Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

ACADEMIKE
Lawctopus' Law Journal + Knowledge Center (ISSN: 2349-9796)

ABOUT SUBMISSIONS ISSUES ADVISORS STUDENT EDITORS

CONTACT

ADR in India: Legislations and Practices


January7,2015bykanchi LeaveaComment

ByS.ChaitanyaShashank,KaushalyaT.Madhavan,KIITSchoolOfLaw,KIIT
University

EditorsNote:Settlementofdisputesthroughreferencetoathirdpartyisapart
ofthevolkgiestofIndiasincetimesimmemorial.Ithasundergoneaphenomenal
metamorphosis, growing from the stage of village elders sitting under a banyan
tree and resolving disputes to the stage of gaining a statutory recognition. India
hasputinplaceaprogressivepieceoflegislationwhichisessentiallybasedon
theModelLawandtheUNCITRALArbitrationRules.TheParliamentenactedthe
Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 1996 with a view to making arbitration less
technical and more useful and effective, which not only removes many serious
defects of the earlier arbitration law, but also incorporates modern concepts of
arbitration.Whatitnowneedsisinculcationofthecultureofarbitrationwithinthe
bar,thebenchandthearbitralcommunity.

INTRODUCTION
http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 1/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

I realized that the true fiction of a lawyer was to unite parties A large part of my time
during the 20 years of my practice as a lawyer was occupied in bringing out private
compromiseofhundredsofcases.Ilostnothingtherebynotevenmoney,certainlynotmy
soul.

MahatmaGandhi

ADRisnotimmunefromcriticism.Somehaveseeninitawasteoftimeothersrecognize
theriskthatitbeonlyinitiatedtocheckwhatistheminimumofferthattheotherpartywould
accept.[3]he delay in disposal of cases in Law Courts, for whatever reason it may be, has
reallydefeatedthepurposeforwhichthepeopleapproachtheCourtsfortheirredressal.In
many parts of India, rapid development has meant increased caseloads for already
overburdenedcourts,furtherleadingtonotoriouslyslowadjudication.Asaresult,alternative
disputeresolutionmechanismshavebecomemorecrucialforbusinessesoperatinginIndia
as well as those doing businesses with Indian firms.[1] So Alternate Dispute Resolution
(hereinafterasADR)isnecessaryasasubstitutetoexistingmethodsofdisputeresolution
suchaslitigation,conflict,violenceandphysicalfightsorroughhandlingofsituations.Itisa
movement with a drive from evolving positive approach and attitude towards resolving a
dispute.[2]

In the subsequent parts of the paper we will discuss the evolution of ADR and its present
scenariointheIndiancontext.

HISTORY
InIndia,thelawandpracticeofprivateandtransactionalcommercialdisputeswithoutcourt
interventioncanbedatedbacktoancienttimes.Arbitrationormediationasanalternativeto
dispute resolution by municipal courts has been prevalent in India from Vedic times. The
earliest known treatise is the Bhradarnayaka Upanishad, in which various types of arbitral
bodiesviz(i)thePuga(ii)theSreni(iii)theKulaarereferredto.Thesearbitralbodies,known
as Panchayats, dealt with variety of disputes, such as disputes of contractual, matrimonial
andevenofacriminalnature.[4]Thedisputantswouldordinarilyacceptthedecisionofthe
panchayatandhenceasettlementarrivedconsequenttoconciliationbythepanchayatwould
beasbindingasthedecisionthatwasonclearlegalobligations.

