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Index

A recirculation, hot plume air, 226


temperature control, 225
ACHEs, see Air-cooled heat exchangers (ACHEs) Air cooling
Acoustical holography, NDT disadvantages, 215216
description, 1021 factors, 215
principle and applications, 1021 Air preheaters
vs. radiography and ultrasonic testing, 1021 corrosion and fouling, 349
and speckle interferometry, 1021 defined, 347
Acoustic emission testing (AET) design features, 348349
applications, 10231024 enameled elements, 349, 350
description, 1021 heat exchanger baskets, 349350
emission types and characteristics, 1022 regenerator heating elements profile, 349
Kaiser effect, 10221023 Alcoa 571 process
merits, 1024 depth of immersion and soldering time, 1145
physical phenomena and failure modes, 1022 fluxless ultrasonic soldering, 1143, 1144
principle, 1021 heat exchanger coil socket configuration, 1143
reference code, 1023 preheat temperature, 1145
release and propagation, 1021, 1022 process control, 1144
signal analysis, 1023 requirements, 1143
testing instrument, 1023 solder composition and maintenance, soldering
written procedure, 1023 bath, 1144
Acoustic resonance, FIV soldering procedure, 1143
acceptance criteria, 529530 ultrasonic soldering pot and socket design,
Blevins expression, 527528 11441145
fluctuating transverse velocity, standing waves, 524, Alstrom power trisector Ljungstrm air preheater,
525 351352
principle, standing waves Aluminum alloys
frequencies, 524 corrosion resistance
tube solidity effects, sound velocity, 525526 chemical nature, 854
velocity of sound, shellside medium, 525 forms, 855858
turbulent buffeting mechanism, 528 prevention and control measures,
vortex shedding mechanism, 528 858859
Active techniques, heat transfer augmentation, 454 resistance to waters, 854855
AET, see Acoustic emission testing (AET) surface oxide film, 853854
Air bumping, 492 fabrication
Air conditioning and refrigeration convex-shaped welds, 862
heating/cooling coils, 152153 corrosion resistance, 862
mechanical bond, 153 filler metals welding, 862
parameters, 153 joint design, 861
tube-fin details, 153 joint geometry, 861
Air-cooled heat exchangers (ACHEs) parameters, welding, 859860
air vs. water cooling, 214216 plate cutting and forming, 861
API Standard 661/ISO 13706, 224225 preheating, 861
construction, see Tube bundle construction, ACHEs push technique, 862
description, 213214 shielding gas, 862
design, see Design, ACHEs surface preparation and cleanliness, 861
deterioration travel speed, 862
design performance data, 1170 welding methods, 863
inspection, 1170 welding wire, 862
install upgrades, 1170 wire feeding, 862
performance and set baseline, 1170 properties
tube bundle, 1171 heat exchanger applications, 850851
forced vs. induced draft, 225226 product forms and shapes, 853
heat rejection method, 213 temper designation system, 853
principle, 214 wrought alloy designations, 851853

1187
1188 Index

Aluminum brazed joint inserter, heat exchanger, 1058


galvanic corrosion resistance, 1147 insertion, straight tubes, 1056
influence, brazing process, 11481149 rolls and lifter, 1057
Aluminum brazing rolls/trolley, 1057, 1058
brazed alloys, 1116, 1127 U-tube bundle, 10591060
characteristics, 1126 ATCS, see Automatic tube cleaning
closer temperature control, 1121, 1126 systems (ATCS)
dip, see Aluminum dip brazing Austenitic stainless steel; see also Superaustenitic
filler metals, 1127, 1128 stainless steels, with Mo + N
flux drop-off, 1130 alloy development, 807808
fluxing, 1127 alloying elements and microstructure
furnace, 1128, 1130 ferrite-forming elements, 809
joint clearance, 1127 wrought alloys, 809
precleaning, 1127 alloy types and applications, 809810
process advantages and furnaces, CAB, 11301132 200 and 300 series alloys, 807
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residual corrosive flux, 1126 fabrication


surface oxide removal, 1127 gas cutting method, 819820
vacuum, 11321134 mechanical cutting methods, 819
Aluminum bronzes, 867 passivation, 819
Aluminum dip brazing pickling, 819
description, 1128 heat exchanger applications, 808
manufacturing procedure, flux, 1128, 1129 properties, 808809
Aluminum Exchanger (ALEX) core, 174 types, 807
Aluminum filler metals, 1116 welding, see Welding, austenitic stainless steel
Aluminum heat exchangers Automated tube inspection system (ATIS), 1035
air-conditioning industry, 1143 Automatic tube cleaning systems (ATCS)
Alcoa 571 process, 11431145 brush and cage system, 493494
flux soldering, 1142 sponge rubber ball, 493, 494
materials, 1143 Automotive radiators
Reynolds process, 11451146 corrosion resistance, 1150
American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 661/ISO description, 11491150
13706, 224225 mechanical durability tests, 1150
American Society Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes
addenda, 571 B
BPVC, 567568
classification, circular flanges, 621 Baffles
code cases, boilers and pressure vessels, 571 classification, 243
interpretations, 571 disk and doughnut, 247
material requirements double and triple segmental, 245247
non pressure parts, 751 drilling, 1055
pressure parts, 750751 Egg-Crate-Grid, 249, 250
sections, 568571 grimmas, 251
technical inquiries, 571572 longitudinal, 249
Anodic inhibitors, 715 low-pressure drop, 251
Antivibration tools, FIV multi-segmental, 245
ExxonMobil research and engineering company, NEST, 249250
548, 547 non-segmental, 250
tube stakes, 546, 548 NTIW design, 248
ASME Codes, see American Society of Mechanical orientation, 244
Engineers (ASME) Codes orifice, 248
Assembly, tube bundle ROD, 249
cautions, tubes insertion, 1059 segmental, 243
description, 1056 shellside flow distribution, 244
inside exchanger shell spacing, 244
description, 1058 steam generator tube support, 251
procedure, 10581059 thickness, 244
large steam condensers, 1059 transverse, 243
methods, 1056 wavy bar, 251
outside exchanger shell window, 247
drawbacks, 1056 Bahnke and Howard method, longitudinal heat
EMbaffle tube, 1057 conduction, 372
Helixchanger baffle cage assembly, 1056 BAHXs, see Brazed aluminum heat exchangers
impingement baffles, 1058 (BAHXs)
Index 1189

