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ENGL 104 Summer 2017 1

ENGL 104: College Writing

Instructor: Ms. Lauren Salisbury Google Hangout (laurensalisbury4@gmail.com), by
Location: online, Blackboard, asynchronous appointment
Email: salisburyl@findlay.edu

In this course we will:

use writing for personal expression to convey experiences, opinions and values
use writing to sharpen analytic and critical thinking skills
use flexible composing processes that are suited to a variety of occasions for narrative, expository, and
argumentative writing
analyze writing conventions of common genres and produce texts that conform to those conventions
use effective processes for revising and improving our work
write well-organized projects that offer clear theses and support and develop those theses with explanations and
draw on personal experience, scholarly readings, and non-print media to verify, critique, and extend the
perspectives offered by other writers
construct reasonable and persuasive defenses of personal positions when they are critiqued by advocates of other
integrate source materials using quotations, paraphrases, and images with attention to principles of fair use and
document those sources using MLA formatting style


Students will acquire and practice skills for reading, writing, speaking, listening,
abstract inquiry, critical thinking, logical reasoning, and using computers and
related technology

Students will develop an appreciation for and means of analyzing art,
literature, music, communication, science, and/or theatre


thesis paragraphing scholarly word choice spelling, Works Cited

statement/claim transitions sources audience grammar, page
"so what" or interpreted awareness puncutation in-text





takeaway and sentence citations

devices integrated distinction
purpose between structure source
specific word sources and attribution
choice writer's voice and
examples integration
ENGL 104 Summer 2017 2
ENGL 104 emphasizes writing processes appropriate for narrative, analytical, and argumentative essays. The
course helps students to express their own ideas in lively prose that conforms to conventional standards of style
and usage. Some of the writing assignments will require responses to assigned readings or other texts
(potentially including non-print media), but the focus throughout most of the course remains on each students
expression of his/her own ideas. Students are placed into this course by the English faculty.

This course meets exclusively online. All materials for the course can be accessed online through the University of
Findlays online course management software Blackboard.


Microsoft Office

Flash Drive
Understanding Rhetoric, 2nd ed., The Little Oiler Handbook, Bullock, and/or Google Drive
Losh, Alexander, Cannon, and Brody, and Weinberg
Cannon ISBN: 978-0393935806
ISBN: 78-1319042134


Personal Narrative


ENGL 104 Summer 2017 3

synthesize multiple scholarly texts

Argument Research defend a claim with attention to a targeted audience

identify rhetorical appeals in texts

Rhetorical Analysis analyze effectiveness of texts based on purpose, audience,
and call to action

explore writerly identity

Personal Narrative write to learn and express



A 4.00 93-100 Excellent

A- 3.67 90-92 Slightly less than excellent

B+ 3.33 88-89 Slightly more than good

B 3.00 83-87 Good

B- 2.67 80-82 Slightly less than good

C+ 2.33 78-79 Slightly more than adequate

C 2.00 73-77 Adequate

NC or F 0.00 72 and below NC= not yet passing; F = failing

All work handed in NC (No Credit); Missing/late work F

Please note that no grades will be rounded up or down.
ENGL 104 Summer 2017 4
1. Papers. Three papers will be assigned in this class. Each paper will have an assignment sheet and will be discussed in
class, and class time will be spent writing multiple drafts of each paper. All final drafts must be typed, double spaced,
12pt font, Times New Roman and labeled with your name, my name, class and section #, and the date as per MLA
formatting guidelines. You will submit these assignments electronically and receive electronic feedback attached with
a rubric.

2. Drafts & Process Work. You will be expected to turn in several drafts of the major papers which will be evaluated and
returned to you as you work towards the final draft. The first draft turned in will be evaluated on the basis of large
revision issues such as thesis, content and development, while the next draft turned in will be evaluated on the basis
of more practical issues such as coherency, cohesiveness, effective sentences and editing. Points will vary depending
on the assignment.

3. Final portfolio. This takes the place of a final exam. During the last week of classes, you will turn in a portfolio that
contains unmarked copies of the three major papers and all your graded/evaluated drafts and process work for each
of those three major papers. You may also include additional writing samples. Please hang on to all your work from
the class, including process work, as you will need it to create this portfolio. As we will be posting assignments to
our course site, this should not be an issue. The portfolios will be evaluated by English faculty to determine if you have
successfully met all the expected learning outcomes for the class. If you do not turn in a portfolio you will receive
an F for the class, regardless of your grade in the class up until that point.

Portfolio due date: Friday July 21 by 12:00 PM (NOON)

Revision Policy
All papers returned with a mark of NG or below a C must be revised for higher points. In order for the revision to
be accepted you must speak with me or a tutor from the Writing Center to discuss how youll significantly improve
the paper, and the paper is due one week after the day I return the original graded final draft back to the class.
When you turn in your revision you will do so in a Word document where Track Changes has been enabled to
show your revisions or where you have used the Compare setting to show your revisions. You will also turn in a
200-word reflection detailing the revisions you made and why they improve your paper. Failure to complete any
of these steps will result in your revision being returned without a grade. If you do not turn in a rough
draft of the paper in question you cannot revise.

Special Services
If you are a student with a disability, it is your responsibility to inform your instructor and register with the Office
of Disability Services (ods@findlay.edu) at least one week prior to a needed service so reasonable
accommodations can be made.

University Honor Code

Each and every student of the University will adhere to the following Honor Code: I will not knowingly engage in
any dishonorable behavior, cheat, steal, lie or commit any act of plagiarism during any academic work, course or
endeavor. If I observe an act which I believe violates the Universitys Honor Code. I may, at my discretion, report it
to the appropriate personnel.