TheMuslimruleinIndiasawtheincorporationoftheprinciplesofMuslimlawintheIndian
culture.Thoselawsweresystematicallycompiledintheformofacommentaryandcameto

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 2/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

be known as Hedaya. During Muslim rule, all Muslims in India were governed by Islamic
laws the Shariah as contained in the Hedaya. The Hedaya contains provisions for
arbitration as well. The Arabic word for arbitration is Tahkeem, while the word for an
arbitratorisHakam.AnarbitratorwasrequiredtopossesthequalitiesessentialforaKazee
an official Judge presiding over a court of law, whose decision was binding on the parties
subject to legality and validity of the award. The court has the jurisdiction to enforce such
awardsgivenunderShariahthoughitisnotentitledtoreviewthemeritsofthedisputeorthe
reasoningofthearbitrator.[5]

ADRpickeduppaceinthecountry,withthecomingoftheEastIndiaCompany.TheBritish
governmentgavelegislativeformtothelawofarbitrationbypromulgatingregulationsinthe
three presidency towns: Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. Bengal Resolution Act, 1772 and
Bengal Regulation Act, 1781 provided parties to submit the dispute to the arbitrator,
appointedaftermutualagreementandwhoseverdictshallbebindingonboththeparties.[6]
These remained in force till the Civil Procedure Code 1859, and were extended in 1862 to
thePresidencytowns.

LEGISLATIONS OF ADR IN INDIA


Code of Civil Procedure
The Code of Civil Procedure, 1859 in its sections 312 to 325 dealt with arbitration in suits
while sections 326 and 327 provided for arbitration without court intervention. The Code of
CivilProcedure(Act5of1908)repealedtheActof1882.TheCodeofCivilProcedure,1908
haslaiddownthatcasesmustbeencouragedtogoinforADRundersection89(1).[7]Under
theFirstSchedule,OrderXXXIIA,Rule3adutyiscastuponthecourtsthatitshallmakean
endeavortoassistthepartiesinthefirstinstance,inarrivingatasettlementinrespectofthe
subjectmatterofthesuit.[8]Thesecondschedulerelatedtoarbitrationinsuitswhilebriefly
providingarbitrationwithoutinterventionofacourt.OrderI,Rule1oftheschedulesaysthat
whereinanysuit,allthepartiesagreethatanymatterindifferencebetweenthemshallbe
referred to arbitration, they may, at any time before judgment is pronounced apply to the
courtforanorderofreference.Thisschedule,inawaysupplementedtheprovisionsofthe
ArbitrationActof1899.

Indian Arbitration Act, 1899:


ThisActwassubstantiallybasedontheBritishArbitrationActof1889.Itexpandedthearea

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 3/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

ofarbitrationbydefiningtheexpressionsubmissiontomeanawrittenagreementtosubmit
presentandfuturedifferencestoarbitrationwhetheranarbitratorisnamedthereinornot.[9]

Arbitration (Protocol and Convention) Act 1937:


The Geneva Protocol on Arbitration Clauses 1923 and the Geneva Convention on the
Execution of Foreign Arbitral Awards 1927 were implemented in India by the Arbitration
(ProtocolandConvention)Act,1937.ThisActwasenactedwiththeobjectofgivingeffectto
theProtocolandenablingtheConventiontobecomeoperativeinIndia.

The Arbitration Act of 1940:


The Arbitration Act, 1940, dealt with only domestic arbitration. Under the 1940 Act,
interventionofthecourtwasrequiredinallthethreestagesofarbitrationinthetribunal,i.e.
priortothereferenceofthedispute,inthedurationoftheproceedings,andaftertheaward
waspassed.

ThisActmadeprovisionfora)arbitrationwithoutcourtinterventionb)arbitrationinsuitsi.e.
arbitrationwithcourtinterventioninpendingsuitsandc)arbitrationwithcourtintervention,in
caseswherenosuitwaspendingbeforethecourt.

Beforeanarbitraltribunaltookcognizanceofadispute,courtinterventionwasrequiredtoset
thearbitrationproceedingsinmotion.Theexistenceofanagreementandofadisputewas
requiredtobeproved.Duringthecourseoftheproceedings,theinterventionofthecourtwas
necessaryfortheextensionoftimeformakinganaward.Finally,beforetheawardcouldbe
enforced, it was required to be made the rule of the court.[10] This Act did not fulfill the
essentialfunctionsofADR.TheextentofJudicialInterferenceundertheActdefeateditsvery
purpose.[11] It did not provide a speedy, effective and transparent mechanism to address
disputesarisingoutofforeigntradeandinvestmenttransactions.[12]

Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996:


ThegovernmentenactedtheArbitrationandConciliationAct,1996inanefforttomodernize
the 1940 Act. In 1978, the UNCITRAL Secretariat, the Asian African Legal Consultative
Committee (AALCC), the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA) and the
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) met for a consultative meeting, where the
participants were of the unanimous view that it would be in the interest of International

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 4/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

Commercial Arbitration if UNCITRAL would initiate steps leading to the establishment of


uniformstandardsofarbitralprocedure.ThepreparationofaModelLawonarbitrationwas
considered the most appropriate way to achieve the desired uniformity. The full text of this
ModelLawwasadoptedon21stJune1985byUNCITRAL.Thisisaremarkablelegacygiven
by the United Nations to International Commercial Arbitration, which has influenced Indian
Law.InIndia,theModelLawhasbeenadoptedalmostinitsentiretyinthe1996Act.[13]This
Actrepealedallthethreepreviousstatutes.Itsprimarypurposewastoencouragearbitration
asacosteffectiveandquickmechanismforthesettlementofcommercialdisputes.Itcovers
bothdomesticarbitrationandinternationalcommercialarbitration.[14]Itmarkedanepochin
thestruggletofindanalternativetothetraditionaladversarialsystemoflitigationinIndia.

Thechangesbroughtaboutbythe1996Actweresodrasticthattheentirecaselawbuiltup
overthepreviousfiftysixyearsonarbitrationwasrenderedsuperfluous.Unfortunately,there
was no widespread debate and understanding of the changes before such an important
legislative change was enacted. The Government of India enacted the 1996 Act by an
ordinance, and then extended its life by another ordinance, before Parliament eventually
passeditwithoutreferencetoParliamentaryCommittee.

Arbitration,aspracticedinIndia,insteadofshorteningthelifespanofthedisputeresolution,
becameonemoreinninginthegame.Notonlythat,thearbitratorandthepartieslawyers
treated arbitration as extra time or overtime work to be done after attending to court
matters. The result was that the normal session of an arbitration hearing was always for a
short duration. Absence of a fullfledged Arbitration Bar effectively prevented arbitrations
beingheardcontinuouslyondaytodaybasisoverthenormalworkinghours,viz.45hours
everyday.Thisresultedinelongationoftheperiodfordisposal.

Veerappa Moily also said in the ADR congress held in the year 2010 that the 1996 Act,
although modeled along international standards, has so far proved to be insufficient in
meeting the needs of the business community, for the speedy and impartial resolution of
disputesinIndia.[15]

The Law Commission of India prepared a report on the experience of the 1996 Act and
suggested a number of amendments. Based on the recommendations of the Commission,
theGovernmentofIndiaintroducedtheArbitrationandConciliation(Amendment)Bill,2003,
intheParliament.ThestandingcommitteeoflawministryfeltthatprovisionsoftheBillgave
roomforexcessiveinterventionbythecourtsinarbitrationproceedings.[16]

MODES AND PRACTICES OF ADR IN


http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 5/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

MODES AND PRACTICES OF ADR IN


INDIA
ADR can be broadly classified into two categories: courtannexed options (Mediation,
Conciliation)andcommunitybaseddisputeresolutionmechanism(LokAdalat).

ThefollowingarethemodesofADRpracticedinIndia:

1. Arbitration
2. Mediation
3. Conciliation
4. Negotiation
5. LokAdalat

1. Arbitration:
Thedefinitionofarbitrationinsection2(1)(a)verbatimreproducesthetextofarticle2(a)of
the Model Lawarbitration means any arbitration whether or not administered by a
permanent arbitral institution.[17] It is a procedure in which the dispute is submitted to an
arbitral tribunal which makes a decision (an award) on the dispute that is binding on the
parties.[18]Itisaprivate,generallyinformalandnonjudicialtrialprocedureforadjudicating
disputes.Therearefourrequirementsoftheconceptofarbitration:anarbitrationagreement
adisputeareferencetoathirdpartyforitsdeterminationandanawardbythethirdparty.
[19]

