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English for work and life (ESP)

Curriculum design and evaluation

Introduction

This curriculum design and evaluation entails designing an English for Specific purpose (ESP) for students within my language academy in Cardiff,
Wales, United Kingdom. The course title is English for Work and Life; it is five weeks long with two sessions per week, with each session lasting
between 1 hour and 30 minutes to 2 hours long which is a total of 14 hours and 40 minutes during the entire course. Sessions are held on
Thursdays and Fridays (Appendix 1).
This course design is based on the students needs and contextual constraints for specific target groups of students. Assessment and evaluation
are vital considerations in course design and are addressed in this essay through examination of assessment types, principles and processes.
There will also be an examination of the literature on course design and examples of best practice that will be used throughout this essay.
In addition, the participants range from executives, managers to academics who pay to learn English as a Second language (ESL). The courses
that are offered are in three categories, which include (ESP) English for Specific Purpose to general and academic English.

The students classrooms are between average class sizes of 12 to a maximum of 15 students. They are also aged between 18 and 50, from
various parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Middle East, Europe and South America. Students are at lower intermediate (B1) level (British
Council, n.d, b) on the common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).

Finally, I have decided to use Kathleen Graves (1996) A framework of course development process as a structure and tailored this for my English
for Work and Life course design. I will first begin with the environment and students profile and then address the considerations of resources
and constraints. I will then start with the needs assessment for my students before moving on in defining the goals and objectives. Other stages
include the conceptualising of content and selecting and developing materials and activities. Finally, the organization of content and activities
will be covered before evaluating the course and concluding this essay.

Environment

Student profile

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The students CEFR Global Scale is (A2) and they Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate
relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment) (British Council, 2013). Graves (1996) also
mentions that while evaluating objective needs that I should include the students background information, for example, their country and
culture, education, family, profession, age, languages spoken and so on. She also suggests including the students' abilities or proficiency in
speaking, understanding, reading, and writing English; and students needs with respect to how they will use or deal with English outside of the
classroom (Graves, 1996, pp.12-17). Students are mainly from Arab countries such as Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Bahrain
and Oman and are aged between 18 and 50. Learners do not currently work or have experience working in the UK. However, students have a
good understanding of the cultural difference between their own and others including the British culture through Arabic documentaries, films
and traveling, visiting tourist attractions in Cardiff.

Requirements

Some students had Bachelor degrees and graduated in their own country and language. Students are familiar with using technology such as
computers; printers and smartphones using Arabic keyboards and heavily relying on google translator and Arabic to English dictionaries.
Therefore, students might need dictionaries as one of their learning strategies and scaffolding for any task they find complicated.
Students need to develop their English for work and for everyday use. Students also would like to improve their fluency in reading, writing, and
speaking, in preparation for face to face and telephone job interviews. Students lack vocabulary but showed preference in practising speaking
in their needs analysis. Finally, students need to enhance their attitude regarding motivation because as Graves (1996) states If the subjective
needs are overlooked, then objective requirements might not be accomplished.
Barton et al. (2007) states that to understand leaners, it is important to understand four characteristics that help aid the linking between learning
and lives (Barton et al., 2007. pp. 18-19).

Firstly histories: are the characteristics or personalities that shape the leaners the way they are. For example, the target students for this
course are fresh graduates from their own country and have had their parents support them through university but now need to learn a new
language to communicate and to support themselves. Other students have lost families and friends, including their homes due to warfare and it
has changed their lives.

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Secondly practices and identities are defined as the current situation that they are placed in which they have no control of. For instance, most
of the learners are refugees and asylum seekers who have fled their countries due conflict and therefore have little control of their current
situation.

Thirdly circumstances and events are the situations that compromise opportunities. For example, situations that give and take possibilities at
the same time. In relation to my context, students have been granted asylum and wish to learn English to integrate within the British society but
struggle to communicate to find a decent job to earn a living.

Finally, imagined futures may include students luxurious or limited future plans. My students all have different future plans but share common
ground in rebuilding their lives towards their imagined future. For example, Roberts et al. (2004) insists that students who are asylum seekers
have an urgent need to learn English to enter the workforce; and the need and desire to integrate into British society and make a home here in
the fullest sense (Roberts et al., 2004, p.10)

Consideration of resources and constraints

limited computers

Some of the constraints for this course design and our language academy are that there are only three computers for students to use, which
makes it difficult to incorporate technology into the course design. For example, developing English for work skills may include applying for job,
cover letter and CV writing, which my students could benefit from. However, one of the feedbacks that I received during my PowerPoint
presentation for this course was to consider using the computers within the local library, which I think would resolve this issue. On the other
hand, students could be distracted or even decide to leave the lesson early.

Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) method and Practice and Produce (PPP) approach.

