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Solution1:- Given: Tank dimensions: 3m (length) x 1.

5m (width) x 2m (depth)

Maximum acceleration in no spillage condition-

E
2m

F ax = ?
O

1m
3m B
A

From diagram we get,

tan = (i)

but,

(ii)

From (i) & (ii), we get

=> =

=> = = 6.54 m/s2


(i) When ax = 3.27 m/s2,

C
D
G
2m

E
F ax = 3.27 m/s2

1m
O H

I
J B
A 3m

Slope of constant pressure surface:-

=> = 0.333

=> = tan-1 (0.333) = -18.41

Slope of free surface:-

=> 0.333

=> = tan-1 (0.333) = 18.41

Depth of water on the front and rear faces of the tank:-

tan =
=> tan =

=> FH = 0.333 x 1.5 = 0.495 = 0.5 m

Therefore, the depth of front face,

BH = BF HF = 1 0.5 = 0.5 m.

And also from diagram,

EG = FH= 0.5 m.

Therefore, depth of rear face,

AG= AE + GE = 1 + 0.5 =1.5 m.

Forces on all the faces of the tank:-

Pressure at H, PH = 0

Pressure at B, PB = gh = g x (BH)= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.5 = 4905 N/m2

Force at the front face, FBH = ghA = 1000 x 9.81 x x (0.5 x 1.5) = 1839.375 N.

Pressure at G = 0

Pressure at A, PA = gh = g x (AG) = 1000 x 9.81 x 1.5 = 14715 N/m2

Force at the rear face, FAG = ghA = 1000 x 9.81 x x (1.5 x 1.5) = 16554.375 N

(ii) When ax = 6.54 m/s2,


C

D
2m

E
F ax =6.54 m/s2
O

1m
3m B
A

Slope of constant pressure surface:-

=> = 0.667

=> = tan-1 (0.667) = -33.70

Slope of free surface:-

=> 0.667

=> = tan-1 (0.333) = 33.70

Depth of water on the front and rear faces of the tank:-

The depth of front face is zero.

Depth of rear face,

AC= 2 m.
Forces on all the faces of the tank:-

Pressure at B, PB = 0

Force at the front face, FB = 0

Pressure at C = 0

Pressure at A, PA = gh = g x (AC) = 1000 x 9.81 x 2 = 19620 N/m2

Force at the rear face, FAC = ghA = 1000 x 9.81 x x (2 x 1.5) = 29430 N

(iii) When ax = 9.81 m/s2

O
2m

ax = 9.81 m/s2

1m

2m E
B
A
3m

Slope of constant pressure surface:-

=> =1

=> = tan-1 (0.333) = -45


Slope of free surface:-

=> 1

=> = tan-1 (0.333) = 45

Depth of water on the front and rear faces of the tank:-

tan =

=> =

=> AE = =2m

The depth of front face is zero.

Depth of rear face,

AC= 2 m.

Forces on all the faces of the tank:-

Pressure at C, PC = 0

Pressure at A, PA = gh = g x (AC)= 1000 x 9.81 x 2 = 19620 N/m2

Force at the rear face, FAC = ghA = 1000 x 9.81 x x (2 x 1.5) = 29430N.

Pressure at E = 0

Force at the bottom face, FEA = ghA = 1000 x 9.81 x x (2 x 1.5) = 29430 N
When top of tank is closed at ax= 9.81m/s2:-

C E
2m

ax = 9.81 m/s2

1m
D

2m
B
A 3m F

At the acceleration of ax= 9.81 m/s2 the water slope is

tan = = =1

=> = = 45

Since there is no spill of water, volume will remain same as start

Initial volume = 1 x 3 x 1.5 = 4.5 m2

Let EF be the new water surface at an inclination to the horizontal.

ED = tan45 *DF and then,

DF=2cot45 = 2m

4.5 =( *2*2 +2*AD)*1.5

AD=0.5m

Now , from triangle GCE,


GC= ADtan45=0.5m

Forces on all the faces of the tank:-

Pressure at F, PF = 0

Pressure at B, PA = gh = 0

Force at the front face, FAC = ghA = 1000 x 9.81 x2.5 /2 x (0.3 x 1.5) = 5518N

Pressure at E = 0

Pressure at C, PC = gh = g x (Cg) = 1000*9.81* (.5) =1000*9.81*0.5 = 4905N/m2.