Theessenceliesinthepointthatitisaforumchosenbythepartieswithanintentionthatit
mustactjudiciallyaftertakingintoaccountrelevantevidencebeforeitandthesubmissionof
theparties.[20]Henceitfollowsthatiftheforumchosenisnotrequiredtoactjudicially,the
processitisnotarbitration.[21]

Typesofarbitrationare:

AdHocArbitration

An ad hoc arbitration is one which is not administered by an institution and therefore, the
partiesarerequiredtodetermineallaspectsofthearbitrationlikethenumberofarbitrators,

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 6/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

manneroftheirappointment,etc.Providedthepartiesapproachthearbitrationinaspiritof
cooperation, ad hoc proceedings can be more flexible, cheaper and faster than an
administeredproceeding.Theadvantageisthat,itisagreedtoandarrangedbytheparties
themselves.However,thegroundrealitiesshowthatarbitrationinIndia,particularlyadhoc
arbitration,isbecomingquiteexpensivevisvistraditionallitigation.[22]

InstitutionalArbitration

Aninstitutionalarbitrationisoneinwhichaspecializedinstitutionwithapermanentcharacter
intervenes and assumes the functions of aiding and administering the arbitral process, as
accordingtotherulesofthatinstitution.Itisimportanttonotethattheseinstitutionsdonot
arbitratethedispute,itisthearbitratorswhoarbitrate,andsothetermarbitrationinstitutionis
inapt and only the rules of the institution apply. Incorporation of book of rules in the
arbitration agreement is one of the principle advantages of institutional arbitration.
InstitutionalArbitration,throughouttheworld,isrecognizedastheprimarymodeofresolution
ofinternationalcommercialdisputes.Itisanarbitrationadministeredbyanarbitralinstitution.
[23]

Further,inmanyarbitralinstitutionssuchastheInternationalChamberofCommerce(ICC),
beforetheawardisfinalizedandgiven,anexperiencedpanelscrutinizesit.Asaresult,the
possibilitiesofthecourtsettingasidetheawardisminimal.

StatutoryArbitration

When a law specifies that if a dispute arises in a particular case it has to be referred to
arbitration, the arbitration proceedings are called statutory arbitration. Section 2(4) of the
ArbitrationandConciliationAct1996provides,withtheexceptionofsection40(1),section41
andsection43,thattheprovisionsofPartIshallapplytoeveryarbitrationunderanyother
actforthetimebeinginforceinIndia.[24]

Fasttrackarbitration

Fasttrackarbitrationisatimeboundarbitration,withstricterrulesofprocedure,whichdonot
allowanylaxityforextensionsoftime,andtheresultantdelays,andthereducedspanoftime
makesitmorecosteffective.[25]Sections11(2)and13(2)ofthe1996Actprovidesthatthe
partiesarefreetoagreeonaprocedureforappointinganarbitratorandchoosethefastest
waytochallengeanarbitralawardrespectively.TheIndianCouncilofArbitration(ICA)has

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 7/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

pioneered the concept of fast track arbitration in India and under its rules, parties may
requestthearbitraltribunaltosettledisputeswithinafixedtimeframe.

2. Mediation:
Mediation is a process in which the mediator, an external person, neutral to the dispute,
works with the parties to find a solution which is acceptable to all of them.[26] The basic
motiveofmediationistoprovidethepartieswithanopportunitytonegotiate,converseand
explore options aided by a neutral third party, to exhaustively determine if a settlement is
possible.[27]

Mediation is negotiation carried out with the assistance of a third party. The mediator, in
contrasttothearbitratororjudge,hasnopowertoimposeanoutcomeondisputingparties.
Despitethelackofteethinthemediationprocess,theinvolvementofamediatoraltersthe
dynamicsofnegotiations.[28]TheconceptofmediationisnotforeigntoIndianlegalsystem,
as there existed, different aspects of mediation. The Village Panchayats and the Nyaya
Panchayats are good examples for this. A brief perusal of the laws pertaining to mediation
highlights that it has been largely confined to commercial transactions. The Arbitration and
Conciliation Act, 1996 is framed in such a manner that it is concerned mainly with
commercial transactions that involves the common man rather than the common mans
interest.

