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JHEJL&i

THOMAS ^MOORE!ESQ>

' \X, BROWN", GEEE1I 8c LOHG11ANS, EATEBJIOSTEIL BjOW.

AND JOHN TAYLOB-. UPPER O-OWUv. STREET.

V-l

ANALYTICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL

TABLE

OF THE

HISTORY OF IRELAND.

VOL. I.

CHAPTER I.

B. o.

1000.

Celtic Origin of the Irish Different Fortunes of Ireland and Britain Phoenician Intercourse with the Irish

-

.

Page

-

1

2

The Belgas, or Fir-bolgs

.

3

Objections answered ; Authority of Tacitus

-

4

Homer's Knowledge of Isles beyond the Pillars from the

Phffinician Voyagers

.

.5

The Argonautics ;

Ireland named lernis

-

6

A Work of the Age of Aristotle names the two chief

British Isles, Albion and lerne

-

.6

The Phoenicians keep their Trade secret The Western or Tin Isles first explored by the Massilian

-

Greeks

-

6

7

The Periplus of Hanno

Characteristic Features of Ancient Ireland Inscription at Tangiers -

Authority of Herodotus

-

Ancient Ireland better known than Britain

;

7

-

-

8

9

.10

Authorities

10

Geography of Ptolemy

-

Tacitus ; Life of Agricola Intercourse of Ireland with the Phoenician Spaniards

-

-

-

-

-

11

12

13

The Title, Sacred Isle; Authority of Plutarch ; Diodorus

Siculus

-

-

-

Geography of Strabo ; Ireland likened to Samothrace

Traditions of Ireland; Intercourse with Gallicia Opinions of Ant ; quarics

A3

-

-

-

-

14

15

16

17

VJ

ANALYTICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

CHAP. II.

Page

The earliest Superstitions traceable in the Monuments of

Ireland Th ree Stages of

Superstition

Magi, or Druids

Sun Worship

.

Moon Worship Fire and Water Worship

Sacred Fountains

-

.

-

The Field of Slaughter ; Child-sacrifice Round Towers of Ireland

. . . - - . - .
.
.
.
-
-
.
-
.

-18

.

19

20

-21

-

-

22

23

-24

-

25

.26

Opinions about them

-

27

Christian Emblems on those of Swords and Donoughmore

29

Probably Fire Temples

.

.30

Connection of Sun Worship with Astronomy

The Round Towers called Celestial Indexes

.

33

33

Beyond the

Reach of Historical Record

 

.

Other ancient Monuments of Ireland ; the Cromleach

The Lia Fail, or Stone of Destiny

 

Rocking Stones

-

-

 

-

Sacred Hills The Dynasts inaugurated thereon

.

 

-

Barrows and Cairns

.

Sacred Groves and Trees

-

CHAP. III.

.

Irish Druidism; of a mixed Character

 

.

Different from that of Gaul, as recorded by the Romans

British Druids not mentioned by Caesar; the Inference Early Heathen Pre-eminence of Ireland

.35

-

36

38

.39

.40

-

42

-43

-

44

-

47

48

49

CHAP. IV.

Learning of the Irish Druids; Ancient Language

Phoenician and Irish Alphabets

-

.

54

55

Early Use of Letters in Ireland

-

Proofs thereof

.

.

.

Ogham Character

 

.

 

-

Introduction of the Roman Character

-

.

56

.57

.59

-

65

Mistaken Identity of the Irish Language with the Punic ofPlautus Astronomical Skill of the Irish Druids

.

.

.

-

Pfi

ANALYTICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

Vll

CHAP. V.

Page

Opposite Opinions respecting ancient Ireland

 

.

-

72

Mixture of Truth and Fable

 

-

-

75

Fabulous Accounts of Partholan

 

.75

The Fir-bolgs

-

-

76

The Tuatlia-de-Danaan

 

Milesian or Scotic Race

 

.78

 

CHAP. VI.

Colonisation of Ireland

 

-

.80

   

-

81

-

Spanish Settlers

.

Supposed Gaulish Colony

,

-82

Question whether the Belgae were Celtic or Teutonic

-

83

-

85

Colonisation of the south-western Parts from Spain

-

 

-

86

Various Spanish Colonies The Scythic or Scotic Settlements

 

88

 

-

Fabulous Accounts by the Bards Recent Date of the Scotic Colony

Proofs thereof

.

Antiquarian Errors

ThePicts

-

-

-

- - . . -
-
-
.
.
-

-

90

-SI

-

-

-

92

97

98

The ancient Britons and Welsh probably not the same

Race

.

