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8 (lnt

lion more 3.2


as World warrns up
o
^
o "",,i:,$l?'L.*?"',i&T

read a magazine page, a newspaper article and peoPle bI"?039 !.'


a repor use reading strategies for doing
sentence gap activities.
listen to the news, a lecture, a radio 0.0

programme and diatogues; use listening -0.8

strategies for taking lecture notes.


talk about important human and
environmentaI issues in the wortd today.
a write a letter of application.
a learn more about reported speech.

Worm-up

1 Uatch the Key Words with the photos,


lVornfrrrill
graphs and headlines.

KEY WORDS:
deforestation, the destruction of habitats,
endangered species, the exploitation of
women, famine, ftooding, gtobaI warming, ,f.o, under Pressulb
the greenhouse effect, malnutrition, naturaI
disasters, overpopulation, poverty

Q 2 listen to four news stories and identify .,sr


I
the issues.

O 3 lirt"n again. What do these figures refer


to?
Example 1 temperature increose in the
20th century w
1 0.60c 2 6"C 3 5,000 4 71,,000 g'i Villages cut off
56bil.Lion 640olo 79bittion 812cm
by floods
4 Wort in pairs. Talk about the globat issues
on this page. Which issue do you think is the
most important for the 2lst century?
d{
{
Example I think famine is a very importont ?

issue. I think ...


i
Telt the ctass what
you agreed. '

ffi Lexfr*, p*t X54"

of natural
habitats puts some animals on
the brink of extinction ,'87
.l. . I . I I I
*'=* r'9 Unnolurql Disoslers
\dL .-t
,''"1"i ''lF:, ,i

'Hell and High Utatel


The last few years have been the worst period on record for
environmental disasters and experts are predicting far
worse to come. Tim Radford reports.

I I ere is how to become a disaster statistic. Move to a shanty town on an


Which of the disasters in the unstuble hillside near a tropical coast. Crowd together as more and more
Key Words do you think are:
I
I I people arrive. Wait lor the world to get a little warmer. IVlore evaporation
. caused by peopte? means more rain, which means the slopes will get progressively more
. made worse by people? waterlogged. One day, the land will tum to mud and the neighbourhood will
r natura[? begin to go downhill. Literally. And if the slope is steep enough, the landslide
will accelerate to more than 200 miles an hour. Peter Walker, of the
KEY WORDS: international federation ofRed Cross and Red Crescent societies, has seen it all
avalanches, cyclones, droug hts, too olien. "First, your house has been washed away. Second, the land that you
earthquakes. floods, forest fires, farmed has disappeared. ( | )
hurricanes, [andstides. votcanic
In the last decade, floods, droughts, windstorms, earthquakes, avalanches,
eruptions, windstorms
volcanic eruptions and forest fires have become increasingly common. There
has been disastrous flooding in Asia, Africa, Central and South America and
-" have been getting worse ever)"where too, with
Oceania. (2)
a growing number of hurricanes hitting the US, the Caribbean and Central
Read the articte and check America. Drought has affected large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa for years and
your answers to Exercise 1. many other zones are becoming drier. (3) A number of nations
have alreacly been in
-storms armed conflict over water, and drought in the West of the
Read the Strategies. tIS has resulted in enormous forest fires.

Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes have always been a threat in certain parts of
Reading Strategies: -
the world. A volcanic eruption virtually wiped out the small Caribbean island
of Montserrat in 1997 and there have been serious earthquakes in Greece,
,:: ' I ,lr lri: Turkey and El Salvador. The quake that rocked the small Central American
country of El Salvador in 2001 came as the people were still rebuilding their
. Read the text to get the houses and recovering from 1998's Hurricane Mitch.
generaI idea.
. Read a paragraph with a
sentence gap and identifli
' ,.,i;"
the topic, e.g. disasters.
. Read the sentences before ::. Now use the Strategies to comptete the gaps (1-6) in the text with
and after the gap and look these sentences (a-g). There is one extra sentence.
for clues about the missing
sentence, e.g. is it an
a But geotogical evidence shows that 73,000 years ago there
was a much greater eruption.
exampte of what is mentioned
before?
b Even prosperous Europe has suffered and large areas of
France, Britain and Germany have a[[ been under water.
o Certain words may help you:
time references (then),
c That is probabty not the most important factor either.
pronoun references (it, that),
d Third, the other bits of land you might have been abte to
farm are now usetess.
Linking words (however).
r Decide which sentence goes
e 0n top of atl that, add climate change and the spectre of
g[obaI warming.
in the gap. Check that it fits
the sentences before and
f For examp[e, the Yetlow Rive once notorious for ftooding the
landscape, failed to reach the sea at atl on ?26 days in 1997.
after it.
g One answer is overpopulation.