Student Honor Code

I acknowledge that I have fully complied or will comply with all aspects of the Universitys Honor Code in
submitting this work.
ENGL 104 Summer 2017 5
My Honor Code
Plagiarism is presenting someone elses words or ideas as your ownin other words, stealing someones
intellectual property. It is also presenting your work from another assignment as new material. At the discretion of
the instructor, if you commit plagiarism in any of your work for this class, you will fail the assignment and,
therefore, the class. We will spend time discussing how to document and incorporate others ideas into your work,
so there will be no excuses. If you have questions about this or dont understand what plagiarism is, please ask.

Late Work Policy

You will be expected to log in to our Blackboard site every week. You will also be expected to turn in assignments
on the dates they are due. Failure to turn in a rough draft on the assigned date will result in no feedback being
returned on the draft. Failure to turn in a final draft on the assigned date will result in the final grade being
lowered one letter grade for each day it is late.

Extension Policy
Students who would like to request an extension on an assignment must send an email or otherwise contact the
instructor at least 24 hours before the due date. Students requesting an extension within 24 hours of the due date
will not be granted an extension. Students who have not turned in process work or a rough draft of the
assignment they are requesting an extension for will not be granted an extension. The instructor reserves the right
to deny extensions. Your request should explain: The reason you cannot complete the assignment on time, what
you plan to use your extra time for, and what date you believe you can reasonably complete the work by. If your
request is not made 24 hours before the due date or does not contain this information I will not respond. If you
are awarded an extension and your work is not turned in by the revised due date you will receive a zero (0) for
that assignment.

If you are having trouble finishing work for the course, contact the instructor. Often, problems can be worked out
easier earlier in the course than if students wait until the final week or weeks.

Email Policy
Students must use either their UFNet email address or Blackboard to email the instructor at her UFNet email
address. Emails received from alternate email addresses will not be answered. Also remain respectful and consider
audience when writing your email. Include a subject line with the course youre enrolled in (e.g. ENGL 104.N1:
Question about Personal Narrative thesis statement).

Last Date Of Attendance Policy

Please be advised that the last date of attendance in this course is considered the last day you meaningfully
participated per your instructor. In online sections, this means the last date you logged-in and turned in an
assignment and/or participated.

Course And Instructor Evaluation

Each student is expected to complete the course and instructor evaluation. The survey comes in an e-mail from
the UF Registrars Office with the following subject line: Online survey for the designated course (e.g. ENGL 104)
ENGL 104 Summer 2017 6
TENTATIVE COURSE OUTLINE (subject to change with notice) (Little Oiler Handbook=LOH; Understanding Rhetoric= UR)

Week 1 Syllabus/Course Outline

May 29-June 3
Orientation to the Course Read LOH: How to Use This Book; W-1; W-3; W-10
Introduction Read UR: Introduction and Issue 3
View and Respond to VoiceThread for Week 1

Week 2 Personal Narrative Rough Draft June 10 by 11:59PM

June 4-10
Read Anders and Vuong
Read LOH: W-10; L-7; L-9
Read UR: Issue 6
View and Respond to VoiceThread for Week 2
Week 3 Personal Narrative Final Draft June 17 by 11:59PM
June 11-17
Vivid Language Respond to Peer Review Partners
View and Respond to VoiceThread Week 3

Week 4 Rhetorical Analysis Rough Draft June 24 by 11:59PM

June 18-24
Aristotelian Appeals/Criteria Read LOH: W-4; W-8
Read UR: Issue 1
Read McWhorter and Sargrad
View and Respond to VoiceThread Week 4
Week 5 Rhetorical Analysis Final Draft July 1 by 11:59PM
June 25-July 1
Source Support

View and Respond to VoiceThread Week 5

Week 6 Argument Research Rough Draft July 8 by 11:59PM
July 2-8
Library Sources Read LOH: W-7; W-14; R-1; R-4
Read UR: Issue 4; Issue 5
Review Library Tools
View and Respond to VoiceThread Week 6
Week 7 Argument Research Final Draft July 15 by 11:59PM
July 9-15
MEAL plan Read UR: Issue 6; Issue 7

View and Respond to VoiceThread Week 7

Week 8 Portfolio and Revision Portfolio due July 21 by 12:00PM (noon)
July 16-22
View and Respond to VoiceThread for Week 8
ENGL 104Summer 2017 7

Personal Narrative
A personal narrative tells a story about a topic that is important to the writer. Narratives use
storytelling techniques like vivid language, metaphor, and description to grab readers
attentions but also include a takeaway about the storys significance and reason for its telling.

Your personal narrative should discuss how literacy has impacted your life. You might describe:
1. your process of learning to read or write.
2. an important figure(s) or character(s) involved in your literacy.
3. the way you learned a language different than your first language and why you chose to
learn it
4. a unique literacy you have (ex: programming, video editing, photo editing, podcasting,
writing fan fiction, drawing comics, etc.)
5. a unique way you learned a literacy (i.e. Did you learn to read while playing video games or
reading comic books?)
6. a special discourse space you participate in (i.e. a fanfiction site; a poetry club; a book club;
an online blog; etc.)
7. a time you had to communicate in a new community or social context
8. a time you had to build your ethos or identity
9. an experience that informed your opinion and gave you a new literacy
Your narrative should expand on the importance or significance of this experience or these events
to tell a story. Your narrative will include a thesis statement that reflects on the importance of the
experience or literacy youre writing about.

Suggested Structure
A. Introduction
Attention grabber
Thesis statement
B. Body Paragraphs
Show readers the story
Include significance details and descriptions
C. Conclusion
Provide a takeaway/so what
Why does this story matter or how does this story impact your life now? How might it
impact your college life or career?

