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Dissertation Title:

ANALYSING THE IMPACT OF BRAND IMAGE ON


CONSUMERS BUYING BEHAVIOUR: A CASE STUDY
OF WAITROSE.

Submitted By:
Fahmina Salmi Juice
Student Number 12026

Word count (12,671)


Abstract

The current dissertation intends to investigate an evaluation into consumer behaviour & its
alignment to brand image related to Waitrose. Organizations continuously trying to cope up
with the challenging business environment & Nowadays numerous of brands current
everywhere in market place as a result it become very straightforward for a purchaser to
befall puzzled at their purchasing time organizations trying to adjust or alter its consumer
behaviour with time to get maximum benefit from the market. Therefore the current study
would like to focus on consumer behaviour & its alignment to brand image.

The current dissertation also focused on related issues on strategies of branding, elements of
branding. These days business environment is so competitive & business organizations across
the globe continuously trying to build a strong brand appeal in the minds of the customers
making a difference from the competitors. To make a brand very unique from competitors
consumer behaviour plays a key role in order to distinguish this brand & making it special to
the customers. Consumer behaviour builds a strong foundation in enhancing brand appeal &
brand equity in the minds of the customers (Keller & Lehmann, 2006).

The study will use both quantitative & qualitative systems & method to conduct the research
to find out about the Brand image of Waitrose & its impact on consumer behaviour. The
qualitative techniques would be used mainly because it would permit the understanding of the
mass people consumers, their thinking about the brand image of Waitrose & what are the
factors that brings them to Waitrose. There were 62 samples collected in the form of
questionnaire for processing & analysing the data. The study also highlighted how Waitrose
respond in their consumer behaviour regarding the brand image & how they work for
positioning their brand for upfront market segments.

The majority of the customers considered that the Waitrose essentially signifies an exclusive
retailing brand as compared to others retail super markets for example Tesco, Sainsbury,
ASDA. The 80% of total respondents voted Waitrose as exclusive brand for retail super
markets. Also from the research according to the majority of the customers of Waitrose
Putney branch, the quality of Waitrose product is excellent as compared to other supermarket
chains (for example Tesco, ASDA, Sainsbury) as Waitrose focused on quality products for
affluent consumers.
pg. I
The study evaluated the Waitrose consumer & strategic behaviour in response to creating &
developing a unique brand coupled with brand image focused mainly on niche based
customer segment along with application of a differentiated strategic business model to win.

pg. II
Acknowledgement

Firstly, my sincere gratitude to my respected supervisor for his continuous guidance,


suggestions & supervision for this dissertation. It would be impossible to finish the research
successfully without his continuous support & assistance. I also sincerely appreciate the
employees & customers of the Waitrose for helping me in collecting required data for this
study.

And finally, I wish to thank my family members & parents for their untiring support during
the course of this academic study. I am also extremely obliged to my university friends for
their true assistance in supporting me to accumulate secondary data from various accessible
sources throughout the study.

pg. III
Table of Contents

Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... I

Acknowledgement ................................................................................................................... III

Chapter 1: Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1

1.2 Background of Research ............................................................................................................... 1

1.2.1 Intension of the Research ............................................................................................... 2

1.2.2 Research aims ................................................................................................................. 2

1.3 Research problem ......................................................................................................................... 3

1.4 Rationale of the Study................................................................................................................... 3

1.5 Scope & company profile .............................................................................................................. 5

1.6 Research Objectives ...................................................................................................................... 5

Chapter 2: Literature Review ..................................................................................................... 7

2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 7

2.2 Branding ........................................................................................................................................ 7

2.3 Brand Image: A Key Element of Branding ..................................................................................... 8

2.4 Other Elements of Branding ......................................................................................................... 9

2.5 Consumer Buying Behaviour: ...................................................................................................... 10

2.6 Psychographics analysis of Consumer ........................................................................................ 12

2.7 Brand Image & Consumer Behaviour.......................................................................................... 12

2.8 Brand Equity ................................................................................................................................ 13

2.8.1 Competitive Advantages ............................................................................................... 13

2.8.2 Perceived quality:.......................................................................................................... 14

2.8.3 Brand awareness:.......................................................................................................... 14

2.8.4 Brand association: ......................................................................................................... 14

2.8.5 Brand Loyalty: ............................................................................................................... 14

2.9 Summary of Previous Researches ............................................................................................... 15


pg. IV
2.10 Advantages of Strong Brand Image .......................................................................................... 15

2.11 Conceptual framework ............................................................................................................. 16

Chapter 3: Research Methodology........................................................................................... 17

3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 17

3.2 Research Philosophies ................................................................................................................ 18

3.2.1 Interpretivism................................................................................................................ 18

3.3 Research approach...................................................................................................................... 19

3.4 Research strategy........................................................................................................................ 20

3.5 Research method ........................................................................................................................ 20

3.6 Data Collection ............................................................................................................................ 20

3.6.1 Survey timing ................................................................................................................ 20

3.6.2 Data Collection Methods .............................................................................................. 20

3.6.3 Sample size, data & place ............................................................................................. 23

3.6.4 Sampling method .......................................................................................................... 23

3.6.5 Data analysis process & tools........................................................................................ 24

3.7 Ethical & Legal liabilities.............................................................................................................. 24

3.8 Review of Research limitation & future implication ................................................................... 25

3.8.1 Limitation ...................................................................................................................... 25

3.8.2 Accessibility issues ........................................................................................................ 25

3.8.3 Future implication of the research ............................................................................... 26

Chapter 4: Data Analysis & Discussion................................................................................... 27

4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 27

4.2 Average Rate of Response .......................................................................................................... 27

4.3 Results & Findings of Questionnaire Survey ............................................................................... 27

4.4 Part One (Demographic Info) ...................................................................................................... 27

4.4.1 Customers' Demographic Profile by AGE ...................................................................... 28

4.4.2 Customers' Demographic Profile by GENDER ............................................................... 28

4.4.3 Respondents Demographic Profile by Nationality ........................................................ 29


pg. V
4.4.4 Respondents Demographic profile by OCCUPATIONS .................................................. 30

4.5 Part Two (General Statement Related to Waitrose Brand) ........................................................ 31

4.5.1 How often do you purchase from Waitrose ................................................................. 31

4.5.2 Are you satisfied with Waitrose brand?........................................................................ 32

4.5.3 The quality of Waitrose Product ................................................................................... 32

4.5.4 How do you feel shopping at Waitrose......................................................................... 33

4.5.5 Do you prefer Waitrose as exclusive brand .................................................................. 34

4.6 Discussion of Findings Related To Research Objectives ............................................................. 35

Chapter 5: Conclusion& Recommendation ............................................................................. 38

5.1 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 38

5.2 Recommendations ...................................................................................................................... 39

5.3 Further Areas of the Study .......................................................................................................... 40

5.4 Limitations of the Study .............................................................................................................. 41

References ................................................................................................................................ 42

Appendix .................................................................................................................................. 45

pg. VI
List of tables

Table 1: Respondents' demographic profile by AGE ............................................................. 40

Table 2: Respondents' demographic profile by GENDER ..................................................... 40

Table 3: Respondents demographic profile by nationality ..................................................... 41

Table 4: Respondents demographic profile by occupations ................................................... 42

Table 5: How often respondents purchase from Waitrose ...................................................... 43

Table 6: Satisfaction of customers having Waitrose brand .................................................... 43

Table 7: Quality of Waitrose product ..................................................................................... 43

Table 8: Satisfaction of customer when shopping at Waitrose ............................................... 43

Table 9: Customer preference on Waitrose as exclusive brand .............................................. 43

List of figures
Figure 2.1: Consumer buying decision process flowchart (by author) ................................... 10

Figure 2.2: Influences on & off consumer behaviour (Lars Perner, 2008) .............................. 10

Figure 2.3: consumer decision making process (by author) .................................................... 11

Figure 2.4: Conceptual framework (developed by author) ..................................................... 17

Figure 3.1: Research Onion (Source: Saunders et al. 2009) ................................................... 19

Figure 4.1: Respondents' demographic profile by GENDER ................................................. 30

Figure 4.2: Respondents demographic profile by nationality ................................................. 31

Figure 4.3: How often respondents purchase from Waitrose .................................................. 31

Figure 4.4: Satisfaction of customer when shopping at Waitrose .......................................... 32

pg. VII
Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Retail business success mainly depends on the satisfaction of the customers. And almost all
the organisations use different techniques to influence the buying behaviour of their
consumers & branding is one of them. Branding is very significant for a business
organization to convince their customers (Keller, 2002). These days business environment is
so competitive & business organizations across the globe continuously trying to build a
strong brand appeal in the minds of the customers making a difference from the competitors.