88
w'
*- :

,&*
'qi,-

*3 ocubulury: Frcfix*
L*xi";*n, s:,a* l5e

6 took at the words (1-10) from the ::,:


and the other examples in brackets. Matc: :" ,
prefixes with the meanings (a-j).
So why is nature beginning to turn on us? (4) .- The
population of the world is growing at the rate of 10,000 people an 1 overpoputation (overgrown, oversleep)
hour, 240,000 every day, nearly 90 million a year, with mlst f the 2 substandard (subway, submarine)
growth in the developing world. people in agricultural areas, 3 deforestation (defuse, dehydration)
unemployed and sometimes undernourished, move to the cities, 4 downhitL (downstream, downgrade)
and then set up homes on poor soil, crowded into substandard 5 undernourished (underpaid, undercooked)
buildings. (5) ....-- This has mainly been caused by the 6 rebuild (replace, rewind)
mismanagement of the world's resources: carbon emissions from 7 unstable (unusuat, uncommon)'
rich countries; the activities of the big multinational companies; 8 semi-active (semi-circle, semi-finat)
the deforestation of the world's forests. As a result, a hotter ocean 9 multinationa[ (mutti-purpose, mutti-racia[)
breeds fiercer cyclones and hurricanes. It surrenders greater 10 mlsmanagement (misunderstand, misptace)
quantities of water as evaporation, and more powerful winds
dump this water against mountainsides with increasing fury.
a again f opposite of an action
b badty g not enough
Atlantic hurricanes, for instance, are 40 percent more intense now c
than they were 30 years ago.
betow h downwards
d too much i opposite of an adjective
Volcanoes and earthquakes are even more dangerous than in the
e many j /
partty hatf
past as around half the world's population now lives in cities.
There are more than 500 active and semi-active volcanoes, about
fifty of which erupt each year, and more than 500 million people
7 Comptete the sentences with words from
now live within range of a volcanic eruption. An even greater
Exercise 6 in a suitable form.
number live at risk, in some degree, from earthquakes which have 1 After the storm they had to _
taken a toll of more than 1.6 million lives in the last hundred hundreds of houses which had been damaged.
years. 2 Many peopte in the developing world suffer
from diseases because they are
All the betting from the disaster professionals
is that things will 3 Our team was knocked out in the
get worse. Professor McGuire, of University College London, is a of the competition.
volcanologist who has been warning for years that the world has The bomb was about to go off but the
not worst nature can do. The worst eruption in human
seen the experts managed to it.
history was probably Mt Tambora in lgl5, in Indonesia. It 5 I --. and faiLed the exam.
the question
pumped so much dust into the stratosphere that it effectively 6 I yesterday and arrived an hour
cancelled the following summer in Europe and America ---for ctass.
-.--
late
(6) "It reduced temperatures by maybe 6"C in some A lot of houses coltapsed in the earthquake
-.-
places and the whole planet was plunged into winter for years. because of construction.
And there are about two ofthese events every 100,000 years ...,' 8 Floods are not these days; they
--
happen more and more often.

/ r. " r..iii:- . -':,,.diry;i;:,W,


. ttire,*'; Speoking
5 Read the text again and answer these questions.
1 What is the attitude of the journatist towards the future? I Work in pairs. Discuss these questions.
2 Who is most tikety to be a victim of natural disasters? 1 What natural disasters have happened in the
3 Why are there now more hurricanes, ftoods and droughts? last few months?
4 Why are votcanoes and earthquakes more dangerous now? 2 What do you think governments can do to
5 What could be the biggest threat to the ptanet in the future? prevent naturaI disasters?
6 What effects might this threat have? What organisations do you know that provide
aid after disasters or work for the
environment?
What can we do as individuats to improve the
environment and help victims of natural
disasters?

Tett the class some of your answers.

89
,,i]ll

30 Globql Wurming
"r"dr,'*;
Before you starl

L toot at the map and


answer these questions. {b
1 Which countries '.1.:'l

produce the most COz?


a devetoped countries T

b developing countries Tonnes per person
c both iTil ress than 1.0
2 How many tonnes of 1.0 - 2.9
Coz are produced per 3.0 - 6.9
person in your JM
ffi 7.0 - 14.9 d&
i#
'iw'
country? ffj
15.0 or more s
l .l
,, 'j No data
i