The language academy only uses the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) method as one of their policies for teaching. However because
this will be a communicative course, this will only serve as an advantage. But another constraint is the present, practice and produce (PPP)
approach, which is heavily used within our teaching practice. In the past, I have found that students did not have enough time during the
production stage, which allowed students to practice fluency, and therefore I am considering using the task-based learning approach. On the

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other hand, teacher talk still takes up a great deal of time and therefore needs close attention, reflection and a good balance during the course
(Hall, 2012, p.10).

Unreliable audio equipment

Audio equipment has been unreliable, and there were several instances where the audio skipped and sometimes stopped during a listening task,
which consequently affected students motivation and they were put off in few instances. However, I considered in bringing in my own personal
speakers from home.

Students could suffer from trauma

Students from certain countries such as Syria are asylum seekers who may suffer from post-traumatic stress due to losing families, friends,
financial income and their homes. Therefore, they would like to learn English for everyday use, work and to rebuild their lives. Their previous
experiences can also affect students motivation during the study of the course. I plan to use Claytons (2015) recommendation for practitioners
in not just creating a safe environment but avoiding any people or activities that may arouse recollection of the trauma. She has also suggested
that keeping doors and windows open would reduce any intrusive memories of detention (Clayton, 2015, p.9) and can be easy implemented
in my practice. However, Marlow s (1943) hierarchy of needs, physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization demonstrates that we
all share common needs in which we aim to achieve and maintain. This allows me to understand my students in more depth.

Needs assessment

Graves (1996) states that needs assessment should involve the exploration and understanding of what students already know and what they
require to learn in order for the course to try and bridge that gap. This can be achieved by interpreting the information about the learners needs
and implementing it into the course so it can be accomplished effectively. Because different learners have different needs, the evidence
collected through needs assessment will help me, as a teacher, to make appropriate choices for my students and cater to all my students needs
(Graves, 1996, pp.12-17) (Appendix 3).

Additionally, Graves (1996) differentiates "objective" and "subjective" needs using Richterichs (1980) and Brindleys (I989: 70) definition that
states objective needs are as "derivable from different kinds of factual information about learners, their use of language in real-life

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communication situations as well as their current language proficiency and language difficulties" and subjective needs are "the cognitive and
affective needs of the learner in the learning situation, derivable from information about affective and cognitive factors such as personality,
confidence, attitudes, learners' want and expectations with regard to the learning of English and their individual cognitive style and learning
strategies (Graves, 1996, pp.12-17). My interview question list (Appendix 3) will help me measure the students language ability to help me
understand what they already know and where they can improve. There will also be in-class activities for students to initially complete helping
measure students' proficiency in reading, writing, speaking or listening (Graves, 1996, pp.12-17).

Furthermore, to assess the subjective needs of my students, I have reported on the students` attitudes towards the target language and
culture and expectations of themselves and of the course including students' preferences in terms of how they will learn (Graves, 1996, pp.12-
17). Students have made me aware, in their needs analysis that they would prefer to practise their fluency and develop confidence. However, in
their home countries students sit and study within a teacher centred environment. The consequence of this method and cultural teaching is that
they have a very high expectation from me as a teacher to teach and instruct. However, to meet their objective and subjective needs, it is,
therefore, more relevant to use a communicative approach, such as task-based learning to fulfil these needs. This method will give them the
ability to develop fluency, build confidence and allow them to become autonomous learners (Drnyei, 2001).

Roberts (2004) explains that at practitioner level there is a need to bring everyday life and local cultural contexts into the classroom where
possible such as guests and resources. (Roberts et al., 2004, p.42). In week I have decided to bring in a friend as a guest from British Gas who
deals with customer complaints to give student a real-life experience of how this works, with a cultural understanding of this workplace
(Appendix 1).

Determining goals and objectives

The purpose of the course is to develop the students English for work and life, which is influenced by the needs analysis of the leaners. Setting
goals and objectives for my course will offer me a sense of direction and a clear framework to plan my course. Drnyei (2001) explains that
goals are not only outcomes to shoot for but also standards in which students can assess their performance and progress (Drnyei, 2001, p.
82). According to Graves (1996) goals are general statements of the overall long-term purposes of the course and, the objectives express the
specific ways in which the goals will be achieved (Graves, 1996, pp.17-19). Therefore, the targets of a course indicate the destination, while the
objectives show the number of points that guide the course in the direction of that destination. Graves (1996) cites Stem (1992) who proposes

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four types of goals for language learners: proficiency goals, cognitive goals, affective goals, and transfer goals (Graves, 1996, pp.17-19)
(Appendix 1).

Proficiency goals.

Student will develop their speaking and listening skills in relation to formal and informal language
Students will develop their planning skills and confidence in talking about the future

Cognitive goals to develop cultural knowledge.

