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Until relatively recently, graffiti was considered to be an example of anti-


social behaviour, the work of vandals. Nowadays, many of those
Before you start 'vandals'are treated as respected artists, and some of them have made
it in the world of business. Sue Clarke reports.
I nead the Key Words. Which
sort of street art do you prefer? New Yorkers used to see the graffiti on the walls of poor neighbourhoods and
Tetl the ctass. subway trains as something menacing and an example of urban decay. The
scrawled names and slogans were seen as unsightly and aggressive, the work of
KEY WORDS vandals ieeking to express their identities or even make a political point. Up to
advertising bjtlboards. buskers, the 1970s, most New Yorkers hated graffiti, considering it as an eyesore that was
ctowns, drama groups, fireworks, illegal and punishable by fines.
graffiti,'[ive statues'. musjcians, *!7 Since those days, graffiti has changed a lot and it is no longer found only in
open-air concerts, pavement { the subway and the poor ghetto areas of the city. Nowadays; it has the status of
artists, scutptures, statues 'street art' and you get graffiti in places where you wouldn't expect to - in
advertisements, on clothes, on toys, and even on the Wall Street Journal's official

o 2 tirten toistheit?
What styte
music.
websitel ln the early 1980s, there was areal craze for graffiti art and the
sophisticated Manhattan art world had displays of street art in its galleries. The
15

trend was short-lived - until the arrival of hip-hop music in the late 80s.
. rock and ro[[ . jazz ln her book, Subway Arf, Martha Coopersays "Craffiti came back with hip-
. hip-hop/rap . fotk hop music and people are now appreciating it for its style, which they couldn't
back then, because they couldn't get beyond the vandalism thing." Hip-hop was
Which of these things do you originally black ghetto music, sung by young African Americans from the poor,
associate with the music? run-down districts of American cities. When it suddenly got to the top of the
American music charts, hip-hop culture was spread, bringing graffiti with it.
. young or middte-aged Today, companies are starting to realise the appeal of graffiti in advertising.
peopte?
Kel Rodriguez, who used to spray New York subway trains, was the artist chosen
o Europe or the USA? to design the Wall Street Journal's website and it is obviously done in graffiti-
. black or white culture? style. "Some of that graffiti feeling, that energy, sort of got in there," Rodriguez
. rural or urban cu[ture? explained.
Many of this new wave of artists give lectures on developments in their art.
Lee Quinones is having a lot of success in Europe and feels that European
Reoding galleries and museums are more open to his art form. "They want to support an
artist as he develops," comments Quinones, who can get up to $10,000 for his
3 neaU the articte and check
paintings. lndeed, the Croninger Museum in Holland is one of the few museums
your answers to Exercise 2.
in the world that displays and recognises graffiti as an art form.
Another artist, Blade, has his own website devoted only to the world of 35
graffiti. This website has a'merchandise page' where Blade sells things with his
own original designs all over the wodd,- everything from baseball caps to yo-
yosl Leonard McCurr, a street artist for 25 years, went from painting subway
trains to designing and marketing graffiti-inspired clothes for young people.
"Craffiti has been a story of survival," he says. "There's a way to benefit from 4A
your work without spoiling public property."
f.#:.::S
::.:.,,'.,a}
t,;',',.,,.

t r.-4Fr'-! e
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5 fina synonyms in the text for these words and


expressions. Paragraph numbers are in brackets.

1 threatening (1) 6 from a depressed area (3)


2 uqty (1) 7 receptive (5)
3 fad (2) 8 acknowtedges (5)
4 ctassy (2) 9 products (6)
5 damage to property (3) 10 advertising and seLl.ing (6)

6 Anr*.r these questions about the text. Use words from


Exercise 5.

1 Why did New Yorkers consider graffiti the work of vanda[s?


2 Why did graffiti arlists suddenty become respectabte in
New York?
3 What influence did music have on the popularity of graffiti
artists?
;.{ 4 In what way does urope take graffiti art more serious[y
'*.:i;' than the USA? *
Ir"
{
I
5 How do some graffiti artists make money?
v{
Vorobulo Jyi make, ge1, hove

& &: Lexicon, page 162.

7 finU these expressions (1-8) in the text. Then match the


underlined parts of the expressions with their meanings (a-h).