Beam strip method, rectangular tubesheet design, mechanical design, 173


610611 plate-fin vs. coil-wound heat exchangers, 175
BellDelaware method quality management, 174
accuracy, 308 shapes/configuration, 167, 168
applications, low-finned tubes, 308 structure and components, 169
geometric parameters, 291 testing, 174
input data, 291 thermal expansion and contraction, 173
no-tubes-in-window configuration, 308 Brazed plate heat exchanger (BHE), 403, 404
shellside parameters, 292293 Brazing
Bellows-type expansion joints, STHE advantages, 11141115
circular and rectangular shells, 649 aluminum, see Aluminum brazing
defined, 642643 applications, 1115
fatigue life, 652 codes and standards, 1139
materials, 649 control of distortion, furnace cycle, 1126
operational capability definition, 1114
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external reinforcement, 651 dip, see Dip brazing


flow sleeve, convolutions, 652, 653 disadvantages, 1115
multi-ply construction and thicker discontinuities, 1138
convolutions, 651 features, quality systems, 1137
pressure-balanced, 651652 filler metals, see Brazing filler metals
single-ply, 650651 fixturing, see Fixturing, brazing
piping applications, 643 fluxing, see Fluxing, brazing
BHE, see Brazed plate heat exchanger (BHE) furnace, see Furnace brazing
Biological fouling, 476477 heating rate, 1125
Boiler and pressure vessel code (BPVC), 567568 heat-resistant alloys, 11351136
Bolted flanged joint design, STHE joint design, 11151116
ASME code classification, circular flanges, 621 plate fin heat exchanger brazing, 1138
bolt area, root of threads, 627 postbraze cleaning, 1125
bolt spacing, 628 precleaning, 1118
carbon, alloy and stainless steels, 622 protection, precleaned parts, 1119
categorization, 619 quality, joints, 1138
custom-designed flanges, 622 scale and oxide removal, 1118
determination, bolt loads, 626 stainless steel brazing, 11361137
dimensions, flange, see Flange design, STHE temperature, 1125, 1126
expansion joints, see Expansion joints, STHE time, 11251126
flange bolt load, 628 torch, 1120
full-face gasket design, 619620 uniformity, temperature, 1126
gasket, see Gasket design, STHE vacuum, see Vacuum brazing
integral/loose/optional flanges, see Integral/loose/ vacuum and controlled-atmosphere, 1120
optional flanges design visual examination and leak testing, 1139
lap joint flange, 620, 621 Brazing filler metals
load concentration factor, 629 aluminum, 1116
material test, 622 ASME code specification, 1118
operating conditions, 627 composition, 1116
pitch circle diameter, 628 copper, 1117
procedure, 622 forms, 1118
relaxation, bolt stress, 629 gold-based, 1117
ring and weld neck integral flange, 620 molten filler metal contact angle, 1116
seating conditions, gasket, 626 nickel-based, 1117
size, bolt, 628 placement, 1118
BPVC, see Boiler and pressure vessel code (BPVC) silver-based, 1117
Brasses, 866, 878 Brazing method, tube-to-tubesheet joints, 1102
Brazed aluminum heat exchangers (BAHXs) Breech-Lock closure
ALEX core, 174 features, 320
ALPEMA standard, 166167 tubesheet, 319
applications, 169 Brittle fracture
codes, 173 description, 752
core volume, estimation, 171172 MDMT, 753
flow arrangement, 169170 minimization measures, 753
guarantees, 174 nonservice failure minimization, 753
heat exchanger specification sheet, 174, 175 steels, 753
manufacture, 174 Bulleting, 487
materials, construction, 173 Bundle gripper, 1172, 1175
1190 Index

C explosive cladding, see Explosive


cladding
CAB, see Controlled-atmosphere brazing (CAB) process failure, 938
Carbon and alloy steels lining, plug welding, 928
ASTM specifications, 768770 loose lining, 928
hardenability, 767 methods, 927
heat treatment, 767768 resistance cladding, 928
pressure vessel and forging quality plate, 767 roll cladding, 932933
regular and structural quality, 767 thermal spraying, 928
strength and ductility, 767 thickness, 927
Carbonmanganesemolybdenum steels, 797 tubesheet and heat exchanger heads, 718
Carbonmanganese steels, 796797 weld overlaying/surfacing, see Weld overlaying/
Carbonmolybdenum steels, 796 surfacing
Carbon steels Clad plate
corrosion resistance, 793794 description, 927
description, 791
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forming, 936938
refinery operations, 793 Classification, heat exchangers
tubes, feedwater applications, 793 compact, 1718
Cast iron, 791 construction
Cathodic inhibitors, 715716 extended surface, 15
Ceramics PHEs, 1015
classifications, 915 regenerative, 1516
heat exchanger tubular, 210
construction, 915, 916 features, construction and performance,
low gas permeability, 355 1, 36
Channels/end closures flow arrangement
bolt tightening, 1104 counterflow, 19
description, 1104 crossflow, 1920
Charpy V-notch (CVN) test, 754 parallelflow, 1819
Chemical cleaning techniques fluid phases
advantages, 491 gasgas, 21
CIP systems, 489 gasliquid, 21
disadvantages, 491 liquidliquid, 21
factors, 489 graphite, 2728
foulants and solvents, 489, 490 heat transfer mechanisms
off-line, see Off-line chemical cleaning condensers, 21
procedure, 489 evaporators, 2122
scale removal, 504 micro heat exchanger, 22
solvent and compatible base metals, 489, 490 pass arrangements, 20
Chemical reaction fouling (polymerization), 475 PCHE, 2325
Chevron cracking, 788 perforated PHE, 25
Chromiummolybdenum steels scraped surface, 2527
advanced 3CrMoNi steels, 805 transfer process
applications, 801 direct contacttype, 17
composition and properties, 800801 indirect contact, 1617
creep strength, 801802 Classification, stress
CVN impact properties, 804 discontinuity, 580
description, 800 local membrane, 579
modified 9Cr1Mo steel, 805 peak, 580
postweld heat treatment, 804805 primary bending, 579
reheat cracking, 805 primary membrane, 578579
step-cooling heat treatment, 803 secondary, 579
temper embrittlement thermal, 580
susceptibility, 802803 Cleaning techniques
weld metal, 804 chemical, see Chemical cleaning
welding metallurgy deposit analysis, 485
filler metal, 802 mechanical, see Mechanical cleaning
fusion-welding process, 802 off-line mechanical, see Off-line mechanical
joint design and preparation, 802 cleaning methods
preheating, 802 on-line, see Online mechanical cleaning
CIP systems, see Clean-in-place (CIP) systems selection, 485
Cladding Clean-in-place (CIP) systems, 425, 489
ASME code requirements, 938 Cobalt-based alloys, 1136
clad plate, see Clad plate Codes, STHE
Index 1191

AD Merkblatter 2000, German Pressure Vessel Code, nozzles, 402


572573 plate corrugation, 400
ASME, see American Society Mechanical Engineers plate patterns, 399400
(ASME) Codes standard performance, 397
CODAP, 572, 573 tie bolts, 402
defined, 566 types, 393, 394
international design, 567 units, 396, 397
UPV, see Unified Pressure Vessel (UPV) code Continuous finned tube heat exchangers
Coiled tube heat exchangers (CTHEs) air conditioning and refrigeration, 152153
advantages, 9 casings/tube frame, 152
construction and performance features, 3 circuiting, 152
description, 89 fin density, 153
Cold cracking headers, 152
fish-eye cracking, 783 manufacturing procedure, 155156
forms, base metal, 774775 one-row radiator, 154155
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hydrogen-induced, 775780 primary surface, 151