MLA Format (no Works Cited page required unless external sources used)
3-6 pages

Due Dates
Rough Draft: June 10, 11:59PM to Blackboard
Final Revised Draft: June 17, 11:59PM to Blackboard
ENGL 104Summer 2017 8

CATEGORY Exceeds Expectations Acceptable Developing

Thesis and Focus (50 points)
o Thesis is present and answers so what? about a
particular topic
o Thesis remains consistently mentioned
throughout essay
o Clear focus/purpose
o Narrative focus with main theme/guiding idea

Organization (50 points)

o Introduction, body, and conclusion
o Paragraphing appropriate for purpose/thesis
o Transitions used to move between
o Uses stylistic devices such as description,
narration, etc.
Development (50 points)
o Supportincluding personal experienceused
to advance purpose
o Vague generalizations avoided
o Illustrates a main theme and builds on that
Voice (30 points)
o Effective word choice acceptable for intended
o Explains/clarifies difficult concepts
o Pronouns have clear referent
o Clearly distinguishes between writers voice and
other voices
Mechanics (10 points)
o Standard English usage
o Correct spelling, punctuation, capitalization
o Few to no run-ons, comma spices, or fragments
Documentation (10 points)
o MLA format used throughout
o Works Cited for any external sources
TOTAL /200
Name 9

Student Name

Ms. Salisbury

ENGL 104


My Personal Literacy Narrative

I have spent a larger part of my life in Saudi Arabia. When I was young, I rarely used to

read. Like any boy my age, most of the time was spent outdoors playing with my friends. I first

developed a special interest in reading when I was in high school. I was transitioning from a boy

and I slowly learnt that the world around me was changing, getting more serious. I had to get my

life in order and was expected to have an answer to questions like, what would you like to be

when you grow up? By my second year in high school I started taking reading seriously and I

have since been an avid consumer of western literature. The books I read when I first started

reading English have influenced me to take a career in criminal justice.

In Saudi Arabia, English is mostly taught in schools as a second language. To put that in

perspective, it is taught in the same way some American schools teach Spanish to their students.

What this means is that there was great scarcity of English literature apart from the text books we

used in class. My first ever book to read was a voluminous paperback novel by an American

bestselling author, John Grisham titled The Firm. This is the only book that I had that was not a

textbook at the time. It was an interesting book but I had to keep referring to my dictionary. My

English teacher had suggested that the best way to build English vocabulary was to read an

English novel and learn new words. Therefore, I had to take her words seriously and I had to

read slowly, absorbing each word that seemed new to me. It was a very tiring exercise and I gave
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up a couple of times. I would read the book and just leave it midway in desperation when I could

not make sense of what it was talking about.

I used to do most of the reading in my room. I would fall asleep midway reading the book

and I would wake up the next morning with some pages creased in funny shapes. However,

having no other book to build my English vocabulary, I had to keep going back to the book once

in a while. I cannot quite remember, but it must have taken me over six months to finish reading

it. The whole experience left me disappointed. I was disappointed because I had to keep using

the dictionary to find the meaning of most of the words and this made the story incomprehensible

most of the time. The disappointment did not last for long because for the end of the year exams,

I was the best student in my English class. My English teacher said that my work was rich. I

had written a composition on what I wanted my career to be when I grew up. I didnt realize it at

first but I had a lot of vocabularies related to law and this is what impressed my teacher. This

was a very rewarding experience and I realized that reading the book had helped after all. Almost

a year later, I saw another book. The letters on the cover were familiar and I realized that it was

another book by John Grisham. Fate really wanted me to read John Grishams books. This one

was The Rainmaker. I did not own the book and I first saw my friend reading it. I asked him if I

could borrow it and he told me he had just started reading it. I had to wait for a month before I

could have a chance of reading it. This was a very long month for me as I was looking forward to

read the book.

When I finally got to borrow it from him, he offered to sell it to me. Since I already had

one John Grisham book, I thought it would be great to add another of his books to the collection.

At the time, I was just reading to pass time and to try to expand my vocabulary. However, the

main reason I bought the book from him is that it gave me a sense of direction. I thought that if
Name 11

my parents saw me read they would be confident that I was doing something useful in my life.

This is especially an important technique at teenage because once in a while, I would go to my

parents asking for something. At least I could now show that I was getting serious with life in a

bid to get rewarded when I went to them asking for favors.

I was patient with this book and I enjoyed it more than the first one. I was not a stranger

to most of the vocabulary and I used the dictionary less often. I liked Grishams style and I found

myself reading it late into the night. Slowly, I was starting to establish a pattern in that the two

books revolved around elements of law. It was an interesting view of how the American justice

system worked. I was also slowly falling in love with the way lawyers portrayed in the book

were legendary. They possessed a kind of influence in the society that I started admiring. The

Saudi Arabian justice system worked differently because it was based majorly on Sharia.

However, the United States system did not seem to have any religious basis and I was curious to

find out how it worked. It was very dynamic and one of my favorite factors was the jury. Seeing

a different type of a legal system from what I was used to kept me glued to the book as I went

through the captivating pages. When I finished reading the book, the back cover had listed other

books that John Grisham had authored. I identified and set forth to look for two books from the

listed ones that I thought would be interesting. By this time, I was hooked to John Grisham

stories and I wanted other similar rewarding experiences.

The first of the books is The Chamber. The local bookstore did not have the book.

However, the lady at the bookstore told me that if I paid some money and waited for a week, she

could get one for me. I went ahead and paid a deposit for the book. My appetite for John

Grishams books could not let me go home with no hope of getting the book. A week later, I had

my copy. Of all the books written by John Grisham, this is my favorite. The book is my favorite
Name 12

because I have read through it twice. The first time I read it, I was still in high school. The

second time I read it was last summer when I bought a movie by the same title. The movie was

an adaptation of the book and I wanted to savor every moment of the film. Therefore, I went

through the book for the second time. The movie is a classic and it has taught me a lot in

criminal justice. The second book that I read was The Pelican Brief. This novel was also equally

engaging as the other ones. I remember all these books because back home, I have the four of

them in a shelf in the order that I read them.