Students will learn intercultural awareness between themselves


Students will learn about different work contexts in the UK
Students will learn to debate and share opinions

Affective goals comprise of attaining optimistic attitudes and confidence in terms of using the target language.

Students will develop confidence in creating their own C.V. ready to apply for jobs and join the workforce.
Students will learn how to express themselves and share ideas more confidently

Transfer goals include learning how to learn so that one can call upon learning skills gained in one situation to meet future learning challenges.

Students will know how to start a conversation using small talk


Students will know how to create a C.V
Students will know how to express likes and dislikes
Students will be aware of the importance of health and safety
Students will know different symptoms and treatment
Students will learn to work in pairs and as part of a team

(Graves, 1996, pp.17-19)

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Lastly, goals can help students attain the knowledge and skills while creating a positive consciousness. Graves (1996) also cites Nunan (1988b:
60) who points out that "Objectives are really nothing more than a particular way of formulating or stating content and activities." Therefore,
objectives can be stated in relation to what the learners will do in the course (Graves, 1996, pp.17-19). Finally, students can benefit from a
product and process- orientated approach. For example, objectives have already been defined above, in advance while assessment can be
towards the learners criteria of success (Hall, 2012).

Conceptualizing content

I need to ascertain which parts of language and language learning will be included, emphasized and integrated into my course. The challenge
was to select appropriate content to integrate into the course. The content is explained and outlined in a syllabus grid, which is a graphical
technique to demonstrate possible categories. The backbone of what I teach is derived from English for work and everyday use. The choices I
have made are dependent on the situation and encompass several influences such as the students background, main goals and expectations,
as well as my own perception of what will best fit students' needs on this course (Graves, 1996, pp.19-25. According to the needs analysis in
terms of goals and objectives of my students, it is clear that they would benefit from functional work-based scenarios.

In addition, the competency-based approach to syllabus design was developed in the United States in response to the influx of immigrants in
the 1975 and 1985. This method is a blend of the communicative and task-based approaches, which have been used, in previous courses for
teaching immigrants, who required functional language in English within their community and workplace very quickly. Competencies are task-
oriented goals written in terms of behavioural objectives that include language behaviour" (Centre for Applied Linguistics. 1983: 9) (Graves,
1996, pp.19-25). They are the language and behaviour necessary to function in situations related to living in the community and finding and
maintaining a job. Competencies associated to living in Cardiff are termed life skills and those linked to jobs are known as vocational skills (Graves,
1996, pp.19-25).

English for work content

1. Applying for job - Students want to rebuild their lives and plan to seek employment. Therefore, learning how to apply for a job is very
important for them. For example, learning how to create a C.V and build confidence are some of their goals.

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2. Communication at work (formal language) - Students want to communicate more fluently in preparation for face-to-face, telephone
interview and in the workplace. For example, students can achieve their goals by practising formal and informal language at the workplace
through role-plays.
3. Making small talk (informal language) students also demand to learn English for everyday use. This will also help them communicate
better with work colleagues and take part in discussions during breaks. Students talk time will be used to scaffold their learning before
carrying out the main task
4. Safety at work This is a vital topic which every employee should understand before starting a new job, for both their own and work
colleagues health and safety. Vocabulary will be pre-taught to scaffold activities such as matching words with pictures.
5. Dealing with difficult situations students want to learn how to ask for clarity and understand people better. I think it is also important
at work when dealing with difficult customers or work colleagues. Students will get the chance to practise this situation through role
plays giving them a sense of real life experience.

English for life content

1. Calendar and dates Understanding the UK celebrations, culture and expressing future plans are necessary for students to develop
English for everyday use. This topic also links with number 2 above, English for work content in terms of planning for work and booking
time off. Activities will include information gap exercises, which allow students to practise speaking and integrate with one another.
2. I like / I dont like - Students need to practise expressing what they like, dislike, love or hate and become more fluent and use
vocabulary in the real world, for example, ordering food, selecting a movie or simply expressing personal feelings in everyday
situations. Again, this topic links with number 3 above making small talk, English for work content in relation to expressing likes and
dislikes at work (i.e. Food in canteen). Once again vocabulary will be pre-taught as a form of scaffolding before carrying out the main
task.
3. At the weekend people usually talk about what they did over the weekend at work or leisure. Therefore, students would also benefit
from the overlap between this topic and number 4, safety at work above, in terms of developing vocabulary and learning to adapt
register.
4. Health students also need to learn and develop in describing symptoms and treatment in the target language, especially when they
intend to go in to work, for their own health and safety, including others at work who get be affected.

(Appendix 1)

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Finally, during my curriculum design presentation, I received peer feedback from my colleague Camii who suggested that I may include
'expectation of an employer (time keeping, dress code, etc.). I found this to be the most relevant feedback in the class in terms of meeting my
students needs and therefore I have incorporated this as career advice in which students will receive adapted leaflets about employers
expectations at the end of the course. This will give students extra information before applying or starting a new job.