In India, mediation has not yet been very popular. One of the reasons for this is that
mediationisnotaformalproceedinganditcannotbeenforcedbycourtsoflaw.Thereisa
lackofinitiativeonthepartofthegovernmentoranyotherinstitutionstotakeupthecauseof
encouragingandspreadingawarenesstothepeopleatlarge.

3. Conciliation:
Conciliationisaprocessinwhichaneutralpersonmeetswiththepartiestoadisputewhich
might be resolved a relatively unstructured method of dispute resolution in which a third
party facilitates communication between parties in an attempt to help them settle their
differences.[29]

This consists in an attempt by a third party, designated by the litigants, to reconcile them
eitherbeforetheyresorttolitigation(whethertocourtorarbitration),orafter.Theattemptto
conciliate is generally based on showing each side the contrary aspects of the dispute, in

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 8/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

ordertobringeachsidetogetherandtoreachasolution.[30]

Section 61 of the 1996 Act provides for conciliation of disputes arising out of legal
relationship, whether contractual or not and to all proceedings relating thereto. After its
enactment,therecanbenoobjection,fornotpermittingthepartiestoenterintoaconciliation
agreementregardingthesettlementofevenfuturedisputes.

Thereisasubtledifferencebetweenmediationandconciliation.Whileinmeditation,thethird
party,neutralintermediary,termedasmediatorplaysmoreactiverolebygivingindependent
compromise formulas after hearing both the parties in conciliation, the third neutral
intermediarys role, is to bring the parties together in a frame of mind to forget their
animosities and be prepared for an acceptable compromise on terms midway between the
standstakenbeforethecommencementofconciliationproceedings.[31]

4. Negotiation:
Negotiationcommunicationforthepurposeofpersuasionisthepreeminentmodeofdispute
resolution. Compared to processes using mutual third parties, it has the advantage of
allowingthepartiesthemselvestocontroltheprocessandthesolution.[32]

EssentialsofNegotiationare:

1. Itisacommunicationprocess
2. Itresolvesconflicts
3. Itisavoluntaryexercise
4. Itisanonbindingprocess
5. Partiesretaincontroloveroutcomeandprocedure
6. Thereisapossibilityofachievingwiderangingsolutions,andofmaximizingjointgains.
[33]

In India, Negotiation doesnt have any statutory recognition. Negotiation is self counseling
betweenthepartiestoresolvetheirdispute.Negotiationisaprocessthathasnofixedrules
butfollowsapredictablepattern.

5.Lok Adalats:
Lok Adalat was a historic necessity in a country like India where illiteracy dominated other

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 9/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

aspects of governance. It was introduced in 1982 and the first Lok Adalat was initiated in
Gujarat.Theevolutionofthismovementwasapartofthestrategytorelieveheavyburden
oncourtswithpendingcases.Itwastheconglomerationofconceptsofsocialjustice,speedy
justice,conciliatedresultandnegotiatingefforts.Theycatertheneedofweakersectionsof
society. It is a suitable alternative mechanism to resolve disputes in place of litigation. Lok
AdalatshaveassumedstatutoryrecognitionundertheLegalServicesAuthoritiesAct,1987.
ThesearebeingregularlyorganizedprimarilybytheStateLegalAidandtheAdviceBoards
withthehelpofDistrictLegalAidandAdviceCommittees.[34]

LegalServicesAuthoritiesAct,1987:

TheLegalServicesAuthoritiesAct,1987wasbroughtintoforceon19November1995.The
objectoftheActwastoprovidefreeandcompetentlegalservicestotheweakersectionsof
thesocietytoensurethatopportunitiesforsecuringjusticearenotdeniedtoanycitizen.The
conceptoflegalserviceswhichincludesLokAdalatisarevolutionaryevolutionofresolution
of disputes. Though settlements were affected by conducting Lok Nyayalayas prior to this
Act, the same has not been given any statutory recognition. But under the new Act, a
settlementarrivedatintheLokAdalatshasbeengiventheforceofadecreewhichcanbe
executedthroughCourtasifitispassedbyit.Sections19,20,21and22oftheActdealwith
Lok Adalat. Section 20 provides for different situations where cases can be referred for
considerationofLokAdalat.

