWTUBE :~~~II.I'''C(
STAG~ r REf(.(NCf.
r-- ~~; I------t-------____;;-.....
~OlO
jl L----I-----tShECTEC'
PULSE OUTPUT
. 0'110"
I--<>
",-"S[
~T

':-
COlI.
OAIVER 1----------1 ClOC,.. 11ttJ\H
., ,,-,,-,.. S

___________
-----r-..1....-
HUlIuLN(.'t

I-,..--_j1 I
I'OWE.A: UAtNS 150CA.eo WI'

Fig. 1.18 Fun c t ional diagram of the transmi tter

11-20
1.5 Installation Requirements
The lowtubes themsel yes may be mounted ln any pas it ion
f
provided that the associated pipework and plant are arranged
so that the flowtube is always full. The preferred arrangement
is for the axis of the flowtube to be vertical and the flow to
be upwards as shown in Fig.l.19. This is particularly so if the
process fluid is a slurry. If the flowtube is mounted other
than with its axis vertical then it should be orientated so that
the axis of the electrodes is horizontal, as shown in Fig.l.20,
to minimise the effect of entrained bubbles which not only
give rise to volumetric errors but may also interrupt the flow
signal to the electrodes. The transmitters are available for
integral mounting on the flowtube as shown in Fig. 1.21 or
separately on a 50 mm (2 inch) pipe or on a surface.

--J

1
FLOW
AXIS

Fig. 1.20 Orientation of


electrodes with
flowtube horizontal

Fig. 1.19 Preferred


installation
of flowtube

Fig. 1.21 Intergral mounting


of transmitter FLOWTUBE
on flowtube

I 1-21
For the systems in which the flowtube is excited from
the mains supply, it is important to arrange the wiring so
that the mains supply is taken to the flowtube via the
transmitter rather than from a separate circuit, as load
changes in one or other of the two circuits could cause phase
shifts of one supply with respect to the other and this in
turn would modify the synchronisation of the phase sensitive
detectors in the transmitter and so give rise to measurement
errors.
As mentioned previously, it is desirable to arrange an
installation so that the velocity profile of flow is well
developed. This was particularly true for earlier designs of
flowtube, for present designs a straight section 5D long
but
immediately upstream of the flowtube provides sufficient
conditioning to reduce velocity profile errors to less than 10/0.
Electrical continuity between the flowing liquid and the metal
body of the flowtube is required to provide the reference
potential for the measurement signal. With unlined metal pipes
connected to the flowtube, continuity is provided via the
flange bolts, but with lined or non-conducting pipes, earthing
rings must be fitted at each flowtube flange as shown in Fig.
1. 22.

EARTH

Fig. 1.22 Installation of earthing rings

These rings are circular metal plates each having a tab


for the electrical connection and a concentric hole slightly
smaller than the bore of the flowtube. In some modern flowtubes,
the earthing rings are included in the basic design to minimise

II-22
the calibration errors which would otherwise be caused by
distortion of both the magnetic and electric field within the
flowtube due to the adjacent flanges and pipework being
fabricated from, magnetic material, non-magnetic but conducting
material, or non-magnetic and non-conducting material.

1.6 Factors Influencing Choice of an Electromagnetic


Flowmeter
As has been mentioned previously, the majority of flow
measurements in the process industries are made using a primary
device (such as an" orifice plate) to create a head loss and
hence a differential pressure that can be measured by one of the
many different types of transmitter that are now available.
Fig.1.23 shows that, for line sizes greater than about 75 mm,
this is the least expensive system and it is supported by a
vast amount of practical experience. The measurement or output
signal can be a pneumatic pressure, electronic current or
frequency, and there are many suppliers of these devices.
Consequently choice of an electromagnetic flowmeter system must
be jus t ifie d by 0 ne 0 r mo reo f 'the f 0 IIow i ng f eat u res ;

30JOOO~-------+-------4-------r-------+-------r-------r----~'__

0':.;/
COST

Turbine

Electromagnetic
i
l,OOO~------~-------+-----;\Mr--~~~--~~~~-----r------~
" Orifice Plate
+
dIp cell

300-+------~-------+------_r------_r------,_------_r------T_-

1 mm 3mm 10 rom 30 mm 100 rom 300 mm 1 m 3 m


LINE SIZE

Fig. 1.23 Costs versus line size for various


types of flowmeters

11-23
1. Low head loss, and hence suitable for measuring
the flow of slurries.
2. Insensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, .
density and viscosity of the process fluid.
3. Non-invasive sensors and hence suitable for
applications where strict requirements for hygiene
are imposed.
4. Linear relation between flow rate and measurement
signal.
~. No moving parts, no hysteresis.
6. Suitable for measuring flow of aggressive fluids.
7. Insensitive to swirl and pulsatile flow.

These features are supplemented by the more general


characteristics of wide rangeability, good accuracy and
repeatabjlity, and availability in a wide range of sizes.
However t her ev a re two distinct limitations, namely:
1. The fluid must be an electrolyte (i.e. conductive) and
consequently the system is unsuitable for measuring the
flow of gases or liquid hydrocarbons.
2. The systems require relatively high power for their
operation and therefore they cannot be intrinsically safe.
In spite of this, the unique features of electromagnetic
flowmeters are sufficient to sustain their position as a
principal alternative to the orifice plate/differential pressure
systems in spite of the higher cost.
Fig.l.24 and 1.25 provide a comparison with the other
methods of measurement.

11-24
LINE SIZE

0.3 mm 1.0 tm1 3.0 mm 10 111m )0 111m 100 ntn 300 mnl 1000 moo 3000 mm
I

IIntegral I
III 11I1_-"'
Ori fice
__
Orifice Plate"
"
dIp
"' __ ""I1I1IIU

11111111 1111111
Venturi
III [111_"' "' __ " __ .11111111
N~z:z.le
IIIIIII.)~_._. J 1111111

1111111 ;3q~et :~ 1111111

11111111 " __ Electromagncl.lc


" "' "'1111111

,111111_-_---
Vari~ble Arc!
11111111'
J
11111111:- I.. .
r(lS~tlvC DISl'iac:cmcnt "11111111

Turbine
1111111 __ "' __ .1111111:

1111 1I1 __ .. Vortel( __ ~1I111111

nr'III_--I---11I111I: ut trasonic.

Fig. 1.24 Ava i 1ab nit y 0 f f 1owme t e rs for


various line sizes

ACCURACY

0.1"% 0.3% 1.0% 10%

I
II 11111
Orifice p~ate
I + dIp
1111 1111
Integ. r~l Orific:
11111111 11111 11
1111111 __ Venturi
111 1111
/
No?zlc
11I1I11I_"'_~_.1I1l1 til
T .. rgct
JlIIIIII 11111111
EIeccrcmagne t Lc
11111111. "" __ ." 11111
Variable Area
11111111 I 1l111!
1lI11111. Posi__
~ 1IIIIi_,,
t ivc Displacement 1(1I1l1111

1111 I 111.---.---_.
1111 111 __ Vortex
Tu rb ino

,,11111111
11(1111 IIJJ
11111111 Ultrasonic
1(11111111

I
Fig. 1.25 General accuracies of various types
off Iowme t e r s

11-25
1.7 Industrial Applications
There are so many applications of electromagnetic
flowmeters involving only a single instrument and its associated
control loop that to cite them would do little more than
illustrate how one or more of the unique characteristics of
.this 'type of flowmeter is used to overcome what otherwise would
be a difficult flow measurement problem.
An example of several electromagnetic flowmeters operating
in a coordinated system is the blending of the various types of
paper stock and additives for a paper making machine.
Fig.l.26 shows how the flowmeters are arranged to measure
the flow of softwood, hardwood and broke stock so that it can
be blended continuously digital blend
under control of a
control and the correct quantities of dye and additives such
as clay, alum and size introduced in the required proportions.
The paper stock, which typically includes between 3 and 5% by
weight of solid material, is a particularly difficult material
to meter, and the non-invasive sensors, together with the high
accuracy that can be achieved, make the electromagnetic

DIGITAL
BLEND
CONTROLLER

SOFTWOOD

HARDWOOD

8LEND CHEST

..... - TO PAPER
MACHINE

Fig. 1.26 Use of electromagnetic flowmeters


for paper stock blending

II -26
flowmeter the only instrument suitable for this application.
The dye, alum, clay and size are also difficult materials to
meter but can be handled by electromagnetic flowmeters. In an
actual application, the transmitters would be provided with the
pulse output circuits so that a digital blending controller
operating in conjunction with a level controller maintains the
correct level in the blend chest for supplying to the paper
making machine. Another example of the use of several
electromagnetic flowmeters in a process is the 802 scrubber
s h own i n Fig. 127

STACK
GASES
TO REGENERATION
r--CONTROL
I .
"'--""I-~_.L_Q
YALKAllNE
REAGENT
FLUE
GAS

l
PHT

SCRUBBER
RECYCLE
TANK

Fig. 1.27 Use of electromagnetic flowmeters in


an S02 scrubber

The scrubbing action is effected by spraying a lime based


slurry into the flue gases as they rise up the scrubber tower.
The liquid that collects in the bottom of the tower is
transferred to the recycle tank where the pH is measured and
any deviation from the desired value is transmitted as the
setpoint to the flow controller, whose measurement signal is

11-27
derived from the electromagnetic flowmeter in the lime slurry
reagent line. In this way, the pH is controlled accurately to
prevent underabsorption of S02 at low pH values which also
leads to scaling and plugging of the scrubber nozzles as well
as unnecessary usage of the lime slurry reagent. A further
control loop includes a density transmitter which in conjunction
with another electromagnetic flowmeter controls the rate at
which the process fluid is withdrawn for separation or
regeneration. The fluids in this process all have entrained
solids so that the electromagnetic flowmeter provides the only
reliable method for measuring their flow rates.

11-28
Chapter 2

ORIFICE PLATE FLOW MEASUREMENT

2.1 Notation
.At Area of upstream pipe
A2 Area of throat or orifice
C Discharge coefficient of flowmeter
D Upstream diameter of flowmeter or inlet pipe
d Throat or orifice diameter
m Ar ear a t i 0, {= (d10) 2}
Absolute pressure upstream of flowmeter
Absolute pressure at throat or downstream tapping
Pressure difference (= PI - P2)
Flowrate
p 1 - P2 \
r Pressure ratio, ie [ 1 - PI J
Mean velocity at upstream section
Mean velocity at throat or downstream section
Flow coefficient
s Flowmeter diameter ratio, (= diD)
y Ratio of specific heat, (Cp/Cv)
E .Expansibility factor
p Density of flowing fluid at upstream section
U Dynamic viscosity of the fluid
v Kinematic viscosity of the fluid (= u/p)

2.2 Introduction
The orifice plate flowmeter is one of a group'of flow-
meters which operate by creating a difference in static
pressure between the upstream and downstream side of the
de vic e It rnay be ins tal 1 ed e i the r 'i n - 1 i ne " ie wit h
pipework both upstream and downstream of it, or at the inlet
to or outlet from a length of pipe. Other types of

11-29
differential pressure meters are:

nozzles low-loss devices (eg Dall tube)


venturi tubes inlet flowmeters
venturi nozzles variable area meters
drag plate flowmeters (Target meter).

All together it is estimated that well over 60 per cent


of the flowmeters in use in industry at the present time are
differential pressure devices, with the orifice plate being
the most popular in this country. The nozzle has been in
favour especially for steam flow measurement in Germany while
venturi tubes were used almost inclusively for measurements in
large water mains around the world until the advent of the
electromagnetic flowmeter.

The main advantages of pressure difference flowmeters


are:
a they are simple to make, containing no moving parts,
b their performance is well understood,
c they are cheap - especially in larger pipes when
compared with other meters,
d they can be used in any orientation, and
e they can be used for most gases and liquids.
Their main disadvantages are:
their rangeability (turndown) is less than for most
other types of flowmeter,
ii significant pressure loss may occur,
iii output signal is non-linear with flow,
iv the discharge coefficient and the accuracy may be
affected by the pipe layout and/or the nature of
flow, and
v they may suffer from ageing effects, ie the build-up
of deposits or erosion of sharp edges.

The fundamental Bernoulli equation which deals with the


relationship of the static and kinetic energy along
streamlines in a fluid stream can be used. Simplified, this

11-30
L
Fig. 2.1 Converging flow

shows that in a converging pipe, Fig.2.1, the energy equation


between two planes is:

(2 1 )
\'.._,)

The other equation which can be used is the continuity


equation which states that the mass flowing past any cross-
section in a pipe remains constant. For incompressible flow
this can be written as:

(22)

wnere
= m (area ratio). (2 .3 )

By substituting for vI and v2 it can be seen that

Q (24 )

This equation is valid only if no losses occur and if the


moving fluid completely fills the areas Al and A2"
In reality neither of these assumptions is valid and the
discharge coefficient, C, has to be introduced to compensate.
The discharge coefficient can therefore be defined by,

c (25 )

II-31
The term 1(1 - m2) is known as the velocity of approach
factor. Where Al A2 and therefore vI
v2'
1(1 - m2)
tends to unity. Instead of the area ratio the preferred term
use din t ern a tion a I1Y i s the d iarnet err a t i 0, 13, w her e :

d
and
D

the diameter d being the bore diameter and D being the


upstream pipe diameter.
Another form of coefficient, the 'Flow Coefficient' a,
has been commonly used in Europe and this is given by

(2 6 )

In nozzles and venturi tubes the flow follows the


b au ndar y 0 f the wa lIs c lo sely and the val u e S 0 f Car e u sua 11 y
c lose to un i tY Howe ve r, inth e cas e 0 f the 0 r i f ice p la te
the flow continues to converge downstream of the plate forming
a 'vena contracta'. The area of this cannot practically be
measured and is thus not known accur~tely. In calculating the
discharge coefficient therefore, the area at the orifice bore
is used which leads to a value of C of approximately 0.6.
Th is, i n e ffee t, inc Iude sac 0 e f f ic i en t 0 f con t ract ion.
If the fluid being metered is compreSSible, there will be
a change in density when the pressure of the fluid falls from
PI to P2 on passing through the device. As the pressure r'
chan ge s qui ck 1y, i tis ass ume d that n 0 he a t t ran sfer 0 ccur s
and because no work is done by or on the fluid, the expansion
is isentropic. In nozzles and venturi tubes the expansion is
almost entirely longitudinal and an expansibility factor, E,
can be calculated ass~ming one-dimensional flow of an ideal
gas. For orifice plates the exp an s i bI 1ity correction factor
has to be determined experimentally both because the contrac-
tion is not known exactly and changes occur in the jet. The
expansibility factor is thus a function of the diameter
ratio, the specific heats and the pressure ratios (P2/Pl).
The full equation for.the orifice plate flowmeter in
compressible flow is therefore

U -32
Q = (2 7)

2.3 Orifice Plates and Pressure Tappings

(1) Forms of orifice plates


Many different geometrical profil~s have been tried in
order to obtain constant discharge coefficients over as wide
a range of flowrates as possible. Examples of these can be
found in the literature but the distinctive features of these
devices are that there is, a flat front and back face and the
variations are in the profile of the bore and to the
immediately adjacent areas of the face on either side.

0:0.10 0.5D ~O.02D for Il ..0.6


t-- 0.5D :t O.O!D for f3 :> 0.6
o ond 012 Pressure
'toppinqs

Flonq. toppings

a
Thickne$S'E of the plate

II

Fig. 2.2 (a) Location of ISO 5167 pressure tappings


upstream and downstream of orifice p]ate
(b) Details of ISO 5167 orifice plate

From the early days of the orifice plate in the 1890s

II-33
however the most widely used plate has been one in which the
bore diameter is cut out to give a square edge with the
upstream face, Fig.2.2. At the downstream end, the outlet
may be bevelled if for strength reasons the thickness of the
plate exceeds O.O2D but in all cases the maximum thickness of
the plate is limited to 0.050. This is because the
streamlines of the emerging jet will be influenced and hence
the contraction coefficient and the discharge coefficient will
be affected if these limits are exceeded. At the other
extreme a minimum of 0.0050 has been adopted for the overall
thickness of the plate.
This form of orifice plate, commonly known as a
'sharp-edge' orifice plate, was standardised in the USA in the
1920s, followed shortly afterwards by standardisation by DIN
in Germany and then adopted in the late 1930s by the
Internationa\ Standards Association. ISA subsequently became
the International Organisation for Standardization, ISO, under
whose aegis the world's flow measurement standards have
subsequently been published.
The present version of the international standard on
orifice plates is ISO 5167. The present author has described
how this standard has emerged from the earlier work and the
dom ina n t feat u res wh ich are a t pre sen t the sub jec t 0 f some
controversy and the objective of major experimental programmes
in this and other countries in Western Europe and in the USA
and Japan.
~ile the normal profile used in orifice plates is thus
square or sharp edged, conical-entrance and quarter-circle
plates are also used, especially for viscous flow. The
downstream edge of a square-edged plate can be bevelled, unless
the plate is thin, whereas the downstream edges of conical-
entrance and quarter-circle plates are square. On the other
hand the upstream edge is a cone or circle and these shapes
show a near-constant coefficient down to quite small Reynolds
numbers. For special purposes, eccentric or even non-circular
orifice plates are used; for example, in metering suspended
solids a chord-type orifice plate can be used, Fig.2.3.

11-34
CHORD ORIFICE PLATE

Fig. 2.3 Chord-type orifice plate

Having established the general concept of a constant


discharge coefficient it will seem strange to refer to limits
on the flow range for which orifice plates can be used. In
practice, however, fluids are not ideal and frictionless and
the velocity distribution in a pipeline as well as the
turbulence pattern, even if the pipeline is very long and
uniformly straight, will change with the characteristics of
the fluid and its flowrate through the pipe.
A parameter which has been found to give a generalised
picture of the flow pattern inside such a pipeline is called
the Reynold~ number. It is defined by:

Re ('2.8)
II \)

The mean velocity in the pipeline, v, is clearly a


simplified idea of what is really happening, just as the
fluid density has to be an average value, but in the case of
a gas may well vary across the cross-section.
To a first approximation, however, the discharge
co~fficient of an orifice plate will bear a direct relationship
to the upstream Reynolds number which is for any specific
flowing fluid directly related to the flowrate so that:

C = f (Re ) = f (Q) (2.9)

11-35
It will be appreciated that this means that the same
discharge coefficient value will be obtained with different
comb ina ions 0 f flu id. and f 1owr ate.
t

T akin g wa te r ,w it h a kin erna tic vis cos ity 0 f 1 cSt as a


base, a Reynolds numbef ~f 100 000 would be obtained in a
100 mn pipeline for a mean fluid velocity of 1 mIse It is
predicted that the discharge coefficient for an orifice plate
of 0.5 diameter ratio with corner tappings (to be described
later) will then, according to ISO 5167, be:

C = 0.6053.