Radical Differences between the Gaelic and Cumraig The Picts were the Progenitors of the Welsh

Of Cimbric Origin

-

Romances of the Round Table

-

-

.99

- 100

-

101

. 101

- 103

CHAP. VII.

  • 200. Reign of Kimbaoth Of Heber and Heremon, Sons of Mileslu? First Coming of the Picts Gold mines

-

.

Classes distinguished by Colours The royal Legislator Ollamh Fodhla

.

-

.

,

His Institutions ; Convention of Tara

A. D. 2.

40.

Chronicle of Events ; Palace of Emania

Psalter of Tara -

.

*

Reign

of Hugony the

Great

-

Reign

of Conary

the Great ; Ossianic

Poems

Privileges of the Bards; abused by them

-

.

-

.106

. 107

-108

. 109

. 110

-110

-

111

. 112

113

-114

- 115

- 116

ANALYTICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

A. D. Page 75 82. Expedition of Agricola to Britain . .117 An Irish Traitor in
A. D.
Page
75
82.
Expedition of Agricola to Britain
.
.117
An Irish Traitor in the Roman Camp
The Irish aid the Picts against the Romans
Belgic Revolt and Massacre
118,119
-
120
-
-
- 121
90.
Carbre Cat-can raised to the Throne
-
- 122
Disinterestedness of his Son Moran ; Moran's Collar
-
122
126.
-
.
- 123
Second Revolt (of the Attacots)
130.
Tuathal the Acceptable
Assembled States at Tara
- 123
-
- 124
Boarian Tribute
-
- 126
164.
Jurisprudence j the
Eric
- 126
Feidlim the Legislator j Con of the Hundred Battles
-
127
258.
Irish Settlement in Argyleshire; Carbry Riada
-
128
The Irish exclusively called Scoti ; North Britain called
Albany
-
.
-
- 129
Cormac Ulfadha
-
-
- 190
His Accomplishments and Achievements
.
- 131
State of Religion
.
-
.132
Recluse Druidesses
-
-
- 133
Fin-Mac-Cumhal, by Moderns called Fingal
- 133
Oisin and Osgar
-
-
-
134
The Fianna Eirinn, or Militia of Ireland
-
-135
Slaughter of them
Groundless Pretensions of Scotch Writers ; Forgeries of
.
-136
Boece
-
-
.
. 137
.
-
Fabric of Buchanan, Mackenzie, &c.
138
-
- 139
Destroyed by Stillingfleet
-
Forgeries of Macpherson
-
- 140
Examination thereof
-
-
- 141
Historic Value of the
-
-
Imposture
None but Irish Books among the Highlanders
-145
- 146
-147
Long Connection of the Irish and Highlanders -
Expedition of Theodosius -
148
327.
Battle of Dubcomar ; the Druid of the
A six Days' Battle
Hand
Bloody
- 149
-
-
150
396.
Irish Invasion of Britain
Nial of the Nine
-
. 150
Hostages
.
-
-151
Passes from Britain to Armoric Gaul
Providential Captivity of an Armorican Youth
-
152
.
152
406.
Dathy, the last Pagan
King of Ireland
.
- 153

CHAP. VIII.

Credibility of Irish Annals; Tigernach ; the Four Mas-

ters

-

-

Nennius and Geoffry of Monmouth

Collation of Annals Reception of Christianity in Ireland

-

-

Its easy Adoption Record of Events continued

-

-

-

Its Authenticity

-

-

.

-

.

.

.

- 154

- 155

- 156

- 161

- 162

-163

- 168

ANALYTICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

IX

CHAP. IX.

 

Page

Early State of the Heathen Irish

Features visible to this Day

Partition of Sovereignty Succession; Tanistry Exchange of Subsidy and Tribute Cause of Discords And of the Want of a National Spirit

  • - 169

-

170

  • - 170

  • - 171

. 172

  • - 173

  • - 174

Division of Lands and Goods upon each elective Succession 177

Gavelkind ; Females excluded ... Natural Children admitted with legitimate

Custom of Slavery Social Contrasts

-

-

-

-

-

Urged respectively in support of adverse Opinions Examination of Authorities

-

-

. 177

- 178

-181

- 182

-

183

18-1

Ancient Contrasts of Manners visible at the Close of the

 

-

-

last Century in Ireland

The early Britons of ill Repute like the Irish .

Testimony of St. Jerome

- 188

-188

. 189

Early Irish Navigation ; Currachs Himilco's Voyage

-

-

.