To identify & analyse brand image impact on consumer buying behaviour, Waitrose, UK is
the chosen sample organisation for the study. Waitrose already established them as a superior
brand in UK retail business. They have lots of loyal a regular customer who trust on Waitrose
brand & loyal to them. As a result the research on the brand image of Waitrose & its impact
on consumers buying behaviour will give opportunity to analyse & identify the impact of
brand image on the consumer purchasing decision. Waitrose was established in 1904 &
merged with John Lewis from 1937 & it performing business as chain of super market since
1955. (Waitrose consumer website, 2014).

1.2 Background of Research

Now a days business organizations are facing high competition while running their business.
Because of open business policy or globalization different kinds of brands are available
throughout the market. In this situation organizations are trying to find an alternative to
remain competitive in the global business scenario & many have identified consumer
behaviour can play a vital role here & it is related to the Brand image of the business.
Branding of a product is considered to be central to a marketing strategy. High & quality
production could not always ensure success of a product but instead its the brand image that
sells today. An outstanding consumer behaviour in an organisation helps to maintain its brand
image as well & it helps the survival of a product.

Consumer behaviour is the behaviour of an organisation when considered as a single body.


The behaviour of an organisation when it is taken or considered as a single body is termed as
consumer behaviour (Kent & Allen, 1994). The behaviour of an organisation is directly
pg. 1
likened by its culture & how it is controlled. In this challenging environment the behaviour of
an organisation is changing continuously to cope up with the current challenging business
world. It is important for small scale business owners who don't have the promotional
strategies of big competition. When a product or service has a distinctive name, visual
appearance & image, it is less complicated for consumers to find in a congested marketplace.
A very good brand name can certainly influence consumer behaviour because they build
emotional relationships & reinforcing buying behaviour (Keller & Lehmann, 2006).
Consumer behaviour builds up of the people working in an organisation, the way the run the
organisation, their values, culture, the way they perform their duties, behave with the co-
worker, norm, experience even the sexual orientation & respect for others (Ambler &
Barrow, 2009).

1.2.1 Intension of the Research


Branding plays a key role to attract customers & make them loyal to the product which they
want to buy from a selected business organization. Companies utilize brand image as
marketing tool & their consumer behaviour in order to obtain a high degree of brand equity
within the competitive business environment (Rao et al., 2004). This research will analyse the
evaluation of the consumer behaviour of Waitrose & its alignment to the branding strategies
of wait rose & how it creates impact on their customer & influence on the decision of the
customer. This will also provide us the information about how Waitrose develops their brand
image to influence their customers, which helps them survive in the competitive market &
make profit.

1.2.2 Research aims


The aim for this research is to analyse what kind of impact does organisations brand image
create on the consumers buying behaviour. This research will investigate & analyse exactly
what kind of impact does the brand image of Waitrose influence the buying behaviour of
current& potential customers. Consumer behaviour coupled with brand image both catch the
attention of customers by promoting the value based offering, prestige & indigenous lifestyle
of the customers. The procedure that business organizations utilize for building a sustainable
& differential advantage through working with human nature is called Branding.
When a consumer is comfortable with a certain brand type his is most likely to avoid & reject
other brands of same category or product.

pg. 2
This represents that by developing a unique brand, customer loyalty & brand identity a strong
brand image can be formed which is extensively important for understanding consumer
behaviour (Rooney, 1995). Therefore, brand image has a significant impact on consumer
behaviour.

1.3 Research problem

According to the abovementioned discussion the idea & design of the planned dissertation is
to gain a deep understanding & insight about consumer behaviour & its alignment to the
branding strategies of Waitrose & how it creates impact in the minds of the customers & their
buying behaviour & purchasing decision. Research question is being formed & developed to
clearly understand the gap between theory & practice & understanding of the problem. The
proposed dissertation or study will be based on the Waitrose Putney UK & the author would
like to emphasize on consumer behaviour of Waitrose & its alignment with brand image
linked to create a positive impact on their customers & make a difference from the other
competitors. All the research needs to have some specific Aim & question. It is necessary to
know why the research needs to done. What will be the hypothetical outcome of the research
& does is relevant to the present world. The planned research question would certainly enable
the author to understand the main topic of the proposed research. For this research work the
selected research questions are:-
What kind of impact does organisations (Waitrose) brand image creates on their
consumer buying behaviour?
What are the main factors that develop impact on consumer buying behaviour?
What Waitrose as a well-known brand is doing to ensure that their customers are
satisfied with their brand?

1.4 Rationale of the Study

Organizations continuously trying to cope up with the challenging business environment &
Nowadays numerous of brands current everywhere in market place as a result it become very
straightforward for a purchaser to befall puzzled at their purchasing time organizations trying
to adjust or alter its consumer behaviour with time to get maximum benefit from the market.

The study on Analysing the impact of brand image on consumers buying behaviour will
explain the diverse aspects or consumer behaviour & its alignment to brand strategies of the

pg. 3
organisation. The study will also show how an organisation set up its consumer strategies &
how it is linked with the brand image & the branding strategies. This study will reconsider
what shopper thinks of Waitrose while purchasing their manufactured goods & how the
organizations maintaining its consumer behaviour to get the maximum from its brand image.
In regards to branding, it is very significant to recognize how brand impartiality, brand
images have been altering the customer discernment of a product.

Branding plays a vital role in order to differentiate an organizations for example Waitrose
goods & services from its competitors for example Tesco, ASDA & J Sainsbury. Brands area
guarantee of consistency. They are ensure quality products for the valued customers, who are
regular to that brand. Brands are offering valued customers unique perceived benefits that are
not provided in other products. Both these tangible perceived & intangible perceived benefits
influence customers buying behaviour & buying decision &establish good customer loyalty.
The Waitrose symbol gives a picture of their excellence, brand image & superiority.

A prospective consumer could be absolutely prejudiced by the brand image of an


organisation like Waitrose. Lots of consumers also emotionally concerned to the organisation
or a manufactured goods because of brand image that has been shaped by its long time
reputation & services. Brand image is aggregation of service, product quality, & after buying
service. A great brand image is instantaneously celebrated & recommended by the current
clients. A first-class brand image of a company could pretence warning to their competitors.
Waitrose also strengthens the company image by providing outstanding covering, excellent
offers as well as advertisements. A small change in brand image & strategic business model
could positively impact on Waitroses brand & lead to create a large base of loyal customer.

A prospective consumer could be absolutely prejudiced by the brand image of an


organisation like Waitrose. A lot of consumers also emotionally concerned to the
organisation or a manufactured goods because of brand image that has been shaped by its
long time reputation & services. Brand image is aggregation of after sell service, service &
product quality. A great brand image is instantaneously celebrated & recommended by the
current clients. A first-class brand image of a company could pretence warning to their
competitors. Waitrose also strengthens the company image by providing outstanding
covering, excellent offers as well as extraordinary services (Srinivasan & Fukawa, 2007).

pg. 4
1.5 Scope & company profile

In current period almost every organization regularly works consistently to manipulate their
purchaser in diverse way. As popular retail organisation Waitrose is trying its best to generate
an influence their customer while purchasing anything & trying to create developed strategy
to boost their sales & services to their consumer.

David Taylor, Arthur Rose & Wallace Waite had opened their business in London in 1904
with the opening of one shop. Later on, this little shop became the one of the leader of all the
super market chain in UK. Now this is name as Waitrose. Waitrose become merged with
John Lewis from 1937 & it performing business as chain of super market since 1955.
Waitrose presently have more than 300 workers &across all over theUK they have almost
250 branches (Waitrose consumer website, 2014). Waitrose is now a chain of superstore
offering range of commodities. It has the status of a fair & excellence. Waitrose is devoted to
supply best product & service to make sure their customer & employees are satisfied.
Recently Waitrose has come into sight as a finer brand in the contrast to their opponent, like
Tesco, Sainsburys, & ASDA.

