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# Statistics [Section B]

## Set 1 : ( Bayes Theorem, Set, Venn Diagram)

1) Suppose there are three components in a system each having a reliability 0.2.If the system to run
at least two components must function. Calculate the system reliability .
2) A parallel system has identical components having a reliability of 0.5.What is the minimum number
of components to be included if the system reliability must be at least 0.99 ? [F-16]
3) A parallel system has 10 identical components. If the overall system reliability must be at least
0.99, how poor can these components be ? You are to find minimum component reliability.
4) A series system has identical components each having a reliability of 0.998.What is the maximum
no of components that can be allowed if the minimum system reliability to be at 0.90.
5) An electric system consists of three components in parallel. System success requires that at least
two components must function .What is the probability of system success if the component
reliability is 0.80 ? [S-16,15]
6) An electric system consists of three components in parallel. System success requires that at least
two components must function .What is the probability of system failure if the component
reliability is 0.9 ? [F-14]
7) Let E,F and G be three events. Find expression for the following events and show then in Venn
diagram
a) At most two events occurs. [F-14]
b) At least two events occurs [F-14,S-14]
c) Both E and F occur but Not G [S-14]
8) The probability that a student passes math is 2/3 and the probability that he passes English is
4/9.If the probability of passing both courses is what is the probability that he will passes at
least one these courses ?
9) Toss a die and observe the number (x).If P(odd number)=2P (even number),Calculate the following
a) P(2<x<5) [S-14] c) F(x=7) [S-14]
b) P(x=7) [S-14] d) V (x) [S-14]
Notations refer to usual meaning .
10)For two independent events, probability of their intersection is the product of their individual
probabilities -explain. [S-14]
11)With an example differentiate mutually exclusiveness and independence . [S-14]
12)With an example differentiate mutually exclusiveness and independence of two events [S-13]
13)There are three local hotels A, B and C. From past experience it is known that 20% of the clients
(coming for accommodation) are assigned rooms at A, 50% at B and 30% at C. If the plumbing is
faulty in 5% of the rooms at A, in 4% of the rooms at B and in 8% of the rooms at C. What is the
probability that
a) A client will be assigned a room with faulty plumbing [F-16]
b) A client will be assigned a room with faulty plumbing at C ?(Use Bayes Theorem to answer
the problem) [F-16]
14)Suppose machines A,B and C produce respectively 40%, 45% and 15% products. Proportions of
defective products produced by respective machines are 5%,10% and 1% respectively. An item is
selected random and found defective.
a) What is the probability that it is produced by machine B ?
b) What is the probability that a randomly selected product is defected ?
15)Suppose machines A,B and C produce respectively 40%, 45% and 15% products. Proportions of
defective products produced by respective machines are 0.02,0.03 and 0.01 respectively. An item
is selected random and found defective. What is the probability that it is not produced by machine
C ? [S-16]
16)Consider three boxes A,B and C. Box-A contains 5 white and 2 black balls, Box-B contains 3 white
balls and 3 black balls. Box-C contains only 5 white balls. A ball was randomly selected from one
of the boxes and found white. What is the probability it was not drawn from Box-C ? [S-15 ]
17)Store A,B and C have 50,75,100 employees and respectively 50,60 and 70 percent of these are
women. Designations are equally likely among all employees, regardlessemployee resigns
and this is a woman. What is the probability that she works in store c ?
18)Consider two boxes where one containing one black and one white marvel. The other box two
black and one white marvel. A box is selected at random and a marble is drawn at random from
the selected box. What is the probability that the marble is black ?
19)Consider there are three coins in a box. One is two headed coin another is a fair coin and the third
one biased coin which comes up heads 75% of the time. When one of the these coins is selected at
random and flipped, it shows head. What is the probability that it was the two headed coin ?
20)Consider the following three machines B-1,B-2 and B-3 with percentage of production by each and
the corresponding percentage of defective parts produced. [F-14]
Machine % of production % of defective parts produced
B-1 30 2
B-2 45 3
B-3 25 No defective parts