The same coefficient will be predicted, however, if a


gas with a kinematic viscosity of 0.015 cSt is floWing through
this orifice meter-run and pipeline at a mean velocity of
near 1y 15m /s Th e rna ss flow rat e wi I I the n bel / 1 DOt hat 0 f
the flowrate of the water in the example above.
To obtain the same Reynolds number and hence the same
coefficient with a thick oil flowing through the pipeline
and flowmeter the mass flowrate will have to be increased to
get a higher m~an velocity. For a kinematic viscosity of 200
cSt, the mean velocity would need to be an impossible 200 mls
and the mass flowrate would be around 150 times that of the
wa ter.
This flow measuring device is not suitable for Reynolds
numbers approaching the transition and laminar flow zones
because the discharge coefficient rises and then falls
rapidly in a way which is difficult to predict with any
accur acy It cornesin to its own wit h inc rea sin g Re y no Ids
numbers in the turbulent region. Indeed tests up to about 40
million suggest that the changes to the discharge coefficients
for all Reynolds numbers above 1 million do not exceed about
0.25 per cent. This is applicable to long straight pipes and
what are termed fully-developed flow conditions.

(2) Pressure tappings


The previous section has dealt with variations in the
geometrical profile of the orifice plate and emphasised that

11-36
the most common form is that standardised in ISO 5167 as the
'sharp edged' orifice plate.
Inthe early days the pressure difference across the
orifice plate was measured from any pair of tapping holes
drilled in the pipe upstream and downstream of the orifice
plate. In the early 1900s different companies adopted their
own preferred locations and claimed various advantages for
these. In the USA the flange taps won the day and became
standardised ASME Fluid Meters.
in. These are drilled through
the flanges perpendicular to the pipe at distances of 1 inch
upstream and 1 inch downstream from the faces of the flanges.
In Germany corner tappings were preferred and standardised
by the VOl and DIN, the equivalents to the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers and the British Standards Institution in
the United Kingdom. These tappings are drilled so that they
are at a slight angle so that they come out with one edge of
the tapping hole just touching the face on either side of the
plate. These tappings were also generally adopted by other
European countries.
In the USA vena contracta taps were accepted as an
alternative for many years but are inconvenient if the orifice
plate bore has to be changed to adapt the pressure difference
obtained with changing flowrates. The firm of George Kent's
in the UK and others had found 0 and D/2 tappings just as good
as vena contracta taps and since they have the advantages of
being fixed and non-dimensional they have been accepted in ISO
5167.
Thus there are three standard locations for the differen-
tial pressure tappings to be placed inthe pipe, see Fig.2.4.

a corner tappings,
b flange tappings, and
c 0 and 0/2 tappings.

2.4 Discharge Coefficients of Orifice Plates


J Stolz, Chairman of the ISO Technical Sub-committee
responsible for drafting ISO 5167, led the way to a new
understanding of the coefficient relationship with its many

11-37
controlling parameters. In the late 19605 and early 1970s the
attempts to co-ordinate the various data bases built up over the
preceding decades had been pricipally mathematical. It will be
appreciated that early experiments had then to be discarded
because they were based on non-standard devices but there still
remained many problems in trying to develop internationally
acceptable coefficient predictions. Often _.:theraw data were not
available so that curves arbitrarily fitted to smoothed data had
to be interpreted to provide a suitable data base.

D "NO D/2 CORNER TAPPINGS

-_ --_
o
..Ir
0
t

I PeA"' OF ""'
'O""Am

----- ..J.. ----_ i


PRESSURE
ON PIPE WALl.

Fig. 2.4 Alternative pressure tappings

Equations using power series were tried and while they may
have been excellent fits with the data used to obtain them they
were inconsistent with each other, often difficult to use, and
dangerously wrong if extrapolated. For exrunple one such
equation had terms in powers of the diameter ratio going up to
(3.2'+

Stolz realized that improvement could only come by


recognising that the discharge coefficients derived from
different sets of pressure tappings must nevertheless be
related to each other by physical laws. Thus the results for
flange tappings and corner tappings must become identical for

11-38
large pipe sizes since the allowable tolerances on their
physical locations then overlap. Similarly flange and D and D/2
tappings must give the same results at very small sizes. Again
all coefficients for all tappings and pipe diameters must
approach each other as the diameter ratio decreases. An
equation was then fitted to the non-dimensional measurements of
the pressure distribution just upstream and downstream of the
orifice plate based on independent tests. Combining these
bounda r y cond itions to represen log i ca I1Y these 1aws w i th. the
t

tWo sets of data which were the best authenticated (Beitler's


in USA and Witte's in Germany), he evolved an equation for
calculating the discharge coefficient which was relatively
straightforward.
The Stolz equation (Tables 2.1 and 2.2) is not necessarily
valid for all time but can, with great confidence, be regarded
as a satisfactory foundation for accommodating new data merely.
by altering the constants. In the author's opinion any updated
correlations of data should be based on its principles.

Table 2.1 The Stolz equation*

C=0.5959+0.0312{32'-O.184j38
+ O.0029/12.S[ 106]0.75
ReD
+ O.0900L1{34(1 - /14)-1 - 0.0337 L~{33

0.0390 .
If L, ~ 0.0900 (= 0.4333)

use 0.0390 for the coefficient of {34(1 - {34)-1

* As given in ISO 5167 (clause 7.3.2.1)

Table 2.2 Values of Ll and L2'

Corner tappings L,=L2=0


D and DI2 tappings L, = 12; L~ = 0.47t
Flange tappings L, = L2 = 2S.4ID:I:
t Hence coefficient of {34(1 - (84)-1 is 0.0390
:!: Where D is expressed in mm
The .c oe f f Lc Ien t s given by the Stolz equation are only
applicable to the type of orifice plates specified in ISO

1I-39
5167 (Fig.2.1) and can only be applied when the conditions of
use given in Table 2.3 are met (ISO 5167, clause 7.3.1).
Another condition is that the upstream pipeline shall be smooth
with an upper limit of relative roughness generally less than
k = O.OOlD (this is approximately equivalent to the surface
obtained in a 50 rnm (2 in) diameter new seamless cold drawn
steel pipe). The limiting value of k is however dependent on
the diameter ratio of the plate being used.

Table 2.3 Conditions of validity


Corner taps Flange taps D and 012
taps

d(mm) ~12.5 ;>-12.5 ;>-12.5


D(mm} 50~ 0 ~ 1000 50~D~760 50~ D~760
f3 0.23 ~ {3 ~ 0.80 0.2 ~f3 ~ 0.75 0.2 ~ f3 ~ 0.75
Reo 5000~Reo ~1260f32Dt ~1260{32Dt
~ 1OBfor 0.23 ~10B ~108
~IJ ~0.45
10 OOO~ Reo
~108forO.45
< {3 ~O.77
20 OOO~ Reo
~108for 0.77
~{3 ~O.80

t Where D is expressed in mm

Inevitably there will be uncertainties both in the physical


measurements to be entered into the flow equation (equation
(2.7)) and those associated with the discharge coefficient
equation (Table 1). All these sources of uncertainty must be
taken into consideration when assessing the overall accuracy of
a measurement and another ISO standard, ISO 5168, provides
guidance on how to determine this overall uncertainty. The
user must estimate the uncertainties associated with his own
measurements, but those associated with the discharge
coefficient required when dealing with gases particularly at
pressures near to ambient, have to be specified. The uncer-
tainties published in ISO 5167 associated with the Stolz
equation are given in Table 2.4.
As mentioned earlier, different tapping arrangements
evolved by custom in different places standardising on such
locations out of the infinite number of possibilities which

II-40
co u 1d h ave bee n c h 0 sen.
Ma ny have bee nth e dis cus s-i0 n san d
arguments in favour of these and other a rr an.g eme n t s and the
Stolz equation gives, theoretically, the coefficient which
might bi expected in any combination. The best trusted
presently available data, however, are based on the three
tapping arrangements illustrated in Fig.2.1 and referred to in
Tables 2.2 - 2.4.

Table 2.4 Uncertainty associated with the


Stolz equation*
When {3, D, ReD and kID are assumed to be known
without error, the uncertainty of the value of Cis:

Corner Flange D and DI2


taps taps taps

{3 ~ 0.6 0.6% 0.6% 0.6%


0.6~{3 < 0.8 f3%
O.6~{3 ~O.75 {3% {3%

* ISO 5167 Clause 7.3.3.1

2.5 Installation and Other Effects


The international standard ISO 5167 lays down quite
stringent conditions for the manufacture, installation and use
f""\,
/ of orifice pl,ates. If an accuracy of 3 per cent or better is
considered important then it is vital to conform to these
specifications. If 5 per cent is adequate it is still ,-
nee e s sa ry t0 c omp Iy wit h mo s t 0 f the re qui rernen t s ,bu t pro v ide d
the Reynolds number is sufficient, then a simple coefficient
value of 0.61 could be adopted for C in equation (2.7) given
ear 1ie r . 1 t has to be rememb ere d t hat the ex pan sib iIi ty
correction factor will still need to be applied, however,
unless the pressure ratio is above 0.975.
If accuracies of 2 per cent and better are sought then one
of the main considerations must be to ensure that the flow
pattern into the orifice meter run is reasonable. All too often
the meter is installed just downstream of a series of bends or

11-41'
wit hac 0n t r0 I val vel 0 cat ed a .sh 0 rt dis tarrce ups tream.
Illustrations of the serious errors which can resu-It from
not con form ing tot her equi rernen t.s'0 f the s tan dar d can e as i IY
be found. In such instances even site calibrations may not
resolve the problem since such conditions can produce
fluctuations whi~h make accurate measurement impossible. Many
experimental studies have been made to try to deal with the
co rre ct i on s required to c a t er for pulsating flows and these are
i nd i c.at ed in the e a rLi e r ed.ition of the 'British Standard BS
i042. The most recent edition of BS 1042 :1982 is technically
equivalent to ISO 5167 and does not include pulsating flows.
However further parts of the new BS 1042 are to be published
within the next year or so - th~~e will give updated
information: 1982 and also deal with the other pressure
difference devices referred to earlier.
Because of the square law relaion between pressure
d iff ere nc e and f Iow rat e , the ran ge ab iii'tY 0 fad I: ffer en t ia I
pressure meter is limited normal.ly to 3:1 and to about 5:1 at
most. This can only be overcome by converting the meter into
one capable of multi-range operaion. For example, .a bank of
orifice meters of different diameter ratios can be built in
parallel and the flow switched to the one with the right range.
Ins orne sit u a t ion s wh ere b r ie fin terr up tion -0 f the f Iow is
permissible, a greatly extended flow range can be obtained by
use of multiple orifice plates.
Pressure loss caused by the presence of the flowmeter can
po se pro b Iems and Fig. 2 .5 ill u strat est hat 0 r if,ice p I ate san d
nozzles because of their design di~sipate most of the energy
which creates the pressure difference. Venturimeters are
low-loss devices ..

2.6 Conclusion
. In c ho o s i ng a flowmeter, there are many factors to
consider and among them the question of accuracy is very
important. ~ile it is pointless to pay for a higher accuracy
than is necessary, a cheap meter that is not accurate may
be corne ex pen s i vet 0 0 per ate. S iin i 1a r 1y, un 1e ss a me t e r i s
calibrated and installed correctly, it will not achieve its

11-42
potential accuracy.
Thus a typical orifice plate designed 'and manufactured
according to a recognised standard, can be expected to give an
uncertainty of say 1-1.5 per cent at maximum flowrate under
ideal conditions depending on its diameter ratio. This eQuId
well be increased to more than 2.5-3 per cent because of
effects of pipe size and inadequate upstream and downstream
lengths. If swirling flow exists then errors may rise to 10
or 20 per cent or more.
By calibrating a differential pressure meter an uncertainty
of O.5 per cent should be obtainable, but this will depend on
the quality of the output signal .

.
Q.

I 60
f/)
(I)

9
~ 50
::l
f/)
f/)
LI.J
g: 40
l;j
z
30

I~

20

10

5-7" TAPER

0.1 . 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7


m

Fig. 2.5 Net pressure loss as a percentage of


pressure difference

It must also be noted that the standards only apply to


flowmeters correctly manufactured and installed and in the srune
condition as when originally commissioned. As time goes on
significant errors can be introduced because of age~ng. Thus

11-43
the sharp edge of the orifice plate can be eroded, the pipe can
become too rough, debris can build up against the face of the
orifice plate. Excessive flows can cause dishing of the
orifice plate while externally the pressure difference
transducer may shift its calibration.
Periodic inspection of the orifice plate and internal
conditions in the pipe therefore are thus imperative, the
frequency depending upon the cleanliness and characteristics
of the fluid and materials used.
With all these precautions being observed however, the
orifice plate flowmeter can be claimed to be the most reliable
and the most predictable flow measuring device at present
available.

Acknowledgements
This chapter is published by permission of the Director,
National Engineering Laboratory, Department of Trade and
Industry, East Kilbride from which Laboratory the author
recently retired.

It is Crown copyright, January 1984.

11-44
Chapter 3

OTHER FLOW MEASURING DEVICES

3.1 Introduction
Thi s chap ter dea Is wi th f IOWlTIe ter s no t cover ed un de r the
headings of differential pressure devices and electromagnetic
flowmeters which have been covered elesewhere. The main
emphasis will be on volumetric liquid flow measurement although
some reference will be made to gas flow measurement. The
literature is replete with novel flowmeters designed to meet
specific applications, many of which will never enjoy wide
industrial acceptance. One estimate puts the number of
c OIIIDe
rei all y ava iIab Ie f 1owme te r t y pes a t 100 wit h the numb e r
cDnstantly increasing. This chapter CDncentrates on flowmeters
which have been used successfully and widely in industry. The
flDwmeters to be covered are positive displacement; turbine;
transit time, Doppler and correlation ultrasonic techniques;
variable area; vortex shedding. Particular emphasis is laid
upon the ultrasonic technologies which at the present time
represent one of the major growth areas in flow measurement,
particularly since they offer the possibility of non-invasive
flow measurement with the transducers mounted on the outside .of
the pipe. For a wider view of flowmeters available the reader
is directed to Dowden, A.S.M.E. and Hayward. Brain provides a
survey of mass flow measurement techniques. For a regular
update on flowmetering the Fluid Flow Abstracts produced by
B.H.R.A. Fluid Engineering provide a useful source of material.

3.2 Positive Displacement Flowmeters


These flowmeters measure flow quantity as opposed to
flowrate in that they deliver a known volume of fluid a measured
number of times within the interval for which the flow is to be
measured. The known volume can be produced by several means.

I 1-45 '
For liquid flow this can be by means of a semi-rotating piston,
reciprocating piston, mutating disc, or gearing arrangement and
for gas flow this can be by means of a liquid seal, a diaphragm,
or a rotating diaphragm. Some of these are shown in Fig.3.l.
In the sIfding vane posititve displacement flowmeter shown in
Fig.3.1a the set of vanes rotate within a casing, the rotation
of the vane being the flow of the liquid. The defined
caused by
volume is the volume enclosed between two such vanes, the vanes
being arranged in such a way as to provide sealing with the
casing and so limit leakage. The liquid monitored should be
clean since dirt or grit within the flow can damage the sealing
capabi lity of the vanes. The rotation of the vanes is usually
recorded by means of a mechanical counter.

aJ sliding vane meter b) 'ova I-wheel' gear meter

c) gear meter d} wet gas meter

Fig. 3.1 Positive displacement meters

Positive displacement flowmeters for liquids are used


extensively in water metering and in the measurement of

11-46
petroleum products. They are capable of achieving accuracies
of order of O.2% of totalised flow with flow ranges from
"\
5 x lO-6m3/s to O.5m3/s at pressures up to l04kPa and
temperatures up to 300C. They are sensibly insensitive to
ups t r.e am can d i tion s 0 r tot he pro per tie S 0 f the flu i d be ing
metered. For further details of the operation of positive
displacement flowmeters, see A.S.M.E., Brain and McDonald,
Linford and Walker.

3.3 Turbine Flowmeters


The turbine flowmeter which can be used for the measurement
of liquid or gas flows uses the speed of rotation of a 'turbine
within the flow as a measure of the flowrate. As such, the
device produces a frequency output proportional to flowrate.
The dyrtamical behaviour of the turbine and the balance between
driving and retarding torques is'complex. Models for the
behaviour of turbines have been produced by Ruben et al and
Thompson and Gr~y among others.

coil
bearing spacer housing
straightening
vane

Fig. 3.2 Turbine meter (by courtesy of the


Foxboro Company)

A typical liquid flow turbine is shown in Fig.3.2. The


blades of the turbine come in several forms with straight,
helical, or T-shaped blades and various designs of bearing
are used including ball and journal bearings. Detection of

11-47
the rotational speed is achieved by means of a proximity
detector. Magnetic pick-up involves either using the blades
to alter the reluctance a magnetic
of path or by the use of
magnets in the tip of the blade which induce a voltage in the
pick-up coil (Miller).
Turbine flowmeters have a fast response to flow and are
capable of providing a rangeability from 10:1 to 20:1
(rangeability is the ratio of the highest to lowest flow
measured within a certain error band). Calibration accuracies
of 0.25% of reading can be achieved_with repeatabilities- of
0.1%. Typically turbines range in size from 6 to 600 mm.
They can operate at temperatures of up to 260C and pressures
up to 2 x 104kPA
At the low end of the flo~ range the reading is affected
by the viscosity of the fluid, the pick-off technique, and
bearing wear. Overspeeding of the turbine can also detrimentally
affect its performance. In order to achieve the specified
accuracy of the flowmeter it is usually necessary to have a
specified length of straight run upstream and downstream of the
flowmeter. Typically these are specified as 10 diameters and
5 diameters respectively. For high accuracy applications for
use in custody transfer situations it is usual to employ
turbine flowmeters with a prover system which provides a
regular calibration of the turbines.

3.4 Ultrasonic Flowmeters


A wide variety of liquid flowmeters for use in closed
condu its have been des i gned emp 1 oy i ng U ,I trason i cs, the rnas t
common flowmeters using transit time, Doppler and correlation
techniques. Reviews of ultrasonic flowmetering techniques have
been provided by McShane, Lynnworth who has provided an
extensive review of ultrasonic flow measurement with particular
emphasis on the ultrasonic aspects as opposed to the electronic
aspects and Sanderson and Hemp who have provided a review of
the state-of-the-art in liquid flow measurement using transit
time and Doppler techniques. Other applications of ultrasonics
to the measurement of liquid flow include the measurement of the
bending of the ultrasonic beam caused by the flow of liquid

11-48
(Peterman), and the detection of vortices in a vortex shedding
f I owme te r . and Co Iton, Co 1 ton ) Wit h in 0 pen chan nelf 1 ow
(J 0 y
and river flow measurement transit time techniques have been
employed (Genthe and Yamamoto, Drenthen et a ll . Ul trasonies are
also.widely used as the height of determining element in open
channel flow measurement employing flumes or weirs.