Force at the top face, FEC = 1/2ghA = 1000 x 9.81 x (0.5/2)x (0.3 x 1.5) = 1103N

For other values of ax the forces acting on various faces of the vessel will be same as that in
case of open topped vessel.

Solution no 2

Given

Width = 1.2m

=920kg/m3

ax=0.4g
a) Position taken by the free surface of oil
tan=(ax/9)
or, tan-1(0.4 g/g)
or, =21.801
Height of water at rear face.
Tan =ab/bo
ab =0.4X2
ab =0.8m

Height of water = 1+0.8 =1.8m , which is greater then tank height so the imagined position of
water is not correct.

Now the imagined position is A B


C

Let

bc =x

then
D

cd=0.4x F
E

we will apply condition (volume before motion = volume after motion)in order to find the value
of x.

Volume before motion =(1X4X1.2)m3

Or, =4.8m3----(1)

Volume after motion = (4-x)(1.4)(1.2)+x(1.4-0.4x)(1.2)+(1/2)(x)(0.4x)(1.2)----(2)

Equating (1) and (2) we get.

5.6 0.2x2=4

Or, 0.2x21.6

Or, X=2.828m

b) Forces acting on the various forces.

In order to find forces at rear end of the tank we have to find x2 as indicated in the fig.
tan=x2/1.172

x2=0.4688m

Pa=0

Pb=gx2 x2

Or, =920X9.81X0.4688

Or, =4231.01N/m2

Pc=g(x2+1.4)

Or, =920X9.81X1.868

Or, =16859.073N/m2

Pd=g(de)

Or, =920X9.81X0.269

Or, =2429.778N/m2

Pe=0

Solution no 3

7 Ans:-

Given:-

Cubic tank of the side = 0.9 m

Total mass of the oil = 340 Kg

Volume of oil = 0.405 m3

Oil density = 850 kg/m3


Slope, = tan-1(1/3)

According to the question

Here the oil is in the verge of spilling

tan = CF/CD = 1/3

or CF = 0.9/3 =0.3 m

Now, Total volume of ABCD = Volume of ABCD + Volume of CDE

or 0.5(CF+EF)CDXwidth = {(0.9)3- 0.405}

or 0.5(0.3+EF)X0.9X0.9 ={0.729 - 0.405}

or EF =0.5 m

Therefore CE = CF+EF = 0.3+0.5 = 0.8 m

Now, tan(+) = CE/CD = 0.8/0.9

or + = 41.6335

or = (41.6335- 18.4349) = 23.1986

We know that , tan = ax/g+az

or tan(23.1986) = a cos/g+a sin

or 0.42857 = 0.94868 a/9.81+0.3162 a

or a = 5.1702 m/s2 Net accelerating force = ma = 340X5.1702= 1775.868 N

Solution no 4

Here given,

Length=6m

Height=2m

Depth of petrol in the tank=1.2m

ax=2m/s2

az=o

=670kg/m3
therefore tan =| -(ax/g)|= ax/g

=2/9.81=0.20387

=11.523o

Also tan =h/3

Or, h=3 X tan

Or, h=3 X 0.20387=0.6116m

Therefore BE=(1.2-h)m

=(1.2-0.6116)

=0.5884 m

and AF=(1.2+0.6116)=1.8116m

Pressure at B=ghB

=670 X 9.81 X 0.5884

=3867.3767 N/m2

Pressure at A=ghA

=670 X 9.81 X 1.8116

=11907.1033 N/m2

Solution no 5

Given:-

Depth = 1.2 m

Length =2 m

Acceleration = 4 m/s2

According to the question, ax = a cos = 4 cos30 = 3.4641 m

ax = a sin = 4 sin30 = 2 m

We knoe that,

tan = ax/g+ ax = 3.4641/ 2+9.81 = 0.2933


or = 16.3474

Now from fig.

tan = d/1 =0.2933

or d = 0.2933 m

Therefore maximum water depth = (1.2 0.2933) = 0.9067 m

CASE II Here

a=-4.5m/s2

ax=a cos

=-4.5 X cos 30

=-3.8971 m/s2

az=a sin

=-4.5 X sin 30

=-2.25 m/s2

Therefore, tan =|-ax/(g+az)|

=3.8971/(9.81-2.25)=0.5155

=27.2706

Also tan =h/1

Or, h=0.5155m

Therefore maximum water depth=1.2-0.5755

=0.6845m

For no water spilling during the journey maximum permissible water depth=0.6845m

Solution No. 7

The forward acceleration causes the free surface to slope at an angle

to the forward horizontal, and the oil therefore spill over the corner B until the
condition are as shown in the diagram.
Horizontal component of acceleration

Vertical component of acceleration

From the equation, , we have

that is,

(a) Therefore, =

Therefore,
C=0.5m x 0.775 =0.3875m

Then the volume of the oil left

=0.765m3= 76.5L
Again, from the equation,

Pressure at B is atmospheric and if B is at (0,0), then constant=0.