Waitrose official website says that We are trading what our purchaser likes. Waitrose trade
name turn in to very accepted to consumer that consumer purchase their manufactured
goods without judgment second time if the chief objective is quality .Waitrose is dedicated to
excellence product in reasonable price, easy shopping techniques, Nice shopping atmosphere
& enormous consumer facility & all of these create their brand name well-liked in the retail
market. Waitrose has been updating to the newest technologies in regular basis & also offers
online shopping & home delivery services. These conveniences facilitate shopping with even
more suitable for the customers (Waitrose consumer website, 2014). Waitrose opened
branches all over the United Kingdom in recent year to boosts its pioneer service. Recently
Waitrose & John Lewis have approximately 67000 workers according to Waitrose official
website. Their yearly revenue is roughly 8 billion (waitrose.com, 2014).

1.6 Research Objectives

Before doing any work it is necessary to select the aim & objective of the work. In case of
any research it is more important to know the aim & objectives of the research. It should be

pg. 5
specific. The research will be conducted to fulfil the aim the research. The main objectives
behind this research are
To analyse the brand image of Waitrose
To analyse consumer buying behaviour of Waitrose
To investigate the impact of brand image on the consumer buying behaviour
To provide recommendations to Waitrose to improve its brand image to influence
consumer buying behaviour

pg. 6
Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Literature review can be described as a general description of prevailing literatures in a


specified area of interest. This chapter is a specific investigation of the research which is
connected &highly related to the concerned issue. (Gall et al, 1996). These days competitive
business era, branding plays a significant role in enhancing brand equity & brand image on
the customer mind & make a difference from other competitors offering same products &
services & it also facilitate to stand out from the competitors.

2.2 Branding

Branding plays a key role to attract customers & make them loyal to the product which they
want to buy from a selected business organization. (Aaker, 1991). There are lots of similar
types of brands available in the market. Generally brand name is a name of a product or the
organisation that can be decisive for the achievement for the organisation to reach its goal.
The symbol also is an essential part of branding (Heding et al., 2009). The Waitrose symbol
gives a picture of their excellence, brand image & superiority.

Sometime customers become confused while choosing the right organisation to purchase the
product & services. This is the superior brand image of Waitrose that makes their current
customers loyal & influencing new potential customers regularly. So identification &
analysing the impact of brand image to the customer is a very important in this current
competitive retail business world.

Product & customer service differentiation is typically the beginning point for the branding
course of action. So in this competitive business analysing the brand image of an organisation
& its impact on consumers buying behaviour is an emerging issues in current competitive
business environment. Branding plays a vital role in order to differentiate an organizations
for example Waitrose goods & services from its competitors for example Tesco, ASDA & J
Sainsbury. Where relationship are long-lasting & powerful, clients are more likely to gain
positive perception of the brand & its features and at the same time a negative perception of
competition. Which will make them resistant & adaptable to inconsistencies. (Holt,
2004)brand paternalism is the Most effective type of brand and consumer relationship. So
pg. 7
that loyal dedicated customers are not likely to consume other brands Still sometimes
products & services are not alternatives to one another in terms of purchase & consumption.
(Boyle, 2007).

Brands is not a new phenomenon at all & it has been in existence for more than a couple of
hundred years however never has any group of people & society before experienced the
power of branding as it is seen these days. Brands are usually common phenomenon in each
& every aspect of human life. For example, brands involve in production & consumption of
goods & services, clothing, lifestyle & personality along with western culture & even politics.
Due to the fact an economic construct, brands have already been taken into consideration
from both marketing & financial points of view. Brands have yet to be fully recognized as a
form of social construct, because of lacking of necessary investigation. (Ying, 2005).

Products& services which greatly match customers requirement in terms of needs are likely
to become a brand. It perceives unique benefits as a certain brand offers consumers value
added potential & make them able to maintaining price over competitors. Boyle (2007)
customers are becoming more demanding of best quality products along with constant trend
changing in preference. They seek products that offer benefits according to what they need &
want. (Wells, 2007)

2.3 Brand Image: A Key Element of Branding

The components or different elements of branding on which in turn a brand is developed


&increase the brand name & image of the company on the customers mind are Brand image,
brand identity, brand reputation & brand positioning. These tend to be the most
significant components of the branding.

Brand image is viewed as one the most significant factors of branding whereby consumers
are capable of being aware that a brand is available & existed in the market. Whenever an
organization is capable to successfully differentiate its brand from the competition, in that
case it is definitely considerably easier to build its image. It is the impression of a certain
product which is held by potential or actual consumers.(Boyle, 2007).

pg. 8
Brand image is viewed as one the most significant factors of branding whereby consumers
are capable of being aware that a brand is available & existed in the market. Whenever an
organization is capable to successfully differentiate its brand from the competition, in that
case it is definitely considerably easier to build its image. Product & customer service
differentiation is typically the beginning point for the branding course of action. Brand image
would make possible consumers to successfully recognize & identify a product, evaluate the
products perceived level of quality & assist in experiencing satisfaction while using the
product. (Holt, 2004)

Variation of brand will truly exist mainly in the personalities of the purchasers. Brand picture
emerges as the client's perception with respect to the specific brand & it is without a doubt
held on in the personalities of the customers & is along these lines absurdly crazy by the
producer. The purchaser will absolutely recognize one brand as all the more fulfilling and
additionally alluring as contrasted with its rivals & think of consistent buy based upon those
considerations. (Rooney, 1995).

The Waitrose symbol gives a picture of their excellence, brand image & superiority. A
prospective consumer could be absolutely prejudiced by the brand image of an organisation
like Waitrose. Lots of consumers also emotionally concerned to the organisation or a
manufactured goods because of brand image that has been shaped by its long time reputation
& services. Brand image is aggregation of service, product quality, & after buying service. A
great brand image is instantaneously celebrated & recommended by the current clients. A
first-class brand image of a company could pretence warning to their competitors. Waitrose
also strengthens the company image by providing outstanding covering, excellent offers as
well as advertisements. A small change in brand image & strategic business model could
positively impact on Waitroses brand & lead to create a large base of loyal customer.

2.4 Other Elements of Branding

Brand Identity:
Brand personality might be depicted as central idea in marking just in light of the fact that it
conveys the centre qualities, intension & compact clarifications of brand(Aaker, 1996).

pg. 9
Brand Positioning:
Focused brand positioning in the first place on the unique characteristics that enable a brand
to be exceptional. Situations where consumer can buy goods and services based on products
uniqueness is where an organization can enjoy a competitive advantage and a special position
to sell specific brands. (Kapferer, 1997)

Brand Reputation:
It is usually determine a good reputation as a regulation error in a brand. The simple truth is
that the nature and the importance of goodwill associated with the perspective makes argued
that the concern of it really is, in essence, shown on the benefits and values have imagined.
To determine the reputation of a particular business could possibly apply a variety of
visualization frameworks functional. (Abimbola & Kocak (2007)

2.5 Consumer Buying Behaviour:

Means consumer behaviour over the long course of the proceedings and activities that reflect
the consumer in terms of selection or purchase products or services (Assail, 1995). Study on
consumer buyer behaviour and very broad and wide-ranging. Many researchers, writers, and
has already worked on this subject and many others still conducting research on this all over
the world, it is also one of the most important factors that need to be considered in the
organization with the development of marketing and brand their image. Five stages of the
consumer purchase decision-making process. Though, there are 5 stages in general, but for a
specific product type the number of stages depends on the degree of complexity.

Figure 2.1: Consumer buying decision process flowchart (by author)

pg. 10
Buying behaviour is the decision-making technique that includes all people involved and all
products and all activities associated with buying. Key aspects are reasons for buying, and
factors affecting the purchase, change in society factors. Buyer feedback strategy for
marketing companies have a significant influence on companys success.

Figure 2.2: Influences on & off consumer behaviour (Lars Perner, 2008)

The difference between the desired state and the actual condition. Deficits in a variety of
products. Consumers alike to engage in the search for internal and external information.
Internal search involves the consumer to identify alternatives for the memory of him or her.
For some low-involvement products, it is very important that marketing programs achieve
"top of mind" awareness. (Lars Perner, 2008)

Figure 2.3: consumer decision making process (by author)

pg. 11
2.6 Psychographics analysis of Consumer

Consumers react now directly and indirectly with brands on many platforms, including social
media, and forums review, e-commerce sites a third party and many others, and these
interactions are not limited to after purchase, and providing huge amounts of demographic
information. Using personal planning for predicting consumer behaviour is a good way to
raise social media awareness of a company. (Armstrong, 2010) This also applies to the
consumer how to act on social media. Lifestyle of Consumer is represented by his interests &
opinions.