HonorableDelhiHighcourthasgivenalandmarkdecisionhighlightingthesignificanceofLok
AdalatmovementinthecaseofAbdulHasanandNationalLegalServicesAuthorityv.Delhi
VidyutBoardandOthers[35]. The court passed the order giving directions for setting up of
permanentLokAdalats.

SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING


MECHANISMS
TheevolutionofADRmechanismswasnotofthatmuchsuccess.Thereby,thetrendisthe
impositionofresponsibilityanddutyonCourt

i)CourtsareauthorizedtogivedirectivesfortheadoptionofADRmechanismsbytheparties
and for that purpose Court has to play important role by way of giving guidance. Power is
alsoconferreduponthecourtssothatitcaninterveneindifferentstagesofproceedings.But

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 10/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

these goals cannot be achieved unless requisite infrastructure is provided and institutional
frameworkisputtoplace.

ii)Theinstitutionalframeworkmustbebroughtaboutatthreestages,whichare:

1. Awareness:Itcanbebroughtaboutbyholdingseminars,workshops,etc.ADRliteracy
program has to be done for mass awareness and awareness camp should be to
changethemindsetofallconcerneddisputants,thelawyersandjudges.
2. Acceptance:InthisregardtrainingoftheADRpractitionersshouldbemadebysome
Universitytogetherwithotherinstitutions.Extensivetrainingwouldalsobenecessaryto
be imparted to those who intend to act as a facilitator, mediators, and conciliators.
Impartingoftrainingshouldbemadeapartofcontinuingeducationondifferentfacets
ofADRsofarasjudicialofficersandjudgesareconcerned.
3. Implementation: For this purpose, judicial officers must be trained to identify cases
whichwouldbesuitablefortakingrecoursetoaparticularformofADR.[36]

iii) ADR Mechanisms to be made more viable: The inflow of cases cannot be stopped
because the doors of justice cannot be closed. But there is a dire need to increase the
outfloweitherbystrengtheningthecapacityoftheexistingsystemorbywayoffindingsome
additionaloutlets.

iv)Setting up of Mediation Centres in all districts of each state with a view to mediate all
disputes will bring about a profound change in the Indian Legal system. These Mediation
centres would function with an efficient team of mediators who are selected from the local
communityitself.

v)NotmanyIndianscanaffordlitigation.Thiskindofstateofaffairsmakescommonpeople,
especially rural people, cynical about judicial process. We must take the ADR mechanism
beyond the cities. Gram Nyayalayas should process 60 to 70 percent of rural litigation
leavingtheregularcourtstodevotetheirtimetocomplexcivilandcriminalmatters.

vi) More and more ADR centres should be created for settling disputes outofcourt. ADR
methodswillachievetheobjectiveofrenderingsocialjusticetothepeople,whichisthegoal
ofasuccessfuljudicialsystem.[37]

vii)ThemajorlacunainADRisthatitisnotbinding.Onecouldstillappealagainsttheaward
or delay the implementation of the award. Justice delayed is justice denied. The very

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 11/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

essenceofADRislostifitisnotimplementedinthetruespirit.Theawardshouldbemade
binding on the parties and no appeal to the court should be allowed unless it is arrived at
fraudulentlyorifitagainstpublicpolicy.[38]

CONCLUSION
With the advent of the alternate dispute resolution, there is new avenue for the people to
settle their disputes. The settlement of disputes in Lok Adalat quickly has acquired good
popularityamongthepublicandthishasreallygivenrisetoanewforcetoADRandthiswill
nodoubtreducethependencyinlawCourts.Thereisanurgentneedforjusticedispensation
through ADR mechanisms. The ADR movement needs to be carried forward with greater
speed. This will considerably reduce the load on the courts apart from providing instant
justiceatthedoorstep,withoutsubstantialcostbeinginvolved.Iftheyaresuccessfullygiven
effect then it will really achieve the goal of rendering social justice to the parties to the
dispute.