2 Wort< in pairs. Decide if these


statements are true (T) or fatse (F). Climate conference
f I fne'greenhouse effect'is caused by
the retease of carbon-based gases.
collapses
Z I gritain's coal industry is producing By Bob Roberts
more and more carbon-based gases. Ministers at the conference in Buenos Aires today told the
g f] fhe USA produces more harmful gases world's press that they had failed to reach an agreement on
than any other country in the world. 'greenhouse gas' emissions, which raise the earth's temperature.
4n Att experts agree that g[obaI warming Scientists warned that this would mean more pollution and a
is part of a natural weather cycle. greater risk of disasters across the globe.
A UN representative said the conference had been organised to
S [ Onty the industriaLty devel.oped countries
reach agreements on reducing emissions. It was another follow-
are responsible for gtobal warming.
up to the 1997 conference in Kyoto, Japan, when governments
Now read the text and check your guesses. promised they would reduce emissions of carbon-based gases
below 1990 levels by 2012. In Kyoto, the European Union agreed
to cut emissions by 8%, Japan 60/o, and the USA 7%. At .he
Revision: Reporting conference Britain declared that it was one of the few countries
to have reduced its emissions but critics asked if this was due to
3 Wtrat were the originat sentences government policy or the decline in the coal industry. The EU
reported in the text? reminded the USA (the world's biggest polluter, prodtcing 24o/o
of the world's emissions) that it had not met its targets. The
In the text 0riginal sentence USA firmly denied it was making excuses and asked why the
,,We targets were so unrealistic.
1 Ministers totd the
Some environmentalists at the conference claimed that the world
wortd's press
is warming faster than at any time in the last 10,000 years.
they had failed to
However, other experts suggested that it is part of natural
reach an agreement.
weather cycles. In 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
2 The USA asked why "why Change (IPCC) announced that there was a definite human
the targets were so influence on climate change. Some government ministers
unreatistic. ?" reluctantly admitted that they may need to cut global emissions
,,WE by up to600/o in the long-term. However, many developing
3 Governments promised
countries have refused to sign any pollution agreements; they
that they woutd reduce
say it would harm their economic growth and insist that the
emissions of carbon-
developed countries lead the way and show it is possible to
based gases be[ow 1990
break the link between economic growth and rising emissions.
levets. !'
e6r,,.g,.a1:ill,n ?:Ta'it:,,..... :.'::'4
*,,,_..*#r,a,,a: *:.:.:ttt?...v:,.,..jt . ,.j,,
;,.:,':'::::':....!:r.-..::'.27r;TT '.'"' "'
wl"#

Presenlolion: Reporling Verbs 7 Uatch the sentences (1-S) with appropram


reporting verbs from the tist. Then write the
4 Wtrat verbs are used in the text to report these reported sentences.
statements?
admit, boast, forbid, inquire, invite,
Example 7 = to warn that order, suggest, threaten

1 We're afraid that this lack of agreement wi[[ mean more I We't[ ctose credit lines if you don't reduce
poltution. carbon dioxide emissions.
2 0K, we'tl. cut emissions by 8%. 2 0K, you're right, some poisonous chemicals djd
3 We are one of the few countries to have reduced their escape into the atmosphere.
emissions. 3 Why don't you drop in tonight?
4 Remember you have not met the targets. 4 Stand up immediately!
5 We're not making excuses. 5 I'm the best student in this schoot!
6 The world is warming faster than at any time in the last 6 You can't use your dictionaries during the test.
10,000 years. 7 Shatl we have a cup of tea?
7 lt's probabty part of natural weather cyctes. 8 Is the bus service running according to the
8 There is definite human inftuence on ctimate change. timetable today?
9 Wett, we may need to cut gtobal emissions by up to 60%.
10 We witl not sign any potlution agreements. 8 Use the verbs to report the two dialogues.
11 The developed countries [ead the way.
1

5 ReaO the sentences (1-3) below. Why has the tense of admit, advise, promise, warn
the underlined verb not been changed? Match the
sentences with the explanations (a-c). Tom I don't think you shoutd play the game
today, John.
1 Gatiteo said that the Earth is round. John You're right. I'm stitt a Littte bit itL, but I
2 Futurologists believe that the wortd's future doesn't look promise I won't overdo it.
very bright. Tom If you run around too much in
Be careful.
3 Most experts claimed that a lot of areas witt be ftooded this weather, you may get another attack
due to gtobal warming. of 'f[u.
a because the reporiing verb is in the present 2
b because we report something which is stitl true accuse, beg, comptain, deny, exptain, refuse
c because we report something that hasn't happened yet
Daughter Mum, please, wi[["you buy me this CD?
I've atways wanted it.
E Grammar Summary 8, page 148.
Mother Sarah, you know I can't afford it. Why do
you always ask me to buy you expensive
ed Ptsclice things?
Daughter Thafs not true. You just never buy me
things that I want, on[y those that you
s 6 Wtrictr of the sentences (1-6) below:
to Like!
a says that the country exports nuctear waste?
b suggests that the country exports nuclear waste? 9 Report the following statements that you
c suggests that the country opposes the idea of exporting heard at 7 a.m. this morning. Do you need to
nuctear waste? change the tense?
d reports the minister/s reaction to an accusation?
e reports the ministe/s dectarations about future actions?
1 "Women live [onger than men."
td I heard that ...
r reports a warning?
2 "I'm hungry."
I The minister denied that his country exported nuclear waste. Ctaire said that ...
2 The minister warned that his country coutd export nuclear 3 "Our galaxy contains several thousand million
waste. stars."
The minister admitted that his country exported nuclear An astronomer announced that ...
waste. 4 "The 2016 Otympics wit[ be organised in Africa."
The minister insisted that his country didn't export nuclear A sports expert said that ...
waste. 5 "This coffee is too hot."
5 The minister accused his country of exporting nuclear waste. Jonathan complained that ...
6 The minister promised that his country woutd not export
nuclear waste.