Selecting and developing materials and activities

Nunan (n.d) cities (Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985: 289) who define task as an activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing
or understanding language (Nunan, n.d). Likewise, Graves (1996) states the most important are their effectiveness in achieving the purposes
of the course and their appropriateness for the students and the teacher (Graves, 1996, pp.26-28). Selecting and developing material forms the
backbone of the course and is something tangible that learners can use which also provides an emphasis for the session (Graves, 1996, pp.26-
28). Selecting and developing new materials, including activities needs time, and therefore I believe having a balance between using published
materials and adapting them is useful. However, due to experience I found that developing new material is more effective because it can be
customised to the learners needs and is more fun, enjoyable for both the teacher and students. On the other hand, my students and I are
familiar with A2 Language Leader course book, which is prescribed by our academy. Therefore, I intend to adapt relevant material and activities
for my curriculum design. These materials must also be appropriate to the learner in relation to understanding and consciousness with, language
level, interest, and relevance (Graves, 1996, pp.26-28).

The use of authentic materials like real text can help bridge the gap between the classroom and the real world (Guariento and Morley, 2000,
p. 348). Therefore, I intend to use and adapt gossip magazines, for example, in week 3 (Appendix 1) English for work, making small talk, I plan to
adapt a short discussion of two people having a social chat by extracting the small talk conversations and cutting these texts into small phrases
where students can then work together to arrange them in order. Students can compare answers and debate about their chosen order of texts.
This material can also be used to compare formal and informal language and expand vocabulary in week 2, English for work, communication at
work. This activity firstly, allows students to interact with each other and secondly it is relevant to students in terms of meeting their objective
and subjective needs in fluency, confidence, cultural awareness and developing English for work and everyday use. I plan to scaffold the students
learning by using visual aids such as pictures and pre-teaching vocabulary to aid understanding and by eliciting prior knowledge from them.
Finally, I plan to give students time to talk, share and absorb the target language. My role as a teacher, using the task-based approach, is to
facilitate these tasks and activities and only step in if necessary for example, if students have not understood the task or instructions very clearly.

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Furthermore, this activity fits into task-based learning as a communicative approach and would be placed at the centre of the session to
consolidate pre-taught vocabulary before moving onto the main task.

Graves (1996) cites Nonna (1989) who proposes a task continuum, with real-world tasks at one end and pedagogic tasks at the other. The real-
world tasks encourage students to use the target language in ways that they might outside the classroom, such as listening to the radio, reading
the newspaper, or using a train schedule while the pedagogic tasks do not arise outside teaching but help aid students improve the essential
skills to function in the world, for example, information gap activities (Graves, 1996, pp.19-25). This is shown in week 3, session 6, at the weekend,
English for life (Appendix 1), Here students would play a find someone who activity using an information gap in which they would go around
the class in search of missing information, interacting with others asking questions and sharing information. These activities would develop and
help students in the real world and can be a transferrable skill in different contexts such as finding information in a supermarket or travelling to
a destination.

Organization of content and activities

Two matching principles to organize content and activities are building and recycling. In deciding how to arrange material for the course, I
have decided to consider structuring from simple to the complex so that the first part of a task or activity supports learners in preparation for
the main task to accomplish the goal and objectives set for each unit of study (Graves, 1996, pp.28-30). In terms of building, each theme builds
on the other. For example, in week 1 (Appendix 1) the topic applying for a job, which is English for work, is linked with English for life through
the theme of calendar and dates in that students complete and talk about their plans, work or leisure. This is also carried out through the
syllabus.

I have also used the principle of recycling material, which means the use of previous material in different ways to develop new skills. For example,
Graves (1996) states that material encountered in a listening activity may be recycled in a writing exercise or material encountered in an
individual reading activity may be recycled in a role play with other students (Graves, 1996, pp.28-30). For example, the materials used in week
2, English for work, communication at work formal language exercise that students carried out, where they matched pictures to the correct
phrases is also used in week three, where students compare the type of register used in week 3, English for life, making small talk informal
language.