By this time, my desire to be a lawyer was very intense. Every time a legal matter popped

up in the news broadcast I would be very interested and I read a lot of newspaper articles on the

subject. The holy grail of the books I read during my time in high school is To Kill a

Mockingbird by Harper Lee. The book was recommended to me by a teacher who was familiar

with my love for the law. I have read the book more than twice. I have also watched a movie

based on the same book. This book was a bit different from the books I was used to because it

was set in the early 1930s when the American legal system and the society was a bit different

from what was portrayed in Grishams books. In addition, the book was very crisp in the way it

detailed and how it showed deep parts of the justice system that most people do not want to talk

about. Themes like racism were described in a raw manner and it gave me a perspective of legal

fiction that I had never experienced before. It was beyond the conventional themes that I was

used to in most of John Grishams book and remains my most favorite book to date. By the time

I was through with high school, I was certain of the kind of career that I wanted to pursue. My

friends had already started calling me lawyer and when the chance came, I did not blink and I

decided to take criminal justice as my major.

Name 13

Looking back, I can now see how much the books I read when I was in high school

influenced my career choice. I would say that it is a positive advantage of a single story. Almost

all the books that I have read that were not part of the textbooks used in class are books that dealt

with themes of crime and justice. In a unique way, I had been exposed to many elements of

criminal justice even before I picked it up as a major. However, I was not exposed to any other

kind of literature. It now dawns to me that what the books I read did to me was to prepare me for

a career in criminal justice. I slowly developed an appetite for any legal literature; after all, this is

the only kind of literature that I was exposed to most of the time. To be honest, I have never

imagined myself being in another career other than a career in law. I also feel that the books

were beneficial to me because once I came to the United States, the legal terms and even the

legal environment are not so alien to me because I had encountered them before through the

books I read. I wish I had more books available to me because my hunger for legal literature is

insatiable. Indeed, reading books with legal themes during my high school years played a big

role in influencing my career choice.

ENGL 104Summer 2017 14

Rhetorical Analysis
Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a text. A rhetorical analysis analyzes how a text is
composed and how effective it is in achieving its purpose and reaching its audience.

Your project should include (1) an introduction with thesis statement and thesis map; (2) a
summary of the text; (3) one paragraph per point of critique/criteria; (4) a counterargument and
response to your thesis; and (5) a conclusion that provides a takeaway/so what about the text.

Analyze a TEDTalk that discusses literacy or knowledge like the following examples:
The Danger of a Single Story Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
3 Ways to Speak English Jamila Lyliscott
4 Reasons to Learn a New Language John McWhorter
Why City Flags May Be the Worst-Designed Thing Youve Never Noticed Roman Mars

Suggested Structure
D. Introduction
Background on text and its purpose and thesis statement
E. Body Paragraphs
Point of critique 1 about how the article is written
i. Topic sentence describing the point of critique
ii. Quotations and paraphrases as support
iii. Explanation of how this point supports your thesis
Point of critique 2
Point of critique 3
Counterargument and response to your thesis with support
F. Conclusion
Provide a takeaway/so what
Why does this text matter?

MLA Format with Works Cited page
4-6 full pages

Due Dates
Rough Draft: June 24, 11:59PM to Blackboard
Final Revised Draft: July 1, 11:59PM to Blackboard
ENGL 104Summer 2017 15

CATEGORY Exceeds Expectations Acceptable Developing

Thesis and Focus (60 points)
o Thesis is present and answers so what? about a
particular topic
o Thesis remains consistently mentioned
throughout essay
o Clear focus/purpose
Organization (60 points)
o Introduction, body, and conclusion
o Paragraphing appropriate for purpose/thesis
o Transitions used to move between
Development (60 points)
o Scholarly sources are interpreted and integrated
into the text to advance thesis
o Vague generalizations avoided
o Illustrates a main theme and builds on that
Voice (40 points)
o Effective word choice acceptable for intended
o Explains/clarifies difficult concepts
o Pronouns have clear referent
o Clearly distinguishes between writers voice and
other voices
Mechanics (10 points)
o Standard English usage
o Correct spelling, punctuation, capitalization
o Few to no run-ons, comma spices, or fragments
Documentation (20 points)
o MLA format used throughout
o Works Cited for any external sources
o In-text citations for an source material
TOTAL /250
Student 16


Ms. Lauren Salisbury

English 104

24 June 2017

Do you McWant to Learn a New Language?

I recently took a mission trip to Belize, where I taught in a Bible school setting to various

schools throughout the country. While English is the national language there, it was sometimes

very difficult to teach the younger children, as some do not learn any English until school since

Spanish is spoken in their homes. Therefore, I had to rely on the knowledge I gained in my

Spanish classes, wishing the entire time that I could speak the language better. Due to my

inferior abilities to speak their language, I was teased by some of the older kids, as they knew

English, but refused to speak it, acting as if they could not understand what I was saying. In this

way, I was not completely accepted into their culture. I realized that languages are a sort of

gateway into a culture, and this idea is one that was furthered by John McWhorter as I watched

his TED Talk, 4 Reasons to Learn a New Language, published in 2016.

McWhorters main point is that everyone should learn at least one new language and that

there are four reasons to do so: they are tickets into cultures; it has been shown that learning

languages decreases the risk of dementia and increases multi-tasking skills; some languages are

just fun to speak; and because of our technology today, it has never been easier to learn a new

language (McWhorter). He stands firmly during his oration, calmly gesturing and speaking to the

audience as he describes how mastering a language can lead to numerous benefits. While he is a

linguist and could immediately boast an appeal using ethos, he chooses to begin his main

argument with a focus on emotional appeals such as acceptance into a culture and the safety of
Student 17

children from a horrible disease like dementia. He then cleverly transitions into a logical appeal,

noting the enjoyment and fun gained from learning a new language while also questioning why

the audience would refuse the opportunity when technology makes it so easy. While some may

say McWhorters few hand gestures cause a lack of engagement with the audience, his use of the

appeal to parenthood, rhetorical questions, and the appeal to technology helps to effectively

persuade the audience to learn a new language.