I make it in business (tine 3) a put on


2 moke a point (8) b find
3 il sraffiti (13) c succeed
4 have a disptay (16) d enter
Read the Strategies. 5 qet beyond something (20) e see furLher than
6 get to the top (22) f demonstrate
Reading Strategies: 7 get in somewhere (27) g receive
Matching headings and paragraphs
I getup to $10,000 (32) h reach
r Read each paragraph carefully. Underline 8 mrt.tt the verbs moke, get and have with the words 1-
3-5 of the most important words. below. Add your own examples.
e Be careful - the first sentence in a
paragraph often introduces the main idea a dream, an effect, fed up, an influence, in touch, a [ook, [ost,
- but not alwaysl a mess, a mistake, money, a phone ca[t, promotion
. Read the headings and match them with
the paragraphs. They often contain a 9 Ur" the words in Exercise 8 to write as many sentences as
word or a synonym of a word from the you can in five minutes.
paragraph.
. Example I made a Lot of mistakes n my Last English essay.
Check that the extra heading does not
match any of the paragraphs.
Work in groups. Take turns to read out your sentences.

Use the Strategies to match the headings (a-g)


with paragraphs 1-6. There is one extra
heading.

a Spoited Cities e Tasteless Comics


b Transatlantic Success f Graffiti Products tonpurng tn(fnle
c Wal[ Street Arll g Big Change What 'street arf do you see or hear in your town
d Ghetto Culture or area? Give examptes.
I 0 Body Longuoge

Belore you start

1 Wtrat can people have done to their


body? Match the Key Words with these
parts of the body.
arm, ears. eyebrows, hajr, nai[s, navet,
nose, tongue

KEY WORDS
dy.d, prerc"d, shaved, tattooed, varnjshed

Would you consider having any of these


things done? Tel[ the class.
Exampte
Imight have my hair dyed one day. But I
would never have my eyebrows pierced.

2 ReaU the text and answer these


questions.
1 Why do some body piercers give
the profession a 'bad name'?
2 How can body piercing 'go wrong'?
3 Is body piercing expensive?

Presentulion: Relotive ond


Porticiple Clouses

3 Read these sentences from the text.

a Mick Shannon , who is o qualified


body piercer, took me to his saton.
I've also known peopte who have
got diseases.

What word(s) in the sentences above do


the clauses (in itolics) refer to?

Which ctause in itslics, a or b, gives:


o information that we need to
identifu the person/object we're
talking about? (defining clause)
o extra information which is not
necessary to identifo the
person/object we're tatking about
and can be left out?
(non-defining ctause)

Which type of clause uses commas?

frz]
"-.4
'.,:=
Li
Atrk

4 Read these sentences and complete the Proe lice


tabte with the relative pronounsz who,
whose, whch, that and where. 7 Undertine the relative clauses in these sentences and decide if
they are defining (D) or non-defining (N-D). Add commas where
1 You can see people that have got rings. necessary.
2 Mick pointed out his certificate, which was
on the wat[. Exampte 1, Barbara, who is a hoirdresser. has her own beouty salon.
3 I've atso known peopte who have got (N-D)
diseases.
4 I onty pierce young peopte whose parent or 1 Barbara who is a hairdresser has her own beauty salon.
guardian is with them.
2 Body piercing which has become very poputar is not a very
expensive fashion.
5 He marked the area where he had
3 Most people [ike wearing things that make them look stim.
disinfected the skin.
6 lt'Lt be a littte secret that I won't share
4 Peopte who have a degree in architecture have numerous career
opportunities.
with anyone.
5 We stayed in a hotel whose windows overlooked the sea.
Rrunvr PRoNouNs
6 St Petersburg which is sometimes catled the 'Paris of the north'
has been extensively renovated.
peopte 7 I need a suntan lotion that witl protect me from the tropical sun.
things
ptaces
8 :oin the sentences using a suitabte relative pronoun to form
possessive defining and non-defining clauses.
Example
5 Reaa the sentences (1-2). Which 1. He put the ring, which was made of goLd, through her nose.
participte ctause in itolics tetls us:
1 He put the ring through her nose. It was made of gotd.
a what the person/thing underlined is doing? 2 I know somebody. Her father has got a tattoo on his back.
b what is done to the person /thing 3 I read a leaflet. It said body piercing was dangerous.
underlined? 4 I went to a salon. They did body piercing there.
1 I was tooking at the watls covered with 5 My sister dyed her hair pink. I find it an attractjve cotour.
photos of clients.
6 I saw a girt. She had each part of her face pierced.
2 You can see rings hanging from ears.
7 They opened a beauty salon in St George's Square. There used
to be a perfume shop there.
What verb form is used for a and b?
9 fxpand the sentences by adding participte clauses after the
6 Reaa sentences 7 and 2 from the text. nouns in italcs.
What is the function of the clauses in
Exampte 1. The car speeding down the road ran over a bike Ieft
italics, a, b or c?
in the
middLe of the road.
a hetp to identify a person or thing
7 The car ran over a bike.
b give extra information about a person or
2 The portrait shows my grandmother.
thing
c comment on the situation described in the
3 The committee accepted the soLution.
first part of the sentence, before the comma
4 The singer has atready recorded six CDs.
5 The shark had attacked two surfers.
1 They don't clean their equipment, which
shows they don't know what they're doing.
2 He finished by giving the girt advice on how
l0 nOU a comment to each of these statements. Then tett the
class.
to hetp the skin get better, which was a nice
professional touch. Example Some men would prefer to wear skirts, which is
understandabLe especi aLLy i n sum mer.