A finished item is selected at random and found non-defective. What is the probability that the
item was not produced by machine B-2 ?
21)Suppose there are three machines A-1,A-2 and A-3.Each machine produces equal number of
products. Proportions of defective products produced by A-1 and A-2 machines are 0.02,0.03
respectively and A-3 produces no defective. An item is selected random and found defective. What
is the probability that it is not produced by machine A-3 ?
22)One letter is equally likely to be in any of two folders. Searching efficiency of the person who is
looking for the letter 0.80.The letter was searched in folder A-1 but the letter was not found. What
is the probability that the letter was in fact in folder A-1?
23)Explain Bayes theorem [S-16]
24)Explain with an example the difference between mutually exclusiveness and independence.[S-15]
Set 2 (Discrete Distribution, Probability, Continuous Random Variable )
1) Explain independent and stationary properties of Poisson Distribution with examples.[F-16,14;S-
15].How is this distribution related to exponential and gamma distribution ? [S-15]
2) State the relationship among Poisson, Exponential and Gamma distribution .[S-16,14]
3) Write down the properties of following distributions :
a) Binomial b) Poisson c) Gamma
4) An exponential distribution is memoryless-Explain with an example [ F-16,14]
5) Independence does not imply mutually exclusiveness -Explain with an example
6) Prove that O P(A) 1. Probability must be nonnegative .P(s)= 1
7) Suppose you toss a die. What are the probable numbers you can observe? What is the sample Space
S?
8) The deviation from the mean cannot be a measurement of dispersion why ?How about absolute
deviation
9) The probability density function is given by

0
Calculate
a) P (x=1.5)

## 10)The probability density function is given by

( )= 42 ,0 < <2
0
Calculate
a) What is the value of C ?
b) Find F(x) and hence calculate P ( < < )

c) Find F (x=1.5)
d) Calculate variance of x.
e) Draw f(x) and F(x)
11)The probability density function is given by
2 (1 )
( )= , 1< <2
0,
Calculate
(a) Calculate C
(b) P (x=1.5)
(c) Derive (Obtain) an expression for F(x) and hence calculate P ( 1 < < 1.5 )
(d) Calculate Variance of X
(e) Draw f(x) and F(x)
12)The probability density function is given by
(1 )
( )= , 1 < < 1 [S-16]
0,
Calculate
a) Calculate C
b) Derive (Obtain) an expression for F(x) and hence calculate P ( 0.5 < < 0.5 )
c) P (x=0) e) Sketch f(x) and F(x)
d) Calculate Variance of X
13)The probability density function is given by
(1 )
( )= , 2< < 3 [S-15]
0,
Calculate
(a) Calculate C
(b) Derive (Obtain) an expression for F(x) and hence calculate P ( 1 < <2)
(c) Calculate Variance of X
14)The probability density function is given by
(1 )
( )= , 2< < 4 [S-13]
0,
Calculate
(a) Calculate C
(b) Derive (Obtain) an expression for F(x) and hence calculate P ( 3 < <4)
(c) Calculate Variance of X
15)The probability density function is given by
(1 )
( )= , 1< < 3 [F-14]
0,
Calculate
(a) Calculate C
(b) Derive (Obtain) an expression for F(x) and hence calculate P ( 1.25 < < 2.5 )
(c) Calculate Variance of X
16)The cumulative distribution function of x is given by
0, < 0