lamellar tearing, 780783 radiators, 153, 154
underbead, 780 secondary surface, 151152
Compact heat exchangers tube-to-header joints, 152
ACHEs, see Air-cooled heat exchangers (ACHEs) Controlled-atmosphere brazing (CAB) process
characteristics, 145 advantages, 1130
construction types, 146 brazing furnace system, 1131
fin efficiency, 202206 description, 1130
flow arrangements, 145 furnace designs, 1131
heat transfer surface, 17 heat exchanger aluminum surface, 1130
longitudinal heat conduction, 212213 Nocolock flux, 11311132
PFHE, see Plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHEs) postbraze treatments, 1132
rating problems, 206210 radiation, 1131
sizing problem, 210212 Cooling-water corrosion
surface geometrical relations, 175186 aluminum, 736737
thermal effectiveness, 1718 austenitic stainless steel, 737
tube-fin, see Tube-fin heat exchangers boiler feedwaters, 736
Computer-aided thermal design brackish waters, 736
description, 123 cathodic site, metal surface, 725
overall structure, 123 chlorides, 728
program logic, 124 clays, silt and products, 729
shell and tube exchanger, 125 closed recirculating systems, 733
subroutines, 124 condenser tubes, material selection, 738
Condensers, 21 copper and alloys, 737
Conduction effects, 372 copper and aluminum materials, 725
Construction, heat exchangers dissolved gases, 729732
bolts and studs, 764765 dissolved solids and water hardness
castings, 764 classifications, 726
forgings, 764 LSI, 727
materials, 766767 prevention, calcium carbonate scale, 726
materials handling, 765 scale deposition, 726
pressure boundary components, 765766 scaling control, 727728
rods and bars dry residue, 729
ASTM specification, 764 ferrous sulfate dosing, 735
pipe fittings and flanges, 764 fresh water, 736
tubes, 763 inhibitors, 735
Construction, PHE iron and manganese, 728
advantages, 394, 395 material selection, 734735, 738
bleed port design, 401 oil, 728
chevron/herringbone trough pattern, 400401 once-through system, 732733
connections, 403 open recirculating systems, 733
connector plates, 403 operational maintenance, condensers and feedwater
flow patterns and pass arrangement, 394, 396 heaters, 739
frames, 402 passivation, 735
gasket selection, 401 patterns, 737738
honeycomb pattern, 393, 395 prevention, automotive cooling system, 739
installation, 402, 403 seawater, 736
intermating troughs pattern, 400 silica, 728
materials, 401 steel, 737
1192 Index

sulfates, 728 diesel engine cooling water system, 858


superferritics and superaustenitics, 737 erosion corrosion, cavitation and impingement
titanium, 737 attack, 857
water treatment, 735 exfoliation, 857
Cooling-water management, reduced fouling galvanic corrosion, 855
vs. foulant control, 502 intergranular corrosion, 857
patterns, water-side, 501502 pitting corrosion, 855856
surface temperature, 502 prevention and control measures, 858859
Coppage and London model, rotary regenerators SCC, 856
balanced and symmetric counterflow, 366369 uniform corrosion, 855
classification, 365 aluminum brazed joint, see Aluminum brazed joint
cold gas flow, 361 anode and cathode, metal surface, 666, 667
convective heat transfer, 361 control, see Corrosion control techniques
heat transfer, 364 cooling-water, see Cooling-water corrosion
hot gas flow, energy balance, 361 copper, see Copper, corrosion
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longitudinal heat conduction, wall, 371374 crevice, 689691


-NTU method, 360 and current, 669
rating and sizing, 374375 dealloying/selective leaching, 692694
Razelos method, 370371 defined, 665
reduced lengthreduced period (-) method, 367, description, 1147
369370 economic factors, study and research, 665
and stationary regenerators, 364 electrochemical, see Electrochemical corrosion
thermal effectiveness, 362364, 374 environmental factors, 672673
Copper erosion-corrosion, 694701
alloy designation fatigue, 706707
heat exchanger applications, 864865 fouling, 475476
product forms, 868 fretting, 706
properties and applications, 865868 galvanic cell, 666
steam generation, 865 galvanic corrosion, 680684
wrought alloys, 864, 865 hydrogen damage, 705706
corrosion hydrogen sulfide environments, see Hydrogen sulfide
biofouling, 874 environments, corrosion
condensate corrosion, 873 intergranular, 691692
cooling-water applications, 874 iron, aerated aqueous system, 667668
copper and aquatic life, 875 kinetics, 669671
dealloying, 871872 localized corrosion, metal surface, 674
deposit attack, 873874 metal oxide scale, 666, 667
erosioncorrosion, 872 MIC, see Microbiologically influenced
exfoliation, 875 corrosion (MIC)
fatigue, 874 monitoring techniques, see Monitoring techniques,
galvanic corrosion, 868 corrosion
hot-spot corrosion, 874 parameters, brazed joints, 1147
intergranular corrosion, 870 patterns, 675, 677679
pitting corrosion, 870 pitting, 684689
resistance, 868 process, parameters, 672
seawater corrosion resistance, 874 SCC, see Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
snake skin formation, 874 soldered joints, see Soldered joints
stress corrosion cracking, 872873 uniform vs. localized, 675676, 679680
sulfide attack, 874875 weldments, 711712
description, 864 Corrosion control techniques
welding, see Welding, copper anodic inhibitors, 715
Copperaluminum alloys, 878 bimetallic/duplex tubing, 718719
Copper fillers, 1117 cathodic inhibitors, 715716
Coppernickel/cupronickel alloys, 879 changes, corroding medium, 714
Coppernickels, 867868 cladding, 718
Correct tube wall reduction cooling-water systems, see Cooling-water corrosion
rolled tube inner diameter calculation procedure, 1073 corrosion-resistant alloys, 717
rolling dimensions, 1073 effectiveness, coatings, 720
tubes, fixed containers, 1072 electrochemical protection, 720722
Corrosion engineering design
aluminum alloys allowance, 714
corrosion fatigue, 857858 crevice, 713, 714
crevice corrosion, 857 effect, service environment, 714
Index 1193

inclined heat exchanger, 713 six rows-two passes with three rows per pass,
plant location, 714 72, 73
preservation, inbuilt resistance, 713 six-tube rows and passes, 68, 71
startup and shutdown problems, 714 manifold-type air cooler, 64
weldments, brazed and soldered joints, 713 thermal effectiveness, 64
inhibitor evaluation, 716717 singlepass tube row
passivation, 722 air-cooled heat exchangers, 61
plastic coatings, 720 one-and two-tube rows, 64, 66
principles, 712713 single tubeside and N rows pass, 61, 64
surface treatment, 720 thermal effectiveness chart, 61, 6667
Corrosion fatigue thermal effectiveness relations, 64, 65
and crack growth, 706707 three-and four-tube rows, 64, 67
defined, 706 unmixedmixed crossflow
and fretting wear, 738 bare tube compact heat exchanger, 57
intensity, 707 thermal effectiveness chart, 57, 62, 63
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metals, 707, 708 unmixedunmixed crossflow