Knowing a large majority of his audience members likely have children, McWhorter

appeals to their parenthood by providing the results of some scientific studies. He argues that if

you speak two languages, dementia is less likely to set in, and that you are probably a better

multitasker. He goes on to say that these are two characteristics that set in early, so the parents

in the audience should now know when to start having their children learn another language

(McWhorter 00:06:09-00:06:25). Dementia is very prominent today, and it is a fear among many

people as they grow older. By providing a method to help prevent its oncoming, McWhorter

gives the audience obvious reasoning to have their kids master a new language. Furthermore,

todays children are involved in numerous activities such as sports, clubs, musical groups, etc.

Many parents see their children consumed by these activities and unable to adequately do their

schoolwork; however, they feel it is unjust to simply strip them of these extra-curriculars. Once

again, McWhorter provides a method to fix this problem, revealing that learning a new language

can provide a foundation for balancing all of these activities and becoming a better

multitasker. Portraying the possibility of preventing dementia and allowing kids to soar in

numerous different areas, McWhorter effectively provides reasoning for learning a different

language, appealing to the parents yearning for their childrens health and success.
Student 18

Yet, potential health benefits are not the only reason to learn a language. McWhorter tells

of how sometimes it can just be fun to speak in a different tongue. Using rhetorical questions

throughout his speech, he specifically utilizes one when revealing this fun as his third reason for

learning another language. He asks the audience, Who wouldnt want to roll that around in their

mouths?, describing the fun of saying yaktubu, kataba, and Uktub, all words from the

Arabic language (McWhorter 00:06:37-00:07:00). Upon hearing the words who wouldnt, the

audience gets the notion that everybody would have fun speaking that language, and

consequently begins to believe they would too. Furthermore, at this point in the speech,

McWhorter has already established credibility, familiarity, and respect with the audience, so they

may begin to think if he has fun saying these words and speaking this language, perhaps I

would too. Previously not considering it, they themselves have begun to wonder if they could

learn a new language. Sure, their children could have the aforementioned benefits, but they are

too old to reap any of those, so what reason did they have to speak a second language? Perhaps

some had that thought running through their head, but upon hearing it could be fun, were

provided with reasoning to attempt it. Some of the more elderly in the audience may have been

looking for something to keep them busy in retirement, and McWhorter had just given it to them.

By asking the audience a rhetorical question, McWhorter causes them to think of the possibility

of enjoying learning a new language, effectively persuading them to attempt this feat.

Having completely drawn in his audience at this point, McWhorter capitalizes on his

argument by ending with an appeal to technology. Most people in the U.S. would say that if they

could do something on their phones instead of having to physically accomplish it, they would.

McWhorter appeals to this, revealing that you can use your phone to teach yourself any

language you want to with wonderful sets such as Rosetta Stone. (McWhorter 00:09:03-
Student 19

00:09:08). In the past twenty years, the speed of accomplishing numerous tasks has drastically

increased (for example, coffee can be made in about a minute with a Keurig), and people are not

attracted to things that take up much of their time. There is an online education organization (I

cannot remember the name) that shared a video in which they revealed the viewing status of their

videos. Videos under three minutes had many more views than those over three minutes, and

McWhorter is probably aware of this concept. He likely tells them about the ability to learn on

their phones knowing they will only want to spend five to ten minutes a day within the app.

Furthermore, people like being in control of their own lives, jobs, etc., and because they would

have control over their pace of learning, he knows they would be much more likely to begin the

process. Also, people like comfort, and McWhorter references this by saying a person could

lounge around at home with a drink instead of having to sit at a stiff desk in a classroom

(McWhorter 00:08:57-00:09:03). Finally, as technology becomes present to younger and

younger children, parents are constantly looking for ways to make the technology educational.

There are Spanish learning apps for kids, and in a likely unintentional way, McWhorter probably

appeals to the parenthood of the audience again in this respect, giving parents a way to combine

the fun of phone apps with a learning activity for their children. By referencing our societys

fast-paced style, want for comfort, and ongoing search for educational improvements,

McWhorter is able to use an appeal to technology to effectively convince his audience to learn a

second language.

Despite McWhorters apparent effectiveness in conveying his message, some may say he

fails to engage his audience with his lack of hand gestures. Hand gestures are a way of

expressing what you are saying, and not only do they reinforce the spoken words, but they also

help add some variety to the oration. Instead of merely looking at him stand and talk (which can
Student 20

become very monotonous), we would see a dynamic McWhorter full of vigor. Often times

people say that it is necessary for a speaker to move around as well, as it requires the audience to

keep moving their eyes as they follow him, consequently keeping them engaged in the speech.

Hand gestures and movement can also be a sign of passion for the topic that is being presented.

Some may argue that McWhorter is not truly passionate, or does not fully believe, in learning a

new language because you cannot see it expressed in his body language. However, being a

linguistics professor, he may personally believe that the words are the most important aspect of a

presentation, evidenced by the fact that his words are very effective in delivering the

information. Furthermore, he does not simply stand like a statue. There are occasional hand

gestures at the appropriate times, and perhaps he is trying to restrain himself, because too many

hand gestures can also be very distracting. Moreover, this is not necessarily a topic McWhorter

has to be extremely passionate about. It is not a call to action to enact some type of great change,

but rather an informative speech that encourages people to try something new in their lives.