i''
F
F-rr':
3l Rich snd Poor
i
t

: pscst
Milli0s/Porcnt
'ol[--..---.-..---.----.--.-.--__-
'o t [- ;l, 0sl-
*l) i "'f
ltt ll)"
I
i:ll
vel 6 I

^|/
."t ld .r
0.5t F i
"f 5" F
R

',fl
.ll1959 t9{;5 rlrio :ffi ffii*
&i
.{5

rjlttt &
-
1975 1980 1985 1990 ?00:

Fig 1: Poverty in the USA. l9E9-2003 Fio 2: Per Capita Income (in $US)
SJurce: Statistics Division of UNSILO 1998' 5
Source: US Census Bureau

Befare you slorl [istening 5::,fi"1ii"11* ".' Gross National

1 took at the graphs. Is this 2 nead the Strategies.


information true (T) or (F) or false?
1I There were fewer poor people Listening Strategies: Taking [ecture notes
in the USA in the i.990s r Listen for 'topic' words, e.g. povefty, number, poor people. These
than in the 1980s. words are usualty stressed and the facts are often repeated, e.g.
2I fne percentage of poor increasing, going up, growing.
people in the USA was o List your main points using numbers or an asterisk ("). This makes
highest in the late 1950s. your notes easier to read when you look at them later.
3I tn 1998 Denmark had the o Don't try to write down everything; select important information.
highest average income per r Use abbreviations and your own shorthand (see example betow).
capita (per person).
4f fne country with the highest f) tisten to the lecture. Use the Strategies to write some notes.
per capita income gives the
Exampte
highest percentage of its * Poverty
GNP in foreign aid.
- increasing - 1/3 world pop. - ich/poor gap - growing
5I Denmark gives the highest
percentage of its GNP in
foreign aid.
3 Wort in pairs. Use your notes and take turns to say sentences.
xample {
What are your opinions about the
A Poverty is increasing.
statistics in the graphs? B Yes, about one-third of the world ...
Compare your notes. Are your partne/s notes easy to follow? Telt the
class the most important information that you got from the lecture.
ba(lne

Vocqbulqry: Multi'porl Verbs Speuking


E Lexcon, pages f7t*X76. 7 ReaO the factfite about an imaginary country.

4 Complete the last part of the lecture with these verbs.


come, cut, get, put, set, take
Poputrtror: ro million
In 1996, the United Nations asked the wortd's richest GNP PER caprn: $roo
countries to 1 aside 0.7 percent of their GNP, UilstnplovmrilTz 3oo/o
thafs their gross national product, for aid to devetoping Aenrcutrunr: poor soil -
some production of bananas
countries. 0nty a few countries met that target and some lrousrnv: very little - a chemical factory in the
even 2 down on aid programmes! However,
- 3 capital
governments must up the chatlenge and Commurtcrnoils: most roads muddy - problems
in the wet season; airport in need of repair; very
4 up with sotutions. They should 5 up
new realistic aid programmes to 6 rid of poverty
few telephones
Eoucrnor: only 4oolo literacy rate; very few
once and for atl, not just in the Third Wortd, but everywhere. secondary schools
Hslrtn: only z hospitals (roo hospital beds); poor
- - sanitation - malaria is common
Pronunrialion ]lousrne: many houses badly damaged in recent
floods
I{ATUnAL Drs^srrRs: bad floods in central river
\f 5 tisten and check your answers to Exercise 4. Mark the valley; danger of earthquakes
stress on the multi-part verbs. Ervtnotmrlr: several endangered species
(including a rare kind of bear); main river and lake
Exampte 1. put oside potluted by the chemical factory

-l 6 tisten to the dialogue and comptete the Function File


with these expressions.
I Imagine you are ptanning an aid programme.
so that, Thats why, basicatty, because ofthat, Decide on your priorities and think of solutions
One reason, to, Thafs the real reason why, to the problems. Use these Key Words for ideas.
A lot of ifs to do with

g
KEY WORDS
J Justifying Arguments education programme (buitding schools and training
Don't you think rich countries should give more aid teachers), heatth programme (building hospitats,
7 1-- hetp devetop poorer countries? training doctors and nurses, vaccinating chitdren),
o 2-,
F
I mean, some countries witl never be housing programme, modernised farming, recycting
IJ able to pay back the interest on the money they of materials, road building programme, renewabte
z
borrowed, wil.L they? energy (sotar and hydro-electric power)
=
And I think, 3 , we shoutd just forget what
they owe us.
4 they're poor is the changing ctimate
anyway.
9 Work in groups. Discuss the problems and your
5
solutions using expressions from the Function File
there are a lot of these disasters, isn't
(Exercise 6) and mutti-part verbs from Exercise 4.
it?
Try to agree on the two most important things.
And poverty's often related to discrimination.
6- job oPPortunities. Example
7 in our country women and btacks are A I think we shouLd set up an education progromme.
1 often the poorest. The main reason is that we should be thinking
The government should create more jobs about the long-term future.
8- poor people have more of a chance. B That's o good idea. The country needs ...
-
Tett the class what your group decided.