Corrosion resistance mechanism, SSs Bessel function, 57
chemicals, 811 thermal effectiveness chart, 57, 60, 61
chromium content, 811 Crossflow exchanger, 1920
crevice corrosion, 813814 Crown-and-segment (C and S) technique
galvanic corrosion, 811 hemispheres/torispheres, 1112
intergranular corrosion, 817819 multipiece head, 1112
knifeline attack, 818 and petal head fabrication, 1112, 1113
localized forms, 812 Crystallization/precipitation fouling, 476
passive vs. active behavior, 811 CTHEs, see Coiled tube heat exchangers (CTHEs)
pitting corrosion, 812813 Cuprobraze heat exchanger
sigma phase, 811 description, 1151
stainless steel, seawater, 811 manufacturing processes, 1151
stress corrosion cracking, 814817 radiators manufacture, 1151
Corrosion-resistant alloys, 717 round vs. flat tube, 1151
Corrosion-resistant metallic fasteners, 764765 Curved tubesheet model, STHE, 611
Cost-effective material selection, 761 CVN test, see Charpy V-notch (CVN) test
Counterflow exchanger, 19
CPT, see Critical pitting temperature (CPT) D
Crater cracks, 788
Creep DBA, see Design-by-analysis (DBA)
definition, 754 Dealloying/selective leaching
embrittlement, 790 alloys and environments, 693
steel, 754 classification, factors, 693
test, 755 dealuminification, 871
Crevice corrosion denickelification, 872
control, 690691 factors, dezincification, 693694
cooling water, 738 prevention, 694
heat exchanger locations, 689690 types, dezincification, 693
mechanism, 689 Dealuminification, 871
metal-to-metal welded joint, 689 Delayed cracking, see Cold cracking
vs. pitting, 690 Denickelification, 872
prediction, 691 Design, ACHEs
susceptible alloys, 689 air temperature, 227
Critical pitting temperature (CPT), 688 data/specification sheet, 229
Crossflow arrangement, thermal relations dispersion angle of fan, 229
correction factor, single/multiple row, 57 HI-MAX all stainless steel all welded fin
flow channels, unmixedunmixed case, tube, 230
57, 64 preliminary sizing, Browns method,
mixedmixed crossflow, 57 228229
multipass tube rows tips, 228
two-tube rows and passes, 64, 69 variables
three-tube rows and passes, 68, 70 air-side pressure loss, 227
four rows-two pass and six rows-two pass, 72 air velocity, 226
four rows-two passes with two rows per pass, capital vs. running cost, 227
72, 73 thermal design program structure, 226, 227
four-tube rows and passes, 68, 70 tube bundle, 226
five-tube rows and passes, 68, 71 varying airflow, 230
1194 Index

Design-by-analysis (DBA), 570, 573, 611 ASTM/ASME specification, 842


Design methodology, heat exchanger ASTM specification, 842
considerations, 117, 118 characteristics, 842
process/design specifications high chromium, 841
exchanger construction, 118119 nominal composition, 841
problem specification, 117 pitting resistance number, 841
surface selection, 119 corrosion resistance, 840, 843
thermohydraulic design, 119 nondestructive testing, 845
Design problems, heat exchanger postweld stress relief, 845
rating, 120121 process applications, 843
sizing, 121122 weldability, 843845
Deterioration, heat exchanger
air-cooled heat exchangers, 11701171 E
brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchanger, 11781181
shell and tube heat exchanger, 11711181 Eddy current testing (ET)
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Dezincification, corrosion, 738 applications, 1025


Dimensional tolerance tests, 773 ASTM specifications, 1026
Dip brazing and ATIS, 1035
advantages, 1120 calibration, 10331034
aluminum, see Aluminum dip brazing conventional eddy and remote, 10241025
assemblies preheating, 1121 current test equipment, 1027
choice of flux and heating, 1120 description, 1024
flux pot, 1120 developments, 1034
and furnace steps, 1121 ferromagnetic tubes, 10291030
immersion time and flux bath maintenance, 1121 instrumentation, 1033
limitations, 1121 and IRIS, 1033
salt-bath, 1120 limitations, 1034
scum and sludge removal, 1121 merits, 1034
ventilation, 1121 and MFL, 1030, 1031
Direct contacttype heat exchangers, 17 NFT technology, 1030, 1032, 1033
Disk and doughnut heat exchanger operating variables, 10281029
cross flow area, 324 principles, 10251026
disadvantages, 326 probes, 10261027
flow inside shell, 323 RFEC testing, 1030
shellside pressure drop, 326 signal processing, 1027
Slipcevic method, 323 test frequencies, 1028
Displaced flow enhancement devices, heat transfer testing of weldments, 1033
augmentation tubesheet diagram (TSD), 1035
advantages, 449 written procedure, 1026
coil insertion, 445 Effectiveness-number of transfer units (-NTU)
heat exchanger design, 449 defined, 362
hiTRAN thermal systems, 446449 design, PHEs, 422423
installation, hiTRAN Matrix Elements, 449 rotary regenerators, 360
maldistribution, 449 EHT surfaces, see Enhanced heat transfer (EHT)
materials, construction, 450 surfaces
turndown operation, 449 EJMA Standards, see Expansion Joint Manufacturers
Dissimilar metal welding Association (EJMA) Standards
aluminum bronze to cupronickel, 880 Electrochemical corrosion
copper to aluminum bronze, 879 bimetallic cell, 668
copper to steel, 879 concentration cell, 668669
cupronickels to steel, 880 temperature cells, 669
factors, 880 Electrochemical protection, corrosion control
filler alloys selection, 880 anodic, 721722
Distributed source positron annihilation (DSPA), 1185 cathodic, 720721
Double-pipe exchangers Electromotive force (EMF) series, 669670,
application, 2, 8 682683
description, 2 EMbaffle heat exchanger
hairpin heat exchangers, 2, 7, 8 application, 312
DSPA, see Distributed source positron annihilation benefits, 314
(DSPA) concept, 312
Ductility dip cracking, 788 design, 312313
Duplex stainless steels EMF series, see Electromotive force (EMF) series
austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, 842 Enhanced heat transfer (EHT) surfaces,
composition 434, 457, 458
Index 1195

Equipment design features tube-to-tubesheet welding, 934935


failsafe features, 762 welding geometries, 933
field trials, 763
inspection access, 762 F
life, 763
maintenance, 762 Fabrication
safety, 763 aluminum alloys, see Aluminum alloys, fabrication
Erosioncorrosion austenitic SSs, 819820
cavitation, 697 cryogenic vessels and heat exchangers, 922
condenser tube failure, 695 steel
control, 697698 arc welding, 794795
erosive wear, 695697 hardness limitation, 794
ferrules/sleeves/tube inserts, 698699 plate cutting, 794
patterns, 695 weldability, 794
SCC, 700701 welding defects, 795
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sleeving (expansion) process, 699700 steels