(I) Transit time flowmeters


These measure the time difference between ultrasonic beams
transmitted upstream and downstream in the liquid and as such
are designed for use with homogeneous fluids. They have been
use d for the me as u rernen t 0 f bot h 1 iqui dsan d gas e s .for wh i c h
they are capable of measuring mass flow rate as well as
u volumetric flow rate. (Moffat anf Fetterhoff, Baker and
Thomp son) .
If the liquid in Fig.3.3 is moving with velocity v at
angle 8 to the ultrasonic beam then

=
d (3 1)
T12
sin e (c-v cos e)
d
and T21 ::;
(3 2 )
sin e (c+v cos 8 )
where T12 is the transit time from transducer 1 to .t ransducer
2, T 2 1 is the t ran sit time from tran sduc er 2 tot ran sdu ce r 1
and d is the diameter of the pipe.
/ Now since c2v2 cos2e, the time difference bT is given by

2dcotSv (3 .3)
c2

i.e. the time difference is proportional to v.


For water flowing in a lOOmm pipe at 1 mls with the two
beams transmitted at an angle of 45 to the flow, the transit
0

time is 94.3~s and the difference in the transit times is only


88 ns. Since 8T is also proportional to d such measurements
are usually restricted to larger pipe sizes and higher
velocities. Measurement in smaller pipe sizes is us ally
achieved by transmission of the beam axially along the pipe or

11-49
by the use of multiple reflections along the pipe as shown in
Fig.3.4.

Fig. 3.3 Transit time ultrasonic flowmeter

flow

Transducer 2 Transducer 1

Transducer 2 Transducer 1

(a) Axial Flowmeter (b) Mult ipl e Reflections

Fig. 3.4 Transit time techniques for measurements


in small tube sizes

Transit time flowmeters can be used either with wetted


sensors in which the transducers are in contact with the
flowing liquid or as a clamp-on device in-which the transducers
are clamped externally to the pipe. Under such conditions the
angle e and the required separation of the transducers are then
dependent on refractions at the wedge/wall, wall/liquid,

II-50
interfaces. The two types of sensor are shown in Fig.3,.5.

tunqsten loaded
resin

piezo-electric
crystal
b)wetted sensor detail

c) clamp-on sensors

Fig. 3.5 Sensors for transit time flowmeters

1) Measurement techniques
The two commonly used measurement techniques for transit
time f Iowme t e rs are d irec t tran sit time me as u rernen t s, wh i c h are
often referred to as leading edge or pulse techniques, and
sing-around techniques. Fig.3.6 shows a leading edge technique
in which the two piezo-electric crystals are used both as
transmitters and receivers, the role change being affected by
the multiplexer. A pulse is applied to one transducer, and the
time for its arrival at the other is measured. The'system thus
sequentially measures T12 and T21. The def~ning equation for AT
shows a dependence on 1/c2 and thus the velocity of sound
compensation is essential for accurate measurement. Water at
20C shows a velocity of sound temperature coefficient of
+ O.2%/oC and thus a wetted sensor device would have a
temperature coefficient from this effect of - O.4%/oC.

I I-51
{3.4}

and thus (3 . 5 )

i.e. it is proportional to v and independent of c.

Amplifier Time
Pulse Mul t iplexer and level
Generator de-tector Measurement

output
proportional
to flowrate

.:
Fig. 3.6 Leading edge system

Sing-around techniques provided an output which does not


require velocity of sound compensation and they operate as
shown in Fig.3.7. The received pulse is used to trigger another
pu 1sea t the t ran sm ittera n d the f reque n c y f' 0 f the res u 1 tin g
pulse train is measured. The role of the transducers are
reversed and a new frequency fll is measured.

sin6(c + V cose) (3.6)


f ' d

II-52
f" = sinS(c - v cosS) (3 . 7 )
d
and thus f' - f" = 2sinScosev (3.8)
d

__ -- ...........
---1 Multiplexer Rec etver

u
L-oI ...............Multiplexer Transmitter

Fig. 3.7 Sing-around technique

One of the major difficulties experienced by sing-around


techniques is that any obstruction between transmitter and
receiver will cause errors in the sing-around frequency.
Muston and Loosemore and Hoene have described a technique by
~ which the problem can be eliminated. fig.3.8 shows the pulse
i
phase comparison technique. The pulses are generated by
division of the output of the voltage controlled oscillator.
The first is transmitted through the liquid and is then phase
compared with the second. Depending on which arrives first the
voltage applied to the voltage controlled oscillator is adjusted.
In the absence of a received pulse the voltage is maintained at
its previous value. In this way it is claimed that only 2% of
the pulses need be received in order to achieve the required
accuracy_ Modifications to the sing-around technique to allow
it to work in a clamp-on mode have been made by Yada et ale
These modifications overcome the problem of a varying angle e
which arises as a consequence of refraction effects.

II-53
Multiplexer

P2

Multiplexer....__-t 2 Pulse .,__...........


Multiplexer
t-------4
Enable

3ms
Clock

Fig. 3.8 Two pulse phase comparison method

2) Velocity profile sensitivity


A single beam transit time flowmeter estimates the flowrate
by measuring the average flow velocity in the direction of the
beam ac r0 sst he leng tho f the beam. Co n seq uen t Iv : ifit is
placed downstream of a bend or valve then, since the fluid
velocity across the beam does not represent the average velocity
inth e pip e, the f 1owme te r w iIIre ad in err 0 r . Ch ange sin
sensitivity of the flowmeter will occur with fully developed
flow in long straight pipes as the flow changes from laminar to
turbulent. Estimates can be made of the changes in sensitivity
due to these effects as follows:-
If v is the component of the fluid velocity along the
sound path and in the direction of the sound travelling from
transducer 2 to transducer 1, as shown in Fig.3.9, then at any
distance x the sound is moving towards transducer 2 at a
velocity given by c + v(x), since in general v is a function
of x. Thus the total transit time T21 is. given by

II-54
(9. dx R,
T21 =Jo c + v{x) = c (3.9)

where V is the average liquid velocity in the direction of the


beam along its length 9. and thus

(3.IO)

Transducer 2

Fig. 3.9 Velocity averaging along beam

This mean velocity measurement is not the same as flowrate.


As a result an error of approximately 30% can occur in moving
from the turbulent regime to the laminar regime (Fronek), and
a change in sensitivity of approximately 3.5% occurs in smooth
Api pes as the Re y n 0 Ids numb e r is chan g ed from 107 to 104 Th e
effect of upstream piping such as valves and bends has been
estimated by AI-Khazraji et a1 who indicate that large errors
can occur with single beam devices. By using a number of
parallel ultrasonic beams and averaging the measured mean
velocities associated with each, the effect of upstream fittings
can be reduced. In this wayan approximation to the mean
velocity over the whole cross section can be obtained.
Optimization of the position of the beams and the weighting
factors applied to the measured mean velocities gives rise to
various schemes, analogous to different methods of numerical
integration, to make best use of a limited number of beams
(Malone et all. Lynnworth and Peterson and Lynnworth describe

II-55

\,
\.
an alternative scheme to the multi-beam method which involves
employing a uniform broad beam of ultrasound extending over the
entire cross section. The small diameter tube axial flowmeter
is also a transit time flowmeter in which a broad beam is
used.

3} Accuracy of transit time flowmeters


Little independent calibration data is available for
transit time ultrasonic flowmeters. The typical accuracy
q U 0 ted by a rnanu fac t U re r for a sin g -a r0 un d sy stem emp loy in g
wetted sensors is 1% of flow from 1 to 12 mls and O.009 mls
from 0 to 1 mls in a 75 mm pipe. In larger pipes from 100 to
600 mm the quoted accuracy of 1% of flow extends over a wider ~
range from 0.3 to 12 mls with an accuracy of 0.00455 mls
from 0 to 0.3 m/s. The repeatability for these larger pipe
sizes is quoted as 0.3% of flow for flows above 0.3 m/s. The
electronic package of the flowmeters is typically capable of
operating in an ambient temperature of between -30C and 55C
and the temperature limits on the process are from 0 to 84C
(Sparling Envirotech).
The accuracy limits quoted for clamp-on flowmeters are
usually somewhat Wider, reflecting the greater uncertainties
present in such a device. The typical quoted accuracy for such
a device employing a leading edge technique is 1 to 4% of
act u a 1 flow for a nom ina I pip e s i z e, wa lIt h i c k ne ss, in
specified material for velocities above 1 ftls in non-aerated
p,
1 iqui d s , wit h a z e r0 s tab iii tY a f 0 0 1 5 ftis. (Co n tr0 lot ron
Corporation). Removal and re-application of the sensors has
been found in calibrations made by Barker and Brumer to cause
err 0 rs 0 f up t0 5% in f I owme t e r -s ens i t iv i t Y Ad d i t ion a I
sou rce S 0 fer r 0 r inc l u d in g pip e wa I I th ic k n e S s, i n t er n a I d i arnete r ,
acoustic velocity in pipe wall material, and transducer axial
separation have been identified by Brumer. Poor coupling
between the transducer and the pipe, and misalignment of the
transducer with respect to the pipe axis can cause errors as
can the in tern a I sur f ace can d it i:en. 0 f the pip e

II-56

j
(2) Doppler flowmeters
Doppler flowmeters employ scatterers in the flow of
provide the necessary frequency shift of the ultrasonic beam
and are suited to measurements in liquids in which there are
solid particles or gas bubbles to provide the necessary
interfaces to scatter the ultrasonic beam. The frequency of
the transmitted signal' undergoes two Doppler shifting oprations
and the configuration
for shown in Fig.3.10 the frequency of
the received signal is given by
v
- --cos 81) (3.11)
c

where is the velocity of sound in the medium


c
U is the ve Ioc it y of the scatterer
v
and 81 and 62 are the transmission and receipt ion angles
respectively. The Doppler shift, fd' is thus given, by

fd = fr - f = f t ~c (cos 81 - cos 82) (3.12)


t

Fig. 3.10 Principle of Doppler flowmeter

Fig.3.1l shows an industrial Doppler flowmeter with its


associated electronics.
If all the scatterers are moving with the same velocity v
then the Doppler shift, fd' is given by

(3.13)

For a flow of 1 mls in a medium for which the velocity of sound


is 1500 mIs, the Doppler shift is 563 Hz if the transmitted

, II-57
frequency is 1 MHz and the beam is transmitted at an angle of
65 to the flow. Application of Snell's Law of refraction
gives

(3.14)

where 8w is now the wedge angle and Cw is the velocity of


sound in the wedge, Le. fd is independent of c.

Demodulator

Fig. 3.11 Industrial Doppler flowmeter

In genera 1 the Do pp le r sh if t 0 f the .tran sm itted s ign a I


will not be a single frequency but will consist of a band of
frequencies with a spectrum as shown in Fig.3.12. The spectrum

transmitted received
spectrum spectrum

ft frequency

Fig. 3.12 Frequency spectra of Doppler shifted signals

obtained depends on such factors as velocity profile effects,


the distribution of the scatterers,the attenuation of the
ultrasonic beam, non axial flow components such as turbulence

II-58
and the transit time effect of scatterers.
The electronics for an industrial Doppler flowmeter are
shown in Fig.3.11 in which the Doppler shifted received signal
is mixed with the unshifted transmission frequency - this is
usually achieved by adventitious leakage of the ultrasonic
signal which occurs between the transmitter and the receiver.
The received signals are amplified and demodulated. In
industrial flow measurement the usual estimate of the Doppler
frequency is made by means of a zero crossing detector firing a
fixed width monostable every time a zero crossing occurs .. It
may be shown that such a system gives a measure which is
proportional to the r.m.s. frequency of the Doppler spectrum.

u 1) Limitations and accuracies of Doppler flowmeters


Some of the difficulties and tlmitations which occur when
Doppler systems are applied to industrial flow measurement are
I ikely to occur since: (i) the nature of the scatterers, thei r
size distribution, and their spacial distribution in the flow
is likely to be unknown; (ii) the attenuation of the ultrasonic
beam and consequently the weighting of the ultrasonic beam is
uncertain; (iii) although the Doppler shift is independent of
the velocity of sound in the liquid the volume which is being
viewed by the flowmeter alters as a consequence of the change in
an g leo f the beam inth eli qui d ; (iv ) i n 1 a rge pip e s i zest he
velocities which are being measured will tend to be very close
to the wall and the velocity which will be measured in either
turbulent or laminar flow conditions will not correspond to the
mean flow and its relationship to the mean flow is unlikely to
be known and wi II va ry from 0 ne sit u a tion ta an 0 the r; (v ) the
velocity of the scatterers is not the same as the velocity of
the fluid. The accuracy of Doppler flowmeters is thus usually
rather low. Such devices do, however, have a high repeatability
in a given situation. Cousins claims that for a flow range of
o to 15 mls a repeatability of 1% of F.S.D. can be obtained
and that for small pipes with well mixed slurries a linearity
of 2% is achievable for Reynolds numbers above 105 For large
pipe size it is claimed that the accuracy is more dependent on
pipe size and R~ynolds number. Doppler flowmeters have the

II-59
advantages that they can be clamped on to the outside of the
pipe and that they are cheap. They can operate at temperatures
of up to 120C and at pressures limited only by the pipe work.

{3} Correlation flow measurement


Correlation flowmeters estimate the flowrate by measuring
the transit time of naturally occurring or deliberately
introduced disturbances in the form of eddies or discontinuities
between two stations in the pipe shown in Fig.3.13. The method
used to estimate the transit time between the two stations is
to perform cross-correlation on the signalsthe generated by
disturbances at the two points and this depends for its operation
....
on the perSistence of the distribution of the disturbance within
the pipe as the liquid flows between the two stations. These
disturbances or noise signals can be in the form of thermal or
optical noise caused by changes in the temperature of the fluid
or changes in its optical density or reflectance, or they can be
changes in the electrical impedance measured between two
electrodes-at each station in the flow. Ultrasonics are commonly
used as the method of detecting the disturbances (Coulthard,
Fell). The ultrasonic transducers have the advantage that they
can be placed on the outside of the pipe.
The cross correlation function Rxy(T) is given by

I im lfT
T 0
x(t - r l v y l t Lv d t (3.15)

c
T-+oo

The cross correlation function Rxy(L) will have a maximum value


given by Rxy(Tmax) as shown in Fig.3.13 and an estimate of the
flow velocity can be given by v d where d is the
Tmax
separation between the sensors.
The correlation may be performed using analogue or dLgital
tee hn ique s. S eve ra 1 schernes are ava i Ia b Ie for per form i ng the
cross correlation using microprocessor systems. (Coulthard and
Keech, Henry). A review of correlation techniques has been
given by Beck.

I 1-60
CROSS

CORRELATOR

Rxy (r)

Fig. 3.13 Cross correlation flow measurement

3.5 Variable Area Flowmeters


Df f f e ren t ia l pressure devices such as orifice plates or
venturis are constrictions of fixed area across which the
pressure drop is measured. Variable area flowmeters employ
some method of varying- the cross section through which the flow
passes in order to maintain constant pressure drop across the
cross section. An element within the flowmeter changes its
~ po sit ion wit h the f 1owme te r. to- pre sen t the f Iow wit h a va ryin g
c.r 0 ssse c t ion. Th isea n be achi eve d by me an s 0 fat ape red tub e
and float meter, a cylinder and piston meter, or an orifice and
plug meter. (Miller).
One of the most commonly used forms of variable area
flowmeter is shown in Fig.3.14, a tapered tube and float meter.
A feedback mechanism ensures that the float is positioned in the
tube such that there is a force balance on the float between the
differential pressure across it caused by the flow together with
the buoyance force acting on the float, and the gravitational
force on the float. Any imbalance between the forces will cause
the float to move upwards or downwards.

I 1-6 1
gravitational force
cross-
sectional
areas~
_l
velocities
Vfl .,Png

I force
--~ vfa
t balance

float
Aa
t
force caused by buoyancy force
~ float

diff. pressure Vfl- .Pt..g


across float due
graduations to How:
Aft vfo ,..ot12
continuity: Aa .vfa = At .vft = q

Float: density PH : volume Vf t f rom force balance and coniinuit y ~

cross sectional area At 1


q
= (2.Vil:9
4~
J pfI-,of
,of
Aa

Fluid: density I'f

Fig. 3. 14 Va ria b 1e are a fIowrnete r

Ass hown i n Fig. 3.14, the b a 1an ce g i ve sri set 0 the


defining equation of the flowmeter as

q k (3.16)

where q is the flowrate


Aa is the cross sectional area of the annulus at

Afl
which equilibrium will occur
is the cross sectional area of the float
r-
VfI is the volume of the float
PfIPr are the densities of the float and fluid
respectively
g is the acceleration due to gravity
k is a constant introduced to provide correction for
the factors neglected in the'simple analysis.

If Aa is made proportional to the height of the float in


the tube then the flowmeter will have a linear indication.
Furthermore, if the tube is constructed from glass then the
float level can be read by eye. In cases where, from process

1I-62
considerations, the tapered tube is constructed of metal the
p o s i t i on of the float can be de t ec t e d by electromagnetic means.
This technique is also employed when signals are required for
control purposes.
,Suc h f 1 O\VIIle te rs are r e lat i v 1 y simp 1 e and can be use d for
the measurement of a wide range of liquids and gases. They can
operate at pressures typically up to 3.5 x 106 Pa and at
temperatures up to 350C. Gas flowrates of up to 0.5 m3/s and
liquid flowrates up to 0.1 m3/s can 'be measured. Accuracies of
order 1% of upper scale value can be achieved with a range-
ability of 10:1. Correction factors for density and viscosity
should be applied should these change from those for which the
flowmeter was calibrated. Variable area flowmeters show little
effect from upstream piping conditions.

3.6 Vortex Shedding Flowmeters


These flowmeters depend for their operation on the fact
that as flow passes over a bluff body it is unable to follow the
contours of the body and flow separation from the body occurs.
This results in vortices being shed from the body alternately
from each side of the body and the generation of a Von Karman
vortex' sh~et as shown in Fig.3.15. This is a phenomena which
causes a waving of the flags in the breeze and the singing of
telegraph wires.