PUOm,.... uN?u0n,
.%u
cannot fee Lhe hun{ry on statistics.'
David Llol Geor4e (r8Gt-ra+),
british politician

93

h#
[islening
Before you star

Look at the photos. What do you think are the most


serious problems for women around the world?

A Rodio lnlerview

Listen to a radio programme about the status of


women in the world. Answer the questions. Wriring
O f Read these statements and predict the kind of Before you slort
information that is missing. Then listen and comptete
the notes with one or two words. I nead the appeat for hetp and the tetter whicff
follows. Then, match sections A-D in the letter
1 There are 1.3 biLtion peopLe living in poverty and the headings (1-a) below.
nearty of these are women.
2 More than of the wortd's women do unpaid 1 ways of helping
work. 2 request for additional information
3 In devetoped countries, women do
- as much 3 retevant quatifications and experience
unpaid work as men.
- 4 reason for writing
4 0n average, women earn onty of the pay of

5
men.
Unemptoyment among women is
-
than that
Tsunami Appeal
of men. The tsunami disaster
6 A tot of women have much less job than claimed hundreds of
men.
- thousands of lives
7 Nearty of the wortd's chitdren who don't go and brought
to schoot are femate. - devastation to large
8 Two thirds of the wortd's illiterate adutts areas of South-East
are women. Asia,We allkrow
9 0nLy of the world's potiticians are women. that. But what we are
10 towards women happens on a big scale. perhaps less aware
of is how much we can all do to help the survivors.
This is an appeal from the TsunamiAlert Group for
) Z Listen to the second part of the radio programme.
-
Use the Strategies in Lesson 31 and take your own volunteers aged 25+ who are willing to give their
time and energy to help. We need both professionals
notes on the following:
(especially doctors, nurses and therapists) and any
r improvements in the situation for women people with a generous spirit. Please write to Meg
o what sti[[ needs to be done Hudson, TAG, e>rplaining how you could help. TYavel
expenses and (modest) accommodation costs
Work in pairs and compare your notes. Did you mis"s,
covered by Tsunami Alert Group.
any important information? ::.( :!"
Thankyou.
+t .
;irfuitrm'5,

3 Vou can avoid repetition within a text by using


synonyms or words that have similar meaninp Loofr.t
the two verbs below. Match the words and expressions
to these verbs:
hetp, votunteer
to aid, to assist, to back, to bring retief, to come to the
rescue, to do charity work, to give your services freely, to
offer your hetp, to support

4 Rewrite this paragraph. Do not repeat the wordsjo


or compony (underlined). Instead use:
firm, profession, business, post, work, corporation,
multinationat, em ployment, occupation

When people ask me about my job I say that I have two; my


jsb I am also a poet. I love my jqb as a
is a lawyer but
lawyer but I write poetry in my spare time. My trst jgb was
for a big company with ofces all over the world. Floweve
I dont like big companies, they are too impersonal. So I left
and started my own small compan)r. It is not a very big
compny but it provides jebt for ten people and the
company is not doing badly.

A Lelter ol Applicolion
Dear Ms Hudson,
Write a letter of apptication to an International Crisis
,, I am writing in connectjon with the appeal in Agency. Fotlow the stages.
you
today's Gazette' (1) ------- - th.e appeal ' of
News
.""i""f.i"g for volunteut"io help the v"i ctims
tr," trrn"ti disaster' (2) ------------ I am not a $ Wrtting Help 8, page 14i.
p.ot".rion"l, I would like to volunteer'
Stoge I
i.r I am a 27-year-o1d postgraduate engin""lilg.- Choose one of these areas for your letter:
ln
,arJ"ni. I have (3) -...-..- completed^a course
teach'ing and I have " ""ttiti""te
in first aid' o the environment (in your country or the wortd)
i;i I helped in the relief operation I . poverty in the wortd
)ii"t *;o irooot in Prague'(5) -.-' o animats in danger of extinction
hu" experi ence 'i n di saster rel i ef ' o refugees and immigration
"otnu
.r I don't know if I have any of the I
specialised
skills that you need' (6) . '. .could Stage 2
------their
.u.tuinty help people rebuild homes'
teaching'
Collect information about the problems in the areas
i;;-- , I could also do some
youte chosen. Use the ideas in this modute, notes
:r (8) I would be verY haPPY if I can be youte made, newspapers and magazines, the Internet
of "o,n"-n"fp. I would be gratefuf if you could and a library.
I could
;;";-;" further detai'ls' needed' prov'ide
,"fe."n""s if these are Stoge 3
you'
Looking forward to hearing from Plan your letter. Use Janet Bingteyt letter as a model.

Stoge 4
Write your letter. Use the linking words and
expressions from Exercise 2.Try to avoid repeating
words and expressions.