tubeside, 694, 695 arc welding, 794795
E shell, TEMA shells hardness limitation, 794
even number of tube passes plate cutting, 794
E1-2 shell, 75, 77 weldability, 794
E1-3 shell, 75, 76 welding defects, 795
E1-4 shell, 75, 77 techniques, 33
stream symmetric, 75 teflon, 914915
U-tube bundle, 75 titanium
multipassing on tubeside, 74 heat treatment, 904
odd number of tube passes titanium-clad steel plate formation, 904
E1-3 counterflow arrangement, welding, 899903
75, 78, 79 zirconium
E1-5 counterflow arrangement, 75, 81 dissimilar metals welding, 907
E1-3 parallelflow arrangement, 75, 76 filler metals, 907
E1-5 parallelflow arrangement, 75, 78 surface cleaning, 907
three tube two tube passes, E1-5, 80 welding method, 906907
single-pass arrangement-parallelflow/counterflow, weld inspection, 907
72, 74 weld metal shielding, 907
ET, see Eddy current testing (ET) weld preparation, 907
Evaporators FBHE, see Fluidized-bed heat exchanger (FBHE)
fired systems, 21 FBWHR systems, see Fluidized-bed waste heat recovery
unfired systems, 22 (FBWHR) systems
Expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints FEA, see Finite element analysis (FEA)
description, 1063 Feedwater heater
requirements, 1063 description, 327
Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA) ductility, welded joint, 10991100
Standards high pressure, 328329
bellows-type expansion joints, 642644, 649 low-pressure, 328
defined, 566 FEI, see Fluid elastic instability (FEI)
Expansion joints Ferritic stainless steels
attachments, ASME Code requirements, 1053 conventional, 834
flanged-and-flued/flanged, 1053 superferritic, see Superferritic stainless steel
STHE Ferrous alloy tubings, 773774
bellows/formed membrane, see Bellows-type Fin efficiency
expansion joints, STHE circular fins
design procedure, ASME Code, 648649 Kern and Kraus formula, 202203
FEA, see Finite element analysis (FEA) Schmidt formula, 204
flexibility, 640 Scott and Goldschmidt formula, 203204
formed/flanged-and-flued head, see Formed head description, 202
expansion joints, STHE plain continuous fin
Singh and Soler model, 646647 Schmidt formula, 204205
thick and thin walled joints, 644 sector method, 206
welding, heat exchanger shell, 1053, 1054 Sparrow and Lin formula, 205206
Expert system, fouling, 482 rectangular and triangular passages, 202
Explosive cladding temperature effectiveness, 202
angular geometry, 933934 Fin geometries, PFHE
joint quality inspection, 935 corrugation code, 165166
plug welding, 935 geometries, 160, 161
1196 Index

herringbone/wavy fin, 163 antivibration tools, 546547


louver fins, 163164 baffle and collision damage, 539
OSF, 162 Blevins correlation, 541
pin fins, 164165 damping, tune array stability, 545546
plain fin, 160161 effects, heat exchangers, 510
plain-perforated fin, 161162 empirical correlations, 512513
serrated fins, 163 evaluation procedure, see Vibration evaluation
Finite element analysis (FEA) procedure, FIV
design consultants, 645 failure mechanisms, 510
flanged-and-flued expansion joint, 645 FEI, see Fluid elastic instability (FEI)
Fire-refined copper, 866 finite-element modeling technique, 512
Fish-eye cracking, 783 flow mediums vs. mechanisms, 512
FIV, see Flow-induced vibration (FIV) fretting wear model, see Fretting wear
Fixed-matrix/fixed-bed/storage-type regenerators model, FIV
advantages, 342343 hydrodynamic/added mass, 541
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checkers and settings, 342 hydrodynamic forces, 512


construction features, 342 limiting amplitude, 512
dual-bed valved type, 341 mechanisms, 511
shape of matrix, 342 natural frequencies, straight tubes, 543544
size, 342 principles, 509510
surface geometries, 342 reduction, crossflow velocity, 534535
Fixotal system, 495496 regions, tube failure, 510
Fixturing, brazing, 1119 retubed units, 533534
Flanged-and-flued expansion joints, see Formed head software programs, analysis, 548
expansion joints, STHE suppression, standing wave, see Standing wave
Flange design, STHE vibration, FIV
bolting procedures, 632 tube arrays, crossflow, 511
facings, 630631 tube natural frequency, 532533
moments, 629630 tube responses, 511
rating, standard flanges, 632 turbulence, see Turbulence-induced excitation
requirements, materials, 632 mechanism
RF, see Raised face (RF) flanges U-tube natural frequency, 544
RTJ, see Ring-type joint (RTJ) flanges vortex shedding, see Vortex shedding, FIV
SPWG, see Spiral wound gasket (SPWG) Flow pattern, shellside
thickness, 630 bypass prevention and sealing devices, 283284
U-tube exchangers, 633 flow fractions, 285
Flanged tubesheets, TEMA design procedure fluid bypassing and leakage, 282
fixed/floating, 609 performance, 285
U-tube, 610 stream, 284285
Flexible shell elements (FSEs) Fluid elastic instability (FEI)
elements, characterization, 646 acceptance criteria, 523
Singh and Soler model, flanged-and-flued expansion analytical model, 521
joints, 646 characteristics, 520
thickness, 648 Connors analysis, 520521
Floating head exchangers defined, 519
backing device, 271 design, 522523
kettle-type reboiler, 272 displacement mechanism, 521
pull-through head, 271 fluid-damping-type, 521
sliding bar/surface, 271 forces, 520
Flow and pass arrangements, thermal relations position-dependent, 521
counterflow, 57, 60 stability criteria, 524
crossflow arrangement, see Crossflow arrangement, unsteady model, 522
thermal relations velocity mechanism, 521522
heat exchanger effectiveness, 43, 56 Fluidized-bed heat exchanger (FBHE)
multipass crossflow exchangers, 92 advantages, 378
multiple heat exchangers, 9092 defined, 378
multiple-pass shell and tube heat exchangers, 108112 regenerator, 377, 378
-NTU method, 4243 Fluidized-bed waste heat recovery (FBWHR)
parallelflow, 57, 59 systems, 378
TEMA shells, see TEMA shells, thermal relations Fluxing, brazing
thermal effectiveness relations, 57, 58 composition, 1119
Flow-induced vibration (FIV) conventional brazing process, 1119
acoustic resonance, see Acoustic resonance, FIV demerits, corrosive fluxes, 1119
added mass coefficient, 542, 546, 547 selection, 1119
Index 1197

Formed head expansion joints, STHE Furnace brazing


allowable stresses, 648 in aluminum
Kopp and Sayre model, 644 CAB, see Controlled-atmosphere
minimum thickness, FSEs, 648 brazing (CAB)
TEMA procedure, 648 controlled dry air brazing, 1130
thick-walled, 641 inert-gas/controlled-atmosphere
Foulant control vs. cooling-water management, 502 brazing, 1128
Fouling classification, 1122
categorization, 468 controlled-atmosphere, 1124
cleaning, see Cleaning techniques description, 1122
control, suspended solids, 501 direct combustion, 1122
cooling-water management, see Cooling-water heating and atmospheres, 1122
management, reduced fouling muffle/hot-wall, 1122
curves/modes, 467468 Nocolock, 1124
definition, 32, 465 retort-bell-type combustion, 1122
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effects, thermohydraulic performance, semicontinuous/locked furnace, 1123, 1124