2.7 Brand Image & Consumer Behaviour

A prospective consumer could be absolutely prejudiced by the brand image of an


organisation like Waitrose. Lots of consumers also emotionally concerned to the organisation
or a manufactured goods because of brand image that has been shaped by its long time
reputation & services. A great brand image is instantaneously celebrated & recommended
by the current clients. A first-class brand image of a company could pretence warning to their
competitors. Waitrose also strengthens the company image by providing outstanding
covering, excellent offers as well as advertisements. They also do the same by providing
exceptional service to its shoppers (Hubbard, 2000). In this circumstances purchaser will
choose to get the greatest product & at this point brand representation plays a huge role
(Kotler & Armstrong, 2010, pp, 179).

Customer will chose to shop from Waitrose, if some other factors like locations, available
money are in a positive circumstance. As I point out earlier its due to the brand image which
Wait rose already created. In accordance with his individual understanding & research on the
awareness of the market & the client, Michael Porter recommend four 'generic' industry
policy that may be practical to achieve advantage over the competitor in any type of business
(Michael Porter, 2001).

As outlined by Keller (2002) the competent layout & execution of marketing campaign
programs which usually capitalizes on well-developed brand positioning, strong brand
leadership opportunities could be accomplished. Measure& Interpret Brand Performance is
important. To have an understanding of the outcomes of brand marketing strategies it is

pg. 12
extremely important to evaluate & understand the overall performance of brand a very
helpful instrument to measure it is brand value chain. (Keller, 2002).

Branding is a big topic. In the case of public term brand name is the name of a product or
organization that can be critical to the achievement of the organization to reach its goal.
Branding is not only restricted to the selection of name but also takes into account the logo or
even the mark of the product or the organisation. The symbol also is an essential part of
branding (Heding et al., 2009). The Waitrose symbol gives a picture of their excellence,
brand image & superiority.

A prospective consumer could be absolutely prejudiced by the brand image of an


organisation like Waitrose. A lot of consumers also emotionally concerned to the
organisation or a manufactured goods because of brand image that has been shaped by its
long time reputation & services. The brand image is the collection of the after purchasing
service, service and product quality. A first-class brand image of a company could pretence
warning to their competitors. Waitrose also strengthens the company image by providing
outstanding covering, excellent offers as well as advertisements. They also do the same by
providing exceptional service to its shoppers (Hubbard, 2000). Brand image is vital for
companies to be competitive in the market & it also facilitates business stronger over the
competitor.

2.8 Brand Equity

Brand equity has got substantial attention from the part of marketing professionals &
marketing academics since it keep an active role as significant intangible assets for the
business (Aaker, 1996). It is regarded as one of the most important instrument for customer
loyalty. It is the collective form of the value of customers in certain a company (Rust, 2004).

2.8.1 Competitive Advantages


The company conforms to our brand perceptions of stakeholders and organizations that have
a wide range of commercial projects in contrast to those of a particular product. (Ying, 2005).
It stands out as the distinctive benefits that are seen brands we offer to customers that allows
them access to value-added services of their own and help them to keep premium increases in

pg. 13
the form of commodities. The added value that derives from organizations create and own
brands is generally known brand.(Chernatony & McDonald, 1992).

2.8.2 Perceived quality:


Perceived quality is identical to a mental attitude which may have an impact on behavioural
motives. Perceived quality is defined as a customer's value determination of a product's high
quality or superiority. For this reason, perceived quality is a value determination factor that
facilitates to demonstrate the behavioural motives of consumers.(Gall et al, 1994)

2.8.3 Brand awareness:


Brand awareness is characterized by a standard amount of brand knowledge concerning, at a
minimum, acknowledgement of the brand name. Recognition function as a procedure of
consumer perception of the brand. Difference among awareness & recognition is
sophisticated. Awareness denotes circumstance of knowledge actually owned by the
consumer &recognition is a cognitive process of action that results from awareness (Hoyer &
Brown, 1990).
2.8.4 Brand association:
Brand association can be explained as a situation which inform a customer about the brand.
Mainly they are impressions of a brand that consumers usually have. Brand associations such
as the appropriateness of prosperity in the description of the brands that was said to be
effective, and the brand is nothing more than a network of connections in the mind of the
consumer (Boyle, 2007). Generally from a couple of key sources, associations are received
by customers.
2.8.5 Brand Loyalty:
The intension of branding is to increase the company's action of obtaining & sustaining a
loyal consumer group. So that it can reach maximum investment return in a short time. (De
Chernatony & McDonald, 1992)There can be several different types of consumer and brand
interactions. All of these are forms of brand loyalty. Therefore dedicated loyal customers do
not prefer to consider buying other brands.(Boyle, 2007).

pg. 14
2.9 Summary of Previous Researches

Names of the previous Survey contribution in this study


researcher
Dorsch, Grove & Garden Survey questionnaire two distinct frameworks to study
(2009) (n = 223) consumer behaviour:
paradigm of problem solving
Progressive product choice by
consumer ( based on brand).
Benady (2003). Survey questionnaire With basis of available information
(n = 351) searching & processing consumers make
choose from alternatives.
Moorthy, Ratchford& Survey questionnaire Consumer preference is controlled by the
Talukdar (2008); (n = 117) innovation & newer technology
Nagel (2003). Survey Questionnaire Person, context, & task specific factors
(n = 280) can change decision making strategies.
Fitzsimons et al. (2002) Focus group discussion Choice often takes place without
(qualitative study), three conscious Awareness &unawareness have
groups (each group consists much more Influences on Consumer
of 6-7 members) choice

2.10 Advantages of Strong Brand Image

Wood (2000) discussed that strong brands typically make sure higher profit margins coupled
with significant access to distribution & supply channels across the world which substantially
provides a wide-ranging platform for product line extensions. A strong brand awards the
customer value in terms of monetary value & provides customer the satisfaction & long-
lasting trust in products & services. Strong brands also increase speed of market awareness &
reception of new products entering the market. (Rooney, 1995).

Regardless of what type of business organization it is developing a strong brand image is its
ultimate goal. Significant benefits from strong brand image includes generating more profit,
better marketing, better product perception, increased customer loyalty, development of
creative actions, opportunities for brand extension, chances of price increase and decrease,
better handling of marketing crises.

pg. 15
Strong brand image enjoy brand awareness among consumers. This result in advantage of the
company like reduced marketing, as strong brand image already developed in
customers.(Keller, 2002)consumers of strong brands are willing to communicate with
company. This indicates market response &advertising are more effectively planned. Strong
brands are with memory encoding advantage over less popular brands in creating brand
image & awareness. Strong brand have direct impact on consumer decision-making & buying
(Keller & Hoeffler, 2003)

2.11 Conceptual framework

The researcher would like to develop the following framework of the literature reviewed so to
help the reader understand the issues related to the research paper.

Figure 2.4: Conceptual framework (developed by author)

The conceptual framework of these research illustrates the interrelationships among various
elements of Branding & Consumer behaviour. Enhancing customers satisfaction being the
ultimate goal of branding, the initial stages should include Brand awareness, & association
with bands. These two along with perceived quality of the branded product build loyalty
towards that brand. The Brand Image along with purchasing decisions & consumer behaviour
ultimately represents consumer satisfaction.

pg. 16
Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

It is intended issues and considerations in this sector, especially to illustrate the approach and
methodology usually certain of the proposed thesis. The author would like to discuss in this
regard km curriculum different research techniques, and appropriate tools as well as the most
appropriate according to the characteristics desired area of the investigation and the best ways
to take advantage of these tools and techniques as well as techniques to collect, review and
analyse relevant data and relevant.

The most important objective of the planned dissertation is to gains the better understanding
about the research question but also identify how brand image is impact the consumers
buying behaviour. The analysis of organisations (Waitrose) brand image & its impact on the
buying behaviour of the customers performance & will described the different aspects or
behaviours of consumer & the impact of the brand image on that consumer behaviour. The
study will also show what kind of branding strategies Waitrose as a rewound brand using to
develop its brand image & customers thinking about that image. To comprehend the intensity
& the significance of a trade name like Waitrose the records compilation is very decisive.

Data can be collected from telecommunications respectively with business and management,
as well as the formal and material precedent on this issue. The proposed research is part of
the exploratory nature of this investigation is the nature of the descriptive and mainly because
of the identity and the image can be evaluated in terms of theories to discover how they can
take advantage of them. Exploratory research will not likely provide evidence or specific
approach. Nevertheless, with the help of people conclusion can shed light on the actions that
are well-suited to a specific circumstance. For this reason, the thesis is exploratory and
descriptive as well.