Stoge 5
2 Comptete the letter with these tinking words and Check your letter.
expressions.
Tolkbock
furthermore, atso, in addition, although, as a resutt,
Work in groups. Read each tetter. Talk about them and
to sum up, however, according to
decide which of them is most effective.
(ommunicolion Workshops

Speoking
Before you storl

1 listen to two people discussing an


I article from the newspaper. Who has these
opinions - the man (M). the woman (W) or
Discussing Pholos ond lexts
both (B)? Discuss the photos and the poetry extract. Fotlow the stages.
1E Feets sorry for tigers.
I
2E Finds the article very depressing.
Stage
Look at the photos and think about:
3T Is very worried about climate change.
o
4T Is not sure about ctimate change.
o
the gtobal issues each photo represents
5tr Thinks we should change our lifestyles.
.
the causes of the problems
your opinions and possibte sotutions
6T Thinks we produce too much poltution.

Stoge 2
Read the poem. Decide which photo it may relate to, and why.
igiHn Mtatroon
It illal not seen lnportant at tbe tlner
Giving 0pinions lle gave tben ptty wben tbey rantetl golill
lle coultl not belp ttl re rerq never told.
2 Wtrictr of the expressions from the erd lost our glaases; ao rro ooulcl not see.
diatogue (in botd) are used to: lle ralked aralrt lt ras not oul oonootn.
lbe streets rrsre dark anil lt r.aa vory oold.
a give you time to think?
It dlal not seem Lnportant at tbe tlne.
b express an opinion?

1 What I don't understand is why people Stoge 3


want to kitt them. Look at the expressions in the Function Fite in Lesson 31 and the
2 Whafs really worrying is all this stuff Chatroom. Practise giving your opinions about the issues in the
about ctimate change. photos and the poem.
3 I'm not sure. I haven't thought about
it much. Stage 4
4 Whafs ridiculous is that they say the Read the Strategies.
ctimate isn't changing ...
5 Thafs a good question.
6 What we shoutd do is start using
lpgaking S$qtqgie,si ttl' ns p_f qto', @
renewable sources of energy. o Do not just describe the photo or the text in detail. Avoid
saying things [ike: f can see...or 0n the left there is .. / At the
lmpersona['You' beginning of the text the author soys .... untess there is
something really important there.
3 loot at the use of'you'in the . Specutate about the photo and the text. Think what is happening
conversation. Which of the examptes in the picture, but also what has happened and what is going to
(1-5): happen next. Think what the text is about, but also why it has
a refer to a paficular person? o
been written.
b refer to people in general? Use indirect expressions as you specutate and give your opinion,
e.g. The young people ore probably homeless. The young man is
1 Have you seen this article on the hiding his foce because he may be oshomed of his situation.
environment? o Don't forget to involve your partner(s). Use expressions Like Don't
2 It depresses you just to think about it, you agree? or Vlhat do you think?
doesn't it?
3 Don't you think so?
4 The probtem is, you don't want to just Work in pairs. Use the Strategies to discuss the photos and the
give up your car and central heating, do poem.
you?
5 You don't want to go back to the Stone Tslkback
Age. Tell the class about your discussion.
**
ff,
ft*##
1 Reaa the article and match the headings lmpersonal Report Slruclures
(1- ) with the paragraphs (A-C). There is
one extra title. @,, Grsmmar Summary, page 150,

1 Indifferent Lover 2 Mid-Life Crisis 3 Fame! 3 tool at the sentences in btue in the text. Do they express:
4 Fatting Numbers
a a generaI opinion/experience?
b the opinion/experience of a particular person?

4 Reaa the sentences (1 and 2). Which of them talks about:


a a present beLief? b a betjef hetd in the past?

1 It is hoped that George witl pass on his genes to a new


generation.
2 It was reatised that they coutd supp[y exceltent fresh meat
for passing ships.