-191

- 192

The great Road from Galway to Dublin - The great Road from Dover to Anglesey, called "the Way

.

193

of the Irish" The Inference

-

-

_

-

-193

. 193

The Irish Raths or Hill-fortresses

-

.

- 194

Curious and costly Remains dug up

Coal Works

-

.

.

goo

200

Swords of Brass like those found at Cannae

-

.201

 

CHAP. X.

 

Mission of St Patrick

 

~,

.

.

03

His

Success with little Violence

 

.

.

.303

His judicious Conduct

 

204

Adopts the Pagan Customs

.

.

205

The Heresiarchs, Pelagius and Celestius

-

 

.3

^

206

Palladium

 
 

-

. 299

Sketch of the Life of St. Patrick

 

-

.

. 210

Born near the

Site of Boulogne-sur-mer

 

.

.211

Probably in 387

.

.

.

-

21 1

Made captive by Nial of the Nine Hostages

  • 405. Carried captive to Ireland

-

Escaped or released from Bondage

.

.

. 211

-212

. 213

ANALYTICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

A

D.

410.

His Studies at Tours

-

His Remembrances and Dreams of Ireland

422.

Arrives there Converts a Pirate

-

-

-

-

Page

- 212

. 213

- 214

215

His old Master, Milcho, an inveterate Heathen, would

not see him - ...

215

Sudden Conversion of Dicho His Paschal Fire; Prophecy of the Magi He preaches at Tara, before the King and States

.

...

Tolerant Genius of Paganism

Revisits the Scene of his Dream

Converts two Princesses

.

.

.

Destroys the Idol of " The Field of Slaughter

His successful Career

...

Establishes the See of Armagh Writes his Confession

.

-

.

-

  • 465. Dies in his Retreat at Sabhul His Disciples Benignus, Secundinus, &c.

-

The Irish Poet Sedulius, or Shiel

CHAP. XI.

Retrospect of Christianity in Britain Britain reluctantly separates from Rome

"

The Letter styled

The (>roans of the Britons

The three Devastations of Britain

Peaceful Triumphs of Religion in Ireland

...

  • 500. Establishment of the Son.' ot Erck in North Britain

- 215

. 216

.

217

. 217

.818

219

219

.

220

- 224

226

- 226

-

227

-

28

229

-

29

- 231

232

-233

-

234

Power of the Hy-Nial Family

Kenneth

Macalpine vanquishes the Picts

The Apostle Columbkill

-

-

-

- 234

-

235

. 236

Historic Use of Lives of Saints : Montesquieu ; Gibbon -

Dependence of the Church of Ireland on Rome

-

236

237

Mistaken Opinion of Archbishop Usher - - - Prayers for the Dead Pilgrimages Marriage of the
Mistaken Opinion of Archbishop Usher
-
-
-
Prayers for the Dead
Pilgrimages
Marriage of the Clergy
-
.
-
.
.
-
-
CHAP. XII.
Parentage of Columbkill
-
-
Why so named
-
-
His Labours
.
.
563.
His
Mission to the Western Isles
.
-
&2<L
-
Death of Conal, King of the British Scott
-
St. Columbkill revisits Ireland

. 237

-238

-239

.240

-241

-242

- 243

- 245

- 247

-248

Interferes on behalf 01 the Bards

-

.249

ANALYTICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

xl

Page

Death of the Saint

-

- 250

St. Columbanus, also Irish ; often confounded with him 251

Reign of Diarmid

Last Meeting at Tara

  • 529. Retrospect of the Institution of Nunneries St. Brigid of Kildare Career of Columbanus abroad He rebukes King Thierry

His Courage and Labours

  • 610. Arrives at Milan

His Writings

Paschal Differences

-

  • 630. Letter of Pope Honorius

Deputation to Rome

  • 615. Founds the Monastery of Bobbio ;

CHAP. XIII.

  • 635. -

Its Return and Report

dies

Effects of the Controversy beneficial

-

.

-

Cumin ian, an Irish Saint, opposed to Columbanus

Mutual Tolerance

-

-

253

254

256

857

260

261

2fi5

- 268

- 270

- 270

271

-272

- 272

-273

St. Aidan and King Oswald (Anglo-Saxon) ; See of Lindis-

farne, called the Holy Isle

Rapid Succession of Irish Kings ; the Inference

Gallus founds the Abbey of St. Gall (Switzerland)

650.

Irish Missionaries in France

Irish

Missionaries in Brabant

-

Irish Missionaries on the Rhine Solar Eclipse ; the Yellow Plague

-

.

.