The manner in which the research is accomplished is outlined in this chapter. It will entail use
of research philosophy, approach, methods, design, choice of sampling & data collection
method for analysis. The framework of this research can be illustrated by using a research
onion that would help to structure it in a meaningful manner. It has concentric circles, each
depicting stages of the research as depicted below in Fig 3.1.
pg. 17
Figure 3.1: Research Onion (Source: Saunders et al. 2009)

3.2 Research Philosophies

Harrison & Reilly (2011) mentioned that the research philosophy divided into different parts
like realism, interpretivism, pragmatism, positivism. In the present research author has
decided to use positivism, which suits the proposed research study. It will help to evaluate the
research topic & its objectives by using the positivism. Positivism paradigm reflects the
principles that are defined by scientists. This philosophy provides the basis for such a wide
range of research methods, and approaches, which are mostly quantitative nature. The core
principle of this paradigm is based on the argument that the reality is independent of the
researchers concept & notion. This property can be measured directly through observation
(Bergh &Ketchen, 2009).

3.2.1 Interpretivism
Interpretivism, as the name implies, involves researchers to interpret elements of the study,
thus interpretivism integrates human interest into a study. Interpretive researchers think that
accessing the reality can only be through social connections like language, shared meanings,
consciousness, & instruments (Myers, 2008, p.38)

pg. 18
Interpretivism is associated with the philosophical position of idealism, is used to group
together a variety of approaches, including structural and social phenomena and
interpretation; approach reject the objectivist view that meaning exists in the world
independently of awareness (Collins, 2010, p.38). Interpretivism focuses on meaning &use
multiple techniques to reflect many aspects.

3.3 Research approach

Research approach is either inductive or deductive is normally used to define the research
approach (Bergh & Ketchen, 2009). There is no indication of a new phenomenon in this
scientific empirical study so the author has decided to use a deductive approach which has
discussed various previous research theories to prove the relationship among the variables.
Researcher is capable of use a variety of kind of technique depending on the study. It can be
official methodical model of data collection, examine of data & discharge the findings
(Malhotra, 2004).

In qualitative method a variety of variables needs to be explored in depth among a couple of


no of entities. Quantitative approaches are in line with test of population, enough to make
success common for the whole population, throughout level of accuracy & reliability. (Hague
& Jackson, 1996). The proposed research approach would be a qualitative research as in
qualitative research the thorough examination will possible for the deep understanding of
situation. For this dissertation exploratory case study approach is more suitable for the
intended case & dissertation.

The study will use both quantitative & qualitative systems & method to conduct the research
to find out about the Brand image of Waitrose & its impact on consumer behaviour. The
qualitative techniques would be used mainly because it would permit the understanding of the
mass people consumers, their thinking about the brand image of Waitrose & what are the
factors that brings them to Waitrose. The brunt of numerous fundamentals like desires &
requirements, reason influencing the purchasing decision & choosing the desired brand need
to be analysed in detail because this will play a major part in this research (Gill & Johnson,
2002).

pg. 19
3.4 Research strategy

The main aim of the study is to identify key factors with impact of brand preference & the
operation of dimensional framework & Waitrose management. Incorporation of required data
for validation of brand loyalty which is based on Andersons Brand loyalty(Saunders et al.,
2009).

3.5 Research method

Research methods Remark


Quantitative methods The entire quantitative method is organised on the basis of the
survey questionnaire. The primary data collected from the
respondents are assessed through an open handed multiple choice
questionnaire
Qualitative methods The qualitative data are collected from the focused group
discussion from 14-15 managers who were divided into four
groups. This was purely subjective view of the respondent about
the factors that are they feel important for developing brand
loyalty.

3.6 Data Collection

3.6.1 Survey timing


The survey is conducted in the month of January & the focus group of discussion is
conducted a bit early in the month of December. As most of the manager is busy in their
schedule, so getting them together is a difficult task. Thats why the researcher has chosen a
convenient time & arranged the focus group as per their wish.

3.6.2 Data Collection Methods


Gathering of information will form a fundamental fraction for this research. Data which is
necessary to conduct the research will be composed in different outline like interrogate with
clients, executive teams & the workforce, interpretation of the regulars procure as well as
questionnaires. A good numbers of interview from the consumers & management &
employees of Waitrose will assist to achieve first-hand data relating to the subject which
would permit to create in-depth research.
pg. 20
The questionnaires are chosen to review would principally be closed questions because it will
give an actual view of the consumers as well as the management team & employees. The
study possibly will take in different supermarkets like Waitrose, Tesco, Sainsburys, ASDA
& others. There will be some interview with the management & the workers of the Waitrose
to appreciate what steps or actions they are using to be the pioneer of the retail world. Again
it will help to find out their view about customers expectation.

The data will be collected from both primary & secondary sources for this research. For
primary source face to face interview with customers, management team will be taken.
Books, Journals, reports, articles & websites will be used to collect secondary data regarding
Brand image, Waitrose & consumer behaviour. The questionnaires are chosen to review
would principally be closed questions because it will give an actual view of the consumers as
well as the management team. (Walliman, 2011).

Table: Tools used for data collection


Tools used Research Justification
methods
Survey Quantitative As this methods helps to assess the quantitative aspects
questionnaire of the factors that are responsible for developing the
brand loyalty within respondents
Personal Qualitative As most of the manager is busy in their schedule, so
interview getting them together is a difficult task. Thats why the
researcher has chosen a convenient time & arranged the
focus group as per their wish.

Regular observation would be ready throughout the study would be done as of a distance
devoid of essentially resembling them. This data collection method has broadly classified into
two categories process- 1 & process-2.
Process-1 (Data collection through interview methods)
This process-1 examines the managers view point about the purchase behaviour of the
respondent in a focus group of interview settings. A focus group of interview is chosen to
estimate the qualitative view of the managers. Focus group interview is an important method
in such kind of triangulation process which illustrates different opinions of the respondent.

pg. 21
This helps to assess the data which come from the interaction of the group that are usually
inaccessible in other form of interview methods (Peterson &Jolibert, 2005). In the present
research focus group is conducted among four groups (each group consists of 5 members) all
used either Waitrose or other companys show room based in London.

Justification of interview method


Within these groups during the interview process two important considerations were made:
The group should be homogeneous in nature in terms of the socioeconomic & demographic
characteristics but share very little information alone. Secondly, all the participants have the
same level of experience. The number of respondents kept in the focus group is relatively
lower than the ideal number (8-10) suggested by the marketing research institute. During
focus group discussion special attention was delivered so that the response is smooth among
the participants & the moderator. Total 3 group of interview was organised by the researcher
& special attention was imposed to maintain a relaxed atmosphere so that the discussion
becomes non directive & spontaneous. Kumar (2009) described that focus group of interview
can be considered as a valuable qualitative technique which initiates spontaneous, informal
interaction among its members & helps to explore the unconscious needs & motive of the
research. Elliott & Percy (2007) supported, this can be considered as a quite important &
valuable technique to get the subjective views of the respondents that is quite difficult to
collect through survey method.

Process-2 (Data collection through quantitative methods)


Questionnaire design & pilot study
Before preparing the questionnaire researcher collected information about how to devise a
draft. As the phrasing & designing of the questions affect the validity of the result, therefore
the researcher initially planned to employ a pilot study. A survey questionnaire was designed
with open handed questions which are initially distributed among the 50 respondents. The
pilot study is conducted by taking the response of the 50 respondents. The basic objective of
the pilot study was to assess the correction required in the questionnaire, if any. Deciding the
target sample size is the initial step for data collected during the survey.

pg. 22
Justification of survey method
The selection of the survey process are highly formalised & standard as the analysis comes
from different relevant questions mentioned in the questionnaire. So this has more control
over the events.

3.6.3 Sample size, data & place


The sample selected for the research can be divided into two types. The focus groups (A, B,
C & D) consists of around 14-15 managers selected from Waitrose showroom situated in
London. The second group consists of mostly youth & middle age respondent from customer
(124 samples) who is experienced to handle such electronic gadgets & gizmos available in
the market. The entire population size was approximately infinite for customer & 30 for the
managers working in Waitrose show room. But as the data are cross sectional in nature &
collected within a span of one week (where every week the average customer in flow are not
more than 750) so selection of sample size 124 expected to be justified & matches with the
population parameter & statistics. The same is true for the qualitative analysis also where
almost 14 managers were selected out of finite population (30 managers in Waitrose store)
size.