Von Karman Vortex Sheet

Fig. 3.15 Vortex shedding flowmeter

The Strouhal number, S, relates the shedding frequency to


the free velocity in that

11-63
fshhb {3.17}
S
vf

where fsh is the shedding frequency


hb is the height of the barrier
vf i s the free velocity.

Linearity of the flowmeter is thus ensured by constancy of


the Strouhal number and it has been found that the shedding
frequency is directly proportional to the free velocity over a
wid ere g ion 0 f f Iow , ex c ludin g the Iam ina r reg ion. Th era nge
of operation of a particular bluff body and its linearity are
dependent upon its shape, triangular or T-shaped bodies being
those most commonly used. (Burgess, Miller et a1). Detection
of the pressure or velocity variations caused by the vortices
is by means of ultrasonic, thermal or pressure sensors.
Vortex shedding flowmeters have no moving parts, provide
less obstruction to the flow than an orifice plate, and are
not particularly susceptible to wear. They can be used for
the me asur ernen t 0 f 1iqui d san d gas e san d sin ce the S tr0 uh a I
number is independent of the density of the fluid being
monitored they maintain their calibration factor whether being
used with liquids or gases. For Reynolds numbers greater than
104 they can provide an accuracy of 1% of reading over a
range of 20:1. Vortex shedding flowmeters with operating
temperatures of up to 20QoC and operating pressures of up to c_
l04kPa are available.

1I-64
Chapter 4

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

4.1 The Concept of Temperature and the Thermodynamic Scale


In his 0 pen ingad dres s tot he 19 7 I Wa sh ing ton Co n fer en ceo n
1ITemperature its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry",
Preston-Thomas told a story of a previous conference during
~ which a delegate was interviewed for the local TV station.
"Now tell me Dr 'X"', said the interviewer "in simple words that
a layman can understand, just what is temperature?" This was
followed by a long and total silence during which the scientist
was clearly trying to find an intelligible answer to the
question.
Without numerical systems we can rank bodies by degree of
'hotness' (simply by touching them for example) and could
construct an arbitrary scale (like Moh's scale of hardness)
assigning an unknown temperature a pOSition between two defined
standards (hotter than melting ice, but cooler than a human body
for example).
We step from this concept to that of 'heat' as a measurable
~ quantity which flows from the hotter to the cooler body. This
was the state up to the beginning of the 17th century when the
first liquid in glass thermometers were constructed. These,
however, had quite arbitrary scales and a further century
elapsed before the use of the ice and steam-points as 00 and
100 o . (0 rO and 80 0 0 r 32 0 and 2 12 0) bee arne corrmon . Some
experiments on air thermometers at the start of the 18th
century hinted at the existence of a lowest possible temperature.
The concept of heat as a form of motion and temperature as
a measure of the intensity of that motion became acceptable in
the early nineteenth century and work on steam engines had shown
a direct relationship between work done and heat absorbed.
Kelvin eventually put all of this together and defined

11-65
the absolute scale of temperature in relation to a reversible
heat engine working between temperatures Tl and T2, The heat
provided by the source is Ql and that delivered to the sink is
Q2 and these quantities are related by:

(4. 1)
T2 Q2

(note that Tl is higher than T2)

and the efficiency of the engine is clearly:

(4.2)

Numerical values are obtained by defining a single fixed point.


This is chosen to be the triple-point of water which is fixed
at 273.16K by definition.
In principle then an unknown temperature could be determined
by measuring the efficiency' of a reversible engine working
between the unknown temperature and the triple-point of water.
In practice this measurement cannot be carried out, but
gas thermometers with very low gas-densities approximate very
closely to the requirement for a thermometer working on the
thermodynamic scale as do a few other instruments. None of
these techniques is usable as a way of making actual practical
temperature measurements or even as a means of routine
calibration of practical thermometers, This is not only
because the methods are complex and cumbersome, but also
because they are not capable of adequate accuracy and precision
for industrial and scientific temperature measurement.

4.2 The International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS)


Because the ThermodynamiC scale is not usable directly, a
Practical Temperature scale is used based on the temperatures
a t wh ich we IIde f.i ned chan ge s 0 f S tat e 0 f pur e rnat e ria Iso C cur
National standards laboratories in -v ar i cu s countries
determined these temperatures as accurately as possible on the
thermodynamic scale and then, for the sake of certainty and
uniformity assigned them values which form the fixed points of

11-66
the IPTS. These are tabulated in (Table 1) below for the most
recent version of the IPTS - that of 1968.

Table 1 Defining fixed points of the IPTS-68

Equilibrium state Assigned value of


International Practical
Temperature

Triple point of equilibrium


hydrogen.
Equilibrium between the 17.042 .-256.108
liquid and vapour phases
of equilibrium hydrogen at
a pressure of 33 330.6 Pa.
Boiling point of equili- 20.28 -252.87
brium hydrogen.
Boiling point of neon. 27.102 -246.048
Triple point of oxygen. 54.361 -218.789
Triple point of argon. 83.798 -189.352
Condensation point of 90.188 -182.962
oxygen.
Triple point of water. 273.16 0.01
Boiling point of water. 373.15 100
Freezing point of tin. 505.1181 231.9681
Freezing point of zinc. 692.73 419.58
Freezing point of silver. 1235.08 961.93
Freezing point of gold. 1337.58 1064.43

These temperatures are highly reproducible (to thousandths


of a degree in most cases) but they may not co-respond to their
temperature on the thermodynamic scale that closely.
For example, the scatter of results used in assigning the
temperature of the gold point was a substantial fraction of a
degree and on the basis of these results the figure was
increased by about 1.4 degree from the 1948 scale to the 1968
scale. Very accurate gas thermometry may now be indicatng that
the steam point (which has been taken as 10QoC for 200 years)
may be in error and in some future revision we could have a
steam point at (say) 99.97C.
Between the fixed points particular devices are used as
interpolation instruments. Thus between 13.81K (-259.3'4C) and
903.905K (630.755C) the interpolating instrument is the platinum
resistance thermometer, from that temperature to 1337.58K
(1064.43C) it is the platinum 10% rhodium/platinum thermocouple
and above this last temperature the scale is defined in terms

11-67
of the Planck radiation law.
In practice any reference to a temperature in whatever
units (K, C, of, "R etc)is normally assumed to mean temperature
as defined by th IPTS. In particular, expressing a temperature
in Kelvins does not imply that the temperature is measured on
the theoretical thermodynamic scale unless this is specifically
indicated.
For most practical measurements for control purposes the
distinction is unimportant except that, since the IPTS is
revised from time to time to bring it more closely in line with
the thermodynamic scale, it may somet imes be necessary to check
whether a particular measurement was made before or after a
change in the scale. Thus a thermocouple calibrated at the
gold-point before and after the change from IPTS 48 to 68 would
Gr
appear to have drifted by 1.4K, s imp Iy because of the ch an ge in
scale although the emf from the thermocouple at the gold-point
might have been identical in the two tests.

4.3 Dissemination of the Temperature Scale


The IPTS is maintained by certain national standards
laboratories (NPL in this country) and by the Bure~u Inter-
national des Poids et Mesures (BIAM) in Paris. These
laboratories calibrate suitable instruments supplied to them
against the IPTS and supply calibration certificates for them.
In particular laboratories of the British Calibration Service
(BCS) have thermometers which have been calibrated by NPL and
against which they calibrate industrial and other thermometers.

4.4 Types of Thermometer

(I) Expansion thermometers


The oldest form of thermometer and still the most common
in everyday use is the mercury or alcohol in glass. ~ile of
no dir~ct use in control work they cover a very wide range of
temperatures, from say -80C to 50QoC with high accuracy and
can, therefore, frequently be used for routine calibration of
control devices.
Some expansion devices are used in control applications,

11-68
mercury in steel, vapour pressure and bimetallic devices being
the most common since they are all capable of moving a diaphragm,
bellows or shaft. This in turn may operate electrical contacts,
a potentiometer or a forcebalance system with either an
electrical or a pneumatic output.
Although these devices may be losing ground to electrical
thermometers they are still fitted in considerable numbers and,
because they are simple and self-contained, may often be used
in alarms and trips.
The vapour pressure thermometer is particularly useful in
de ali ng wit h n a r row temp era tu r.e sin ce the pre s sur e
ran g e s 0 f
(P) of a vapour in contact with its liquid varies exponentially
wit h ternpera t u re (T) ie appro x irnatel y as:

(4. 3)
P = a Tn ex p (- ~~ )

where a is a constant; n is the difference between the specific


heats of the vapour and liquid in units of R the gas constant;
Lo is the latent heat of vapourisation.
In practice, a very rough approximation is that the
vapour pressure wil double for a 10C rise in temperature.
Note that the vapour pressure in the system will be that
corresponding to the temperature of the liquid-vapour interface.
If the temperature of the measuring bulb should pass through
the ambient temperature the pressure sensitive read-~ut device
N, will change from being full of gas to being full of liquid; the
location of the interface may therefore change, and an error
may be introduced by the hydrostatic head of the liq ide
Special designs are therefore required for instruments working
near ambient temperature.
The scales of vapour pressure thermometers are ighly
non-linear and there is, therefore, usually a distinction
between the total temperature range and the usable temperature'
range of a particular instrument.

(2) Thermocouple thermometers


This is not the place to go deeply into the theory of the
thermoelectric effect which is in any case imperfectly

11-69
understood. It may be sufficient to consider that if two
metals are connected one end, as shown in (Fig.4.1)
together at
a potential difference may be measured at the open ends when a
temperature difference exists between A and B. This results
from the difference in work functions at the hot and cold
junctions, and from the potential gradient which must accompany
a temperature gradient in a conductor.

Fig. 4.1. Thermocouple

Almost any pair of dissimilar metals could be used to


produce a thermocouple, but a limited number have achieved a
degree of international acceptance. It should very rarely be
necessary to use couples outside Table 2 in normal industrial
work.

Table 2 Types of thermocouples

Type Composition Normal Maximum


Operating Range 'Spot' Reading

E Nickel-chromium/ -200c to 850C 11000C


Copper nickel or
Chromel/constantan

J Iron/copper-nickel
or Iron/constantan
-200C to 850C 11000e r
K Nickel-chromium/ -200C to 1100C 13000e
Nickel-aluminium
or Chromel/alumel

T Copper/copper nickel -250C to 4QOC 50QoC


or Copper/constantan

B Platinum 30% Rhodium/ ODC to 1500 C 1700C


Platinum 6% Rhodium

R Platinum 13% Rhodium! OC to 1400C 1650C


Platinum
S Platinum 10% Rhodium! DOC to 1400C 1650C
Platinum

I 1-70
These thermocouples have recently been studied at various
standards laboratories ~nd revised emf/temperature tables
produced.
The difference between the older BSI tables and the new
are usually small but may be significant in accurate work.
The difference can be as much as 4C in the case of
copper-constantan (Type T). There are also significant
differences between these new tables and the older NBS tables
for precious metal thermocouples.
The tables also include polynomial representations of the
emf-temperature relationship for use in computer data-processing.
These polynomials need to be treated with caution; they contain
up to 14 terms expressed to 11 significant figures and cannot
be truncated to obtain a lower precision representation.
Dr.Coates of NPL has published some alternative forms
based on Chebyshev polynomials which are much easier to handle.
The important feature of the thermocouple thermometer is
that it always measures the difference between one temperature
and another. The position of t.h e reference junction (usually
called the cold junction) is not always obvious but it must be
defined for accurate work.

Reference Measuring
junction Iris tr ume n t

Fig. 4.2 Thermocouple with reference junction

In Fig.4.2 the position of reference junction is clear and


its temperature may be controlled by irrmersion in an ice-bath
or some other region of known temperature. Note however that
if the me asuri ngin s t rume nth as cop per wi r ing, the rea re two
more junctions at that instrument's terminals - there must be

II-71
no temperature difference between these terminals if accurate
measurement is required.
In Fig.4.3 we have a less clear situation:

Measuring
instrument

Fig. 4.3 Directly connected thermocouple

There is no clear reference junction - in fact it is at the


instrument terminals and the instrwnent will, unless it has
internal compensation, measure the difference in temperature
between the hot junction and its own terminals.
In Fig.4.4 a cold junction is provided encompassing both
legs of the thermocouple and permitting the use of copper wire
back from this point to the instrument. This arrangement is
particularly appropriate in scanning and logging applications,
since a large number of thermocouples may all have their
reference junctions in the same temperature controlled zone
with the wiring to the scanner being entirely of copper.

B
r----~
,
I i

~~========~~~~~DZ~~~
I
I 1 I
L __ ~_~
Temperature Measuring
controlled zone instrument

Fig. 4.4 Thermocouple with local reference junction

11-72
In practice, deflection instruments may have bimetal
strips to move the zero of the pointer to compensate for
ambient changes while electronic instruments may use resistance
thermometers in bridge circuits to provide a signal for
cold-junction compensation.
In industrial practice one can seldom use the same wires
all the way from the measuring point to the indicator and
ex t en si o n leads or compensating leads may be required. The
forme r are 0 f nom i. na I1y the sarne rnate ria 1 as the the rmo C0 upIe,
while the latter are alloys having a similar emf-temperature
relationship to that of the thermocouple over a limited
temperature range. The main application of compensating leads
r--
is with precious metal thermocouples where the high price of
\.__)
platinum alloys makes their use essential.
As each batch of wire is made to specified tolerances on
its emf-temperature relationship, the various joints inevitable
in a long run of cable introduce errors in the total emf
measured and these must all be evaluated in any erro analysis.
An excellent manual on thermocouples is published by ASTM
note however that the thermocouple colour codes shown are U.S.
standards and different codes are used in the U.K. and in
Europe.
The life of the thermocouple depends on the type, the
temperature of use, the immediate environment of the thermo-
couple wires and their diameter. Long life and very good
stability are features of the precious metal couples provided
that contamination from iron vapour is avoided at temperatures
above 50QoC. For base metals used close to their upper
temperature limit, a life of a few thousand hours can be
expected.
Base metal couples have a typical tolerance on the
em f - temp era tu rere 1a t ion ship 0 f O. 75% 0 f Ce 1s ius t ernep rat u re
or 2.5C, 'whichever is the greater, and no significant
improvement on this is likely to be possible in industrial
conditions.
The thermal history of the thermocouple and temperature
gradients in the wiring can influence the emf .. If accurate
calibration is required it is often best done in situ, using

11-73
a different form of measuring instrument alongside it.
Cycling a base metal couple above about 800C can cause
calibration shifts of a few degrees. The sensitivity to
temperature gradients may be illustrated by a calibration on a
type K thermocouple performed at NPL at 400C. This measurement
was done first in a furnace and then in a liquid bath, and the
results differed by about SoC.
A new and promising thermocouple has been developed in
Australia called "Nt s t lvNt c ro e i l" which is similar to a
nickel-nichrome couple, but the two limbs contain a small
proportion of silicon which oxidises on the surface to give a
self-passivating layer, largely eliminating drift through
oxidation and hence inhomogeneity.
Thermocouples in swaged mineral insulated cables are
generally less affected by inhomogeneity problems than units
fabricated from wire and ceramic insulators.

(3) Resistance thermometers


These divide int6 two main types: thermistors, which are
u sua 1 1 y sin t ere d mix tu res 0 f me tal 0 x ide s wit h the
characteristics of a semiconductor, and units based on the
change in resitivity with temperature of pure metals or alloys
(see Fig.4.,S).
Thermistors are not yet in common use in industrial
measurement and control, although they are widely used in
1 abo rat 0 ry wo rk . Th ere a son s for t his d iff ere n cerna y be f0 un d
in their highly non-linear characteristics and the lack of
standardisation of their resistance-temperature relationships.
They are, however, capab~e of good stability and particular
rnan u f act u re r s w ill 0 f fer un its in t e rchan g e ab 1 e wit hot her S 0 f

their own manufacture within a fraction of a degree.


A particularly good book on thermistors is entitled
"Semi-conducting temperature sensors and their applications".
Temperature detecting elements based on the change in
electrical r e si s t l v i t y of pure metal wires have a long history,
having been proposed by Siemens in 1871 and having been used by
Callender for work of the very highest accuracy in 1886. I tis
only comparatively recently, particularly in this country, that

11-74
5-0
Nickel

4-0
I
ctlc? Thermistor

-
o
/
~
LLJ
~ z
f-!
C/)

o:
~ 1-0

u
-2:Z> ~ .2'a> ~ S:::o .iV
TElvlPERATURE C

Fig. 4.5 Resistance-temperature curves for


various materials

they have been used in really large numbers in industrial


practice.
Copper is, of course, an obvious candidate as the sensing
material, since it is readily available in fine wires of high
pur itY . Its us e , tho ugh, is 0 f ten con fin edt 0 specia 1 pu rp 0 se
or laboratory instruments because of its susceptibility to
corrosion and oxidation.
The low resistivity of copper also means that very long
lengths of fine wire are needed to produce a useful resistance;
the result is that a copper resistance thermometer is normally
rather bulky. But for some purposes it has one considerable
advantage in that its resistance temperature relations ip is
the most nearly linear of common pure metals. Its low cost has
led to its use in some non-critical but large-scale applications
such as car radiator temperature sensing systems. It is also
used in long thermometers used to measure average temperature in
oil tanks.
Nickel is frequently used, particularly in the United

11-75
States, in temperature detectors. It has a high temperature
coefficient of resistance at room temperature and the slope of
it's resistance-temperature curve increases with rising
temperature. The non-linear resistance temperature relationship
can be corrected using .additional passive components in
associated bridge networks, to give outputs linear with
temeperature.
Its resistivity is higher than that of copper, permitting
smaller devices to be buiIt, but there are still problems with
oxidation and corrosion. The upper temperature limit is set by
the peculiar shape of the resistance-temperature curve in the
neighbourhood of the Curie point at 358C', and by the instability
of the resistance of the element when it is cycled through this
temperature. There is little or no international agreement on
the resistance-temperature relationship for nickel and this has
hindered its wider use.
Platinum is not subject to oxidation or corrosion in the
majority of environments; it can be obtained in fine wire of
extreme purity and its resistivity is higher again than that
of nickel.
It is also capable of covering a wide temperature range;
the British Standard shows a resistance-temperature tabulation
from -200C to +850C.
The industrial resistance thermometer element consists of
a small glass or ceramic detector containing the platinum coil
inserted
film
into a metal
of platinum
sheath.
deposited onto
More
a ceramic
recent detectors
support.
have a c
There is now virtually world-wide agreement on the
resistance-temperature relationsip of industrial units - 100~
at OC and 138.5Q at lOQoC.
BS 1904 quotes two tolerance grades: Grade A - roughly
O.2% of temperature in C and Grade B - roughly 0.5% of
temperature in e. The usable temperature range is from -200C
to 850C but special care is needed above 500C, mainly because
of the danger of contamination of the platinum by iron vapour
or by metallic elements reduced from the glass or ceramics.
Stability is very good - a few hundredths of a degree change
after several years at 60QoC. Measurements are made with some

11-76
form of bridge circuit which may form part of a temperature
transmitter. The bridge must be designed to reduce the effects
of lead resistance. Normal industrial practice uses three-wire
connections but a four-wire current and potential lead connection
is needed for the highest accuracy.
The non-linearity of the resistance temperature relationship
is small, and can be ignored for most purposes over spans of a
few tens of degrees.
A rough rule of thumb is that the terminal
non-linearity
is about 0.4% per 100C span. Thus a thermometer covering
O-lOOC would have a non-linearity of 0.4% of 100C (or O.4C);
used over the span 0-300C it would have a non-linearity of
1.2% of 300C (or 3.6C).