,0 < 1
,1 <2
F(x) =
, 2 <3

,3 < 3.5
1 , 3.5
Calculate
(a) Calculate probability function of x ,P(x)
(b) Draw P(x) and F(x)
(c) Calculate Variance of X
17)Random variable X is normally distributed .If E( )=68 and P(X<10)=0.8413, determine and .
[S-14]
18)Suppose a dimension is normally distributed with mean = 16 and variance 9.The products are
accepted if the dimension falls within 2.From a lot you randomly select four (4) items. What
is the probability that at least one is selected? [F-14]
19)Suppose for attending classes, time taken by you from your house to AUST is normally distributed
with mean = 20 minutes and variance .If you take more than + 2,you late for class.
Calculate the following
a) The probability that a certain day you will late for your class [S-13]
b) The probability that in a particular month you will be late first time on the third day of the
month. [S-13]
20)The histogram of given figure below records the incidence of rejects obtained in checking 100
items. Assuming that the quality is maintained ,calculated the probability that
a) The next sample shall contain more than 2 rejects.
b) The next two samples shall be perfect
c) The next sample contain at least one reject while the one following it shall contain no more
than two rejects.
21) Failure of a system occurs by two methods A and B where probability is 0.6 and 0.4 respectively.
What is the probability that out of the next 20 failures, at least 2 failures will occur by method B ?
22) From a lot of products (having defective P=0.05) you draw 16 items one by one. What is the
probability that out of 16 times 5 times you will get non defective items ? For this problem when
you can when you cannot use binomial distribution ?
23) Tossing a die P (even number)= 2P (odd numbers).Find the probability that even number will be
absent for the second time on the fourth toss .
24) Average no of ships coming at a port/day is 12.The facilities can handle 15 ships/day. What is the
probability that on a certain day the ships will have to send back due to non-availability of facilities
? Assume passion distribution
25)Suppose that amount of time a customer spends in a bank is exponentially distributed with mean
10 minutes. What is the probability that he spends no more than 15 minutes given that he is still
in the bank after 10 minutes ?
26)Suppose failure of a system occurs according to a passion distribution by methods A and B,60% of
A .The failure occurs in an average of 4/month.

## a) Calculate expected value of the time spent for 10 failures .

b) For 3 months operation what is the probability that there will be at least 10 failures ?
c) What is expected no of failures by B for the first time ?
d) If there are 60 failures in 6 months what is the probability that there will be at least 6 failure
by B ?
e) What is the average no of failures for the first six months and last six months ?
f) What is the probability that there will be 6 failures in last two months given that there have
been 25 failures during earlier months ?
g) What is the probability that first failure by A will occur at least after 10 failures ?
h) Given that first failure occurs on the fifth day. What is the probability that the next failure will
not occur before 11th day ?

## Set 3 : (Physical interpretation of confidence interval, Continuous Distribution

1) Derive (1- )% confidence interval around the population mean and give its physical
interpretation .
[F-16]
2) Derive (1- )% confidence interval around the population mean and give its physical
interpretation when =0.05 [F-14]
3) Derive an expression for (1- ) confidence interval around .Notations refer to usual meaning.
Interpret the expression , =0.05. [S-16]
4) What are the maximum error in estimating (1- )% confidence interval around .Explain [S-14]
5) What is meant by 95% confidence interval around .Derive an expression for it. How do you find
out the maximum error in estimation ? [S-13]
6) An exponential distribution is memoryless-Explain with an example [ F-16,14 ,S-14]
7) With an example differentiate mutually exclusiveness and independence of two events [S-13]
8) State the relationship among Poisson, Exponential and Gamma distribution .[S-16,14]
9) The deviation from mean can not be a measure of dispersion why ?
10)Suppose for an air flight, usually 5% of the passenger making reservations do not show up. That is
why the authority sells 52 tickets for a plane which can be hold 50 passengers. What is the
probability that there will be at most a seat available for every passenger that shown up ? [F-14]
11)Suppose a dimension is normally distributed .A product is accepted if the dimension falls with
2.If you randomly selected two items from the population, one by one ,what is the probability that
first item is accepted and the second item is not accepted? [F-16]
12)Suppose a dimension is normally distributed with mean = 20 and variance, = 9.The products
are accepted if the dimension falls within 2.From a lot you randomly select three items. What
is the probability that at least one is rejected ? What is the probability that 4th selected item will be
first defective one ? [S-15]
13)Suppose a dimension is normally distributed with mean = 16 and variance, = 9.The products
are accepted if the dimension falls within 2.From a lot you randomly select four (4) items.
a) What is the probability that at least one is selected? [F-14]
b) What is the probability that at least one is defective?
c) What is the probability that all are defective?
d) What is the probability that at most two are accepted ?
14) A dimension is normally distributed with mean and variance . A product is accepted if the
dimension falls within 2 from . What is the probability that first defective item will not be
found before inspecting 10th item ? [S-14]
15) A sugar refinery has three plants. The amount of sugar one plant can process in one day follows
exponential distribution with a mean of 6 tons, for each of the three plants. If the plants process
independently ,calculate the probability that at least two of the plants process more than 6 tons on
a given day .[S-16]
16) A refinery has three plants. The amount of quantity one plant can process in one day follows
exponential distribution with a mean of 4 tons. If the plants process independently ,calculate-
a) Probability that at least one of the plants process more than 5 tons .[S-15]
b) Probability that exactly two of three plants process more than 4 tons on a given day
c) Considering a particular plant in above problem , how much raw sugar should be stocked for
that plant each day so that the chance of running out of product is nearly 0.05 ?
17) A refinery has four plants. The amount of quantity one plant can process in one day can be
modelled as having an exponential distribution with a mean of 5 tons (for each plant). If the plants
process independently ,calculate the probability that at least one of the plants process more than
6 tons on a given day .
18) The average Zinc concentration recovered from a sample of Zinc measurements in 49 different
locations (n=49) is found to be 2.5 gm per millimetre. Find 95% confidence interval for the zinc
concentration ().Assume = 0.3 [S-15]
19) The average Zinc concentration recovered from a sample of Zinc measurements in 49 different
locations (n=49) is found to be 2.5 gm per millimetre. Find 95% confidence interval for the zinc
concentration ().Assume = 0.3.Also calculate the maximum error in estimation.[S-15]
20) The average Zinc concentration recovered from a sample of Zinc measurements in 36 different
locations is found to be 2.6 gm per millimetre. Assume popular standard deviation, = 0.3
(a) Find 95% confidence interval for the zinc concentration ().
(b) Find 99% confidence interval for the zinc concentration ().
(c) Calculate the maximum error in estimation.
(d) How large a sample size is required for the above problem if we want to 95% confident that
our estimate of is off less than 0.05.
21)Given a normal distribution with = 50 and = 10.Find the probability that X assumes a value
between 45 and 52 ?