5 finU the sentences in the text with words in red which


express the same as:
Lonesome Male of the
1 Scientists know that he is the last surviving member of his
Galapagos sub-species.
2 Everybody understands that the goats introduced by the
JO TUCKMAN ON THE GAI,APAGOS ISTANDS earty settters destroyed the ecotogical balance on the
6 elebrity is not usually a characteristic associated with istands and the l"ive[ihood of George's ctan.
I middle-aged giant tortoises from the Galapagos 3 Peopte expect that the archipelago witl make a fu[[
\rl Islands. However, few have been so influencecl by recovery.
humanity as Lonesome ieorge. !'ame came to George in 1971
when he was discovered on the tiny uninhabited island of Now answer these questions about the three sentences above.
Pinta. He is known to he the last surviving member of his sub-
1 What is the form of the verbs expect, know and understand?
species but it is hoped that George will pass on his genes to a
new generation.
2 Are the opinions held in the present or past?
3 Which sentences express an opinion about:
The numbers of Galapagos toftoises are said to have begun a the past b the present c the future?
their decline when it was realisetl that they could supply 4 What is the form of the verbs in red in the text ? How does
exceilent fresh meat for passing ships, because they were the form depend on the time the verb refers to?
known to be able to sunive for six months without food and
water. Nevertheless, it was the effect of the goats introduced to
the Galapagos by the early settlers that are understood to
6 Wttictr of these sentences below expresses:
havc destroyetl the ecological balance on the islands and a a past betief about an eartier situation or event?
the livelihood of George's clan. Recently, there was another b a past belief about a situation or event that was parattel in
threat when the tanker Jessica ran aground near the islands. time?
It is believed to have leaked almost a million litres of oil into
the sea. At first, it rvas feared that the islands' many unique 1 The tortoises were known to be able to survive for six
species would be damaged but the archipelago is expected to months without food and water.
makc a fulI recovery 2 George was said to have been uninterested.
By the tirne George was discovered, breeding programmes
were known to be increasing the numbers of other tofioise 7 finU sentences in the text similar to the ones in Exercises 5
sub-species but it
was acknowledged that his case was and 6. Rewrite them, beginning with 'It s/was said/believed
different. Unless a mate could be found, his group faced that'.
extinction. George w taken to the Charles Darwin Research
Centre on Santa Cruz island and provided with a harem from Example The archipelago is expected to moke a full recovery.
related sub-species but was said to have been uninterested. itis expected that the archipelago wi[[ make a fu[[ recovery.
Thirty years later the lzsl Geochelone elephantopus
abingdoni ts as lonesome as ever. I lool at the two sentences from the text. Does it refer to
something specific in the text? If so, what?
1 It is believed to have leaked almost a mittion litres of oi[
2 Rre you optimistic about the future of the into the sea.
Galapagos Tortoises? Give your reasons. 2 It was feared that the islands' many unique species woutd
be damaged.

* More practice, Language Powerbook, page 116.


Grummor
1 Compl,ete the texts with the correct form of the
verbs in brackets: -ng form or infinitive.

Our readers tell us about ... ..,, .. |itltn\l,ir/ryrryfffl:Wflffi


2 Report this conversation betwn irii
Dream using ask, excloim, guess, reply and say.

Destinations Example
Eka asked Banu where she was from. She replied that ...
"l went to the States last year with a friend.
Elsa So, where do you come from?
We're used to 1 (travel) around on our
Banu I'm from a sma[[ town on the Aegean coast, in
own without 2 too much
-1,$','fffi$ Turkey, called Bodrum.
money, so we didn't mind 3 (take) jjyYlrr'r '' '

buses everywhere.- We avoided 4 Elsa Reatty? What a coincidencel I spent a few days
-(spend)
(hitchhike) because we didn't want to risk 5 (be there last summer.
mugged) - but we saw someone - 6 (be mugged) Banu Did you have a good time?
- it was a great holiday. The
outside a bus stationl Apart from that, Etsa We[[, I was having a great time until ] was bitten
Grand Canyon was the most breathtaking sight - l've ever seen." by a scorpion.
- Banu How terrible!
"l'd always wanted I to ltaly and visit Rome, the Elsa And whil"e I was in hospitat, my boyfriend met an
Vatican, Florence, and see all the magnificent art there * and I
American girl from Nevada. They're getting married
wasn't disappointed! lt's worth B
9 next month.
-(go)
(learn) (speak) a bit of 1talian before
Banu 0h, no!
you go. I managed 10 (see) quite a
lot but there was so much to see and so many Elsa But then I met this fantastic Turkish boy ca[[ed
touristsl I can't stand 1
'1
(queue) and Kemat. Woutd you like to see a photo of him? He's
some places were impossible - - you must have very handsome.
seen the crowds 12 pushed) Banu I don't betieve it! That's my brother. You must be
through places like cattle. -But, as I say, it was Etsa !
my dream destination and it was marvellous. l'd Elsa Yesl We've got a lot to tatk aboutl Come on, tet's
planned 13 -(be
(go) to Venice, too, but didn't have time in go to the dining car.
the end. "

"My brother emigrated to Australia twenty years ago. We'd 3 Rewrite what the government minister said at a
always kept in touch and l'd seen his wife and meeting, using the verbs in brackets.
kids 14 (sit) in their garden on video,
but l'd promised 15 (visit) them, and 1 (cLaim): "Unemployment is going down at a steady
so I did, last Christmas. Before that l'd always rate."
refused -16 (fly) but there's no point 2 (insist): "The probtem started with the previous
in17 too much at my age, is government."
there? And it was the best Christmas l've 3 (announce): "We wi[[ create 100,000 more jobs by
ever had | " - next year."
-(worry)
"Every Muslim who is healthy and has enough 4 (admit): "There were more than 1,000 new cases of
money is expected 1B (visit) Mecca once in his or her AIDS last year."
lifetime, l'd put off 19 (go) for years - 5 (warn): "The number is Likel.y to rise by 20 percent
I just couldn't afford 20 (go). But the next two years."
then,- last year, I decided 21 a 6 (promise): "We witl end poverty."
- amazing. I had seen
real effort and go. lt was 7 (deny): "The government has done something abo!:
the crowds 22 (walk) round on TV 'lt.
-(make)
before but the place was really bustling. I
(remind the publ.ic): "We have spent over f500
really enloyed 23 people
million on new houses."
from so many different countries."
(agree): "Yes, I'[[ answer questions at the end of:-=
-(meet) meeting."
10 (refuse): "I'm sorry, I won't answer questions abc-:
my personal [ife."
ooa(lne

6 uat" the opposite of these words. Then write six


sentences using the opposites.