(4 ) Ra d ia t ion .the rmornetry (p y rornetry)


The temperature of a body can be determined by measuring
the thermal radiation it emits. In the range of temperatures
covered by most applications of measurement and control the
wavelengths to be considered run from the far infra-red down to
the visible spectrum although work on plasma temperatures
involves measurements in the ultra-violet.
The spectral radiance NAb of a black-body is given by the
Planck radiation equation:

(4.4)

where CI and C2 are constants, A is the wavelength and Qo the


unit solid angle.
This relationship is shown in Fig.4.6 and it is this
equation which, with a specified value for C2 is used to define
the IPTS above the gold point.' The other constant does not
require definition since the temperature scale is defined by
the ratio of the spectral radiances (both measured at the same
wavelength) of a black body at a temperature T and at the
melting point of gold.
All types of pyrometer use the curves of Fig.4.6 although
in different ways. Thus a Total Radiation Pyrometer attempts
to measure the total area under the curve relating to the

11-77
temperature of the source. This area is given by the well
known Stefan - Boltzman Law:

(4. 5)

where Nb is the total radiance and cr is a constant.

_,t?(I.

LI.l

~
E-<
_..
~
E-<
~.......

~
....J
CZ
b
[i]
KJ
0...
V'J

Fig. 4.6 Black-body radiation

In practice such instruments tend to be somewhat slow in


operation and to be limited in attual bandwidth by the lens or c
window material and by the detector. The latter is usally a
thin film thermo~ile or bolometer and, because they use all of
the available radiated power, these instruments can be used to
measure comparatively low temperatures (down to -50C in some
cases').
Narrow band optical pyrometers use filters to limit the
band of wavelengths passed to the detector and hence respond
according to the Planck equation 4.4. Some types of laboratory
rather than process control instruments, compare the radiation
from a standard filament inside the unit with that from the
target; equality of the two is achieved by varying the filament
current. This current is then used as a measure of the

11-78
temperature.
Two colour pyrometers compare the spectral radiances at
two wavelengths to identify the temperature. These evices are
complex and not in conmon use in process control; they cannot
be used if the emissivity of the target is a rapid function of
wavelength.
The narrow band pyrometer has a particular advantage in
dealing with transparent materials (plastic, glass etc.) since
it is possible to choose a wavelength at which the material
has high absorption and is thus opaque.

Detector

. Filter Electrical
Glare Field connector
stop stop

Fig. 4.7 Pyrometer

Fig.4.7 shows a typical industrial pyrometer. In practice


this may be supplemented by electronics to amplify and linearise
the signal.
Calibration of pyrometers is carried out using black-body
furnaces at known temperatures or by means of tungsten-ribbon
lamps with known relationships between the ribbon temperature
and the heating current. The major problem is the wide range
of emissivities of the bodies whose temperatures are to be
measured. On a single material this may range from say 0.05
for polished aluminium to 0.4 for sand-blasted aluminium, and
from 0.07 for polished iron to 0.79 for rolled iron.

11-79
Since the emissivity can be represented as a multiplier in
front of the expressions in eqs.4.4 or 4.5 it must be compensated
by a change in gain at the measuring instrument or by forming
the equivalent of a black-body around the part of the surface
in question.
An 0 the r
pro b Iem 1iesin the po s sib iii ty 0 f some 0 f the
radiated energy being absorbed by fume, water vapour, carbon
dioxide etc., in the atmosphere between the target and the
pyrometer. This may be minimised by ~ppropriate choice of
wavelength, by moving the pyrometer closer to the target
(and hence possibly having to water-cool the pyrometer) or by
using fibre-optic light-guides to achieve a similar result.

4.5 Installation and Use of Immersion Thermometers

(I) Conduction errors (cold-end effect)


The effect of heat conduction along the thermometer element
wil I result in the temperature of the sensing portion being
biased towards that at the head.
The magnitude of the effect depends on the heat-transfer
to the medium and on the length and thermal conductivity of the
thermometer stem. Usually a rough calculation is enough to
establish the likely magnitude.
The length inmersed,. which causes no perceptible error, is
the IIcalibrated irrmersion depthl1, while that which causes an
err 0 r 0 flo Cis the 11mi n imum usa b 1e iTImers ion de p th " . Th e
error may be minimised by lagging the top of the thermometer.
Wh en, asis us u a lin pro ce ss con t r 0 1, the the rmome te r is
mounted in a pocket (thermowell) the problem is made worse by
the lack of good thermal contact with the pocket. Some
improvement may be obtained by spring-loading the thermometer
into contact with at least the tip of the pocket.

(2) Self-heating
This applies to all types of resistance thermometer
(including thermistors) and is an error caused by the heating
effect of the measuring current. A typical figure for an
industrial platinum resistance thermometer element is O.03C/mW

11-80
in water or ice. In laboratory work, with platinum resistance
thermometers, lmA is a typical measuring current while up to
5mA would be normal for accurate industrial work. Check
car e f u 1IY be for e us i ng any ins trume n t us i ng a me asur ing cur.ren t
in excess of lOrnA. For thermistors the measuring currents may
have to be restricted to the order of tens of microamperes.
Mu ch 1arge r self -heat ing figu res w i 1I 0 ccur ins 1ow 1y mo v in g
g a se s

(3) Time response


It is usual to assume that a thermometer element behaves
as a single lag system and to declare the time to achieve 63%
of a step change as the time constant; usually measured by
u plunging the sensor into hot water moving at 1 mise
Note that the figure obtained i& valid only in water at
1 mise In air at the same velocity, the time constant might
be a hundred times larger. In water at 10 mls it might be one
third of the declared value.
Again the use of a pocket or thermowell may greatly
increase the time constant. It is not unusual to find that a
thermometer with a time-constant of a few seconds when plunged
into water has this figure increased to a few minutes when
tested in a pocket.

(4) Thermo-electric potentials


A resistance thermometer is inevitably exposed to a
temperature gradient along its length which means that any
"inhomogeneity in the connecting wires will produce a stray
thermo~electric potential across the terminals.
BS 1904 requires that the error caused by this s urious
e.m.f. shall be small compared with the interchangeability
tolerance when the resistance is measured at about lmA.
It is, therefore, not advisable in d.c. resistance
measurement to use currents below about lmA.
The equivalent problem in the extension or compensating
wires of a thermocouple has already been mentioned.

II -81
(5) Total or stagnation temperature
In a high speed gas flow the temperature sensed (TT) is
higher than the normal static temperature (TS). If the gas
were .brought adiabatically to rest at the sensor the total
temperature would be given by:

(4.6)

where y is the ratio of specific heats for the gas and M is the
Mach No. For air at room temperature (300K) moving at Mach 0.2,
this increase is 2.4C. An ordinary thermometer will usually
give a reading part way between static and total temperatures.
If this error is serious, special probe designs are required.
It is naturally particularly important to make this
distinction in aircraft instrumentation; at Concordets maximum
spee d 0 f Ma ch 2 the tot a I temp era tu rei s 170 Cab ov e the stat ic
0

temperature, which at the cruising altitude might be -60C.

(6) Installation and vibration


A thermometer element may be directly immersed in the
medium, if shutting down the plant to remove a sensor for
rep air 0 r rep 1acernen tis accepta b 1e, .and iff a s t res po nse i s
required. It may be subject to accidental damage and will be
very prone to vibration.
More usually the thermometer will be mounted in a pocket
or thermowell. This must be stressed to stand the line
pressure and the sideways thrust of the moving fluid. One
must always check for likely vibration and the effect of the
mechanical 'Q' of the device causing severe vibration at the
tip. Thermometer elements must be supported or spring loaded
in the pockets to prevent rattling and consequent early
failure.
The commonest cause of vibration is vortex shedding from
the sides of the probe. The vortex shedding frequency given
by:

f 0.2
v
- (4.7)
d

(where V is fluid velocity and d ~robe diameter) should be

11-82
calculated and compared with the fundamental lateral resonant
frequency of the probe. A potentially dangerous condition is
present the vortex frequency
if at maximum flow-rate is greater
than the resonant frequency.

11-83
Chapter 5

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

5~1 Introduction
The measurement of pressure is probably one of the most
important and commonly employed measurement in industry. This
is perhaps due to the fact that in many industrial applications
flow rate and fluid velocity can be derived from pressure.
Pressure cannot be measured directly but can be deduced by
measuring the force acting vertically upon a known area. This
is the basic principle of all pressure measurement techniques.
It is essentially sensed by a mechanical sensing assembly,
such as a diaphragm in a pressure transducer, which presents an
accurately defined surface area to act upon.
The unit of pressure is pascal, Pa, and has the units of
force per unit area. The engineering quantity stress has the
same unit.
All pressure measuring devices respond to a change of
differential pressure across them. There are basically four
types of measurement configurations.
j a. Gauge pressure, called psig, is when the measured pressure
is referenced to the ambi.ent atmospheric pressure.
The reading is zero when the input pressure port is vented
to atmosphere.
b. Absolute pressure, called psia, is when the measured
pressure is referenced to full vacuum, usually a sealed
chamber within the device. The reading is approximately
101.3 kPa (14.7 psia) when the input pressure port is
vented to atmosphere.
c. Differential pressure, called psid, is when one measured
pressure is referenced to another pressure.
d. Sealed pressure, called pSis, is when the measured
pressure is referenced to a pressure, usually in a sealed

11-85
chamber within the device. This sealed pressure may be
the atmospheric pressure in applications where it may not
be possible to vent the gauge pressure measuring device
due to unsuitable environment.

Although the unit of pressure is pascal, Pa, within the SI


system, the most popularly used pressure unit in industry in the
UK and USA, still remains primarily Ib/in2 or psi, and perhaps,
followed by bar. It is still an accepted engineering practice
to quote the pressure of the compressed air used on the shop
floor in terms of 80-100 psi not 550-700 kPa or the pressure of
the bottled air as 2000 psi not 13.8 MPa.
The pressure measuring instruments can be divided into two t:f
rnai n g r0 ups. Th e fir st g r0 upar e the d irec t pre ssur e me as uri n g
instruments which determine the value of applied pressure by
directly calculating the force applied upon an accurately known
area. Various types of manometers and dead weight testers
(pressure balances) are in this group. The second group are the
indirect pressure measuring instruments that are based on the
use of elastic mechanical elements to which the pressure is
applied. Some instruments such as Bourdon tubes and capsules
are allowed to have comparatively large deflexions in order to
drive dial gauges. In pressure transducers, the applied pressure
is opposed by a light but stiff diaphragm whose deflexion,
usually very small, is sensed by a secondary transducer such as
strain gauges, LVDT, capacitive transducers and an electrical (
output is produced. All the devices in this group are calibrated
with one of the instruments in the first group. For the
pressures above atmospheric, 100 kPa, a dead weight tester is
use d , for pre ssur es be 1- ow this a cal i bra ted me rcur yeo 1 umn i s
used.
The National Physical Laboratories has the responsibility
for the maintenance and dissemination of the national standards
for the pressure measurement in the UK.
As the rnaj 0 r i t Y 0 f mo dern pro cessp Iant s inc rea sin g 1y
employ pressure transducers with electrical output for their
data proceSSing, only a limited reference will be made to the
mechanical pressure transducers.

11-86
It will be noticed that since force is the primary input
for weight and pressure measurement, the methods of measurement
have common techniques. There is, for example, very little
difference in the operating prinCiples and manufacturing
technique of a low range strain gauge load cell and a pressure
transducer using the same force bearing element.

5.2 Manometer
This is a pressure gauge using a liquid column as the means
of pressure measurement. The measuring principle is based on
the hydrostatic pressure relationship that a differential
pressure is related to the column differential ~h by the
expression, (Fig.5.I.A),

IIp =llhpg
where p is the density of the liquid and g is the gravitational
acceleration. This is a linear relationship assuming p and g
are constants and the accuracy of measurement is limited by the
accuracy with which the differential column height ~h can be
measured. This may be done visually by the use of vernier
graduation or by ultrasonic means ,or a more sophisticated laser
interferometry technique to achieve maximum accuracy. The
latter technique is used by the N.P.L. on their long-range
primary barometer.
There are basically three types of manometers, U-tube
~,

-
,I
(Fig.5.1.A), enlarged limb (Fig.5.1.B) and inclined tube
enlarged limb (Fig.5.1.e).
The liquids used depends on the pressure to be measured.
Mercury is the most commonly used liquid due to relatively low
temperature expansion characteristics and low evaporation rate.
For a ~h = 500 mm difference in columns the ~ pressure required
is 66.7 kPa for mercury, 3.9 kPa for alcohol and 4.~ kPa for
water.
Although a manometer is a simple apparatus to construct
and operate, it is difficult to achieve the full acc racy that
i tis cap ab leo f pro v idin g ., Th ere adin g s 0 f col umn he igh t s ,
~h, may need extensive corrective calculations to overcome the
temperature effects on the liquid_, the tube and the supporting

I I -87
structure. Any contamination of the liquid which may affect
its properties and influence of the meniscus (Fig.5.l.D) on the
readings should also be taken into account.

...
~ F2
~
-..F.J
A1
-- -1
-_. .Ah ~l -- A2
_J

A B

Hg ~~::
-- - ..
---
- _ .....
_.
-- --

c D

Fig.5.l Types of manometers: A. U-tube; B. enlarged


1 im b; C. inc 1 i ned tub e; D. me n iscus 0 f me rcur y
and water in a tube

The measurement uncertainty of liquid manometers is


generally 0.25%, however, when operated in a controlled
environment with sophisticated length measuring techniques,
uncertainty levels of O.Ol% can be achieved.

5.3 Dead Weight Tester


These pressure measuring instruments are normally used in
laboratories and standard rooms in industry for calibration
purposes. The working principle of the dead weight tester is
based on balancing the force exerted by the working fluid on a
piston of known area by the set of calibrated weights.
Fig.5.2 illustrates the general arrangement for a typical
dead weight tes~er. To operate the instrument, the required

I I -88
Pressure gauge Dead
under test <, -- weights

Hand wheel

Fig.5.2 Cross sectional view of a Dead Weight tester

dead weights are placed on the weight support table and the
handwheel is screwed till the piston carrying the weights floats
freely. The piston is then rotated to ensure that the fluid
film in the piston-cylinder clearance is uniform and the
friction is minimum. The pressure applied to the pressure
gauge is then equal to the applied dead weight divided by the
area.
The fluid used is normally a mineral oil type selected to
suit the piston-cylinder clearance. It is important that this
oil should be free from any contrunination to avoid scoring the
piston and cylinder walls. In order to realise the maximum
accuracy from a dead weight tester it is necessary to make a
number of corrections. These are for the piston and cylinder
deformation as a function of pressure, ambient temperature and
bouyancy effects on the dead weights. It is alos necessary to
take into account the effect of gravi tation on the fluid, piston
assembly and the dead weights according to the local g value.
The dead weight testers can achieve uncertainty of
measurement of 0.03% to 0.01% when operated under controlled
environmental conditions.

5.4 Bourdon Tubes, Capsules and Bellows


Bourdon tube pressure gauge is constructed of a

11-89
non-circular cross sectional tube formed into circular form.
One end of this tube is fixed and the pressure is applied to
the fixed end. The free end uncoils under action of pressure
and a pointer attached to this end gives an indication of
applied pressure along a graduated scale (Fig.5.3.A).

p~

A t
p~

Fig. 5.3 Mechanical sensing elements: A. Bourdon tube;


B. bellows; C. capsule

There are a variety of shapes used in the construction of


Bourdon tubes: coiled, spiral and helical. However,the most
commonly used type is the fe' shape which translates the free
and movement into angular movement of a pointer by the use of
a quadrant. The shape selected for a particular device depends
on the measurement range and final production costs. The 'e'
shape is generally used to measure up to 6 MPa and coiled shape
is used above this range. The spiral measuring elements are
normally employed for special applications.
Bourdon tube type pressure gauges are constructed to
measure pressures in the range of 60 kPa to 1 GPa. A well
designed pressure gauge of this type will have inherent

11-90
temperature compensation and have a typical non-linearity of
0.1%
.Th e cap su le (Fig. 5 ~3 C ) sornetime s c a I led an era i d , I s'
constructed by joining two diaphra~s arollnd the periphery by
a technique such as welding or brazing. It is generally used
for measuring low pressures, up to 2.5 MPa. The diaphragms
used to construct capsules may be flat or corrugated. Small
deflexions of a flat diaphragm, less than half of its thickness,
is linearly related to the applied pressure. However for
higher deflexions the non-linearity of the flat diaphragm is
improved by the incorporation of corrugations. Press re gauges
based on diaphragm type construction or capsules have better
temperature characteristics than the Bourdon tube types. One
common use for the capsule, sealed with vacuum, in aneroid
barometers as the pressure transducer for measuring atmospheric
pressure.

Fig. 5.4 Examples of commercially produced Bourdon tube


device (left), single corrugated diaphragm and
capsule stacks (Courtesy Negretti and Zambra
[Av i at ion] )..

11-91
The capsules may be stacked in order to obtain increased
deflexion.
The bellows are constructed from thin walled tubing,
having, deep convolutions and sealed at one end which displaces
axially when pressure is applied to the fixed end (Fig.5.3.B).
They are generally used as a flexible pressure seal rather than
pressure sensitive elements. ~en used as a pressure sensor,
they exhibit, good linearity and have a measurement range of
0.6 kPa to 100 kPa. However the stability of the zero position
and the stiffness is not as good as other well designed
mechanical sensors. It is usual to incorporate a good quality
spring of higher stiffness factor in parallel with the pressure
measuring bellows.
Examples of a commercially produced Bourdon tube device
and stacked capsule assemblies are shown in Fig.5.4.