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Graves (1996) mentions that conceiving of activities as building blocks puts them in a feeding relation where one activity feeds into another if
it provides something that is needed for the second one . . . or the second exercise could not be done unless the first had already been completed"
(Graves, 1996, pp.28-30). This technique of feeding was very useful in organizing activities in my course design because it helped me structure
and plan more effectively, for example in week 5 (Appendix 1). I have used the cyclical approach to organize the overall course. In this approach,
a regular cycle of activities follows a consistent sequence (Graves, 1996, pp.28-30). Therefore, as you can see on the course outline table
(Appendix 1) that throughout the syllabus there are pre-tasks that prepare students for the next task before consolidating the main task or
post-task. For example, this is shown in week 1, where students start with pre-task in which they discuss and talk about previous work
experience. At this stage students, should be familiar with the theme and are prepared for task where they carry out an gap fill activity using
a blank CV, in pairs and fill in and complete their previous employment etc. Finally, at this stage students are aware of the information needed
to build a C.V and create their own personal C.V and also build enough confidence to share with the class. Other material that could be adapted
are visual images, for example in week 4, English for work, safety at work (Appendix 1) I can use free online images and cut the texts out for
students to work together in pairs and match each word to its correct image, using the real-life safety signs at t to correct themselves.

Assessment and Evaluation

As a teacher, I believe evaluation means evaluating the course and assessment as the measuring of students' proficiency, progress, or
achievement (Graves, 1996, pp.30-32).

At the outset, our language academy carries out a free placement practice test, which means students are tested and grouped into different
class abilities using the Common European Framework of References for languages (CEFR). This means that if my manager implements this
course, students would be tested for suitability before they enrol onto this course.

Initially, there will be formative assessment through observations during the course. These include teacher monitoring, peer and self-assessment.
I plan to include the learners assessing themselves and each other. Students swapping tasks and activities and assessing each other will facilitate
this. Weaker students will benefit from stronger students. This method also does not put students on the spot or embarrass them, and therefore
they lose the fear of making mistakes and gain confidence throughout the class. The teacher also monitors students by walking around the class

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and observing and assessing the students competence and development while carrying out instructions. Homework is set as another form of
assessment and also to pre-introduce and interlink new topics. Concept Checking Questions (CCQ) and Instruction Checking Question (ICQ) are
also used to assess students understanding during tasks and activities. Students will also build and complete a portfolio for review at the end of
the course to see how well the students have carried out the tasks and activities (McNamara, 2000, p. 6).

Additionally, I have decided to carry out diagnostic assessment through interview by creating a comfortable and relaxing environment for the
students to feel at ease and extract the best possible data for my needs analysis. This will help me understand each learners need and give a
strong foundation to set goal and objectives.

There will also be a focus group at the beginning of the course so that students can get to know each other. Students can share any cultural
differences creating a cultural awareness between students. They also have the opportunity to express and set rules for the classroom, in terms
of respect between them, lateness, and also understanding what is expected of them. For example, add and explain the academys fire drill that
occurs on a Thursday and the procedural guidelines to follow if it happens and any other health and safety procedures.

Furthermore, Curriculum Design can be evaluated using, formative evaluation, which takes place during the development and implementation
of the curriculum for purposes of modifying it as it is being developed (Graves, 1996, pp.30-32). Therefore, I have also decided that at the end
of each session for students to complete a learners log, for example, students will write what they have learnt and at the same time make notes
on what they would like to develop further. On successful completion of the course, there will be a questionnaire to evaluate the course. For
example, I plan to use a Likert scale of 1 being poor to 5 being excellent. On the last day, there will be a focus group to give the students an
opportunity to discuss their experiences and address any concerns of future practice and congratulate their success in developing and completing
the course.

In addition, there are achievement tests available within this language academy however these tests are for English for academic purpose (EAP)
such as IELTS test in preparing for university level that are the only external accreditation available. Nevertheless, due to my design background,
I have been given the permission to design certificates for my learners in previous teaching. These certificates demonstrated the successful
attendance and completion of the course, which encouraged students to fully engage and complete the entire course. I, therefore, would like to
use this opportunity again for this course by creating a certificate for successful completion of this new curriculum.

A summative evaluation is carried out after the curriculum has been implemented, for purposes of evaluating its success and improving it for
future implementation (Graves, 1996, pp.30-32). I also intend to have a continuous evaluation throughout the development of this course

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(Graves, 1996, pp.30-32). My course design evaluation questionnaire (Appendix 2) will enable me to understand whether the students have
enjoyed the course, task and activities were appropriate, developing their English for work and life.

In conclusion, during the end of each week, as a teacher, I will be completing my own reflection and evaluation. I also have other teachers but
who can only observe parts of the lesson due to their busy teaching schedule. However, I believe having a different perspective is a valuable
resource to use in assessing this course. To end, evaluation can be carried out during the course within the development and teaching stages,
after completing the curriculum including when it is re-planned and retaught (Graves, 1996, pp.30-32).