3.6.4 Sampling method


The probability sampling method is chosen because researcher wants to have a clear view of
the customers about the brand image of Waitrose, in simple random sampling method all the
member of population have equal chance of being selected so it will fulfil the researcher
aims.(Saunders et al., 2009).

The sampling method chosen for the method was snowball in nature. This is a kind non
probabilistic sampling. The process depicts the selection of the sample is taken from an
infinite population where no probability factor is attached to it. As the cross sectional nature
of the data is selected for analysis, so this supports the choice of this sampling process
(Dul&Hak, 2012).

Primary data for performing the research will be collected in diverse way as discussion with
consumers, organization, annotations of the customers purchase & the questionnaires. A great
quantity of interviews will help to provide first-hand data regarding the theme, which will

pg. 23
allow creating in vigour research. In the period of the research, the researcher will take
interview of two mangers (store) & 100 consumers from Waitrose by means of simple
random method. The ideal way to do so is face to face as well as researcher will review the
past work done on consumer policies of Waitrose.

3.6.5 Data analysis process & tools


Analysis of data correctly is very important as the main objective of the research will not be
fulfilled if the data are not analyse correctly (Saunders et al., 2009). For this research
Microsoft office software like WORD EXCEL will be used. Tables, graphs will be also used
to present the data & result. The focus group interview were organised within 4-5 groups to
assess the subjective view & an exploratory factor analysis, mean & standard deviation are
organised during the quantitative analysis. This helps to identify the main factors which are
responsible for consumer brand preference. Both the standard & mean deviation allow
delivering the subjective view of the respondent across the demographics.

3.7 Ethical & Legal liabilities

The researcher avoided all kind of fabrication or misrepresentation of data. This research
involves coordination & cooperation from different peoples from diversified fields. Therefore
the ethical standards pertaining to the sustainability of the brand preference which are
required for the research.

Hamel & Prahalad (2005) explained are few areas need to be assessed while conducting such
research like ethical norms make them accountable to management. Finally this frame work
is directly interrelated with the brand loyalty so support from the organisation is
unquestionable. Understanding the key factors that influence brand preference should always
attract management of the Waitrose Inc.

While conduction a research work & collection of data the ethical issues are considered as it
reflects the opinion & thinking of others (Saunders et al., 2009). The Academic rules &
regulations, code & conducts validity & reliability. Ethic is a code of conduct acceptable to
academic behaviour (Wells, 1994). Information is given to the participant prior to interview
that, all of them are voluntarily participating. They have the right to withdraw the information
they provided at any time & the data protection act will be followed throughout the work, &

pg. 24
information would be used for only university study intension& will not be used for any
commercial intensions.

3.8 Review of Research limitation & future implication

3.8.1 Limitation
The financing is also a limitation as the researcher is a student & university does not provide
any financing to data collection & the research work. Though the research has extensively
used the triangulation process to elaborate the key factor that influence both the brand
preference & loyalty of electronic gadgets & gizmos , but still it has some limitation. Certain
limitations pertaining to this research further initiate the need for future research.

Firstly during the focus group interview (study-1) while the interpretation is obtained on the
basis of the views of the respondents, adequate time needs to be provided to the group for
coming to a consensus. Further within four groups the interview was conducted but still the
result cannot be generalised & could be biased in some other context. Secondly the student
sample limits the broader aspects of the study. Besides smaller sample size, restricted
sampling procedure from a particular geographical boundary makes the findings bit sceptical.
Thirdly, the brand is considered as the vital asset & an intangible component for the
organisation which needs to be nurture for developing the long term equity. So organisation
like Waitrose needs to focus on the activities & promotions in a sensitive manner to develop
customer loyalty. Fourthly in nowhere the researcher has pointed out the role & implication
of many others factors such as legislation & international differences in culture & its impact
on the brand loyalty. Instead of descriptive research the exploratory research would help the
researcher to get initial insights about the consumer perceptions. This result would be more
effective if the analysis would organise on a comparative scale between the male & female.
3.8.2 Accessibility issues
To collect data for this research main issues could be time limit & the mentality of the
Customers to give information about their purchase. Researcher will try to overcome these
issues by approaching the customers in nicely & ensuring them by informing that the data
will be used for only academic intension. The permission from the Store management will
also be taken prior to data collection & interview.

pg. 25
3.8.3 Future implication of the research
The research itself has some merit from the management perspective but required more
introspection in the findings to deliver better & more in depth implication in terms of theory
& practices. To specify the objective research focused on to identify the factors that influence
the brand loyalty & consumer preference o different products of Waitrose. But this entire
analysis is restricted within the limited variables & more importantly consider a specific time
frame. Instead of taking the cross sectional data the same research further can be executed
with longitudinal data to achieve a better picture of the consumer perception. This scrutiny is
needed to execute in future research.

pg. 26
Chapter 4: Data Analysis & Discussion

4.1 Introduction

In the data analysis & discussion chapter the author would like to give concentration on the
presentation of data & information collected both from primary data (customer survey &
manager interview at Waitrose Putney branch) & secondary data to address the research
question. The questionnaire was categorized into two segments containing customers
demographic information & general statement related to branding preferences. And finally
the proposed dissertation finds significance to analyse the findings with the various previous
studies related to brand image through comparing & contrasting the findings based on
analysis. For collecting primary data 100 questionnaires were distributed to Waitrose Putney
branch customers & total 62 questionnaires returned to the author & two managers of
Waitrose Putney branch were interviewed to know about the consumer behaviour & brand
image of Waitrose.

4.2 Average Rate of Response

In this proposed study, 100 questionnaires were distributed among the customers of Waitrose
Putney branch. Total 62 filled questionnaires were returned to the author. The majority of the
respondents were aged between 36 & 50 years old. They participated willingly as the author
did not force to take part in this survey. The questions were Waitrose brand & its related
issues to answer the research questions. The average rate of survey response was 62% which
was a good response rate. There were total 10 questions in the questionnaire.

4.3 Results & Findings of Questionnaire Survey

As the questionnaire was divided into two segments, therefore the results & findings will also
be presented in two segments.

4.4 Part One (Demographic Info)

The first segment of questionnaire was designed to know about the demographic information
of customers who willingly are participated in the survey. The customers demographic
information was as follows: - age, gender, nationality & occupation.

pg. 27
4.4.1 Customers' Demographic Profile by AGE
Table 1: demographic profile in terms of AGE
Age Respondents
Total In (%)
20-30 18 29.03
31-50 27 43.55
51-65 14 22.58
Over 65 3 4.84
Total 100

From the above table (Table 1), it can be seen that the majority of the customers age was
between 36 & 50 years which represents 44% of total customers. The second highest age
group was between 51 & 65 years which corresponds 26% of total respondents. Middle aged
customers i.e. aged between 20 & 35 years old respondents were 24% of total respondents.
On the other hand, only 7% customers were aged over 65 years old.
4.4.2 Customers' Demographic Profile by GENDER
Table 2: demographic profile in terms of GENDER
Gender Respondents
Total In (%)
Male 32 51.61
Female 30 48.39
Total 100 (%)

A total number of 100 questionnaires were produced. Distributed among customers of


Waitrose Putney branch. Out of 100 questionnaires only questionnaires were backed to the
author & out of customers come to shop at Waitrose Putney branch 32 customers were male
&30 customers were female which represents 51.61% male &48.39% female customers
respectively.

pg. 28
Respondents' demographic profile by GENDER

46%, 46%
54%, 54%
Male
Female

Figure 4.1: Respondents' demographic profile by GENDER (by author)

4.4.3 Respondents Demographic Profile by Nationality


Table 3: Respondents demographic profile by nationality (simple statistics & percentage)

Ethnic Group Respondents


Total Percentage (%)
British 23 37.10
American 17 27.42
African 7 11.29
Asian 10 16.13
Others 5 8.06
Total 62 100 (%)

There was a query related to the customers nationality in the questionnaire. Among 62
respondents, 23 customers were British origin which represents 37.10% of total customers
who regularly come to visit & shop from the Waitrose Putney branch. 14 customers described
them as American in their demographic profile which corresponds 24% of total respondents.

pg. 29
The African were only 7% of total customers take part in the survey. Asian represents 19% of
total respondents. Out of 62 respondents, 3 customers filled up their nationality as other
through which 2 customers were Australian & 1 was Canadian citizen.