5.5 Pressure Transducers


A pressure transducer consists of a force sensing device,
usually a mechanical arrangement such as a diaphragm, whose
deflexion under the applied pressure, is translated into an
electrical signal by a secondary transducer. The advantage of
such pressure transducers over the previously discussed
mechanical devices is that they need very small deflexion of th~
force bearing member to produce a useful electrical output.
They are usually small and light and have superior frequency
response characteristic. In general, the accuracy of pressure c-~
transducers is higher than their mechanical counterparts, mainly
due to the smaller deflexions allowed for the mechanical sensor.
They lend themselves readily to cost effective production methods.
The manufacture of certain types of pressure transducers, such
as the piezoresistive type, benefits from the high technology
developed for the manufacture of Integrated Circuits. Many of
the applications, once handled by the traditional pressure
sensors are now handled by the electrical pressure transducers
which complies easily with the requirements of the modern
process control systems of today's advanced process plants.
Most of these transducers can also be produced for use in
two-wire systems where the output is in the form of a 4-20 rnA

11-92
current change.
However it must be remembered that these pressure
transducers are not self indicating instruments and need
additional electronics to produce a useful signal.

5.6 Capacitance Type Pressure Transducer


This transducer has become very popular in the last decade
especially within the automotive industry. There are two
designs generally used: 1. single electrode system where the
pressure is applied upon a diaphragm which moves with respect
to the stationary electrode, 2. dual electrode system where the
pressure bearing diaphragm is placed in the middle of the two
fixed electrodes and allowed to move towards one electrode and
away from the other. The change of capacitance between the
diaphragm and the fixed electrode the pressure
is a measure of
applied. The capacitance is measured either by making it part
of an oscillator whose frequency is modulated by the capacitance
change or incorporating it into t~e Wheatstone bridge
configuration. Fig.5.5 illustrates the latter method.

p
~

~ Vex:
o~ Exci tat ion

Fig. 5.5 Dual electrode pressure transducer an the


detector circuit

Capacitive transducers exhibit inherent temperature


sensitivity and susceptibility .t o vibration and shock, however
there are a number of designs to overcome these effects.
Modern capacitive pressure transducers are produced with
a sputtered film single electrode on a ceramic substrate,
employing a highly stable diaphragm with integrated electronics

11-93
to convert frequency w voltage output. They can measure
pressures from 0.1 kPa up to GPa for special applications.
The general purpose versions have a non-linearity of 0.5% with
a temp era tu re co e f f ic ien t 0 f sen sit 'i v i tY 0 f 400 PPMC 1 and the
specially selected devices have accuracy of 0.05% with a
comparable temperature coefficient of 20 PPMK-1

5.7 Reluctive Type Pressure Transducer


There are two main types of pressure transducers using
reluctive elements as the secondary transducer. These are the
LVDT type and the inductance type. The former employs Bourdon
tubes, bellows or capsules as primary sensing element. Fig.
5.6.A illustrates a pressure transducer of this type where the
deflexion of a capsule is transmitted via the core rod to the
core of the LVDT which in turn translates this movement into an
electrical signal. It is usual for these pressure transducers
to incorporate OC-LVDT in order to minimise the external circui try
needed for its operation.
The inductance type utilises a diaphragm as the primary
senSing element. The deflexion of the diaphragm is used to
change the inductance of an electrical circuit (Fig.5.6.B). A
pressure bearing magnetically permeable diaphragm is placed
between two coils which are formed into an inductance bridge.
The bridge output voltage changes as one inductance increases
and the other decreases. Many manufacturers producing this
type of pressure transducer incorporate the electronics into
the transducer so that they can be excited from d.c. power lines
and provide d.c~ output.

Capsule
Vacuum

p ....

~p
~ Pressure
I
------par t
Co i 1 s
B A

Fig. 5.6 Schematic illustration of A. LVDT type pressure


transducer; B. reluctive type pressure transducer

1I-94
The measurement range can be up to 35 MPa with an accuracy
of 0.1% for a well designed transducer used in favourable
application conditions.

5.8 Force Balance Pressure'Transducer"


The operating principle of this technique is explained,
Fig.5.1 illustrates a pressure transducer using a diaphragm as
the pre ssur e sen s0 r . "Th e de f lex ion 0 f the d iaph ragm iss ens ed
by the LVDT displacement transducer whose output is amplified
and bsed to drive the servo actuator in order to restore the
diaphragm to its original position. The current, I, flowing in
this servo loop is a measure of force needed to restore the
diaphragm to its original position. The voltage drop across
the sensing resistor Rs is used to indicate the applied
pressure.
The measurement range of these devices can be up to 500
kPa wi th an accu racy' 0 f 0.05% and repea tab iii ty of 0.02%.

5.9 Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer


These transducers are used in dynamic measurement
applications where high frequency response, up to 500 kHz, is
required. A piezoelectric crystal such as quartz produces no
charge when subjected to hydrostatic pressure. However a
charge output is produced ~hen a force is applied to this
crystal by means of a force bearing diaphragm inducing mechanical
stress throughout its body.
A typical piezoelectric transducer is constructed from a
stack of quartz crystal disks which are mechanically preloaded
between two metallic electrodes. The design may also include
a charge amplifier within the transducer housing to provide a
low impedance output. This is a very useful addition since the
output impedance of piezoelectric crystal devices are usually
very high, typically 100 T ohm.
The pressure measurement range is usually up to 150 MPa
although for short transient measurement of up to 1.5 TPa can
be obtained with the use of specially constructed devices
using lithium niobate crystal. The limiting temperature of
operation for the crystal is the Curie point temperature which

11-95
~------------~

Servo
actuator

l.

iRs~Pi

Fig. 5.7 Pressure transducer utilising force balance


technique

is 573C for quartz and 350C for most ceramic types.


However the operating temperature range for the total transducer
is Iimi ted by its construct ion, usually, from 200C down to
cryogenic temperatures.

5.10 Strain Gauge Pressure Transducer


This is perhaps the most popular device for measuring
pressure in industry. Unbonded wire straiD gauges were first
used in their construction. It is now common to use bonded
foil or bar semiconductor and thin film deposited strain gauges.
The bonded semiconductor strain gauge technique is now almost
completely replaced by integrally diffused strain gauges where
a silicon wafer diaphragm which is also used as the pressure
sensor, is diffused directly with donor elements to obtain
s t ra in gaug e s, sornetime s calle d pie zare sis t iv e .e Iernen t s , a t
defined locations.
The diaphrawm is popularly used as the pressure bearing
member and allowed to produce strain fields (Fig.6.8). The

. I 1-96
Tangential
strain
-,

I
I
r
_
!
-3Pr2(1_V2)
4t2E

l
14--
I
r 1
u

Fig. 5.8 Strain distribution in a clamped diaphragm

tangential s t ra i n j-c , and radial strain, r' are sensed by


j

strain gauges located on these areas. A diaphragm strain gauge


designed for a specific diaphragm diameter, comprises 4 strain
gauges, two of which are positioned on the tangential strain
field near the centre and two positioned on the radial strain
field near the edge. All strain gauges, semiconductor
(piezoelectric) or diffused types mounted directly on diaphragms
are positioned to detect the above strain levels .
. Another type of pressure transducer makes use of a strain
gauge force transducer as a displacement sensor to sense the
deflexion of a diaphragm to produce an electrical output (Fig.
5.9). A connecting rod transmits the deflexion to the force
tran.sducer, usually bending beam .t y pe with stiffness much lower
than the diaphragm, and may have metal foi 1 vacuum de po s Ited
thin film strain gauges connected in a ~eatstone bridge
configuration.
A typical electrical circuit diagram for a strain guage
pressure transducer is the same as for a load cell with the
same compensation and calibration resistors.
In this group, a wide variety of pressure transducers are
produced to cover measurement ranges from 20 kPa to 250 mPa.

11-97
Bending beam

P~

Strain gauges

Fig. 5.9 Pressure transducer employing bending beam


type load cell

A typical transducer wil have an accuracy of 0.25 - 0.1% and


have a temperature coefficient of span and zero of 50-100 PPMK-l
in the operating range of -20C to +50C.

5.11 Other Pressure Measuring Methods and Transducers

(1) Vibrating wire type


The change of resonant frequency of a vibrating wire or
plate, tube, etc. as a function of force applied to it can be
exploited to construct pressure -transducers. A typical device
employs a pressure sensing diaphragm, the centre of which is
attached to a thin, taut wire. The wire is located in a
magnetic field and a current is passed through it. The emf
induced due to this current is detected, amplified and fed back
to the wire to sustain its oscillation. The -frequency of this
oscillation is a measure of the force applied to the wire or
the pressure applied to the diaphragm.
These transducers are u~ed in aerospace, oceanography and
civil engineering applications, and can have excellent
repeatability. A well designed transducer will have built in
linearity and temperature compensation circuitry to achieve up
to 0.04% accuracy.

(2) Potentiometric pressure transducer


This is one of the earliest pressure transducers developed.

lI-98
It comprises, basically, a resistive potentiometer driven by a
mechanical pressure sensor such as a capsule or Bourdon tube.
Their output varies between 0 and 100% of the applied excitation
vol tag e and the y are i nher en't 1 y
h ighie vel 0 u t put t ran sdu ce rs
and can drive an indicator without the need of complicated
electronics.
A capsule is used for the low range devices, for the high
ranges Bourdon tube is employed in conjunction with a Single or
multi-track potentiometer. In some transducers nonlinear tracks
are used to compensate the nonlinear nature of the mechanical
sensors or to provide a linear output with nonlinear change of
pressure such as in altitude meters.
The commercially available transducers of this type will
have a range of '100kPa to 50 MPa.

(3) Resistive pressure transducer


Certain conductive materials change their electrical
resistance when subjected to hydrostatic pressure. This
property has been utilised to construct resistive pressure
transducers whose output resistance change is directly related
to the pressure. The.suitable materials are carbon, zfrconium
tetrachloride and manganin. The latter, an alloy of eu, Mn,
and Ni is the most commercially used material and it is
manufactured in the form of a bondable strain gauge pattern,
manganin gauge, and usually produced by strain gauge
manufacturers. Manganin gauges change their resistance linearly
wit h pre ssur e and have a ty pic a I sen sit iv i t yO. 0027 0 hm/ 0 hm/ 100
MPa. They are used to measure very high pressures, up to 1.4
GPa and to study high pressure shock waves up to 40 TPa since
their response time can be as low as a few nanoseconds.

(4) Novel pressure transducers and pressure measurement


techniques
There are a number of novel pressure transducers that have
been either cited in literature, or used for research purposes
or only available conmercially for special applications. A
selection of these are listed below:
1. Use of Hall effect devices to measure deflexion of a

11-99
pressure bearing diaphragm,
2. sensing of eddy current losses in deflecting diaphragms,
3. dr iv i ng of angu 1ar encoder' by Bourdon tube to produce
binary or BCD outputs,
4. Bourdon tube made from fused quartz,
5. use of hydrostatic pressure sensitive properties of
planer transistor and a number of other crystals such as
iridium antimonide,
6-. a va r i e t y 0 f m i c rornec han i ca Ide vic e s bas edon the pre ssur e
sensitive property of silicon monolithic leis,
7. resonating quartz sensor.

11-100
Chapter 6

LIQUID LEVEL MEASUREMENT

6~1 Introduction
The measurement of liquid level is a fundamental one used
in the automatic control of continuous processes. It is
f re que n t IY use din. con j un c t ion wit h 0 the r bas i c me a sur ernen ts 0 f
temperature, pressure and flow for the control of processes in
u chemical and petroleum industries and is of prime importance in
water works, power stations, steam raising plants and a number
of other applications.
Several principles of measurement are used in determining
the level of liquids. The type of instrument selected being
governed by, the nature of the liquid, the shape of the vessel
in which the liquid is contained, the pressure under which it
is operating, and the application.
Toe nab let he va rio us ins trume n tsus edt 0 qua n t i f y the
measurement made, various units are used. Linear units such as
Metres for a direct measurement of depth or pressure units such
as bars for a pressure head.
_)
6.2 Methods of Level Measurement
Level can be measured in a number of different ways. The
simplicity or complexity of the instrument used will depend
largely on the application of the measurement, whether it is an
infrequent measurement made for long term records or a
continuous measurement. needed for the auomatic con t ro I of a
complex process.
The main types used in'the process industries can be
grouped under the following classifications.
1. Visual Indicators
2. Float actuated instruments
3. Displacement type instruments

11-101
4. Hydrostatic pressure instruments
5. Differential pressure instruments
6. Probe methods
7. Radio frequency methods

A description of these types, generally encountered in process


and industrial applications follows.

(1) Visual indicators


The simplest, and probably the most common method of
me a sur i ng 1eve 1 ina n pen tan k, r i ve r 0 r flume, i s byrne an s 0 f
0

a di p s t ick or gauge staff irrmersed in the 1 i qu i d and ma r.k ed off


in contents or depth over a datum line.
The dipstick although crude and simple is a very accurate
method of level measurement but cannot be used for automatic
I

recording or controlling purposes. It has many applications


where a continuous indication is unnecessary but where regular
readings can easily be taken. A very corrmon application of the
dipstick is known by every motorist when he regularly checks
his oil level.

Scale

Vernier

Clamp
c
Taper Point

Fi g. 6.1 Hook gauge

A development of the simple dipstick is the hook gauge


used where accurate measurement of the liquid head of a river
or open tank is required and where it is difficult to align
the eye wit h the 1 i qui d sur .f ace. Th i s con sis ts 0 f ash arp

I1-I02
pointed hook attached to a vernier scale mounted on a gauge staff
(Fig.6.1). The hook is lowered into the liquid and gradually
raised until the point of the hook just breaks the surface,
allo~ing the level to be read off on the vernier scale.
An optical version of the hook gauge is found in the
reflecting point manometer in which a steel point
is placed
pointing upwards in the liquid. This point is viewed through an
eye piece at an angle in such a manner that an inverted reflection
of the point is also seen in the eye piece (Fig.6.2L

Fig. 6.2 Reflecting point manometer

The point is raised, and the level read, when the tips of the
viewed and reflected points meet. This method of measurement,
although elaborate, overcomes surface tension problems
encountered when trying to estimate when the tip of a standard
hook gauge breaks the liquid surface.
Another type of visual indicator is the sight glass,
consisting of a transparent tube mounted on the side of a vessel
and connected to it by pipes at the top and bottom. The liquid
in the tube rises to the same level as in the tank and its
height can be compared and recorded against a graduated scale
.behind it. Sight glasses are frequently used to measure the
water level in the drum of a boi ler. Such devices, because of
the high pressures involved, are constructed within a steel
chamber with a thick glass opening front and back. By the use
of a two coloured glass strip behind the sight glass and the
refractive effect of water, a clear indication of the water
level is obtainable, the space above the water line appearing
blue and that below the water line, red.

11-103
These methods of level measurement require easy access to
the liquid surface. If, however, the tank is elevated away
from an accessible position, a means of transmitting the
measurement to a more convenient position needs to be applied.
Such a device
is to be found in the balanced float method.
A float resting on the surface of the liquid is connected
by a chain or wire over a pulley to a counterbalance weight and
pointer which is conveniently positioned against a calibrated
scale.

(2) Float actuated instruments


A development of the balanced float described above is the
chain and float gauge consisting of a hollow float resting
freely on the liquid surface and connected by a cord, chain or
thin metal 1 ic tape over a pulley to a counterbalance weight.
The float maintains a constant depth of immersion in a given
liquid and rises and falls with any change in the liquid level.
In so doing, it drives a pulley which operates an indicating,
recording or control mechanism to show the changis in level
(Fig.6.3).

Recorder

Counterweight

Chain or Tape

Level of liquid Float


Stillingwell

Fig. 6.3 Chain and float recorder

11-104
Turbulence in the liquid can be prevented from affecting
the float by the addition of a stilling well around it. The
pulley, over which the chain runs, actuates the instrument
drive mechanism which, through gears and linkages operates a
recording pen or indicator pointer against a chart or
calibrated scale. The chain and float gauge is used on
installations where the instrument can be mounted directly over
the point of measurement. It is frequently used as a river
g.auge to record flow by mea sur i ng t he
head over a we i r or
flume. This device cannot be used for applications where the
liquid is under pressure. Here some method of transferring the
movement of the float through the container wall would be needed.
A caged float controller is used for pressurised applica-
tions (Fig.6.4). A float and lever contained in a metallic
cage, which is connected to he pressurised vessel, follows any
va ria tion i n 1eve I. Th i s mo vernen tis t ran sm itt edt h r0 ugh the
cage by a shaft rotating in a gland or stuffing box to a
counterbalance lever outside the cage. This outside lever
operates.a pneumatic controller, or electrical switches or can
be directly linked to a control valve regulating the flow of
liquid into or out of the vessel.

O LA\OlN'
I'tI[SIUltt

Fig. 6.4 Caged float controller

(3) Displacement type instruments


The level detector, here, is a displacer, usually produced
from a cy lin de r wit h c lose den d s w hie his pre ssur e t igh t
(Fig.6.5).

11-105
__J:;:;"'1
-,
- ; "\
~ Driver
~-\ __ Bearing

__ Torque Tube
___ Displacer
Rod

~ Displacer
~ Cage

Fig. 6.5 Displacement type instrument

The displacer is denser than, and therefore sinks in the liquid


being measured. The actual measurement made is the apparent
weight of the displacer which reduces as the liquid level rises.
The loss in weight is equal to the weight of liquid displaced,
which in turn is governed by the volume of the displacer and the
height of the level relative to the bottom of the displacer.
The weight of the displacer is measured by a torsion
spring known as a torque tube assembly which transforms the
weight variation into an angular movement of a torque tube shaft
(Fig.6.6).

Fig. 6.6 Torque tube assembly

11-106
This angular movement can be used to drive a pneumatic or
electronic transmitter or controller, producing an indicating
or controlling output signal in direct proportion to the 1 iquid
1eve I_ from the bot tom 0 f the dis P Iace r . Ob v i0 U sly, i f the level
rises above the top of the displacer no further change in
weight takes place and therefore no further indicatio of level
change is possible. The total variation in level measurement
is ther~fore, governed by the height of the displacer.
Displacement units can also be used to measure the position
of interface between two irrmi sc i b le -Liqu i d s having different
specific gravities. This is commonly used to measure the
interface between oil and water in a separator chamber to
allow the oil and water to be drawn off the vessel individually.
u In this application it is essential that the displacer is always
submerged in liquid.
Materials used for the construction, particularly the
displacer and torque tube assembly are carefully selected to
combat the corrosive effect of the liquid or liquids being
measured and the pressure and temperature of them, because this
method of measurement like the caged float controller can be
used for pressurised containers.