Exampte visible / invisible

Adjectives: believab[e, correct, crowded, efticient,


happy, interesting, lega[, patient, popu[ar, simi[ar, spoitt,
successfut, tidy, toterant, usual, visible
Verbs: agree, appear, believe, dress, pack, trust, wrap

7 Comptete the sentences with a suitable word.


1 He picked me at about six and dropped
me at the station.
2 We set early and stopped at
a coupte of ptaces on the
- way.
4 Comptete the second sentence so that it has a similar 3 The price of petrol has gone a lot so I
meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given and
-
have to cut on my use of the car.
-
up to four more words. 4 He has to pay a big loan from the bank
1 C[imate change is now an accepted fact. so he puts some money
-
every week.

known 5 She came


- a great idea for
the fancy dress party.
it the climate is changing.
2 They are optimistic about the patienfs chances of 6 Why doesn't the government take the
recovery. challenge of hometessness?
-
-
expected
The patient Pronunciotion -
3 They say that the burglars got away by using a helicopter.
said ( ) 8 ma* the main stress in these words. Then listen
The burglars used a helicopter. and check your answers.
4 There are probably no survivors from the shipwreck.
1 exploit / exptoitation
feared
It no survivors from the shipwreck.
2 communicate /
communication

5 According to experts, Neanderthal Man coutd speak in


3 /
retax relaxation

a timited way.
4 cetebrate / celebration
-
believed
5 /
discriminate discrimination

Neanderthal Man able to speak in a limited


6 industry / industrial

way'
7 environment / environmental

6 Doctors now recognise that malaria is transmitted by


8 /
politics potiticat
-
the Anopheles mosquito.
9 geography / geographicaI

acknowledged
10 history / historical
It is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito.
9 Crn you say this proverb? Use the phonetic chart
on the inside back cover to help you.
-
Votobulory
/e'hrr4grir mnrz en'4grir mnl
5 Comptete each sentence with a word beginning with
the prefix. 10 t"nguage Awareness Rewrite the sentences using
the correct form of the word in brackets.
t A lot of people in the Third World are under
2 Manv countries [ike China and India are over 1 Everybody said I had signed that letter but I didn't
3 She has been un- since the factory closed last remember anything. (forgot)
year.
4 Thal company has had to close because of 2 I live on my own - it's nothing special for me. (used to)
mis-.
5 A lot of the housing there is sub 3 'Why don't we go away for the weekend?'said Peter.

6 After the earthquake they had to start re- the (suggest)


city.
The forests have been cut down by big Logging 4 'The USA is the biggest poltuter in the wortdi said
multi-. Greenpeace. (cLaim)
8 The audience stood around the live statue in a semi-
,ftgr
*t tt
rh f $m
Part 2: The History of Popular Music

'\ \' ":

:V
Sr
3 tist"n again. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)
according to the programme?

1 L] Some peopte became rich from songwriting.

2 Z 'Blues'and'country and western'songs had nothing in


comm0n.

1 fry to match the photos (A-F) with 3 [l Jazz was highty devetoped by the 1920s.
these captions. 4 E Musicats often began on the stage before being adapted for
1 0ne of the greatest jazz singers the cinema.
2 'Rhapsody in Btue' (1.924) fused jazz and 5 L ] Leonard Bernstein turned one of Shakespeare's ptays into a

ctassicaI musica[.
3 His West Side Story is one of
6 tr Jazz and btues are genera[[y known as 'btack' music.
Holtywood's best musicats
4 The king of rock and ro[[ 7 E Etvis Presley was not successful because he wasn't btack.
5 From folk revival to folk-rock
8 I Bob Dylan changed the face of poputar songwriting.
6 A great jazz trumpet player
9 tr The Beattes owed nothing to Amerjcan popular music.

f) 2 lirt.n to the radio programme


and check your answers to Exercise 1. 4 A music Quiz. Can you say which of the fottowing performers
Which of the musical extracts did you are American? What nationalities are the others?
like most?
1 Madonna 5 Ricky Martin 9 Laura Pausini
b[ues, rock and ro[[, jazz trumpet 2 Eric Ctapton 6 Enrique Igtesias 10 Jon Bon Jovi
3 Robbie Wiltiams 7 Cher
4 Britney Spears 8 Elton John
Check your answers on page 135.