465466 semicontinuous vacuum, 1123
electrostatic scale controller and preventer, 504 vacuum, 1123
energy costs, 467 without corrosive flux, 1123
expert system, 482
foulant control, chemical additives, 499501 G
and lessen corrosion, 467
maintenance, 467 Galvanic corrosion
mass and rate of removal, 468 area effects, 682
monitoring, see Monitoring techniques, fouling control, 684
oversizing, 467, 477 cooling water, 737
prevention and control, 483484 copper, 868
removal, iron oxide, 504 effects, distance, 681
resistance, see Fouling resistances heat exchanger locations, 680681
scaling control, 503504 metallurgical and environmental sources, 681
shell and tube heat exchangers, 465, 466 nickel and nickel-base alloys, 885
TEMA, see Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers stainless steels, 811
Association (TEMA) tools, 682683
types, 474477 types, 681
Fouling resistances Gasket design, STHE
equipment design, 472 and characteristics, 623
fluid placement, tubeside, 471 materials, 623
and fluid properties, 469 profiles, 623, 624
gasketed plate heat exchangers, 472 selection, material, 623
heat exchanger geometry and size, 623626
orientation, 472 Gasliquid heat exchangers, 21
heat transfer augmentation devices, 472 Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 863864
heat transfer processes, 473 Gas-shielded arc welding, 863, 864
impurities, 470 Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 863
low-finned tube heat exchanger, 472 Glass
seasonal temperature changes, 472 applications, 912
shellside flow, 471 coil heat exchangers, 913
specification, 477 drawbacks, 913
spiral plate exchangers, 472 glass-lined steel, 913
STHE, shellside performance, 473474 hybrid heat exchangers, 913
surface roughness, 471 mechanical properties and chemical
suspended solids, 471 resistance, 912
temperature, 469470 shell-and-tube heat exchangers, 913
tube material, 470 types, construction, 912
velocity and hydrodynamic effects, 470 GMAW, see Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
Foundation loading diagrams/drawings, 1109 Gold-based fillers, 1117
Fretting corrosion, 706 Graphite
Fretting wear model, FIV description, 910
effect, tube-to-tube support plate, 540 drawbacks, 911
nonlinear finite-element modeling heat exchanger
techniques, 540 cubic heat exchanger, 27
prediction, experimental techniques, 540 forms, 911
tube vibration, baffle hole, 539 Graphilor cylindrical tubes, 28, 29
FSEs, see Flexible shell elements (FSEs) modular-block cylindrical exchanger, 2728
1198 Index

impervious graphite heat exchangers, 910 tube hole finish, 10541055


plate exchanger, 912 tubesheet drilling, 1054
shell-and-tube heat exchanger, 911912 tubesheet to shell welding, 10601061
Grit cleaning, 496 tube-to-tubesheet joint fabrication, see Tube-to-
GTAW, see Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) tubesheet joint fabrication
tube-to-tubesheet joint welding, see Tube-to-tubesheet
H joint welding
welding of nozzles, 1053
Hastelloy, 892 workmanship, 1045
HE, see Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) Heat exchangers
Heads and closures ceramic, 355
crown-and-segment (C and S) technique, 1112 classification, see Classification, heat exchangers
dimensional check, 1114 collection, 1, 2
forming methods, 1109 construction, see Construction, heat exchangers
pressing, see Pressing, heads and closures description, 1
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purchased end, 1114 deterioration, see Deterioration, heat exchanger


PWHT, dished ends, see Postweld heat treatment effectiveness
(PWHT), dished ends definition, 56
spinning, 11091110 -NTU method, 4243
Heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking FBHE, see Fluidized-bed heat exchanger (FBHE)
alloys, 786 fouling indications, 1169
description, 786 heat-pipe, 381382
Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) Standards, 566 installation, 1168
Heat exchanger fabrication maintenance, 1169
advance preparation, 10521053 NDT methods, inspection and assessment
assembly sequence, 1046, 1048 ECT, 11821183
attachment, expansion joints, 1053, 1054 RFECT, 1182
automotive radiators, see Automotive radiators tubes, 1183
baffles drilling, 1055 ultrasonic internal rotary inspection
brazed and soldered joints, see Corrosion system, 1182
brazing, see Brazing operation, 11681169
channels/end closures, 1104 periodical inspection, unit, 1169
cuprobraze, see Cuprobraze heat exchanger porcelain-enameled flat-plate, 380
dimensions checking, 1051, 1052 pressure vessel failure, 1185
documents, 1108 professional service providers, 11851186
excessive clearances, 1052 recuperators, see Recuperators
flowchart, 1046, 1047 requirements, 34
forming of plates, 10471048 residual life assessment, see Residual life assessment,
foundation loading diagrams/drawings, 1109 NDT techniques
heads and closures, see Heads and closures selection, see Selection, heat exchangers
heat treatment, see Heat treatment, heat exchanger storage, 1167
fabrication VFHE, see Vortex-flow direct-contact heat exchanger
hydrostatic testing, see Hydrostatic testing, heat (VFHE)
exchanger fabrication Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC)
identification, materials, 1046 systems
inspection plan, components, 1046, 1049 rotary heat exchanger manufacturers, 383
installation, maintenance and operating instructions, rotary wheel, 384
1109 ventilation losses, 383
manipulative equipment, 1051 Heat-pipe heat exchangers
manufacture, fixed tubesheet shell, 1046, 1047 applications, 382
manufacturing drawing, see Manufacturing drawings, finned U-tube, 382
heat exchanger fabrication merits, 382
pieces, radiography, 1051, 1052 principle and tube arrangement, 381
plate bending machines, see Plate bending machines Heat recovery system
pull-through gauge, shell circularity, 1052 capital costs, 353
PWHT, 1051 compatibility, 352
schematics/flow diagrams, 1109 economic benefits, 353
shell fabrication, 10491050 factors, 353
shell welding, 1051, 1052 maintainability, 353
shipment, see Shipments, heat exchangers optimum design, factors, 352
soldering, see Soldering, heat exchangers Heat-resistant alloys, brazing
supports, horizontal, 1053 cobalt-based alloys, 1136
TEMA Standards, 1045 description, 1135
tube bundle assembly, see Assembly, tube bundle nickel-based alloys, 1135
Index 1199

Heat transfer analysis methods Hydraulic expansion


energy balance equation, 41 definition, 1076
heat transfer rate, 41 Hydex hydraulic tube expansion system, 1076, 1078
subdesign conditions, 4950 Mark V HydroSwage system, 1076, 1077
thermal effectiveness, 4249 sequences, tube expanding, 1076, 1077
Heat transfer and fluid flow service (HTFS), 132 system, tack expanding, 1076, 1078
Heat transfer augmentation Hydrogen-assisted cracking, 742
active techniques, 454 Hydrogen attack
advantages, 433 description, 705, 759
applications, 433, 460 prevention, 759760
condensation enhancement, 458459 Hydrogen blistering
defined, 433 defined, 743
enhancement techniques, 435437 detection, service, 743
evaporation enhancement, 459 prevention, 743
fouling, 455 susceptible materials, 743
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friction factor, 454 Hydrogen embrittlement (HE)