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(APPENDIX 1) - COURSE OUTLINE

Framework Objectives Tasks Materials Assessment

Week 1 Students get know each First day (focus group) Whiteboard & Monitoring
other and set rules for the Pre-task marker Peer correction
Session 1 classroom. Elicit vocabulary - CV, cover letter, application, previous employment CV On the spot
and qualification. Cover letter feedback
Time - 2 hours By the end of the lesson Student talk about previous work experience in pairs. Students watch Application, Question and
minutes overcome their anxiety and a telephone and face-to-face job interviews and share thoughts in national answer (eliciting)
gain self-confidence in pairs. Information gap CV Drilling
Day - Thursday
developing an effective C.V Task Blank CV CCQ Concept
English for work ready to apply for jobs. Students complete a gap fill activity using a CV and adding missing Dictionaries checking questions
words in pairs. Students match words with interview questions. Peer Student add to ICQ - Instruction
Topic - Applying correction Students report back to the class. portfolio checking questions.
for job Post task Learner log
Students create their own CV and practice face to face job interviews
with their partners using interview questions.
Session 2 By the end of the course, Pre-task Whiteboard Monitoring
students will develop their Students predict lesson and then are asked days and months within a 2016 calendar On the spot
Time - 1 hour 30 fluency, planning skills and year and teacher writes on board. Teacher elicits target vocabulary Information gap feedback
minutes confidence in talking about such as New Years Ramadan and Christmas, etc. Dictionaries Question and
future plans using the Task Student add to answer (eliciting)
Day - Friday correct names of days and Information gap exercise in pairs by completing missing information portfolio Drilling
months within a calendar from class such as holiday dates. Students discuss about their favourite Learner log CCQ Concept
English for life
year including UK month and why. Students report back to the class. checking questions
Topic - Calendar celebrations and holidays Post-task Weekly teacher
and dates dates. Students then plan in two groups a cruise holiday over several weeks evaluation
with planned activities and present to class in which they vote for the ICQ - Instruction
best holiday. checking questions.
Week 2 Students will develop Pre-task Whiteboard & Monitoring
confidence and fluency Teacher elicits Target vocabulary co-worker, supervisor, manager, marker Peer correction
Session 3 practicing different register boss, employer and employees. Students talk about previous jobs of Student hand-out On the spot
in formal and informal names and positions. Dictionaries feedback
Time - 1 hour 30
introductions used within Task Student add to Question and
minutes Students match pictures with phrase and check with partner. Students
their own or future portfolio answer (eliciting)
compare formal and informal language and report back to the class.

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Day - Friday workplace between Post task Learner log Drilling
managers and work Teacher models phrases and students practice in groups Short CCQ Concept
English for work colleges. introductory phrases Id like you to meet, Id like to introduce checking questions
you to to Hello.., Hi, nice to meet you and not bad. ICQ - Instruction
Topic
Students practice role-play telephone interview with partner, taking checking questions.
communication
on a new employee role.
at work (formal
(Homework is to write a list of likes and dislikes)
language)

Session 4 by the end of the course, Pre-task Video clip Monitoring


students will learnt how Teacher elicits expressions such as like, dont like, hate, love etc. Flash cards Peer correction
Time - 1 hour 30 express what they like, student discuss in groups what they like, dislike love and hate Whiteboard On the spot
minutes dislike, hate or love Task Video feedback
Students listen to video clip of expressions and discuss when they Dictionaries Eliciting
Day - Friday would use them. Students complete an information gap by finding Student add to Drilling
English for life
answers from other students and then compare answers. portfolio CCQ Concept
Post-task learner log checking questions
Topic I like / I Students carry out a role play by using expressions learnt and ask each ICQ - Instruction
dont like other questions do you like? and using phrases to answer them. For checking questions.
example, Students take on the role of a waiter taking an on and a Weekly teacher
customer ordering food from a restaurant. evaluation
Week 3 By the end of the lesson, Pre-task Realia Monitoring
students will have Teacher elicits small talk Family photos Peer correction
Session 5 developed their vocabulary, Teacher explains and demonstrates small talk with a volunteer, using Movie ticket, On the spot
confidence and fluency is common topic such as sport, news etc. Teacher elicits students Restaurant feedback
Time - 1 hour 30
making small talk. interest in topics they use for small talk and share with their partner. receipts, Question and
minutes Task Flyers answer (eliciting)
Day - Thursday Students also learn Students match a jigsaw of conversation starter such as beautiful day, Local newspaper Drilling
common topic of isnt it? students swap and check each others work and report back Company CCQ Concept
English for work developing small talk. to the class. newsletters checking questions
Post task Job adverts. ICQ - Instruction
Topic How to if necessary teacher models small talk at work with a volunteer, and Dictionaries checking questions.
make small talk then students work in groups and practice phrases. Students compare Student add to
(informal register with week 2 task activity. (Homework is for students to draw portfolio
language) what they did over the weekend for next session ready for next learner log
session) Week 2 task
activity (recycling)