  • 664. Hospitable Reception of Foreign Students in Ireland Disputation at the Monastery of St Hilda Controversy of the Tonsure

  • 684. Northumbrian Expedition to Ireland King Egfrid, the Aggressor, slain

...

.

Paschal System of Rome established by Adamnan

St. Kilian, Apostle of Franconia Divorce of Guiana by the Persuasion of the Saint

She causes him to be waylaid and murdered

.

- 274

.

276

-

277

- 278

- 279

280

-

80

. 281

.

282

283

- 284

- 285

-

286

. 287

-

287

- 288

The Scholastic Philosophy originated with Irish Divines 289

Decay of Irish Learning at the Approach of the Eighth Century

-

.

-

- 289

Virgilius, or Feargal

-

His Conjecture of the Sphericity of the Earth

Accused of Heresy therein Is made a Bishop, and canonised

.

-

.290

- 291

.291

. 292

Clement and Albinus, Irish Scholars ; become known to Charlemagne ; their curious Device

.

. 293

Reference to Denina, Tiraboschi, and Muratori

- 294

Xll

ANALYTICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

*. o.

Page

Dungal ; his Letter to Charlemagne

 

.

-

295

Greek Ecclesiastics attracted to Ireland

 

-

-

297

The Saxon Scholar

Aldhelm -

- 298

Sedulius the Second and Donatus

 

.

'.

290

John Scotus, called Erigena

.

. 301

, Translates into Latin the Greek Writings supposed of

Dionysius the Areopagite; his consequent Mysticism - 302 His Notions of God and the Soul Denies
Dionysius the Areopagite; his consequent Mysticism - 302
His Notions of God and the Soul
Denies the Eternity of Punishment
Fables of his being known to King Alfred
-
303
-
.304
-
- 30.5
His Character
.
.
.
.306
CHAP. XIV.
Review of Learning and the Arts
.
.
307
Value of the Argument of the Want of MSS. Remains - 808
Remains preserved by the Annalists
.
310
Origin and Use of Rhyme
-
.
311
Early Connection of Poetry and Music
.
312
The Irish Harp
.
.
313
Excellence of early Music
-
-
314
Irish Psalmody
-
-
-
315
Church Architecture
State of Agriculture
.
316
.
.
317
Works in Metal, Stone, and Colours
Chariots used in War and Travelling
.
318
319
The Brehon Laws
820

THE

HISTORY OF IRELAND.

CHAPTER I.

ORIGIN OF THE IRISH PEOPLE.

IRELAND.

EARLY NOTICES OP

THERE appears to be no doubt that the first inhabitants

of Ireland; were derived from the same Celtic stock which

supplied Gaul, Britain, and Spain with their original

population. Her language, the numerous monuments

she still retains of that most ancient superstition which

the first tribes who poured from Asia into Europe are

known to have carried with them wherever they went,

sufficiently attest the true origin of her people.

What-

ever obscurity may hang round the history of the tribes

that followed this first Eastern swarm, and however

opinions may still vary, as to whether they were of the

same, or of a different race, it seems, at least, certain,

that the Celts were the first inhabitants of the western

parts of Europe; and that, of the language of this most

ancient people, the purest dialect now existing is the

Irish.

It might be concluded, from the near neighbourhood

of the two islands to each other, that the fortunes of

Britain and Ireland would, in those times, be similar ;

HISTORY OF IRELAND.

that, in the various changes and mixtures to which

population was then subject, from the successive in- cursions of new tribes from the East, such vicissitudes

would be shared in common by the two islands, and

the same flux and reflux of population be felt on both

their shores. Such an assumption, however, would, even

as to earlier times, be rash ;

and, how little

founded it

is, as a general conclusion, appears from the historical fact, that the Romans continued in military possession

of Bdtain for near four hundred years, without a single

Roman, during that whole period, having been known

to set foot on Irish ground.

The system of Whitaker and others, who, from the

proximity of the two islands, assume that the population of Ireland must have been all derived from Britain, is

wholly at variance, not merely with probability, but with

actual evidence.

That, in the general and compulsory

movement of the Celtic tribes towards the west, an

island, like Ireland, within easy reach both of Spain and

Gaul, should have been left unoccupied during the long

interval it must have required to stock England with

inhabitants, seems, to the highest degree, improbable.