EditedbyKanchiKaushik

[1] Krishna Sarma, Momota Oinam & Angshuman Kaushik, Development and Practice of
Arbitration in India Has it Evolved as an Effective Legal Institution, http://iis
db.stanford.edu/pubs/22693/No_103_Sarma_India_Arbitration_India_509.pdf, (March
5,2012,10:30pm).

[2] Madhubhushi Sridhar, LexisNexis Butterworths, Alternative Dispute Resolution:


NegotiationandMediation,at1,(1stEd.2006).

[3] Mauro RubinoSammartano, Wolters Kluwer (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, International
ArbitrationLawandPractice,at13,(2ndEd.,2007).

[4] O P Malhotra, Indu Malhotra, Lexis Nexis, The Law and Practice of Arbitration and
Conciliation(2nded.,2006)

[5]Id,at5and6.

[6]Ivneet Walia, Alternate Dispute Resolution And The Common Man, (Feb. 28, 2009),
http://www.legalserviceindia.com/article/l312AlternateDisputeResolutionAndThe
CommonMan.html

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 12/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

[7]CivilProcedureCode,1908asamendedandimplementedin2002.

[8]CivilProcedureCode1908,OrderXXXIIARule3

[9]Supranote4,at9.

[10]Supranote1.

[11] Honble Thiru Justice S.B.Sinha, Judge Supreme Court of India, ADR and Access to
Justice:IssuesandPerspectives.

[12]Justice R S Bachawats, LexisNexis, Law of Arbitration and Conciliation, preface


commentary,(3rded.,1999).

[13]Supranote4,at17,20&23.

[14]Supranote1.

[15]ADRCongressIndia2010,http://www.adrcongressindia.com/(March6,2012,8:00p.m.)

[16] Government proposes major changes in Arbitration Act, The Times of India, April 9,
2010.

[17]Supranote4,at93.

[18]P.C.Rao&WilliamSheffield,UniversalLawPublishingCo.Pvt.Ltd.,AlternativeDispute
Resolution:Whatisitandhowitworks,at26(1997ed.,2006).

[19]Supranote4,at95.

[20]PrideofAsiaFilmsvEsselVision(2004)3Arb.LR169,180(Bom).

[21]Supranote4,at100.

[22]Supranote1.

[23] A Consultation Paper, Proposed Amendments to the Arbitration and Conciliation Act,

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 13/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

1996,MinistryofLawandJustice,GovernmentofIndia,at18.

[24]Supranote4,at118.

[25]Supranote1.

[26]SriramPanchu,LexisNexis,Mediation:PracticeandLaw,at9,(2011).

[27]Supranote2,at234.

[28]Goldberg,etalAspenPublishers,DisputeResolution:Negotiation,Mediation,andOther
Processes,at107(5thed.,2007).

[29]Garner,BlacksLawDictionary(9thed.,2009)

[30]Supranote3,at7.

[31]Supranote10.

[32]Supranote23,at3&17.

[33]Supranote2,at163.

[34]Supranote18,at97.

[35]AIR1999Del88.

[36]Supranote11.

[37] Government of India, Law Commission of India, 222nd report, Need for Justice
dispensationthroughADRetc.,at1.69.

[38]NishitaMedha,AlternativeDisputeResolutioninIndiaAstudyonconcepts,techniques,
provisions,problemsin

Implementationandsolutions.