When point A will be at [(0.5m)sin, -(0.5m)cos]
Therefore,

=
C
+
B Acceleration a

Solution no 8

Given:-

Height = ho m.

Radius=ro m.

We konw that H= (r2w2)/(2*9.81)

When r= ro and Z=ho

Therefore, Z=(r2w2)/(2*9.81)+h
ho=(ro2w2)/(2*9.81)+h -------------------------- (i)

When r=r1 and Z= 0.

0=(r12w2)/(2*9.81)+h --------------------------(ii)

Again , r12=(1/2)ro2

or, r12=(1/2)ro2 --------------------(iii)

therefore,

(i)-(ii)=> ho=w2(ro2-r12)/2g

or, ho= w2((ro2)/2)/2g

or, w=(2/ro)(hog)(1/2)

or, N= (60/ro) (hog)(1/2) rpm

Solution no 9

Given:-

Height = ho m.

Radius=ro m.

We konw that H= (r2w2)/(2*9.81)

When r= ro and Z=ho

Therefore, Z=(r2w2)/(2*9.81)+h
ho=(ro2w2)/(2*9.81)+h -------------------------- (i)

When r=r1 and Z= 0.

0=(r12w2)/(2*9.81)+h --------------------------(ii)

Again , r12=(1/2)ro2

or, r12=(1/2)ro2 --------------------(iii)

therefore,

(i)-(ii)=> ho=w2(ro2-r12)/2g

or, ho= w2((ro2)/2)/2g

or, w=(2/ro)(hog)(1/2)

or, N= (60/ro) (hog)(1/2) rpm

Solution no 10

Considering the forces in the vertical direction,we get

{p- . }dr-{p+ }dr-8drdzg-8drdzaz=0

- - g- az=0
= (az+g)

Considering the forces in horizontal direction,

{p- }dz-{p+ drdz)x(-rw2)

- =- rw2

rw2

Again, p=p(r,z)

dp= +

= rw2dr- (g+az )dz

For constant pressure surface including free surface, dp=0

rw2dr= (g+az)dz

Z=[r2w2/2(g+az)]+I.C

Applying boundary conditions

R=0,z=ho, p=0

I.C=ho

The equation becomes

Z=[r2 w2/2(g+a)]+ho

Here w=50rad s-1, az=0.5g

Z=(2500r2/2x1.5g)ho
Solution no 11

=900 Kg/m3

= 94.24rad/s

Height of parabola

H=[(94.24)2(0.125)2]/(2X9.81)

Or, H=7.0728m

The distance oa

3.5364=[(94.24)2(R)2]/2X9.81

Or, R=0.0883m

Pa =0

Pb =gh

Or, =900 X 9.81 X 3.5364

Or, =31222.8756N/m2

Total thrust on upper face

=[((0+31222.8756)/2)XX((0.125)2-(0.0883)2)

=383.9279N
Solution no 12

Solution,

Let the height of the parabola be h2

The height from base be h1

According to the question

h1= h2

h2=2h1 ..(i)

we know that,

H=r2w2/2g

H2=r2 w2/2g

2hx2g/r=w

W=(2/r)(h1g)(1/2)

13. Solution r2=


For constant pressure surface p1=p2
0.6 m
Equation of the free surface r1
Z2
Z= (2r2)/2g +ho
Z1= (2r12)/2g +ho----------------- (1) ho Z1

Z2= (2r22)/2g +ho----------------- (2)


r1=0.6 m
(2)-(1)=> Z2-Z1=(2/2g)(r22-r12)
r2=r1+0.6 m=1.2 m
=>0.6= (2/2g)(1.22-0.62)
Z2=Z1+0.6 m
=>0.629.81=2(1.44-0.36)
=>=3.3015
Now, N= (60)/(2) rpm
N=31.543 rpm
at 70.533 rpm
90 rpm