5(8%)

10(16%)

23(37%)

7 (11.3%)

17(27%)

British American African Asian Others

Figure 4.2: Respondents demographic profile by nationality (by author)

4.4.4 Respondents Demographic profile by OCCUPATIONS


Table 4: Respondents demographic profile by occupations (simple statistics & percentage)

Occupations Respondents
Total In (%)
Business 28 48
Service holder 15 25
Student 16 27
Total 62 100 (%)

The last demographic fact was designed to know the occupations of the customers regularly
visit at Waitrose Putney branch. The majority of the customers i.e. respondents expressed
themselves as business in their occupation query which represents 48% of total respondents.
25% of total respondents picked as service holder in their occupation query & another 27% of
total customers described them as student in their occupation segment.

pg. 30
4.5 Part Two (General Statement Related to Waitrose Brand)

Section two of the questionnaire was intended to ask the customer of Waitrose Putney branch
related to Waitrose brand & their brand preferences when they purchase from retail chain
supermarkets. In this segment total 5 questions were set to uncover the customers brand
preferences & their buying behaviour at Waitrose Putney branch.
4.5.1 How often do you purchase from Waitrose
Table 5: How often respondents purchase from Waitrose (simple statistics & percentage)

Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never Average response


rate
5 4 3 2 1 4.36
55% 25% 15% 5% 0%

From the table 5, it can be seen that the majority of the customers at Waitrose purchase
always which represents 55% of total respondents. Another 25% of total respondents
purchase from Waitrose often. From the calculation of average response rate (4.36) which is
greater than 4 point scale, it can be assumed that customers are tend to make a purchase
always from Waitrose according to their response.

HOW OFTEN RESPONDENTS PURCHASE


FROM WAITROSE

Sometimes,15% Rarely, 5%

Never

Often, 25%

Always, 55%

Figure 4.3: How often respondents purchase from Waitrose

pg. 31
4.5.2 Are you satisfied with Waitrose brand?
Table 6: Satisfaction of customers having Waitrose brand (simple statistics & percentage)

Respondents
Total In (%)
Very satisfied 43 69.35
satisfied 12 19.35
Its ok 7 11.29
Total 62 100 (%)

The majority of the customers are very satisfied having purchased from Waitrose brand
which represents 69.3% of total respondents due to consistent quality & exclusive brand
reputation of Waitrose. Another 19.3% of total customers are satisfied with Waitrose brand
when they make a purchase from Waitrose supermarket chain store. Only 11.3% of total
respondents were neutral or Ok in this question of the questionnaire.

The Main objective of this study To analyse the brand image of Waitrose. From the above
analysis and results it is quite clear that Waitrose have developed a strong and positive brand
image among its UK consumers and its number of loyal consumers is increasing. Clients
seems to feel satisfied and confident at buying from Waitrose. So as per the Brand image
concerns Waitrose is going in the right direction to achieve and uphold itself as one of the
leading Brands in UK retail supermarkets.

4.5.3 The quality of Waitrose Product


Table 7: Quality of Waitrose product (simple statistics & percentage)

Respondents
Total In (%)
Very good 34 54.84
Good 19 30.65
normal 9 14.52
Total 62 100 (%)

From the table 7, it can be observed that the majority of the customers of Waitrose Putney
branch picked the quality of Waitrose product is excellent as compared to other supermarket

pg. 32
chains (for example Tesco, ASDA, Sainsbury) as Waitrose focused on quality products for
affluent consumers (innovationreactor.com, 2014). Another group of customers described
Waitrose product as good quality which corresponds 25% of total respondents. It is supported
that Waitrose continuously focusing on quality foods for upfront consumers who prefer
exclusive quality products regardless of price consideration (innovationreactor.com, 2014).
4.5.4 How do you feel shopping at Waitrose
Table 8: Satisfaction of customer when shopping at Waitrose (simple statistics & percentage)

Respondents
Total In (%)
Very satisfied 32 51.61
Satisfied 25 40.32
Dissatisfied 5 8.06
Total 62 100 (%)

S AT I S FA C T I O N O F C U S T O M E R W H E N
S H O P P I N G AT WA I T R O S E
60% 52%

50%
40%
40%

30%

20%

10% 8%

0%
Very satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied

Figure 4.4: Satisfaction of customer when shopping at Waitrose

From the above table 7 & figure 5, the majority of the customers come to shop at Waitrose
are very satisfied which represents 52% of total respondents. Another 25 respondents are
satisfied shopping at Waitrose which corresponds 40% of total respondents.

One key objective of this study is To analyse consumer buying behaviour of Waitrose.
From the results presented here it is quite clear that having consumers develop a sense of
preference for brands that present themselves strongly in terms of excellent product quality

pg. 33
and effective customer services, along with competitive promotions and offers. Theses
opinions are consistent with Waitrose store decoration exclusively designed to give a unique
shopping experience to their valued customer. Only 8% of total respondents are dissatisfied
& which does not represent significant deviation from earlier opinion of the customers &
therefore customers are more likely to get satisfied shopping at Waitrose as outlined by
innovationreactor.com, 2014.

4.5.5 Do you prefer Waitrose as exclusive brand


Table 9: Customer preference on Waitrose as exclusive brand
Respondents
Total In (%)
Strongly agree 50 80.65
Agree 10 16.13
Neutral 2 3.23
Total 62 100 (%)

The majority of the customers considered that the Waitrose essentially signifies an exclusive
retailing brand as compared to others retail super markets for example Tesco, Sainsbury, and
ASDA. The 80% of total respondents voted Waitrose as exclusive brand for retail super
markets. This opinion is consistent with following statement as Waitrose continuously
focusing on quality foods for upfront consumers who prefer exclusive quality & branded
products regardless of price consideration (innovationreactor.com, 2014). The Waitrose
positioned them as upfront retail super market brand for affluent group of customers across
the UK who prefers exclusive products & services as well.

A key objective of this study is To investigate the impact of brand image on the consumer
buying behaviour. From the results presented above it is quite clear that having a strong
brand image have brought a significant change in consumer behaviour as they intend to buy
from Waitrose even if there are cheaper options available because of their brand loyalty and
excellent product quality expectations.

pg. 34
4.6 Discussion of Findings Related To Research Objectives

Branding of a product is considered to be central point to a marketing strategy. High &


quality production could not always ensure success of a product but instead its the brand
image that sells today. An outstanding consumer behaviour in an organisation helps to
maintain its brand image as well & it helps the survival of a product (Keller, 2002). People
tend to purchase from super market chains that offer quality products & offer exclusive brand
image (Table 9) aligning with its consumer behaviour & brand image. In response to this
opinion obtained from the survey Waitrose continuously trying to offer an exclusive brand to
their customers as Waitrose continuously focusing on quality foods for upfront consumers
who prefer exclusive quality & branded products regardless of price consideration
(innovationreactor.com, 2014).

Businesses organizations have to respond quickly as business environment always tend to


change with the changes of customer buying behaviour & brand preferences (Marsden,
2002). Waitrose is also responding to the changing business trend adopting & utilizing a
unique business model especially targeting on upfront market, quality products, exceptional
brand image & store environment in order to create an extraordinary & a premium retail
brand & make a difference in customer shopping experiences as an effort of their consumer
behaviour (innovationreactor.com, 2014).

Analysis of Brand image of Waitrose


According to consumer website of Waitrose We are trading what our purchaser likes.
Waitrose trade name turns in to very acceptable to consumer that consumer purchase their
manufactured goods without judgment second time if the chief objective is quality. Waitrose
is dedicated to excellence product in reasonable price, easy shopping techniques, nice
shopping atmosphere & enormous consumer facility .& all of these create their brand name
well-liked in the retail market. Waitrose has been updating to the newest technologies in
regular basis & also offers online shopping & home delivery services.

These conveniences make shopping with even more suitable for the customers. In consistent
with the innovationreactor.com (2014) statement, Waitrose consumer website asserted their
consumer behaviour & its alignment with brand image in order to create a unique brand &
make a difference in customers shopping experience. Kellers strategic brand management

pg. 35
process gives a clear understanding about how a company responds to their strategic brand
management process & how they make an alignment with their brand image in their
consumer behaviour. The model is significant for companies that are trying to develop &
maintain a unique brand through incorporating their consumer behaviour in the strategic
brand management process (Keller, 2002).

Consumer buying behaviour Analysis of Waitrose


The ultimate intent behind Waitroses social media marketing strategy is simply not to get
started conversations or boost the number of followers the brand has on Twitter & other
social media platform. The main objective of Waitroses social media strategy is to develop
customer relationship & build its brand &increase sales. Waitroses branding strategies &
positioning strategies are very much consistent with the Kellers strategic brand management
process.