## Set 4 : (Hypothesis Testing ,Goodness of Fit Test ,

1) What do you mean by statistical hypothesis or hypothesis testing ? What do you mean by Type-1
error and Type-2 error in hypothesis testing ?How are they related ? Explain with an example .
[F-16,14, S-15,13]
2) In hypothesis testing what are two types of errors involved and how can they be reduced ? Explain
with example .[S-16]
3) With reference to hypothesis testing explain One tailed test and two tailed test with example
[S- 14]
4) What are the maximum error in estimating (1- )% confidence interval around .Explain [S-14]
5) With your example of your own explain either Goodness of fit test or a test for independence.
[S-15]
7) Gauges are used to reject all components where a certain dimension is not within specification
1.5d.It is known that measurement is normally distributed with mean of 1.5 and standard
deviation 0.2.Determine the value d such that the specifications cover 95% of the measurements.
8) A manufacturer claims that the breaking strength of his product is normally distributed with a
mean () of 8 kg with standard deviation of 0.5 kg. Test the hypothesis that 8 kg ,if a random
sample of n = 49 products is tested and found to have a breaking strength of 7.8 kg. Assume level
of significance =0.01. [F-16]
9) A manufacturer claims that the breaking strength of his product is normally distributed with a
mean () of 8 kg with standard deviation of 0.5 kg. Test the hypothesis that 8 kg ,if a random
sample of n = 49 products is tested and found to have a breaking strength of 7.8 kg. Assume level
of significance =0.01. [S-15]
10)A manufacturer claims that the breaking strength of his product is normally distributed with a
mean () of 10 kg with standard deviation of 0.8 kg. Test the hypothesis that < 10 kg ,if a random
sample of n = 64 products is tested and found to have a breaking strength of 9 kg. Assume level of
significance =0.01. [S-13]
11)A manufacturer claims that average tensile strength of thread A exceeds the average tensile
strength of B by at least 12 kilograms. To test his claim,50 pieces of each type of thread are tested
under similar conditions. Type A thread had an average tensile strength of 86.7 kg with a standard
deviation of 6.28 kilogram ,while type B thread had an average tensile strength of 77.8 kilograms
with a standard deviation of 5.61 kilograms. Test the manufacturers claim using 0.05 level of
significance .
12)An electric firm manufacturers bulbs that have a length of life that is approximately normally
distributed with a standard deviation of 40 hours. If a sample of 30 bulbs has an average life of 780
hours, Find the following-
(a) Find a 96% confidence interval for the population mean of all bulbs produced by this firm.
(b) How large a sample is needed if we wish to be 96% confident that our sample mean will be
within 10 hours of the true mean ?
(c) How large a sample is needed if we wish to be 98% confident that our sample mean will be
within 0.05 of the true proportion defective ?
13) An electric firm manufacturers bulbs whose life is approximately normally distributed with a
mean of 800 hours and standard deviation of 40 hours. Test the hypothesis that = 800 hours
against alternative 800 hours if a random sample of 30 bulbs has an average life of 788 hours.
Use =0.04 level of significance . [S-16]
14)An electric firm manufacturers bulbs whose life is approximately normally distributed with a
mean of 800 hours and standard deviation of 40 hours. Test the hypothesis that = 800 hours
against alternative < 800 hours if a random sample of 30 bulbs has an average life of 788 hours.
Use =0.04 level of significance . [F-14]
15)A fabric manufacturer believes that the proportion of orders for raw material arriving late is
p=0.6.If a random sample of 10 orders shows that 3 or fewer arrived late, the hypothesis that p=0.6
should be rejected in favour of alternative p<0.6.Use the binomial distribution to find-
(a) Find the probability of committing a type I error if true proportion is p = 0.6
(b) Find the probability of committing a type II error for alternative p=0.3, p =0.4 and p=0.5
16)A dry cleaning establishments claims that a new spot remover will remove more than 70% of the
spots to which it is applied.TO check this claim the spot remover will be used on 12 spots chosen
at random. If fewer than 11 of the spots are removed, we shall accept the null hypothesis that p
=0.7,otherwise we conclude that p>0.7.
a) Evaluate ,assuming that p=0.7
b) Evaluate for the alternative p= 0.9
17)The grades in a statics course for a particular semester are as follows
Grade A B C D F
Frequency of Students 14 18 32 20 16
(f)