tr \rammar Summary 3, page x46. 1 A lot of young people have tattoos on their bodies, which ...
2 Young people like wearing expensive designer ctothes, which ...
3 Some people spend a lot of money on cosmetics, which ...
4 The computer is becoming an essential part of every househotd,
which ...
5 Some schoo[s insist on their students wearing uniforms, which ...
6 There is more and more viotence on TV which ...

I 55

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ll Brunded
Before you start

I Work in pairs and answer the questions.


1 What is the connection between photos A and B and the
titte of this lesson?
2 How many designer labets or brands (e.g. Nike) can you
think of?
3 Why do some people think designer labels are
important? Are they important for you?

2 Wort in pairs. Take turns to describe the man in


photo A.

[istening
Q 3 listen to a conversation. Find differences between
the photo and the girl's description of the man.

) + Listen to the description again. Comptete the


Function File with these words.
ancient, attractive, dark, different, good (x2). nice,
quick, scatty, seriously, shy, taLt, thin, use[ess, younger

Jl Preferences: Describing People


rJJ I

"lz.l We[[, he's very 1 _ .

9l
He's a bit too 2 _ maybe! And he's
r-l
(Jt a bit on the 3 side. Pronunciotion
-.-
z.l But he's got a rather 4
_ smite.
=l
ul And he's quite 5 5 Stress and intonation can change the meaning of a
George Ctooney? He's absolutety 6 _l sentence.
0f course, Ben's much 7 Example
He comes across as stightty 8 and ALice is quite nice = she is nice but not very nice
serious at first.
Alice is quite nice = she is very nice
He takes his studies fairty 9
He's comptetety 10 Now listen to the description of a girl. Underline the
He's got r".r,'i, 11-
- ,.ns. of humour. words in italics that are stressed.
He's got pretty 12 taste in clothes, too.
No, he's just extremely 13 _ and witty. Alice is (1) quite nice. She's (2) rather tall and she's got
He's totalty t4 _ when it comes to (3) fairly long hair. She's got a (4) rather nice smile and she's
remembering times and dates. (5) quite fiiendly. She's (6) pretty good at telling jokes and
And he's a bit 15 and tends to lose she's (7) quite witty. She's (S) fairly bright and the school she
things a[[ the time! goes to is (9) quife good. But she's (10) pretty scatty and
absent-minded!

In the description, which modifi ers (qute, rather, fairly,


pretty) could you replace with very?

6 look at the modifying expressions in botd in the


Function Fite. Which of them make a comment:
1 stronger? 2 weaker? 3 either s
on the i
9:rii

Listening
Speoking
I2 neaU the Srrategies.
7 lmagine you just met someone. Write notes
have
hjr/l:1. Use rhe expiessions fro, tf," frnction about
File. think Listening Strategies:
about these things:
Answering true/fatse questions
' age . appearance o personality o interests o
abilities o Read the statements. Use your knowtedge
Lexicsn, pages lit and tSZ. of the wortd to guess if they are true
or
I= Wort in pairs. Have a conversation about the peopte you
fa [se.
. Look for important words in
the
have met. statements, e.g. 1 = protest,
Example multinationak Try to think of their
A So what is she like? synonyms, e.g. protest _ compLaint,
B WelL, she's very outgoing and
... r
multinationaL _ big gLobaL compony.
Listen the first time to get the ge-nerat
idea.
Vocobulsry: Multi-porT Verbs
r Listen the second time for the important
words in the statements or synonyms
for
ffi Lexicon, paEes IZ0*176.
r
them.
Decide which statements are
true and
9 Matct' the sentences (1-S) with the replies (a_h). which are false.
o After listening, make guesses about the
1 TeLt us about this new guy you,re going out with. statements you are stitt not sure
2 He's getting on a bit. about.
3 I've gone off him.
4 We get on reatty we[t. O If Now listen to the radio programme
5 He comes across as stightty shy. about a book by Naomi ftein. Uie
ttre
6 I don't go for guys with eanings. Strategies to decide if these statemeits
are
7 He goes in for tetting Lots ofjJkes. true (T) or false (F). you witt hear the
8 He takes after his mum. recording twice.