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Session 6 By the end of the course, Pre-task Whiteboard Monitoring
students should have Teacher models past forms such as did you meet friends at the Irregular verbs list Peer correction
Time - 1 hour 30 developed new vocabulary, weekend? yes and then follow-up who did you met? Students Information gap On the spot
minutes build confidence and discuss in pairs what they did last weekend using previous homework. Dictionaries feedback
improve fluency in using Task Student add to Drilling
Day - Friday the past form. Students carryout a find someone who activity by using phrases, portfolio CCQ Concept
English for life
information gap and report back to the class learner log checking questions
Post-task ICQ - Instruction
Topic - at the Students write two sentences using phrase and then carry out a role checking questions.
weekend play in front of class to practice dialogue using past form and build Weekly teacher
confidence. evaluation
Week 4 Safety at work relies on Pre-task Safety sign pictures Monitoring
being able to read and teacher asks students about previous knowledge of safety on the job Worksheet hand- Peer correction
Session 7 understand signs and and writes response on the whiteboard. out On the spot
warnings, as well as the Teacher elicits Target vocabulary caution, warning, danger, wet floor, Flash cards feedback
Time - 1 hour 30 proper use and naming of fire extinguisher, safety boots, apron, hair net etc. Dictionaries Question and
minutes safety gear. By the end of Task Student add to answer (eliciting)
the lesson, students will Students work in pairs using safety cards and discuss who uses them portfolio Drilling
Day - Friday
have developed the most and why? Where signs are posted. Students report back to the class. learner log CCQ Concept
English for work common safety vocabulary Post task checking questions
including socio-cultural Students rank health hazards in scale of 1 to 10. ICQ - Instruction
Topic - Safety at factors (beliefs, rules and Students discuss about the importance of safety signs, share views and checking questions.
work regulations) of safety in the beliefs in pairs.
workplace. Students debate their views with the whole class.
Session 8 By the end of the course, Pre-task Information gaps Monitoring
students will be able to Teacher elicits headaches, colds, sore throat, earache, sneezing etc. with pictures Peer correction
Time - 1 hour 30 describe typical medical students discuss any recent illnesses or symptoms in pairs. Flash cards. On the spot
minutes alignments, symptoms and Task Dictionaries feedback
treatments. Students match flash cards with words in pairs and report back to the Student add to Eliciting
Day - Friday class. Students also complete a find someone task by finding missing portfolio Drilling
English for life information such someone who can make homemade flue drink. learner log CCQ Concept
Post-task checking questions
Topic heath Students practice role plays in pairs using learnt vocabulary in pairs ICQ - Instruction
before presenting to the whole class. For example, students take on checking questions.
the role of a doctor asking for symptoms while the other takes on the Weekly teacher
role of a patient who will describe what health problems they evaluation
hypothetically suffer from.

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Week 5 When dealing customers or Pre-task Whiteboard Monitoring
work colleges students Students predict topic; teacher elicits phrases that students use when Worksheet hand- Peer correction
Session 9 need to be able to ask for they dont understand something. teacher writes phrases on the out On the spot
clarity. At the end of the whiteboard such as Excuse me?, can you repeat that?, pardon?, Dictionaries feedback
Time - 1 hour 30
lesson, students will what was that, one more time please and again? Students Student add to Question and
minutes discuss in pairs why and when they would use these phrases. Students
develop fluency in asking portfolio answer (eliciting)
Day - Thursday clarification when confused
report back to the class. learner log Drilling
Task Bring in a friend as CCQ Concept
or simply dont understand
English for work Teacher drills for expressions to develop fluency. Students read simple a guest from call checking questions
something.
script and add an extra question and practice in pairs. British gas call ICQ - Instruction
Topic dealing Post task centre checking questions.
with difficult Students practice in pair before self-selected students carry out a role-
situation play in front of class using phrase learnt taking on the role of a
customer.

Session 10 By the end of the lesson, Complete portfolio Whiteboard Monitoring


students would have Students complete their portfolio which should include C.V, hand-outs, Dictionaries Peer correction
Time - 2 hours completed their portfolio, i.e. information gap Student complete On the spot
minutes self-refection and prepared Complete evaluation questionnaire portfolio feedback
question and answer for Students complete evaluation questionnaire for the course and discuss Learner log CCQ Concept
Day - Friday the focus group. in pairs of interesting topics. Careers advice checking questions
Portfolio Focus group leaflets ICQ - Instruction
Students are also given Teacher and students form a circle and discuss about any issues or checking questions.
completion
further advice on concerns about the course or further development.
Topic reflection
employers expectations. Students are given careers advice leaflets such as employers
expectation (time keeping, dress-code etc.) and further
development for everyday English .

Ideas were adapted and taken from www.eastsideliteracy.org and www.linguahouse.com.