Test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance that the distribution of grade is uniform .
18)In an experiment to study the dependence of hypertension on smoking habits ,the following data
were taken on 180 individuals . [S-14]
Type Non Smokers Moderate Smoker Heavy Smoker
Hypertension 21 36 30
No Hypertension 48 26 19

Test the hypothesis that the presence or absence of hypertension is independent of smoking habits.
Use =0.05 level of significance .
19)In an experiment to study the dependence of hypertension on smoking habits ,the following data
were taken. [S-14]
Type Non Smokers Moderate Smoker Heavy Smoker
Hypertension 29 40 25
No Hypertension 40 22 24

Test the hypothesis that the presence or absence of hypertension is independent of smoking habits.
Use =0.05 level of significance .
Given
= 3.84 = 5.99 = 7.81
=0.05 ,v=1 =0.05 ,v=2 =0.05 ,v=3

## ( Choose the Correct .

)
20)Average life of a press is 14,500 hours and the standard deviation is 2100 hours. For a sample of
25 presses, the company finds a sample mean of 13000 hours. At a =0.01 level of significance
should the company conclude the average life is less than the hypothesis value of 14500 values.
21)Average life of a press is 14,500 hours and the standard deviation is 2100 hours. For a sample of
25 presses, the company finds a sample mean of 16000 hours. At a =0.01 level of significance
should the company conclude the average life is greater than the hypothesis value of 14500 values.
22)Average life of a press is 14,500 hours and the standard deviation is 2100 hours. For a sample of
25 presses, the company finds a sample mean of 16500 hours. At a =0.01 level of significance
should the company conclude the average life is not equal to the hypothesis value of 14500 values.
23)A builder claims that heat pump are installed in 70% of all homes being constructed today in the
city of Richmond. Would you agree this claims if a random survey of new homes in this city shows
that 8 out of 15 had heat pumps installed ? Use a 0.10 level of significance
24)In a shop a set of data was collected to determine whether or nor the proportion of defectives
produced by workers was the same for the day, evening or night shift worked .The following data
were collected :
Shift Day Evening Night
Defectives 45 55 70
Non Defective 905 890 870

Use a 0.025 level of significance to determine if the proportion of defectives is the same for all three
shifts .