a Yes. he must be in his fifties. 1 fl The book is a sort of protest


against
b Wett, you have a lot in common. multinationats.
g I do. I think they,re realty attractive. 2 fJ 'Logos'are words in a
new international
d He's quite shy, reatty. ta ng uage.
Yes, they're both a bit scattyl 3 Ll Most peopte in the wortd can recoqnise
f9 Me too. I don,t tike him ,nyroru. the most famous logos.
But apparentty he,s rea[[y funny when 4 [-] lhere wi[[ never be idvertisements in
9
h Yes, and he's always pulng my
you get to know him.
" space.
Legt
S fl ttre workers, who work in brand name
10 Write sentences about yoursetf and-. peopte you _-- factories, have good working conditions.
6 Ll A company once paid on. ,ports
Use the multi-part verbs in Exercise
9.
'-' know.
more than at[ its workers, sataries
itur.
put
Example together.
I'd like to go out with Jennifer Lopez! Z! ttre number of protests against the
policies of gtobal .orpuni., is
^_
faltinq.
L_l he author thinks we should worry
11 Worl in pairs. Say your sentences and
repty to them.
t

about who we ore and not about


what
Example we have got.
A I ySro,lLy go for guys with short hair.
Do you agree with Naomi Klein,s ideas?
but not guys with shoved heods.
Why/Why not?

S*g
g
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*
12 (ommuniculion Workshops

Wrlting
Before you slsrt ? Read the text again and match the paragraphs
(A-D) with these headings.
1 nead the text and comptete the gaps (1-10) with
. focus on one important room
the fotlowing:
r introduction to the person and place
such lovety, such as, too big, so that, a tot bigger, o general description of the house
so untidy, as big as, biggest, such a big, big enough o comment on the person

A Ci
My coustn Pawe/a ts alowrna/tst. Ore of her
I Pame/a writes ttJ
/or fashion vnaaazinesT vorrr,
mterests rc gardentnl, whuh ts lke reasln why she mored and *orks in another fat'r-srzed room
*hrch she ca//s her I
house. She has
fust moved lnto a /arje horse t'n the conntry ** bfficel lt has got a verT re/axe/ atnosphere, thorjh tt's not il
u

a hrsc sarder. Fs 2 than her prev|ous housr. ln


B
the other rooms. she works at a tnassrue desk
:

near the wtndowl she has /uts of lght, and |tb i


li
,sra//y
- clrttere/ wtth a//sorts (thay /,/re papers ard old
coffee c"p+ wtth books ererywhere as she /ores rea,lnl. Her i
6 ttlO
- l.t

6 lhat she ortcn ran'l hcr curnprler


a rtllaie' lt ts ytte ol/ a'/ has yt 4esK fn/
The house is on the e/1e of
wousel ltb a ct,e)/ r00,-n, ar/ Pa-e/a orten /,lstens to muslc i
with4 rtews of the
three spacious bedroo'ns' all sittinj corch. ii,
an
here, on her
farourtte co^fo,4ob/e
,ourtryri/r. ltb a rea/f relaxtnl place to be' There is also

k 5
- bg ol/- D
eh,rtilous kitchen, whtch 1'r a
refect her
roovn is also huie' wlth woo/en / think all the features ofPatnelab ho'se
stove. The ltvinl
what makes tt an
persoralilt and interests, o''/ this is
fashioned
'
ord o, op,' fi"pio"' Pamela
is ou$otnl and sociab{e -
\oorc - ideat pkce sornebo/y [ike her to work a''l relax'
roo'n for
tt is
horse that she has lots oft
fodrnatef
entertaininl.
for

ffn m Trt|llu WWffi


n &mr
H# i tn*rl " fi'?][WS ry@w
[l .o
r*r .,fiLf,"llj

LJ
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3 f-ina six synonyms of the word'big'in the text. Stage 2