But there exists, independentfy of this consideration,

strong evidence of an early intercourse between Spain

and

Ireland, countries, in the names of the different Spanish tribes

in the historical traditions of

the

two

assigned to the latter by Ptolemy, and, still more, in the sort of notoriety which Ireland early, as we shall

see, acquired, and which could only have arisen out of

her connection with those Phoenician colonies, through

whom alone a secluded island of the Atlantic could have become so well known to the world. At a later period, when the Belgic Gauls had gained

such a footing

in Britain, as to begin to encroach

on the

original Celtic inhabitants, a remove still farther to the

west was, as usual, the resource of this people ; and

Ireland, already occupied by a race speaking a dialect

of the same language,

the language common, at that

period, to all the Celts of Europe,

afforded the re-

IRELAND FIRST INHABITED BY CELTS.

fuge from Gothic invasion * which they required. It has

been shown clearly, from the names of its mountains

and rivers,

those unerring memorials of an aboriginal

race,

that the first inhabitants of the country now

called Wales must have been a people whose language

was the same with that of the Irish, as the mountains

and waters of that noble country are called by Irish

names. f

At what time the Belgae, the chief proge-

nitors of the English nation, began to dispossess the

original Celtic inhabitants, is power to ascertain ; as is also

beyond the historian's

the question,

whether

those Belgse or

Fir-bolgs, who

are known

to have

passed over into Ireland, went directly from Gaul, or

were an offset of those who invaded Britain.

But however some of the ingredients composing their

population may have become, in the course of time,

common to both countries, it appears most probable that

their primitive inhabitants were derived from entirely

different sources; and that, while Gaul poured her Celts

upon the shores of Britain, the population of Ireland was

supplied from the coasts of Celtic Spain. ^

It is, at least,

certain, that, between these two latter countries, relations

* Without entering here into the still undecided question, as to whether the Belga? were Celts or Goths, 1 shall merely observe, that the fair conclu- sion from the following passage of Caesar is, that this people wereof a Gothic or Teutonic descent.

" Cum ab his quaireret, qua? civitates quantseque in armis essent, et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat ; plerosque Belgas esse ortos ab Germanis ;

Rhenumque

Gallosque,

antiquitus transductos, propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse;

qui ea loca incolerent, expulisse."

De Sell. Gall. lib. ii. c. 4.

f Lhuyd's Preface to his Irish Dictionary, in the Appendix to Nicholson's

Historical Library.

"

Lhuyd extends his remark to England as well as Wales.

"

of a great number of the names of the

Whoever takes notice," he says,

rivers and mountains throughout the kingdom, will find no reason tp doubt

but the Irish must have been the inhabitants when those names were im- posed on them." In other words, the first inhabitants of Britain and Wales

were Celts or Gael.

The author of Mona Antiqua has, without intending it, confirmed the

truth of Lhuyd's remark, by stating, that the vestiges of old habitations still

to be seen on the heaths and hills of Anglesey, are called, to this day,

Cyttie'r Gwyddelod, or the Irishmen's Cottages. These words, too, it ap-

pears (see Preface to O'Brien's Irish Dictionary), "should more properly

and literally be rendered Irishmen's habitations, or seats ;

for the Irish

word Catha'ir, of which Ceitir is a corruption, signifies either a city or town,

or habitation.' 4

t That the Irish did not consider themselves as being of Gaulish origin, appears from their having uniformly used the word Gall to express a

foreigner, or one speaking a different language.

Ti

9

4

HISTORY OF IRELAND

of affinity had been, at a very early period, established ;

and that those western coasts of Spain, to which the

Celtic tribes were driven, and where, afterwards, Phre-

nician colonies established themselves, were the very re-

gions from whence this communication with Ireland was

maintained.

The objections raised to this supposed origin and in- tercourse, on the ground of the rude state of navigation

in those days, are deserving of but little attention.

It

was not lightly, or

without observation, such a writer

as Tacitus asserted, that the first colonising expeditions

were performed by water, not by land * ; and however

his opinion, to its whole extent, may be questioned, the result of enquiry into the affinities of nations seems

to have established, that at no time, however remote, has the interposition of sea presented much obstacle to the

migratory dispositions of mankind. The history, indeed,

of the Polynesian races, and of their common origin

showing to what an immense extent, over the great ocean, even the simplest barbarians have.found the means of

wafting the first rudiments of a people t

should incline

us to regard with less scepticism those coasting and, in

general, land-locked voyages, by which most of the early

colonisation of Europe was effected ;

at a period, too,

when the Phoenicians, with far more knowledge, it is

probable, of the art of navigation, than modern assump-

tion gives them credit for, were to be seen in the Medi-

terranean, the Baltic, the Atlantic,

every where upon

the waters. With respect to the facilities of early inter- course between Ireland and Spain, the distance from Cape

* Nee terra ol