As branding plays a vital role in order to differentiate an organizations for example Waitrose
goods & services from its competitors for example Tesco, ASDA & J Sainsbury. These sorts
of perceived tangible & intangible benefits potentially influence on customers purchase
decision & their buying behaviour & provide a very good foundation for customer loyalty.

Impact of brand image on the consumer buying behaviour


The behaviour of an organisation is directly likened by its culture & how it is controlled. In
this challenging environment the behaviour of an organisation is changing continuously to
cope up with the current challenging business world. It is particularly significant for small
business owners who don't have the promotional strategies of big competition. When a
product or service has a distinctive name, visual appearance & image, it is less complicated
for consumers to find in a congested marketplace. A very good brand name can certainly
influence consumer behaviour because they build emotional relationships & reinforcing
buying behaviour (Keller & Lehmann, 2006).

Recent noticeable online strategies of Waitrose are Match price campaign, Waitrose loyalty
shift, Sales gain, Waitrose social media impact, Twitter / Facebook / overheard group /
website, Twitter campaign impact, Wining of best super market, Joining with john smith.
These strategic initiatives of Waitrose are very much consistent with their consumer

pg. 36
behaviour & its alignment with brand image. Waitrose, a unique & exclusive brand aiming to
gain access to growing market share from strong competitors such as Tesco, ASDA,
Sainsbury & working to start by developing a consumer behaviour aligning with brand image
focused mainly on niche based customer segment along with application of a differentiated
strategic business model to win.

pg. 37
Chapter 5: Conclusion& Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Companies regardless of small or large nowadays striving to be able to their product as a


unique brand & focus on such sort of branding strategies which are usually beneficial in
making the positive image of the brand, once image of the brand is positively built in the
minds of customers.

Brand image of Waitrose


The Waitrose symbol gives a picture of their excellence, brand image & superiority. A
prospective consumer could be absolutely prejudiced by the brand image of an
organisation like Waitrose. Lots of consumers also emotionally concerned to the
organisation or a manufactured goods because of brand image that has been shaped by its
long time reputation & services. Consumers automatically start purchasing the particular
product or service frequently which ensures the customer brand loyal & brand loyalty of
customers boosts the profitability of companies which is definitely the ultimate goal of
the business. It is extremely significant to realize the clients brand selecting method & the
procedure that they apply while select any brand for their buying needs.

Consumer buying behaviour of Waitrose


A shopper always tries to collect information of a product to expand their knowledge
about a brand & make the brand assortment process easier. There could be also some
other things that could persuade a customers behaviours, which includes cost,
presentation, class & other factors (Keegan, 2002). The consumer behaviour of the
organisation reflects the ideology of the organisation. There has been lots of replica on
the selling actions of the consumers throughout the years. Post Exchange activities offer
us information on customer repurchase or faithfulness. Different sources, like friends &
family, customer relatives, publicity, customer-care policies, investigational, promotional
techniques can influence the Buyers to be prejudiced by the image of Waitrose.

Impact of brand image on the consumer buying behaviour


A great brand image is instantaneously celebrated & recommended by the current clients.
A first-class brand image of a company could pretence warning to their competitors. A

pg. 38
small change in brand image & strategic business model could positively impact on
Waitroses brand & lead to create a large base of loyal customer. It is noticeable that a
purchaser is biased in the direction of a specific brand commencing the mercantile source.
Sometimes private sources furthermore influences brand allegiance. Together the sources
have their individual point like a commercial source provides information concerning the
brand & the individual information supplies the knowledge concerning the presentation or
estimation function.

Companies regardless of small or large nowadays striving to be able to their product as a


unique brand & focus on such sort of branding strategies which are usually beneficial in
making the positive image of the brand, once image of the brand is positively built in the
minds of customers. Consumers automatically start purchasing the particular product or
service frequently which ensures the customer brand loyal & brand loyalty of customers
boosts the profitability of companies which is definitely the ultimate goal of the business.

5.2 Recommendations

From the previous chapters analysis & discussions, it is clear that brand image related to
creating a unique brand plays a significant role to implement of consumer behaviour into
practice.
Maintaining product and service quality
First and foremost priority to keep Waitrose brand image shining above its competition is
maintaining top of the line product quality and excellent customer services. Consumers
demands and deserves the Waitrose quality, so Waitrose should pay extra attention in
keeping a balance between pricing and product quality management. Consumer survey,
feedback analysis, routine check and monitoring recommended.

Presence in social media


As the Online social media has gain enormous attention of general mass all over the
world, any growing business entity must have a strong social media presence. Because
social media has already become one of the most popular adverting platform. A signs of
archiving a good brand image can be reflected by the presence and reception of that brand
in popular social media like tweeter, Facebook, YouTube or Instagram etc.

pg. 39
Effective communication with consumers and stakeholders
Brands are only powerful if the consumers keep their loyalty and get their demands
fulfilled. So understanding client demand and their appreciations is very important. Social
events, various survey and promotional programs to keep a healthy communication with
the consumers and also with the stockholders can prove effective in maintaining a strong
brand image.

Keeping up with competition


All brands aim for the top and the competition in retail market in UK is fierce. As
innovations and ideas are powering up brands for the never ending race for top position in
respective market, keeping your eyes open for your competition is a must. Matching price
schemes, product quality comparison, discount and other promotional offers that out beat
competition and finally exclusive service to the loyal consumers of the brand can prove
very helpful in achieving the edge in these competitive market.

Promotions and pricing schemes


Waitrose strengthens the company image by providing outstanding covering, excellent
offers as well as advertisements. However attractive promotions and consumer friendly
pricing schemes are necessary along with maintaining promised product quality, Discount
offers, Matching price scheme, exclusive services, free deliveries etc.

Maintaining an attractive brand image


Growing economic profile and its dominance in retail market should gain significant
positive impact on its consumers. Waitrose emerging in new markets and growing its
business sends a positive sign of its capacity to provide what it promises. The relationship
of trust among loyal and new consumers must be honoured with providing the products
and services at their best quality as the company promises.

5.3 Further Areas of the Study

These days branding has been a key issue for the companies in every kinds of industry
through which they operate. To remain competitive in the business, companies are also taking
brand image in order to make a unique brand which facilitates to stand out from the
competition in the market. As a general condition the term brand image of a product or the

pg. 40
organisation is its impression on consumers that can be decisive for the achievement for the
organisation to reach its goal. Branding is not only restricted to the selection of name but also
takes into account the logo or even the mark of the product or the organisation. The symbol
also is an essential part of branding. The planned dissertation is concentrated on impact of
brand image on consumer buying behaviour, while other related issues for example role of
brand image & branding equity in retail industry, brand image for small & medium
enterprise, retail supermarket branding, customer loyalty & its alignment with retail branding
could be an interesting areas of further study.

5.4 Limitations of the Study

While conducting the current dissertation, the author faced a number of limitations related to
the assigned dissertation. The sample size used in the analysis chapter was limited to 62 only.
Customers were under time pressure for responding & taking part in the survey. The author
willing to have more response from the part of customers regarding the survey & they refused
to participate in the survey as time restriction of customers who come to purchase from
Waitrose. There was a time limitation for completing the dissertation. The consumer website
of Waitrose was not enriched well enough containing strategic information about Waitrose &
therefore the author has collected information related to Waitroses strategic information
from other secondary sources.

pg. 41
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Analyzing the impact of brand image on consumers buying behavior: A case study of Waitrose.

Appendix

Questionnaire Survey
(This Questionnaire is prepared only for the research intension of the dissertation titled
Analysing the impact of brand image on consumers buying behaviour: A case study of
Waitrose)
Table A: Audiences demographic info
Your Gender: Male Female

Your Age:

Nationality:

Occupations:

Table B: Audience Statements on branding


A. How do you often purchase from Waitrose
Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never
5 4 3 2 1

B. Are you satisfied with Waitrose brand


Very satisfied satisfied Sometimes Not satisfied Very unsatisfied
5 4 3 2 1

C. The quality of Waitrose product


Very good good normal bad Very bad
5 4 3 2 1

D. How do you feel shopping at Waitrose


Very satisfied satisfied normal Not satisfied Very unsatisfied
5 4 3 2 1

E. I prefer Waitrose as exclusive brand


Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never
5 4 3 2 1

Thank you very much for your kind cooperation.

pg. 45