(4) Hydrostatic pressure instruments


These instruments measure level by measuring the pressure
exerted by the liquid on the measuring element. Various
t===~\ me a sur i ngel ernen t s can be use d such asap res sur ega ug e , a
bubble pipe, a pressure bulb or a force balance pressure
transducer.
A pressure gauge directly connected to the discharge line
from a storage tank can be calibrated to read directly the
contents of the tank or liquid head above the gauge (Fig.6.7).
A bubble pipe level gauge can be used for many ty~es of liquid
regardless of its corrosive nature providing a suitable
mpterial can be chosen for the pipe. It is also suited for
measuring the level of liquids carrying solids in sus ension.
In this instrument a small quantity of air or other non
corrosive gas is aI,lowed to bleed into a pipe lowered into the
liquid (Fig.6.8).

11-107
Gauge or Recorder

Gauge mounted in Pit

Fig. 6.7 Pressure gauge to record level

~--- Gauge or Recorder

Regulator

Air Supply
Bubble Flow Indicator

-- --
- _ . --
- -- -
~
-
=- = ~ ;._=_ -=_-

Fig. 6.8 Bubble pipe level gauge

The gauge measures the pressure of air needed to displace the


liquid in the pipe which is directly proportional to the head
of liquid above the lower end of the pipe. It is imperative
to always have a flow of air through the bubbl~ pipe, so there
is usually a flow indicator built into the system, and the
pressure of air or gas needs to be controlled at a value
slightly higher than that needed to balance the maximum level
head intended to be measured. The only disadvantage of this

11-108
system is that as the level falls the flow of air increases
resulting in a high consumption of compressed air.
A force balance pressure transducer also utilises air
p re s su re , In this type of gauge, level is measured by means of
a diaphragm which is exposed to the liquid pressure on one side
and pneumatic pressure on the other side which is controlled to
exactly balance the liquid pressure (Fig.6.9).

u o
'..--r:..-L__, __ Transmitted
Pressure
R

, Supply

Fig. 6.9 Force balance diaphragm gauge

A pneumatic pressure greater than the liquid head to be measured


is applied through the supply connection via an orifice 'R' to
the right hand side of diaphragm 'Q' to oppose the force exerted
by the liquid head. A bleed orifice '0' is provided' in the
housing to vent the diaphragm chamber at a rate such that when
the diaphragm is in equilibrium, the rate of air flow into the
chamber equals the rate of flow out of it. Variations of
pressure in the diaphragm chamber are measured by means of a
pressure gauge or pressure receiver calibrated in terms of
I iquid level.

(5) Differential pressure instruments


The hydrostatic pressure instruments previously referred to
can only be used when the vessel to which they are applied is
open to atmosphere. ~ere the container is pressurised a

11-109
differential pressure measurement must be made, so that the
container pressure can be subtracted from the total pressure
beneath the liquid surface to obtain the actual level
measurement. A simple mercury IU' tube, manometer, can be used
for this purpose (Fig.6.10)~

Fig. 6.10 A mercury 'u' tube used with a pressurised


container

Here, the pressure of gas above the liquid is applied effectively


to both legs of the mercury tube, so the height H of the mercury
is directly proportioned to the height L of the liquid. This
method enables the level to be measured at the bottom of the
vessel which may be more accessible than a sight glass which
would have to be viewed in line with the actual level surface.

(6) Probe methods


The capacitance probe (Fig.6.11)is an electrostatic
instrument measuring the change in capacitance of the probe
when immersed in a liquid. The capacitance change can be
measured by an electronic circuit adjusted to give level
indication over the desired range. The probe usually consists
of two concentric tubes where the capacitance is a function of
length and diameter of the tubes and the dielectric constant of
the material between the tubes. The variation in capacitance
is measured and converted into direct current readings.
This method is suitable for most liquids other than those which

11-110
Fig. 6.11 Capacitance probe

would separate out on standing into a co~ductor and a non


conductor. It is also unsuitable for conducting liquids which
froth excessively or where solids contained in the liquid could
deposit out.
Another type of probe instrument used only to in icate
one set position of level is the vibrating probe (Fig.6.12).

F'lange

Magnetic
Vibrator
'~ Vibrating Probe
U-------- Diaphragm

Fig. 6.12 Vibrating probe

The probe unit consists of a detecting device, a control


amplifier and the necessary interconnecting wiring and mains
supply_ The probe is mounted horizontally at the required
level on the tank or hop,per wall such that the fluid or
granular material in the tank can come in'contact with the
probe.
The probe assembly consists of metal rod paSSing through
and fixed in the centre of a thin metal diaphragm welded into
the bore of a flange, allowing both ends of the rod free to
vibrate. One end of the probe projects into the tank while the

11-111
other end is housed outside the tank in conjunction with a
magnet coil assembly used to vibrate the probe.
~ile tank contents is below the probe it is free to
the
vibrate but when the level reaches the probe it is prevented
from vibrating and stops the driving ~ircuit from oscillating.
This, through a control relay, and amplifier circuit can
initiate a control device to empty or fill the tank or it can
operate an indicator lrunp or alarm device.

(7) Radio frequency method


This method of level measurement operates by measuring the
position of a small sensing element emitting radio frequency
signals from an antenna which is maintained by a servo mechanism
about 2mm above the liquid surface. ~
The probe is linked to the servo mechanism by a perforated
stainless steel tape and the movement of the servo mechanism
provides an indication of liquid level.
This method, although expensive is very accurate and is
unaff~cted by liquid specific gravity and has applications on
large storage tanks handling corrosive liquids either at
atmospheric or pressurised condition.

6.3 Summary

(1) Visual indicators


Visual methods of level measurement are used where no
direct control of the process is required and where periodic
readings of the level can be made to ensure it is within
certain limits. Visual methods are the most economical of all
the measuring devices.

(2) Float actuated instruments


Various types wjthin this range can be chcisen depe~ding
on whether the liquid being measured is operating under pressure
or .is open to the atmosphere. The latter types are limited to
where easy access above the point of measurement exists and is
typically used as a river gauge. It has the advantage that it
can be linked to a recorder to enable permanent records of
changes to be made. The pressurised units have a certain

11-112
limitation of span but have the advantage of the facility of
direct control of the process if required.

(3) Displacement type instruments


This is a versatile method of liquid level measurement which
may be used for pressurised containers. It produces either a
pneumatic or electric control signal which may be used to
operate a control valve or an indicator or recorder located
remote from the point of measurement.

(4) Hydrostatic pressure instruments


Various methods in this category, ranging from a simple
pressure gauge to a sophisticated force balance transducer,
u cover a wide range of applications. Most of these types can
be used where the liquid is corrosive, providing a suitable
material for the sensing element is chosen.

(5) Differential pressure instruments


The same range of devices and applications apply to this
category as to the preiious one. In most instances it is
accomplished by using two devices, one at the top an one at
the bottom of the vessel.

(6) Probe methods


The capacitance probe referred to is limited to liquid
applications where the liquid remains stable and is of a
conducting type. The vibrating probe is only used to indicate
a particular level attainment but can also be used for granular
materials.

(7) Radio frequency methods


A rather expensive but very accurate method which is
unaffected by the .liquid specific gravity or corrosive nature,
since the sensing element never comes into contact with the
liquid.

11-113
Chapter 7

CONTROL VALVES AND ACTUATORS

7.1 Introduction
A control valve is a device which regulates the flow of a
fluid in a pipe line. It consists of two elements, a restricting
element and an actuating element. The actuating element commonly
known as an actuator, transforms a control signal from a
'--j controller into a motivation of the restricting element which,
in turn, regulates the flow of fluid in the pipe line. The
control valve is often "referred to as the last Iink i the
automatic control system, and is probablythe most important
individual unit in the loop. All the effort of measuring the
variable, transmitting and comparing its value with the desired
value, and initiating a control signal would be waste if the
control valve did not make a correction to the process, in
accordance with the response corrections called for by the
controller.
Nobody really knows when the first control valve was
produced, but there is evidence that the Romans used valves for
the control of water flow. These were usually made from wood
and were manually operated, so the actuators were in that case
humans. The advent of the Indust~ial Revolution brought with it
many instances where control valves were needed to be
automatically controlled. Instead of having a hit-and-miss
method of someone watching a pressure gauge or level measurement,
and turning a handwheel to close a valve down or open it up,
there needed to be an immediate link between the measurement
taken and the 0 per a t ion 0 f the val vet 0 red u ce time 1ap se, and
avoid unnecessary waste in both time and valuable process fluid.
During the early 1900s, sales of petrol driven motor cars
and then the advent of World War I, heralded a growth in the
petroleum industry, where more control valves were needed to

11-115
maintain the continuous processes being developed. Gradually
during the 1920 to 1930 era, new process industries which
required more sophisticated process control equipment were
developed, and the basis of the present day range of contrnl
valves and associated control instrumentation was born.

7.2 The Restricting Element


This pait of the control valve which is responsible for
regulating the fluid flow is available in many forms. The
range currently used in the control industry falls basically
into two categories; sliding stem and rotary.

(1) Sliding stem valves


The valve has to be capable of controlling the flow o~
fluid passing through a pipeline. It must therefore have a
housing known as the valve body, which can be conveniently fitted
into the pipeline. To achieve this the valve body is either
flanged, screwed or has welded connections.
To vary the flow of fluid through the valve, there needs to
be an adjustable passage within the valve. This is provided by
a seat ring ~nd a moveable valve plug (Fig.7.1).

Packing
Bonnet
Valve Stem
Body f'
<..
Valve Plug
Seat

Fig. 7.1 Flow passage through a valve

The valve plug is connected via a stem to the actuator and


therefore moves in accordance with the dictates of the control

II-llB
signal. The shape of the valve plug is very important, because
this determines the amount of flow change which will develop in
response to a specific linear movement of the actuator. This
relationship between the flow through the valve and the linear
movement produced from the control signal, is referred to as
the valve characteristic.

1) Characteristics
There are three basic characte~isti6s used; linear, equal
percentage and quick opening (Fig.7.2).

Fig. 7.2 Inherent flow characteristic curves

The linear characteristic produces a proportional increase or


decrease in flow for each incremental change in the control
signal, whereas the equal percentage characteristic produces a
~) percentage increase or decrease in flow, which means that a
change in control signal when the plug is close to the seat,
will produce a much smaller change in flow than would be
produced the same change in signal at a point where the
by
valve plug is some way off from the valve seat. The quick
opening characteristic is opposite to that of the equal
percentage, producing a large change in flow for a small lift
of the plug from the seat.
The selection of the ideal characteristic for a control
valve depends upon the application for which the valve is being
used. The installed characteristic, which is obtained when
the valve is in actual use, may well be different to the
inherent characteristic, since the pressure drop across the

II-117
valve producing flow may well change as the opening of the valve
changes.
The linear characteristic is usually selected for liquid
level control and for flow control where a constant gain is
required. The equal percentage characteristic is used on
pressure control applications and where a large percentage of
the pressure drop is absorbed by the system as a whole with only
a small percentage available at the control valve. The quick
opening characteristic is often used for relief valve applications
where the valve needs to open rapidly and pass a high flow with
a small lift.

2) Bonnets
The actuator movement is transmitted to the valve plug
through the valve stem, which must pass through the pressure
envelope of the body assembly. This is achieved by the bonnet
which allows unrestricted linear movement of the valve stem,
through an area known as the gland or packing box. Here, packing
in the form of moulded or square section rings, prevents loss of
fluid from the bonnet, and allows the stem to move with little
frictional resistance. For hazardous or very expensive fluids
where any leakage which may occur through the packing would be
undesirable, a special seal called a bellows seal can be used to
replace the packing.

3) Size range
Sizes of valves in this sliding stem category, range from
12mm up to 40~. This size denotes the size of the pipeline
connection. They can be fitted with valve trims, that is, the
seat and plug size, of equal size to the body, or of a smaller
size for reduced flow requirements, where the inlet velocity to
the valve is required to be kept low.

4) Body forms
The valve body can take various forms. It can be single
or double ported, straight through or angled, or three-way.
A single ported valve has the appearance of a domestic
water-tap, having one variable passage to the flow stream

II-118
(Fig.7.1)., This, especially in the larger sizes, has limited
applications involving only low pressures, because high
pressures would need correspondingly higher actuator pressures
to force the vlave plug closed. High pressure appl ications are
generally accommodated by a balanced construction of valve,
such as a double ported construction where the flow stream is
passed up through one opening and down through the other,
producing a balance of forces (Fig.7.3). The flow direction
through most valves is normally kept in a 'flow to open'
direction. This is especially important with single ported
valves, in order to minimise the sianming effect and consequent
damage, which would occur if flow to close operation were used.

Fig. 7.3 A double ported valve

Three-way valves are used where two flow streams need to


be mixed in variable quantities, or where one stream needs to
be split into two pipelines, again with the facility to vary
the amount selected for each line (Fig.7.4)., This type of
valve is often used on temperature control applications ..

(2) Rotary valves


In rotary valves the restricting element moves in a
rotary path relative to the valve body. There are various forms,
known as ball valves, butterfly valves and eccentric disc
valves.
Every valve, due to the formation of turbulence, noise,
heat etc. produces a loss in pressure in the pipeline known as

11-119

\
\,
apr e s sur e d r 0 p Ro tar y val ve sin g enera I cause 1 e ss res tric t io-n
than sliding stem valves and are referred to as high recovery
valves.

Fig. 7.4 Three-way valves used for converging or


diverging flows

1) Ba I I val ve s
These have a rotating, hollowed out ball which produces a
varying flow passage, depending on its position (Fig.7.5).
~en in the wide open position, a ball valve provides negligible
resistance to the flow path and therefore creates a very small
pressure drop. The action of the ball when closing has a
chopping effect which is very useful when handling fluids such
as slurries or paper stock.

Fig. 7.5 A V-notch ball valve

2) ButterflY valves
These have a rotating disc which rotates within a wafer
body, such that when the disc is in the open position it

11-120

~/
projects into the pipeline (Fig.7.6).

Fig. 7.6 A typical butterfly valve

One must ensure therefore that the valve is in the closed


position before attempting to remove this type of valve from
the line. The disc of the butterfly valve rotates about its
centre and when closed it is difficult to achieve a shut-off
condition with a very low leakage path. This problem lead to
the development of the eccentric disc valve, which has a
centre of rotation off-set from the centre of the. disc,
,~ , allowing it to close tight against its seal ring and also
I

having the advantage of reducing wear between the disc and the
body of the valve (Fig.7.7).

3) Size range
The sizes of rotary valves available range from 25mm (1
inch) to 600rrm (24 inch) for ball valves, and from 50rnm (2
inch) to 900nm (36 inch) for butterfly valves.

4) Characteristics
The characteristic of rotary valves cannot be varied as
they can for sliding stem valves, and approach an equal
percentage characteristic for butterfly and eccentric disc

11-121
valves and approximately linear characteristic for ball valves.

Fig. 7.7 An eccentric disc valve

(3) Materials
The materials chosen for the valve body in both sliding
stem and rotary valves has to be strong enough to withstand
the pressures and temperatures exerted on the valve in both
test and operating conditions, and must resist the corrosion
and erosion effects of the flowing fluid. A large majority of
control valve bodies are made from high-tensile cast iron or
cast carbon steel. But alloy st~els, stainless steels and
special materials need to be selected for handling corrosive
fluids, or where the flowing temperature is .abnormally low or
high. The valve plug, seat rings, valve stem, guide bushings
and packing parts, which are often referred to as the valve
trim, are usually manufactured in stainless steel, but again
special materials need to be selected for very corrosive
applications. Hard surfacing materials such as cobalt alloys
are often applied to valve seats and gUides, and are an
economical solution for services handling high temperatures or
pressure drops.

(4) Valve sizing


It can be shown from Bernouli 's energy equation that the
relation between the flow and the pressure drop across a
restriction in a pipe follows a square root law. We can

11-122
therefore state that the flow is proportional to a constant
multiplied by the square root of the pressure drop across the
valve. This constant, the valve technologists use to enable
the sizing of control valves, and, for liquid flow, is known as
the Cv of the valve. The equation used for liquid sizing is:

Cv = Qj G
i1P

Equations for gas and steam sizing are similar in construction


but involve more factors and result in a Cg value for gases
and a Cs value for steam. Practical tests carried out on
each type and size of valve determine a usable sizing
co-efficient for each valve which is listed by manufacturers for
comparison.

7.3 Actuators
The valve actuator is that part of the control valve which
accepts a signal from the controller, and uses this signal to
position the restricting element of the valve to control the
fluid passing through the valve body.
Different types of valve actuators are used for operating
control valves. The corrmonest type in use is the pneumatic
spring opposed diaphragm actuator. Other types are pneumatic
piston actuators and electric actuators.
A valve actuator has to operate satisfactorily in
conjunction with a control valve operating in a control loop
under all service requirements. There should normally be a
linear relationship between the control signal and the output
movement of the ac tua tor, hy s teres is 0 f movemen t mus t be
negligible or kept to an absolute minimum, and the actuator
must be sufficiently stiff to withstand the operating forces
which arise from operating the control valve. The design must
also be rugged enough to withstand the stresses encountered
during shipment as well as during normal plant operation.

(1) Pnewmatic diaphragm actuators


Be cau se 0 fit's simp Iicit y, the pn euma tic sp r i n g
opposed diaphragm actuator is by far the most widely used type.

lI-123
It is used in conjunction with both sliding stem and rotary
valves, and finds applications on all types of valve bodies,
except those in which the unbalanced forces on the valve are so
great that the power requ-irements of the spring opposed
diaphragm actuator unwieldy or impracticable.
make it
A typical pneumaic spring opposed diaphragm actuator is
shown below (Fig.7.8). It consists of a moulded rubber
diaphragm contained within diaphragm casings, and opposed by a
loading spring mounted on a connecting yoke. The movement of
the diaphragm is transmitted through a diaphragm plate driving
an actuator stem connected to the control valve stem.

Fig. 7.8 A typical pneumatic diaphragm actuator

The control signal applied to a diaphragm actuator is in


the form of an air pressure, usually in the range of 0.2 to 1
bar such that the actuator stem starts to move at 0.2 bar and
completes its travel at a pressure of 1 bar.
D iaph ragm act u a tor s are ava i Iab 1 e i n va rio u s s i zes wh ich
are selected to suit the size of the valve and the operating
pressure conditions within the valve.
The actuator action can be selected such that increasing
air pressure to the actuator pushes the actuator stem down,
which, on a push down to close valve, would result in
increasing air pressure closing the valve, or it can have the
reverse action, such that increasing air pressure opens the
valve (Fig.7.9). The type of actuator chosen usually depends

11-124
onwhether the valve should open or close in the event or air
signal failure, which can be very important when considering
the safety of the overall system.