15. Solution
Z=(2r2)/2g +ho
1m
=>Z-ho= (2r2)/2g H

1=(20.62)/2g 2m
=(2g/0.62)1/2 1.5 m

=7.382 rad/sec ho

Now, N= (60)/(2) rpm


0.5 m
N=70.533 rpm 1.2 m

When the cylinder is rotated about the longitudinal axis at 90 rpm


Z= (2r2)/2g +ho
=>Z-ho= (2r2)/2g
=>H={(2NR)/60}2(1/2g) Z-ho=H(say)
=>H={2900.6)/60}2(1/29.81)
=>H=1.63 m
Equation of free surface
Z= (2r2)/2g +ho
Z= (2r2)/2g +0.37 ho=2-1.63=0.37
At r=0.5
Z= (7.38220.52)/29.81 +0.37
=>Z=1.06 m
Pressure at A
=gZ
=10009.811.06
=10398.6 N/m2
Solution 17
Given:-
A cylindrical vessel of radius , r = 15 cm
Height, h=50 cm
35cm 40
Depth of water, d= 35 cm
Case 1
When h0 = 30 cm
30cm
Z= (2 r2 )/2g + h0
.40=(2 .152 )/2x9.81+.3
=9.81 rad/sec
Case 2 35cm 50

When h0 = 20 cm
Z= (2 r2 )/2g + h0
.50=(2 .152 )/2x9.81+.2
=16.17 rad/sec 30cm

Case 3
When h0 = 10 cm
Z= (2 r2 )/2g + h0
.5=(2 .152 )/2x9.81+.1
= 18.67rad/sec 50

Case 4 35cm

When h0 = 0 cm
Z= (2 r2 )/2g + h0
.50=(2 .152 )/2x9.81 30cm
=20.88 rad/sec
The maximum speed of rotation was obtained when h0 = 0 cm .
The water is spilled out at h0 = 10 cm and h0 = 0 cm
50
For h0 = 10 cm
35cm
Total volume of water = /4 x(30)2 x 35
=24740 cc
Volume of water left in the vessel = /4 x(30)2 x 10 + x /4 x(30)2 x 40
= 21205.75cc
Thus the volume spilled out = (24740-21205.75)
= 3534.25
For h0 = 0 cm
Total volume of water = /4 x(30)2 x 35
=24740 cc
Volume of water left in the vessel = x /4 x(30)2 x 50
=17671.44cc
Thus the volume spilled out = (24740-17671.44)cc
= 7068cc

When the speed of rotation is increased to 1.25 times of the maximum speed i.e.at h0 = 0 cm
Then new speed = 1.25 x 20.88
= 26.1 rad/sec

We know 50

Z= (2 r2 )/2g + h0
At base of the vessel z=0 and r=r0
0= (26.12 r02 )/2g + h0 -------- (1)
At r=.15m z=.50m H0

.50= (26.12 x.152 )/2g + h0----------(2)


From 1 and 2
h0=-.28m
r0=0.09m
Thus the area of the base exposed to the atmosphere is = x .092
=2.5446m2
Considering the vessel to be sufficiently long and there is no spilling
Initial volume = Final volume
xx152xz = x35x152
z= 0.7m Z
Z= (2 r2 )/2g + h0
Since the free surface just touches the base of the vessel h0=0
0.7=( 2 .152 )/2g
= 24.69 rad/sec

Problem 18

Solution->

If all the fluids concerned are undergoing uniform acceleration in a straight line, no layer moves
relative to another, so there are still no shear forces. There is, however an additional to force
acting to cause the acceleration. Fluids in such motion are said to be in relative equilibrium.

Expressions for slope of constant pressure surfaces for fluid mass under uniform translational
acceleration.

Let P = p(x,z)

For a constant pressure surface (p=constant).

Therefore,
=0

Expressions for slope of constant pressure surfaces for fluid mass rotating about a vertical axis
with uniform angular velocity.

Let P = p(r,z)

For a constant pressure surface )

=0

Expressions for pressure at a point in the fluid mass under uniform translation and acceleration.
If p=0 at (0,0) then I.C.=0.

At point (x,z) p=0

When

When

(accelerated in upward direction)

(accelerated in downward direction)

Expression for pressure at a point in the fluid mass rotating about a vertical axis with uniform
angular velocity.
By integrating and equating we have

dz/dr=

P atm