in-tube evaporation, refrigerants, 460 steel weldments, 742
market factors, 457 susceptibility, steels, 742
mechanical design and construction, 458 Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC)
passive techniques, see Passive techniques, heat atomic hydrogen, 740
transfer augmentation and blister, 740
PECs, see Performance evaluation criterias (PECs) carbon equivalent, 777780
shellside condensation, refrigerants, 460 conditions, 775
shellside evaporation, refrigerants, 459 control, 776
single-phase heat transfer enhancement, 434435 hydrogen sources, 776
testing methods, 454455 interpass temperature, 777
transfer modes, 437 postheating temperatures, 777
Heat treatment, heat exchanger fabrication preheating temperature, 776777
methods, 1103 prevention, 741
requirements, 11031104 SOHIC, see Stress-oriented hydrogen-induced
with tubes welded, at both ends, 1103 cracking (SOHIC)
with tubes welded, one end and other end free, 1103 stresses, 776
HEI, see Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) Standards susceptibility, steels, 741
Helixchanger heat exchanger, 473474 susceptible materials, 776
applications, 315 testing specification, 743744
configurations, 315316 Hydrogen sulfide environments, corrosion
merits, 315 atomic hydrogen, 740
performance, 317318 blistering, see Hydrogen blistering
shellside flow pattern, 314 effects, steels, 739740
Hexoloy silicon carbide heat exchanger tubes, HE, see Hydrogen embrittlement (HE)
916917 HIC, see Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC)
HIC, see Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) hydrogen-assisted cracking, 742
High-copper alloys, 866, 877 pressure vessels steels, sour environments, 743
High-purity coppers, 865 Hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion cracking (HSCC), see
High-temperature burner duct recuperator (HTBDR) Hydrogen-assisted cracking
systems, 379 HydroProof
Hot cracking hydrostatic testing, tube-to-tubesheet joint, 1106
alloys, 784 pneumatic tests and procedures, 1107
copper alloys, 877 stamping, 1107
description, 783784 Hydrostatic pressure testing
low-melting-point elements segregation, 784 ASTM standards, 773
solidification mode, 784 test pressures, 772
stress states, 784 Hydrostatic testing, heat exchanger fabrication
types ASME CODE requirement, 11041105
Chevron cracking, 788 cyclic, feedwater heater, 1106
crater cracks, 788 description, 1104
ductility dip cracking, 788 fluid, 11051106
HAZ liquation cracking, 786 fluorescent/visible tracer dyes, 1106
RC, see Reheat cracking (RC) HydroProof, see HydroProof
solidification cracking, 784785 PFHEs, see Plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHEs)
HTBDR systems, see High-temperature burner duct procedure, 1105
recuperator (HTBDR) systems TEMA Standard requirement, 1105
HVAC systems, see Heating, ventilating and air- welded tube-to-tubesheet joint, feedwater heaters, 1106
conditioning (HVAC) systems HydroSwage Strain Control Sleeving System, 1175, 1180
1200 Index

I Intergranular corrosion
control, austenitic stainless steel, 692
Image quality indicators (IQI) susceptible alloys, 691692
description, 1002 Internal rotating inspection system (IRIS), 1033
designs, 1002 ISO 9000
sensitivity, 10031004 benefits, 963
step-wedge type, 1003 description, 963
strip-hole type, 1003 listing, 963
wire-type IQI, 10021003 principles, 963
Indirect contact heat exchangers requirements, 963
classifications, 16 series of quality standards, 963
direct transfertype, 17 TQM, 963
Industrial regenerators and heat recovery devices
ceramic bayonet tube heat exchangers, 379
combustion air preheaters, 377
J
economizer, 382, 383
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j and f factors, finned tube heat exchangers


FBHE, 377378 bare tube bank, 192193
FBWHR systems, see Fluidized-bed waste heat circular tube-fin arrangement, 193196
recovery (FBWHR) systems continuous fin on circular tube, 196198
heat-pipe heat exchangers, 381382 continuous fin on flat tube array, 198199
Mueller Temp-Plate energy recovery Joint design, brazing
banks, 383, 384 factors, 1115
porcelain-enameled heat exchangers, 380 types, 1116
radiation recuperators, 380
regenerative burners, 379380
thermocompressor, 382383
L
VFHE, 379 Lamella heat exchanger (LHE)
Insert technology applications, 15
Fixotal, 495496 construction and performance features, 6
Spirelf system, 494496 counterflow concept and lamella tube
Turbotal, 495, 497 bundle, 14
Inspection merits, 14
definition, 964 principle, 14
design and inspection, 964 Lamellar tearing
heat exchangers, 964965 conditions, 780781
hold and witness points, 967, 968 definition, 780
master traveler, 966 detection, 783
material control and raw material, 965 prevention
organization rules, 964 design improvements, 782
PMI, 965 information test, 783
principal objectives, 964 melting practice, 781782
steps, checklists, 966 welding procedural factors, 783
TEMA inspection policy, 966 structures/locations, 781
third-party inspection, 967 Langelier saturation index (LSI)
tubesheet, checklists, 966 defined, 726727
Integral/loose/optional flanges design and nature of water, 728
long weld neck assembly, 639 LarsonMiller parameter, 805
requirements, data, 633 Lead-based solders, 11401141
step-by-step design procedure Leaded brasses, 866
allowable flange stress, 637 Leak testing (LT)
bolt load, gasket seating and operating bubble testing, 10361037
conditions, 634 description, 1035
calculation, factors, 636 detector probe technique, 1038
determination, flange thickness, 636 gas leak lake testing, 1037
flange moments, 635 halogen diode detector testing, 1037
flange stresses, 637 helium leak detection methods,
flange thickness, 633 1037, 1038
forces and moments, 635 in-service examination, 10391041
parameters and hub factors pressure change test, 1037
calculation, 635 tracer probe method, 1038
stress formula factors, 636 tube-to-tubesheet joints
Taper-Lok heat exchanger closure, description, 1102
637639 Helixchanger heat exchanger, 1102
zero-gap flange, 638641 TEMA Standards, 1102
Index 1201

ultrasonic leak detection, 1036 M


vacuum technique/hood method,
1038, 1040 Magnetic flux leakage (MFL), 1030, 1031
written procedure, 1036 Magnetic particle inspection (MT)
LHE, see Lamella heat exchanger (LHE) acceptance standards, 996
Linde coil-wound heat exchangers accessories, 996
description, 910 applications, 991
glass coil exchangers, 10 coil magnetization, 993
Liquidliquid heat exchangers, 21 demagnetization, 996
Liquid PT description, 990
acceptance standards, 990 dry method, 995
accessories, 990 equipment, 993
applications, 987, 989 examination coverage, 994
description, 986987 ferromagnetic materials, 990
excess solvent-removable penetrants, 989 formation and appearance, 991992
indications, evaluation, 996
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indications, 990
limitations, 987 inspection medium, 994
merits, 987 interpretation, 996
method, 989 limitations, 992
and MT, 990 magnetization direction, 994
penetrants, 988989 magnetizing current, 992993
postcleaning, 990 merits, 992
selection, developer, 989 principle, 991
standards, 988 prod magnetization, 994
surface preparation, 989 prod spacing, 994
test procedure, 988 record of test data, 996
written procedure, 987, 988 reference documents, 991
Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method surface preparation, 995
correction factor, 45, 47, 426427 test procedure, 991
and -NTU, 47 wet method, 995
expression, 45 written procedure, 992
heat transfer area, PHE, 422 yoke magnetization, 994
preliminary sizing, 47 Main documents, quality system
terminal temperature distribution, 45 checklist, 961
Longitudinal heat conduction, compact heat operation process sheet, 960
exchangers QAP, 960
flow arrangements, 213 Manufacturing drawings, heat exchanger
-NTU and LMTD methods, 212213 fabrication
thermal performance, 213, 214 additional entries, 1046
Louver fins, PFHE welding and testing plans, 10451046
applications, 164 Martensitic SSs, 806
features, 163164 Material selection
geometries, 163, 164 ASME code material requirements,
j and f factors, correlations, 200201 750751
Low-alloy steels, pressure vessel constructions cost, 761
application, plates, 796 description, 749
carbonmanganesemolybdenum equipment design, 750
steels, 797 evaluation
carbonmanganese steels, 796797 description, 760
carbonmolybdenum steels, 796 material tests, 761
selection, 795796 and selection, resist corrosion, 761
Low-temperature and cryogenic applications, subzero failure modes and service damages, 762
temperature alloys functional requirements
aluminum, 919920 brittle fracture, 752753
ASTM specifications, 922 corrosion resistance, 758759
austenitic stainless steel, 922 creep, 754755
carbon steels and alloy plate steels, fabricability, 760
920922 fatigue strength, 752
copper and copper alloys, 920 features/parameters, 751
materials, 918, 919 heat and corrosion, 757758
nickel and high-nickel alloys, 920 hydrogen attack, 759760
titanium and titanium alloys, 920 strength, 751752
LSI, see Langelier saturation index (LSI) temperature resistance, 755757
LT, see Leak testing (LT) toughness, 754
1202 Index