Fig. 7.9 A reverse acting diaphragm actuator

Manual operators or handwheels can be fitted to diaphragm


actuators to provide a means of manually positioning the valve
plug during an emergency, during start-up or in the event of
air failure. Two types of handwheel are generally used, either
a handwheel mounted on the top of the valve actuator, or a side
mounted handwheel mounted on the yoke of the valve actuator.

1) Valve positioners
Although the diaphragm actuated control valve is generally
designed with sufficient force to position the valve accurately
in propo~tion to the change in instrument signal, under
difficult service conditions sufficient force may not be
available. Where such co nd lt Io n s exist,
a valve positioner or
booster relay should be used in conjunction with the control
valve to ensure accurate and dependable positioning of the
valve (Fig.7.10).
The valve positioner is a pneumatic positioning device mounted
on the valve actuator yoke with a mechanical connection to the
valve stem, and operates to modulate the air pressure on the
valve actuator diaphragm until the valve stem is positioned in

11-125

------------------- _
-_ .. __ -.-.__ ....... ...._ _ _-_ ..__ .._--_
_. __ .. _ .
accordance with the demands of the control signal. Reference
to a schematic of a typical valve positioner will clarify the
operation (Fig.7.11).

Fig .. 7.10 A valve positioner mounted'on a reverse


acting actuator

Rf.VEllIiE AcnOH
QUAilIlAIC"I

Fig. 7.11 Schematic illustration of a valve positioner

Air pres~ure is supplied to the relay supply point and a fixed


restriction. A flapper moves against a nozzle which is connected
to the fixed restriction. The diameter of the fixed restriction
is less than the diameter of the nozzle so that air can bleed
out faster than it is being supplied when the flapper is not

1I-126
restricting the nozzle. When the instrument pressure increases,
the bellows expands to move the beam, causing the flapper to
restrict the nozzle. The nozzle pressure increases and moves
a relay diaphragm assembly to open a supply valve within the
relay. This allows toe output pressure to the di aph ragm casing
of the control valve to increase, moving the actuator stem
downward. Stem movement is fed back to the beam by means of
the cam which causes the flapper to move away from the nozzle.
Nozzle pressure decreases and the relay supply valve closes to
prevent any further increase in output pressure. The positioner
is once again in equilibrium but at a higher instrument pressure
and a new valve plug position.
When the control instrument pressure to decreases, the
bellows contracts, aided by an .internal range spring to move
the beam and uncover the nozzle. Through relay operation an
ex h au stva 1 ve inth ere I a.y 0 pen s tor e 1 e as e the d ia Iih ragm
pressure to atmosphere, permitting the actuator stem to move
upward. Stem movement is fed back to the beam by the cam to
reposition the beam and flapper. When equilibrium conditions
are obtained the exhaust valve closes to prevent any further
decrease in diaphragm casing pressure. For each value of
control signal, therefore, there is a finite v al ue of valve
stem position which will always be established, regardless of
external force variations applied to the valve stem.

(2) Piston actuators


When the application is such that the valve actuator is
required to operate against heavy out of balance forces caused
by unbalanced pressures, or the weight of the valve, or is
handling high viscosity fluids, the valve actuator is required
to develop a thrust greater than that which can be conveniently
supplied by a diaphragm actuator. In these circumstances, a
piston actuator may be used to operate the control valve.
The piston actuator is generally pneumatically operated
and is either integrally mounted on the valve (Fig.7.12) or is
furnished as a separately mounted power cylinder for use with
large butterfly valves. The actuator consists of a double
acting piston in a cylinder operating on an air supply of up to

11-127
10 bar, fed to it through a valve positioner, working on an
instrument signal of 0.2 to 1 bar.

Fig. '7.12 A piston actuator

The piston actuator relies on a difference in air pressure


on either side of a piston to cause movement of its actuating
stem to, str0 ke the con tr0 I val ve . As the pis ton is not sp r ing
loadedan d 0 per ate sat a mu ch h i gher p r,e ssur e than that
furnished by the controlling signal, it is necessary to
incorporate a valve positioner in the operating mechanism to
act as a relay and feedback device to control the movement of
the piston and hence the valve opening. To understand the
operation of the piston actuator refer to the schematic (Fig.
7.13).
The pneumatic signal from a controller is fed to the bellows of
the pOSitioner. On an increase in signal pressure the bellows
expands and moves a beam which pivots around a fixed point
simultaneously to uncover the nozzle of the air relay "B" and
cover that of relay nAn. The nozzle press~re of relay nA"
increases and through relay action causes the cylinder pressure
over the top of the piston to increase. At the same time, the
nozzle pressure in relay "B" decreases, causing the cylinder
pressure below the piston to similarly decrease.
The unbalanced pressures acting on the piston cause it to
move downwards to change the valve plug position. The movement

11-128
of the piston is fed back to the beam by means of a range
spring connected between the beam and an extension of the piston
rod. This arrangement provides feed-back to the system to
prevent over-correction and ensures a definite position for the
piston for every value of instrument signal.

\.._)

_NVTIIGtW. .......

.... tul'll'LV I'I'8IUIIIE

~ lWCY1JNDEIII NrDfJIE

_NOZZL.!:~
~ IImTOII C'n.H)IJI P'IIDIUIE

Fig. 7.13 Schematic illustration of a piston actuator

) Piston actuators can be arranged to either move the valve


stem up or down on increasing instrument signal, depending on
the positi~n of the instrument bellows.
In order to move the piston to a desired safe position in
the event of air supp'ly failure, piston actuators may be fitted
wit has p r ing tor e turn' the act u a tor stem tot he up 0 r down
position. This has a disadvantage however of absorbing a
certain amount of available thrust in compressing the spring.
It is also possible to fit pneumatic tripping devices with air
pressure stored in capacity chambers, which can be switched to
either move the piston to the up or down position in the event
of air failure, or to fit a device which locks the piston in
the last controlled position.

11-129
As with diaphragm actuators, it is possible to fit
handwheels to piston actuators to manually position the valve
during start-up or emergency shutdown conditions.

(3) Electric actuators


Electric actuators usually consist of an electric motor
with gear trains arranged to provide a wide range of output
forces. They are often used in remote locations where no other
power source is available. The majority of electric actuators
are used for valves requiring only on/off service, but can be
used for modulating control with the addition of a potentiometric
feed-back device. Relative to diaphragm and piston actuators
they are quite slow in operation. The only fail-safe action
available is a lock in last position, or fail fix, one. They
can be fitted with limit switches and torque limiting devices
and have long stroke capabilities, which makes them-suitable
for very large butterfly valves.
Closely connected to the electric actuators are the
electro-hydraulic type (Fig.7.14) which again only need an
electricity supply but which will produce excellent throttling
control in response to a milliamp signal source.

Fig. 7.14 An electro-hydraul ie actuator

11-130
An electric motor is connected to a pump feeding oil at high
pressure to a piston, which is positiqned in a similar manner
to the pneumatic piston in response to the control signal.

(4) Actuator selection


.The choice of actuator for a specific application wil I be
dependent upon various factors.
1. The power source available.
2. Fail safe requirements.
3. Force requirements of the valve.
4. Form of control required.
5. Cost.

1) Power source
Most plants have both compressed air arid electricity
available on site, but there are occasions where the site is
in a remote location, and it is uneconomic to install an air
compressor. This will automatically cut down the choice to
either electric or electro-hydraulic.

2) Fail safe requirements


Although both pneumatic and electrical systems are very
reliable, it is always necessary to consider the effect of the
loss of the power source, which could result in a hazardous
.~
sitation developing. By storing energy in springs or in
J pneumatic capacity chambers, this reserve power can be cal led
upon to move the valve to its safe position when the main power
.sou rce fail s Th e t h re e f a i Iu re rnodes ava i1ab 1ear e : f a i I-0 pen,
fail-close, or fail-fixed which locks the valve in its last
controlled position.

3) Force requirements of .the valve


An actuator must have sufficient output thrust to handle
the requirements of the valve, although it is obviously
uneconomic to fit an actuator which is over-powered~ It has to
be capable of closing the valve under all possible service
conditions. There is usually a wide choice of sizes available
for all types of actuators from pneumatic spring and diaphragm

11-131
through to electro-hydraulic, and the actual selection of size
is usually best left to the manufacturer who will choose the
one most suited to the particular valve.

4} Form of control reqUired


The form of control can be either two position (on/off)
or analogue (throttling). On/off actuators receive signals of
either zero or maximum from the controlling instrument, and so
the choice of actuator is fairly simple. It merety has to
possess sufficient force to close and open the valve.
Throttling actuators require much more careful selection. Here
the actuator has to respond to every change in signal from the
controller, which is c~ntinuously monitoring the process. To
achieve this the actuator must either be directly compatible
with the controlling signal, or some intermediate device such
as a relay or positioner must be added.
The speed of action and the effects of vibration and
temperature must also be considered, although stroking speed is
not normally a problem, it may be necessary to close or open a
valve within one or two seconds in emergency conditions. ~en
considering pneumatic actuators, the piston actuator will
travel at much faster speeds than the spring and diaphragm
type unless special booster relays are installed.

5} Cost
The cost of an actuator is very often the over-riding
factor in its selection. ~ere compressed air is available,
the most economical, both in initial cost and subsequent
maintenance, is the diaphragm actuator. ~ere the thrust
capability of this type is insufficient, the next best choice
is the piston actuator.
Electric or electro-hydraulic actuators should only be
considered when compressed air is not available or when a very
high force is required, which el"iminates ~he pneumatic type.

11-132
Chapter 8

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

Perphaps more than any other technique of instrumental


analysis gas chromatography has proved to be of critical
importance in many industries and disciplines. Gas chromato-
graphy is a type of partition chromatography, similar in many
ways to other techniques of this kind such as liquid
chromatography, paper chromatography, etc. The distinguishing
features of gas chromatography are that the mobile phase is a
gas and that the rnat ion 0 f the c omp 0 nen t ban ds , inth e
d ire c tion 0 f "ch roma tog rap h i c de vel 0 pme n t ", i nvol ve s the for ce d
diffusion of the respective substances in their vapour phases.
Many of the differences between for example liquid chromatography
and gas chromatography are due to the physical properties of the
mobile phase - for instance its viscosity, acidity and
compressibility. The basi~ for differential zone-migration
remains the same: two components will migrate at different
rates in the same chromatographic system if their distribution
constants are different. Fig.B.I shows a block diagram
schematic of a dual-column gas chromatograph showing the
essential parts. A large number of methods of detection of the
e Iu ted comp one'nts from gas chroma tograpby co Iumns .ex ist. The
thermal conductivity (hot wire) detector was one of the earlier
forms employed although in widespread use is also the flame
ionisation detector. A very sensitive and selective detector is
the electron capture detector. These three types of detector
are illustrated in Fig.8.2. As an .example of performance for
modern gas chromatography Fig ..8.3 shows chromatograms obtained
for a standard mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and
of a coke-furnace emission.

11-133

._------------_._---_. __ .
Automation of Analytical Instrumentation. Automated instruments
are generally classed as continuous or discrete (batch) depending
on the nature of their operation. A continuous instrument senses
some physical or chemical property by directly observing the
sample yielding an output that is a smooth function of time. A
discrete instrument works upon a batch-loaded sample and supplies
information only after each batch. Each derives its operating
principles from conventional analytical procedures and must
include provision for continuous unattended operation:
receiving samples, performing selective chemical analyses under
uncontrol led enviromental conditions and conmunicating with
monitoring or control equipment.

A clear distinction should be made between automatic and


automated devices. Automatic devices cause required acts to be
performed at given points in the operation without human
intervention. For instance, an automatic titrator records a
titration curve or simply stops a titration at an end point by
mechanical or electrical means (such as a relay) instead of
manually. Automated deVices, on the other hand, replace human
manipulative effort by mechanical and instrumental devices
regulated by feedback of information; thus the apparatus is
self-monitoring or self-balancing. An automated titrator may
be intended to maintain a sample at some preselected (set point)
state, for example pH ; 8. To do this the pH of the solution is
sensed and compared to a set point of pH 8 and acid or base is
added continuously to keep the sample pH at the set point.

In the past automated instruments were not well accepted


because of their limited capability and reliability. However,
because of the increased complexity and number of clinical,
industrial and other types of samples requiring analysis,
classical (n~automated) techniques, as well as automated
techniques, have been improved in capability. We'll established
instruments such as infrared analysers, gas chromatographs,
ion-selective electrode systems and automatic wet-chemical
analysers can now measure quite complex species and mixtures.
Reliability has also increased because the maturity of

11-134
De te c tor Block

Column A

Pit "sure
Reduction
Valve

Injection Port Injection Port


fOT Column A L-.-......__...... ~ ...........
__,Ior Column B
Helium
Tank Me.tering Valves
for Columns A and B

Fig. 8.1 Block diagram of a dual-column gas


chromatograph showing essential parts

11-135
Cross-section
of a typical
four-wire
conductivity
cell. Courtesy
of Gow-Mac
Instrument Co.
Top View

Dullel Outlet

L _j

r
tnlet
I"Inlet

Side View

Exl13ust Ourle.

Collector Cap
A flame-
ionization
detector.

FlO A~tmbly

'Column ~;1'V('X'Jo.~ Co 11eel or


A "pin-cup" design for Electrode
electron-capture detection,
in cross-section.

Fig. 8.2 Some configurations of detector


assembly for gas chromatography

11-136
I I I I I T I T r I I I I 1
Blend of Six Polynuclear Aroma tics
Q) Q) Q) Benz (a) anthracene Q)
c
s
Q)
c
r.J>
~ ~ Q)
~:>. ..-;
/
(])

0 ~c ...... :S Q)
s::
r-l

0..
0. '? ~
U) ~'Ero ca
C"I
~ la
...... ~
.s.
Q.) .__ Q)
r-l'O
~ r-:-I ca
~~ ~ .__
I'tj
l.-.
0
-a r-l00
.,-l
C
~ s
Q)
t\I
\::
.-;
~0
e tB
ro
~
~~ roe
0
C) ......
Q) l!') Q) .c o
......
~ .u
.. s::
~
.. -
("I")H N
<l)
o
v .-l m
C!I
~
r' \...t _,..) ~f I _j I j_
1
28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
Time, mi n

(l) Chromatogram of Coke Oven Effluent


r.J> QJ
C
a N
C
cQJ
- Q)
C
Q)
~>.
(IJ

5
Q)
Benz (c) acridine

0..
U) .3 ~'B 0"
-Q)
c
rotl
<l) r-I ca ~. -ca ~
~ ><
c +J
113 N.c:
Q)
00
C.JJ
~ ~ {Sa
a .,-l ~
~
o ~
Q.) tIl
~
<I)
..
("I")

34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
Time, mi n

Fig. 8.3 Chromatograms of a standard mixture of


polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and
a coke-furnace emission

11-137
solid-state electronics has brought easier data handling and
equipment maintenance.

The chemical instrumentation discussed in the preceding


sections can all be utilised in automated systems. The choice
is largely dictated by economics and the applicability of an
instrument to the proposed would be difficult to
problem. It
review all of the instrumental systems used in automated
control in the space available. Spectroscopic electrochemical
and chromatographic systems are the most widely employed and a
review of the principles of operation of these has been
presented here in small compass. have drawn here extensively
on several standard texts concerned with instrumental analYSis
- notably 'Instrumental Analysis by Bauer, Christian and
Q'Reilley. I gratefully acknowledge their permission to quote
from this work and to reproduce diagrams from this text.

'.----._/

II-138
Chapter 9

TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS

The conmunications requirements of distributed control


networks, incentives for plant-wide automation, and desire to
establish unattended remotely-controlled facilities for
applications sUch as offshore production and processing are
making it helpful for instrumentation specialists to become
conversant in telemetry and other forms of signal transmission.
At the same time, advances are being made in telemetry that
extend the range and flexibility of the systems that can be
implemented.

Utilities applications
Utilities have been traditional industrial users of
telemetry systems, principally owing to the need to monitor and
control distribution systems over large geographical areas.
Allocation of 20 new frequency pairs by the FCC for utility
distribution automation should further increase use of fixed
two-way radio telemetry for those applications, asserted Michael
Berlin of Motorola Fixed Products Division.
In a telemetry system designed for the Columbus OH water
distribution network, emphasis was placed on selecting signal
transmission media. The final design involved a combination of
leased telephone lines for connection to each remote site with
microwaves and a city-owned cable for multi-channel communica-
tions, noted Terrance Brueck of Bv1A lnc, and John R. Doutt of
the City of Columbus. UHF radio was considered to -avoid the
line-of-sight limiiations of microwave transmission, but was
rejected because of restricted channel capacity.
Control of underground petroleum product storage faci lities
presented more complex utility telemetry requirements. One such
facility, locate~ near Houston, provides high pressure storage

I 1-139
for natural gas and is employed primarily as a source to meet
demand peaks. The instrumentation, explained. Michael Felt, a
Houston professional engineer, provides supervisory control of
the processes used to inject and withdraw gas, data acquisition,
and operation of the automatic safety systems.
The facility can operate unattended since the telemetry
system allows the station operator to monitor and control the
process from a central point, detect incipient problems, and
take corrective action before the computer generates an alarm
signal or shutdown sequence. When people are on-site, the
s.upervisory system allows them to move freely through the plant
to check the performance of various functions .
.Ate Iernetry -0 r i en ted i.nteg rat ed sy stem comb i n i n g load
management and supervisory control and data acquisition systems
offers the potential for significant savings in electricity
distribution networks. Integrating the functions not only saves
money in equipment cost, but also enhances performance through
a higher degree of synchronization than is practical using
stand-alone systems, explained Robert Morris and Philip Pennington
of Tejas Controls. The proposed approach uses closed loop
control with demand feedback, to defer energy use by consumer
applicances in a manner that minimizes peak consumption rates.
The system activates and shuts down water heaters, air conditions,
irrigation pumps, and other loads whose operation may be easily
deferred.
Sophisticated telemetry is needed to prevent communication
0--
path interference and contention, synchronize load shedding and
restoration, and coordinate i~dividual operations with the
overall regional power demand. As an example, Mr. Morris and
Mr. Pennington explained that time and duration of load
reduction is conveyed by digital messages over a combination of
voice grade telephone lines and ~ radio channels. Addressable
load groups are time-synchronized for various transmitters to
ensure that receivers react to the intended commands, even
though adjacent users are tuned to the same 'frequency.
Communication error checking is performed at several levels,
with security codes available in the protocol between the master
and the remote terminal units.

11-140