Write notes for four paragraphs.
4 Comptete the second sentence so that it has a similar
reaning to the first sentence, using the word given.
Stoge 3
l"xample Use your notes to write your composition. Try
i-: js so hard-working that she even works at weekends. to inctude:
i uch
:'z is such o hard-working person that she even works at
. words from the Function Fite in Lesson 11.
e.g. o bit, quite, rather
:ekends.
. examples of relative ctauses (see Lesson 10),
1 lt's such a big house that she has lots of room for parties' e.g. She works in o room which she caLls her
so ofrce.
The house is that she has lots of room for e structures using so or such (see Exercise 1)
parties.
2 Her desk is so untidy that she often can't find her computer
Stoge 4
Check your work.
-
It's desk that she often can't find her computer
mouse.
-_*--
Talkhack
The watlpaper is so tasteless that she wants to change it.
Work in groups. Read the descriptions. Apart
such
from the place you described, which place
It is wattpaper that she wants to change it.
would you like to live in? Why?
She listens to Romantic composers like Chopin.
such
She listens to Romantic composers Chopin.
-
She works near the window to get a Lot of light. Lislening: A Song
so that
She works near the window a lot of light. DeicaLe Follorxer of Fashion

ir
A Description of a Ploce
Q I listen to a song about a
rlr man in London in the 1960s
and complete these lines.
l

Write a description of a place that would match your


personality and interests. Follow the stages.
1 His ctothes are
but never
Writing Help 3, page 139. 2 Eagerty pursuing atl the latest
-
and trends.
Stoge I 3 He thinks he is a to
Think of your personatity and interests. Write down be looked at.
adjectives that describe your character and examples of your 4 There's one thing that he loves
behaviour that show it. In the next column, add a feature of and that is . -
the place that woutd suit you. 5 His world is built round

Example
and-.
6 He ftits from- shop to shop just
Likea-.
PrRsoHnury AND INTERESTS

r 0utgoing - like parties and entertaining


. Musical - ptay the guitar and violin and enjoy tistening to 2 wnicn of the fottowing words and
music expressions would you use to describe the
. Keen on healthy living - like to grow own vegetables man in the song?
and fruit conventiona[, fashionabte, hard-working,
. pteasure:seeking, reserved, vain

Fglrunrs oF THE PLAcE

o A big sitting room


3 c.n you imagine where this person could
live? What woutd his ptace be [ike?
o Big storage room for instruments and CDs
o A huge garden
g
a'-.
,
E

m
Fi
Comm
=-.
:
M
""'.r.,,..:- ,.f' :::, ' -i -:1j;

N ;;q[j;,:i
:::]:aj:-:-
" ,,-'% ::-ri:
'.:;:l::".: .
-. .-,:1. -

+:
it

Speokin
Before you

O 1 lirt"n to two people discussing the Stage 2 i :i '.i l:t: t.;r)


room in Photo A in the Writing
Read the prompts (headlines and interview i
Workshop. What sort of person do they
relate to rooms A and B? What do the interview
think lives there? Does it match the
about people's attitudes to their homes? What are your own
description of Pamela?
"What does my home mean to me? We[[, ifs a refuge from coltege.
I tike to keep it
ctean and ctutter free."
ffi,$ thafi'wn "My own home is my first step towards independence."
Cotloquial Expressions "I've worked from home for a year. It kind of changes your view
of home but you get used to it."
2 fina words in Paragraph C of the text in
the Writing Workshop to match these
Moderndesignreaves'ln*o:o
colloquial words from the conversation.
;:T:tfr;lti"t,
Example
relaxed = laid-back Feng Shui brings calm to city living
1 must be a big reader
2 books a[[ over the place Stoge 3
3 realty Laid-back Read the Strategies.
4 a bit too messy for me
5 loads of tight Speaking Strategies: Gaining Time
6 that couch looks realty comfy When you're speaking, you need time to think:
r Try not to
leave long pauses without saying anything.
Dscussing a Topk
o Use hesitation words, e.g. ight, well, you know.
o Use'vague' language. e.g. kind of, sort of.
Discuss the changing attitudes to home . Use fixed expressions, e.g. let me think for a second,
suggested by the prompts. Follow the I know what you mean, that's very true.
stages.
Work in pairs and discuss your ideas from Stage 2. Use the
Stage I Strategies above.
Look at Photos A (page 36) and B (above)
and guickly write down nouns and alkback
adjectives you could use to describe these Te[[ the class about what you decided. Oid the others have similar
two rooms. What makes them different? ideas.