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 14/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike


Youmayalsolike:

HARMFUL ARTICLEREVIEW: COGNIZANCE


TRADITIONAL DOTHEORIESOF OFOFFENCES
PRACTICES: STATUTORY
CRIMES INTERPRETATIONS
AGAINST MATTER?
WOMEN
UNDERTHE
GARBOF
HarmfulTraditional ArticleReview:Do WannaKnowHowto Cognizanceof
Practices:Crimes TheoriesofStatutory MakeRs. Offences
AgainstWomen Interpretations 6,302/Day?
UnderTheGarbOf Matter? CareerTimes
CustomAnd
Tradition

RIGHTTO STATUTORY THIRD


EQUALITYIN TRANSACTIONS:GENDER
INDIAVISA A RIGHTSAND
VIS COMPARATIVE LEGISLATIONS
RESERVATION ANALYSISOF ACROSSTHE
INFAVOROF THEINDIANAND WORLD
BACKWARD ENGLISH
CLASS. SCENARIO
RightToEqualityIn Statutory ThirdGenderRights NewDelhiMum
IndiaVisAVis Transactions:A andLegislations ShocksDoctorsWith
ReservationInFavor Comparative acrosstheWorld ResultsOfHer
OfBackwardClass. Analysisofthe "2,995.00Skinny
IndianandEnglish Pill"
Scenario HealthNews24.co

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 15/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

AdsbyShareaholic

FiledUnder:ADR,Arbitration&ConciliationAct
TaggedWith:ADR,Arbitration,Conciliation,LokAdalat,Mediation,Negotiation

Leave a Reply
Youremailaddresswillnotbepublished.Requiredfieldsaremarked*

Name*

Email*

Website

Comment

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 16/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

YoumayusetheseHTMLtagsandattributes:<ahref=""title=""><abbrtitle="">
<acronymtitle=""><b><blockquotecite=""><cite><code><deldatetime="">
<em><i><qcite=""><strike><strong>

POSTCOMMENT

SEARCH

CATEGORIES

DirectTaxation
ADR
Arbitration&ConciliationAct
BankingLaw
Bankruptcy&Insolvency
BiotechnologyLaw
BusinessLaws

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 17/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

CivilProcedureCode&Lawof
Limitation
CodeofCriminalProcedure
CompetitionLaw
Constitutional&AdministrativeLaw
ConsumerProtectionAct
ContractLaw
Copyright
CorporateFinance
CorporateGovernance
CriminalLaw
CriminologyandVictimology
EconomicOffences
Economics
EnvironmentalLaw
FamilyLaw
GenderandLaw
HumanitarianandRefugeeLaw
Humanities
IndianEvidenceAct
IndianPenalCode
InformationTechnologyLaw
InsuranceLaw
IntellectualPropertyRights
InternationalCommercialArbitration
InternationalEnvironmentalLaw
InternationalHumanRightsLaw
InternationalLabourLaws
InternationalLaw
InternationalOrganization
InternationalTradeLaw
http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 18/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

InternationalTreatyArbitration
InterpretationofStatutes
InvestmentLaw
IPRinPharmaIndustry
Jurisprudence
LabourLaw
LandAcquisition
LawandEconomics
LawoftheSea
LawofTorts
LegalHistory
LegalMethods
LegalServicesAuthoritiesAct/Lok
Adalats
MaritimeLaw
Media&CyberLaw
Mediation
Merger&Acquisition
OffencesAgainstChild&Juvenile
Offence
Patents
Penology&Victimology
PoliticalScience
PrivateInternationalLaw
ProbationandParole
ProceduralLaws
PropertyLaw
PublicInternationalLaw
SecuritiesLaw
Sociology
SpecialContract
http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 19/20
18/10/2015 ADRinIndia:LegislationsandPracticesAcademike

TaxLaw
Uncategorized
WhiteCollarCrime
Women&CriminalLaw

RECENT POSTS

Pricesensitiveinformation
Necessityasadefence
Dharmaandlaw
CivilAviationintheEUEmission
TradingScheme
Necessitypublicandprivate

Copyright2015GenesisFrameworkWordPressLogin

http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/arbitrationadrinindia/ 20/20