Therefore, his body language, expressions, and hand gestures are adequate for the topic he is


McWhorter uses these non-verbal methods in combination with his voice to explain four

reasons why people should learn a second language. He reveals that it can be a gateway into a

culture, decrease the risk of dementia while increasing multitasking skills, just be fun to speak,

and easy to learn with the technology we have today (McWhorter). McWhorter adequately uses

hand gestures, an appeal to parenthood, rhetorical questions, and an appeal to technology to

effectively deliver these four reasons. If you are turned away by the difficulty of mastering

another language, you should watch this video to understand the countless benefits to doing so. If

you have ever encountered someone who you cannot communicate with due to a language
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barrier, hope to travel around the world one day, or simply need some mental stimulus, I

encourage you to watch 4 Reasons to Learn a New Language by John McWhorter.

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Works Cited

McWhorter, John. 4 Reasons to Learn a New Language. TED Talks, February 2016,

ENGL 104Summer 2017 23

Argument Research
Present a clear and arguable position or claim supported by the writers ideas and scholarly
outside source material. You should appeal to audiences, evoke ethos, and empathetically
consider alternative perspectives.

This project can argue any position related to literacy, writing, reading, or learning.
Example thesis: Students entering college in 2017 possess enhanced writing skills because
of their constant exposure to online articles, experience writing for a variety of audiences,
and awareness of digital technologies.

Suggested Structure
Your project should include (1) an introduction with thesis statement and thesis map; (2) a body that
contains at least three supporting paragraphs; (3) a counterargument; (4) a response to that
counterargument; and (5) a conclusion that provides a takeaway/so what.
G. Introduction
Background on problem
Thesis statement with clear argument
H. Body Paragraphs
Points of support
Quotations and paraphrases as support
I. Counterargument
Consideration of opposing view
Response refutation or concession
J. Conclusion
Provide a takeaway/so what
Why does this story matter?
How does this story impact your life now?

MLA Format with Works Cited page citing at least three scholarly sources as support
5-8 full pages

Due Dates
Rough Draft: July 8, 11:59PM to Blackboard
Final Draft: July 15, 11:59PM to Blackboard
ENGL 104Summer 2017 24

CATEGORY Exceeds Expectations Acceptable Developing

Thesis and Focus (75 points)

o Thesis is present and answers so what? about a particular topic
o Thesis remains consistently mentioned throughout essay
o Clear focus/purpose

Organization (75 points)

o Introduction, body, and conclusion
o Paragraphing appropriate for purpose/thesis
o Transitions used to move between ideas/sections.
Development (75 points)
o Scholarly sources are interpreted and integrated into the text to
advance thesis
o Vague generalizations avoided
o Illustrates a main theme and builds on that theme
Voice (40 points)
o Effective word choice acceptable for intended audience
o Explains/clarifies difficult concepts
o Pronouns have clear referent
o Clearly distinguishes between writers voice and other voices
Mechanics (10 points)
o Standard English usage
o Correct spelling, punctuation, capitalization
o Few to no run-ons, comma spices, or fragments
Documentation (30 points)
o MLA format used throughout
o Works Cited for all external sources
o In-text citations for external source material
TOTAL /250
Student 25


Lauren Salisbury

ENGL 104.N1

15 September 2017

Traditional vs. Online Learning

One of the most revolutionary developments in the 21st century is the proliferation of

information technology. Anyone with access to the internet enjoys a rich repository of

information on diverse fields. The world has now become a global village as people can

transcend geographical boundaries and communicate with each other. This has revolutionized the

way people conduct different activities and one of the activities that have been changed by

information technology is the way students learn. Traditionally, learning was done in a

traditional physical classroom but with the proliferation of technology, it is now possible for

students to learn in a virtual classroom facilitated by technology in what is known as online

learning. This classroom does not require a physical location and all students have to do is log in

to their accounts and access all the materials that are available for the courses that they are

taking. In the last decade, the enrollment in online classes has tripled (Stack 1). The popularity of

online classrooms has not been without challenges as some educators are concerned of the

suitability of online classes in facilitating learning and they have attempted to compare the

effectiveness of online learning with traditional classroom learning (Ni 200). The educators are

concerned whether online learning presents any advantage to the learner over traditional

classroom learning. This essay tries to convince the educators that online learning presents

unique advantages that make it more efficient in achieving different learning outcomes.

Educators should replace traditional classroom learning with online learning because it is
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effective in achieving learning outcomes by facilitating richer interactions in class, meeting the

needs of gifted students and facilitating flexibility in learning.

The first advantage of online learning that makes it more preferable than traditional

learning is that it facilitates richer interactions between students in the learning environment.

According to Anna Ya Ni in the article titled Classroom and Online Learning: Teaching

Research Methods, there exists a correlation between the student perceptions of the learning

environment and their learning outcomes (200). This means that when comparing online learning

and traditional classroom learning, the learning environment that they provide can be useful in

determining which one of the two is more likely to achieve better learning outcomes. According

to Ni, one of the most important components of the learning environment is the social and

communicative interactions between student and teacher, and student (201). These interactions

are useful in the learning environment because they help the students to discuss, debate and

converse in order to clarify new concepts, challenge old assumptions, generate new ideas and

practice the skills that they have learnt. This leads to the ultimate achievement of the learning


The interactions in the online classroom are more effective than the interactions in the

traditional classroom at achieving learning outcomes. In a study comparing the online learning

and traditional classroom learning, Ni studied the learning effectiveness in three online classes

and three traditional classroom classes taught by the same instructor. Ni found out that the

quantity and quality of interactions was increased in the online classes (212). According to Ni,

online learning is more effective in achieving learning objectives because it promotes student

centered learning through wider student participation and more in-depth and reasoned

discussions than the traditional classroom (201). Ni found out that the interaction in the online
Student 27

learning environment is richer because it is less intimidating to the students and it also places less

time pressure to the students as they can carry out the discussions at their own pace. In a

traditional classroom, the students are under time pressure during discussions because only one

student can talk at a time hence creating time constraints. In an online learning environment,

students can take their time to read and understand the discussions and respond effectively.