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(APPENDIX 2) - COURSE DESIGN EVALUATION QUESTIONAIRRE

Question Poor Good Very Excellent


Good

1 Speaking tasks

2 Listening tasks

3 Reading tasks

4 Writing tasks

5 Teacher support was?

6 Homework task (interesting, useful etc.)

7 Assessments (monitoring, learner log)

8 Classroom feeling (fun, interesting etc.)

9 Teaching materials (Handouts, flashcards)

10 Did you improve in confidence?

11 Did you improve in English for work?

12 Did you improve in English for life?

How would you improve the course?.................................................................................................................................................


What was the most useful part of the course?...................................................................................................................................
Would you recommend this course to anyone? ..

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(APPENDIX 3) - NEEDS ANALYSIS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

These interview questions will be used as stimulus to create a comfortable and relaxed discussion during interview to help students express their needs to
achieve a successful course that will meet their demand.

Educational background in English

What is your experience of learning English?


What skills did you learnt? (listening & speaking, reading & writing)
What tasks or activities did you do?
How many students were in your class?
What type of topics did you learn? (English for work or everyday use)

Preferences

What type of topics do you like? (applying for a job, at the weekend etc.)
What type of topics do you dislike? (grammar, spelling etc.)
What skills do you enjoy? (listening & speaking, reading & writing)
What skills do you not enjoy? (listening & speaking, reading & writing)

Self-assessment

What type of skills are you good at? (listening & speaking, reading & writing)
What type of skills do you need to improve? (listening & speaking, reading & writing)

Language experience

What technique do use to learn new words?


What techniques do you use to memorise new words?
What techniques do you use to understand new words?
Did you use a dictionary in class?

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Expectations

Why do you want to learn (ESP) English for work and life course?
What types of skills would you like to improve on in this course?
What opportunities do you expect from this course?
How can this course help you in the future?

Personality and attitude

How are you encouraged or motivated to learn English?


What makes you a confident or shy speaker?

English for work & life

What is your current job or what jobs would you like to apply for?
Do you find it difficult about learning English?
What are your strength in learning English?
What type of things do you enjoy reading magazines, newspaper, genre books etc.?
How do you search for jobs?
Where do you use, or speak English? (Home, restaurant, work, social media)
Do you watch any English TV channels? (News, sport, movies or documentaries)
Have carried out role plays, face to face or phone interviews?

Disabilities

Do you have any study disabilities? (Dyslexia, Irlen syndrome)

Culture and beliefs

Are there any restrictions on music, images, idols or symbolic items? (hand gestures, religious idols)
Is there any restriction on group work? (free mixing, i.e. women and men together)

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References

Barton, D., Ivanic, R., Appleby, Y., Hodge, R. & Tusting, K. (2007) Literacy, Lives and Learning Abingdon. Oxon: Routledge

Clayton, M. (2015) The Impact of PTSD on Refugee Language Learners, ResearchGate. [Online]. Available at:
file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/CLAYTON_2015_REFUGEE_PTSD_LITREV.pdf (Accessed: 06 January 2017)

Drnyei, Z. (2001) Motivational strategies in the language classroom: Language Teaching Library. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.

Graves, K. (1996) A framework of course development process, ELT Journal. pp. 12-35. [Online]. Available at:
file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/MA%20Eduaction%20(Innovation%20&%20Learning)/3%20-
%20Tesol%20Criculum%20design%20and%20evaluation/Graves_1996_Chpt_2.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2016).

Guariento, W. and Morley, J. (2000) Text and task authenticity in the EFL classroom, ELT Journal [Online]. Available at:
file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/text%20and%20task%20authenticity%20in%20the%20EFL%20classroom.pdf (Accessed: 07 January 2017).

Hall, G. (2012) Exploring English Language Teaching: language in action, ELT Journal. p. 10. [Online]. Available at:
http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/rial/data/9780415584159_sample.pdf (Accessed: 06 January 2017).

Maslow, A.H. (1943) A theory of human motivation Brooklyn college, ELT Journal. P. 394. [Online]. Available at:
http://search.proquest.com.ergo.southwales.ac.uk/docview/614249947?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=15324 (Accessed: 07 January 2017)

McNamara, T. (2000) Language testing: Oxford introduction to language study. Oxford: Oxford university press.

Nunan, D. (n.d) Syllabus Design, Language Teaching: A Scheme. for Teacher Education, ELT Journal. pp. 48-49. [Online]. Available at:
file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/Curriculum%20design%20articles/David%20Nunan%20-%20Syllabus%20Design.pdf
(Accessed: 01 january2017)

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Roberts, C., Baynham, M, Shrubshall, P., Barton, D., Chopra, P., Cooke, M., Hodge, R., Pitt, K., Schellekens, P., Wallace, C. & Whitfield, S. (2004) English for
Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL): case studies of provision, learners needs and resources. NRDC: London [online]. Available at:
http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/22472/1/doc_302.pdf (Accessed: 02 January 2017)

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