These increased interactions encourage student participation and in turn making the online

classes more effective in achieving the learning outcomes. This level of interactions is not

possible in the traditional classrooms. As Ni proves, in the cases where the same instructor

teaches the same course to the online and the traditional classrooms, the online classrooms

achieves better learning outcomes thanks to the enhanced interactions. Therefore, it is time that

educators embraced online learning because through the richer interactions that it provides, the

instructors can achieve better learning outcomes with their students.

Beyond encouraging increased and richer interactions in the learning environment,

another advantage of online learning that makes it more preferable than traditional learning is

that it provides an environment that meets the needs of gifted students. In the article titled

Beyond the Classroom Walls: Teachers and Students Perspectives on How Online Learning

Can Meet the Needs of Gifted Students, Dana L. Thomson examines how online learning

responds to the unique needs of the gifted students in the learning environment. Gifted student

exhibit some unique needs in the learning environment that is usually provided for the typical

student. Gifted students perceive themselves to be highly responsible hence they prefer to learn

through their tactile and kinesthetic senses as opposed to auditory and visual learning (Thomson

666). In addition, these students prefer to study alone. The traditional classroom is unable to

meet the needs of these students because the students have to study together with other students
Student 28

(Thomson 666). According to the National Association for Gifted Children, gifted students form

about 10% of the school population in the United States education system. This means that in

every 10 students, there is at least one gifted student. Therefore, it is imperative that the

educators cater for the unique needs of these children because if they do otherwise, they risk

alienating 10% of the student population. However, the traditional classroom learning

environment emphasizes on high-auditory memory skills, structured learning and this may not be

ideal for some gifted students. The advantage of online learning is that it allows gifted students

to progress more rapidly through material, at a pace appropriate to their individual learning rate

(Thomson 666). Additionally, online classes provide access to broader educational opportunities

for gifted students who are unable to attend traditional schools, access to advanced courses or

those who want to pursue courses that are not typically offered in their local schools. The

advantage of the broader access is that the gifted students are not limited by what is available in

their locality. By taking online classes, the gifted students can even access materials of advanced

courses, something that is usually not conventional with the traditional classroom. The advantage

of online learning over traditional classroom learning is that in the online space, each student is

free to learn at their own pace and this means that the gifted students do not have to wait for the

other students. Therefore, since the online learning is better than traditional classroom in

achieving the needs of the gifted students in the same space as the other students, educators

should because it can respond to the unique needs of the gifted students.

Finally, educators need to replace traditional learning with online learning because online

learning allows for incredible flexibility. The traditional classroom learning system is fixed in

space and time because instruction can only happen at a given location and at a given time. This

means that where there are time and geographical barriers, the students cannot have access to
Student 29

instruction. In the book titled The Theory and Practice of Online Learning, Terry Anderson

examines the role that online learning plays in providing flexibility in instruction. According to


Online learning creates an opportunity for flexibility and revision of content in situ that

was not provided by older forms of mediated teaching and learning[because of]its

capacity to support many different forms of interaction, allow for negotiation of content

and activity, and a corresponding increase in autonomy and control [and] Teachers are no

longer confined to the construction of monolithic packages that are not easily modified in

response to student need. (276)

The beauty of online learning is that it eliminates some of the restrictions of the traditional

classroom. Both the educators and the students have a lot to gain by adopting online learning

because educators can easily modify the instruction to fit the specific needs of the students. For

instance, while a student who has overlapping traditional classes has to make a choice between

the classes, a student in the online learning system can have it all because they only need to log

into the course at a time that is convenient to them. For the instructors, they can easily track the

progress of each student and provide relevant feedback from the comfort of their home. In a

traditional classroom, providing feedback to many students is limited because classes only take a

limited time and the teacher cannot use that time to evaluate the response of every student.

Therefore, it is clear that online learning opens up opportunities that were not available before

for the educators. The educators who embrace online learning are no longer constricted by

factors such as time and they can serve the students better. For this reason, it is evident that it

would be advantageous for the educators to embrace online learning.

Student 30

Despite the many benefits that online learning provides for the achievement of learning

outcomes, there are still some people who are reluctant to embrace online learning. One of the

greatest concerns is that the self-directed learning that takes place in online classroom leaves

little or no room for collaboration between the students. According to Anderson, online learning

challenges the institutions capacity to facilitate group social or collaborative learning

activities (278). This is because, it is very challenging to create collaborative learning or social

activities when students are at very different places in the curriculum (278). When students are

at different levels in the curriculum, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to facilitate

collaboration. However, in a traditional classroom, collaboration is guaranteed because all the

students are usually learning at the same pace.

While the concerns that online learning may kill collaboration may be valid, they are not

sufficient to dismiss the utility of online learning. As a matter of fact, online learning has

mechanism to ensure that collaboration is possible. As Anderson says, it is possible to combine

synchronous, asynchronous, and independent study activities in a single course (278). This

means that even within self-paced learning, the students can still collaborate with each other if

the teacher adds the features to facilitate collaboration. A good example is a class like the ENGL

104.N1 in Findlay university. In this class, there are set goals for a given week and the student

can choose the time to access and complete the scheduled activities. They are not limited by time

and at the same time; they have a chance to collaborate with their fellow course mates through

the weekly message boards. This shows that online classrooms still provide space for

collaborative learning hence educators should replace traditional learning with online learning.

In conclusion, online learning is one of the most efficient ways of achieving learning

outcomes in the 21st century education system. Educators need to start embracing online learning
Student 31

and replace traditional classroom learning with online learning models. There are various

advantages that accrue from online learning that relate to learning outcomes. First, online

learning facilitates richer interactions in class and in so doing, helps the educators to achieve the

desired learning outcomes. Secondly, online learning meets the needs of gifted students in a way

that traditional classroom learning cannot do. What is even more desirable is that online learning

meets the needs of the gifted students in the same space as the other students while traditional

classroom learning can only meet the needs of a typical student while locking out the gifted

student. Finally, online learning facilitates flexibility in instruction and this means that the

teachers can provide the instruction at their own convenience while the students access the

learning materials at their own convenience. For these reasons, educators are strongly

encouraged to replace traditional classroom learning with online learning.

Student 32

Works Cited

Anderson, Terry. The Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Edmonton: AU Press, 2008.


Angiello, Roanne. "Study Looks at Online Learning Vs. Traditional Lnstruction." Education

Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, vol. 76, no. 2, 01 Oct. 2010, pp.

56-59. EBSCOhost,



National Association for Gifted Children. "Gifted Education in the U.S." Gifted Education in the

U.S. . N.p., 2015. Web. 15 July 2017. <https://www.nagc.org/resources-


Ni, Anna Ya. Comparing the Effectiveness of Classroom and Online Learning: Teaching

Research Methods. Journal of Public Affairs Education, vol. 19, no. 2, 2013, pp. 199

215. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23608947.

Stack, Steven. "Learning Outcomes in an Online Vs Traditional Course." International Journal

for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, vol. 9, no. 1, 01 Jan. 2015. EBSCOhost,



Thomson, Dana L. "Beyond the Classroom Walls: Teachers' and Students' Perspectives on How

Online Learning Can Meet the Needs of Gifted Students." Journal of Advanced

Academics, vol. 21, no. 4, Summer2010, pp. 662-712. EBSCOhost,


ENGL 104 Summer 2017 33

Writers Reflection
Turn in with portfolio by July 21, 2017 at 12:00PM (noon).

Write a reflection on the semester and what youve learned. Begin (or end! Just include it
somewhere.) by finishing the sentence: Writing is like Your response might be funny, serious,
You can explore any aspect of your writing that you would like but try include the following:
What were your fears/apprehensions, expectations for English 104 and how were they
met, overcome, etc.?
What surprised you most about your writing and how did your writing change this
What is something you learned about writing, changed about your own writing, or
otherwise got out of this class that youll take with you to your next class?
What do you still want to work on as you move ahead to your next writing class?

Meets Expectations Emerging

Voice Uses personal perspective Doesnt use personal
(30 points) to answer prompt and perspective.
reflection on writing
Thesis Has a driving idea/focus. Has no focus.
(10 points)
Organization Places related concepts Doesnt place related
(10 points) together using transitions concepts together.
where appropriate.
Student 34


Lauren Salisbury

ENGL 104

21 July 2017

Personal Reflection

Writing is like building a bridge. It is writing that helps to connect me with the outside

world. Everything that I write comprises of sections of paragraphs interconnected with each

other and without any section, it is impossible to bridge the gap between what is in my head and

what is in the outside world. These different sections have to fit perfectly with each other if I

want to build a strong bridge. Otherwise, I might lose my audience in the process and end up not

connecting with the readers.

When I joined this class, one of my fears was that I had not written in a long time. I had

not involved myself in any creative writing and I felt like I would have a hard time especially

writing college level papers. I was also afraid that I would not fit in in the class because I am an

ESL learner. However, I overcame these fears through two things in this class. First, the personal

narrative essay in the beginning of the class was perfect. The essay involved reflecting on how I

had gotten to where I was in my literacy journey and this helped me to re-orient myself and

realize my strengths and weaknesses in writing. I realized that one of my strengths was that I was

very efficient in researching and I have used this skill to gather the best scholarly sources for my

college essays. My weakness was that English was my second language but this motivated me to

work twice as hard in order to match the other students. The second thing about this course that

helped me to overcome my fears was the fact that it allowed two drafts for each assignment. This

provided me with an opportunity to revise my work and perfect it. Having comments on the
Student 35

rough draft helped to build stronger papers in the final draft and this boosted my confidence as a


What surprised me most about writing is that there is no ne right way of doing it. I was so

used to writing Essays in other courses that had predetermined answers. However, in this class,

the instructions just acted as a guideline and I could take my writing in every direction that I

wanted. One of my favorite experiences was when I was writing the argument essay. When I first

drew the outline for the essay, I made an argument that traditional classroom learning was more

effective than online learning. However, in the paper that I submitted, I decided to switch sides

on this debate. Both sides were convincingly strong and this proved to me that there was no one

right way of writing the paper. Whichever side I took in the argument, I would have still needed

to follow the guidelines and I am confident that I would still have scored an excellent grade. I

feel that this characteristic of writing is beneficial because it allows the student to engage their

creative genius and come up with what they feel is the strongest essay without being restricted to

one predetermined direction in writing.

One thing that I learnt about writing in this class is that when we write, we should always

have the audience in mind. I was so used to writing for fun e.g. poems for my own consumption,

but I think that writing for an audience brings more fun. This is because, I have to align my

writing with the expectations of the audience and this makes the writing process more engaging

and to have an explicit purpose. In the beginning of the reflection, I indicated that writing is like

building a bridge. When writing for a specific audience, this analogy is very applicable because

no every bridge serves the same purpose. To put this in perspective, in my future career in

environmental safety, I will have to write to convince both the professionals in the field and to

convince laypeople. The two types of writing will have to be adapted to the audience. For
Student 36

instance, when writing for the professional audience, I do not have to explain some terminologies

that are common in that field. However, when talking to lay people, I should have to assume that

they do not have any background in environmental safety and I would have to define some terms

for them so that they can understand me.

In conclusion, this class has been a great learning experience. By reflecting on my

literacy journey, I have managed to re-orient myself and build on my strengths as a great

researcher. I still feel that I have to put in more work to avoid the influences of my first

language. This includes perfecting grammar and acquiring a wider vocabulary. I also feel that I

have to keep working on my formatting skills. However, I feel that I am on the right track and I

cannot wait to take the next Writing class. Thank you Ms. Salisbury for all the guidance this

semester and I look forward to interacting with you again in another writing class.

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