heat exchangers and pressure vessels, 750 nickel version, 847


operating process, review, 750 nitrogen addition, 846
requirements, 749 nominal composition, 846
MAWP, see Maximum allowable working pressure welding
(MAWP) arc welding filler metals, 848849
Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) hot cracking, 848
cylindrical shell, 613 intermetallic phases precipitation, 848
defined, 584 molybdenum microsegregation, 848
dished head, semi-ellipsoidal form, 617 postweld heat treatment, 849
hemispherical head, 617 processes, 849
torispherical head, 617 MT, see Magnetic particle inspection (MT)
MDMT, see Minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) MTV Weldability Testing System, see Multitask
Mechanical cleaning methods Varestraint (MTV) Weldability Testing System
advantages, 488 Multipass crossflow exchangers
and chemical cleaning, 504 with complete mixing between passes
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off-line, see Off-line mechanical cleaning methods fluids unmixedunmixed, three-pass arrangements,
online, see Online mechanical cleaning methods 94, 100
Mechanical design, regenerators fluids unmixedunmixed, two-pass arrangement,
rotary regenerators 94, 99
electric drive, rotor, 376 stronger fluid, three-pass arrangements, 94, 98
leakages, 375376 stronger fluid, two-pass arrangement, 94, 97
pressure forces, 377 weaker fluid, three-pass arrangements, 93, 96
seal design, 376 weaker fluid, two-pass arrangement, 93, 96
thermal distortion and transients, 377 description, 92
single and dual-bed, 375 identical and inverted order coupling, 93
Membrane stresses, STHE, 578 two passes
MIC, see Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) with both fluids unmixed throughout, cross-
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) counterflow arrangement, 101, 105107
classification, organisms, 708709 with both fluids unmixed-unmixed in each pass,
control, 710711 94, 98, 104105
defined, 707 with one fluid unmixed throughout, cross-
industrial alloys, 709710 counterflow arrangement, 94, 97
microorganisms, 708 two-pass heat exchangers, 9495
susceptible metals, 708 Multiple heat exchangers
Micro heat exchanger assemblies, 90, 91
advantages, 22 description, 90
applications, 22 fundamental formulas, 90
demerits, 22 multipass arrangements, 20
description, 22 multipassing, 90, 91
Mill scale, 773 N-pass exchangers, 92
Minimum design metal temperature (MDMT), 753 two-pass exchangers, 92
Mock-up test Multiple-pass shell and tube heat exchangers
control unit settings, 1063 two E1-2 shells in series, 108, 110
process parameters, 1062 three E1-2 shells in series, 108, 111
pullout strength, 1062 four E1-2 shells in series, 108, 111
roller expanded joints, 1063 five E1-2 shells in series, 108, 112
tube-to-tubesheet expansion, 1062 E shell, 108, 109
Monitoring techniques, corrosion six E1-2 shells in series, 108, 112
advantages, 722 M shell passes, 108, 110
condensers, state of tubes, 724 Multitask Varestraint (MTV) Weldability Testing System,
limitations, 724 790
local, component and systems approach, 722 Muntz metal, 866
online, see Online monitoring techniques, corrosion
requirements, 724 N
Monitoring techniques, fouling
gas-side measuring devices, 482 Naval brass, 866867
inline analysis, 478, 481 NDT, see Nondestructive testing (NDT)
instruments, 482 NDTT, see Nil-ductility transition temperature (NDTT)
TFM, see Tube fouling monitor (TFM) Near field testing (NFT) technology, 1030, 1032, 1033
6% Mo superaustenitic stainless steel Nickel and nickel-base alloys
applications, 847 brazing atmospheres, 1135
ASTM/ASME spec., 846 classification, 881
corrosion resistance, 847 commercially pure, 881
description, 846 corrosion resistance
Index 1203

galvanic corrosion, 885 heat capacity rate ratio, 42


intergranular corrosion, 886887 heat exchanger effectiveness, 43
pitting resistance, 886 P-NTUt method
stress corrosion cracking, 887888 functional relationship, 43
filler metals, 1135 heat capacity ratio, 44
Hastelloy, 892 shell and tube exchanger, 4445
Inconel and Inco alloy, 882884 thermal effectiveness, 44
magnetic properties and differentiation, 885
nickelcopper and coppernickel, 882 O
nickelironchromium and Inco nickelironchromium
alloys, 884885 OCAP, see Open channel air preheater (OCAP)
physical metallurgy, 1135 Off-line chemical cleaning methods,
properties, 880881 490491
requirements, 1135 Off-line mechanical cleaning methods
surface preparation, 1135 blast, 488
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thermal cycles, 1135 brushes, exchanger tubes, 487


welding, see Welding, nickel and nickel-base alloys drilling and roding, tubes, 487
Nickel-based filler metals, 1117 hydro drilling, 487
9% Nickel steel jet, 486487
edge preparation, 923 manual, 486
electrodes, 924 scraper-type tube cleaners, 487488
forming, 923 soot blowing, 488
merits, 923 thermal, 488
postweld heat treatment, 925 turbining, 487
welding Offline monitoring techniques, corrosion, 724
guidelines, 924925 Offset strip fin (OSF)
problems, 925 j and f factors, correlations, 199200
procedures, 923924 in PFHE, 162
surface preparation and scale removal, 923 Online chemical cleaning methods, 491
Nil-ductility transition temperature (NDTT), 754 Online mechanical cleaning methods
Nondestructive testing (NDT) advantages, 499
acceptance criteria, 976 air bumping, 492
acoustical holography, 1021 ATCS, see Automatic tube cleaning systems (ATCS)
AET, see Acoustic emission testing (AET) flow excursion, 492
ASME Code, 980 grit cleaning, 496
AWS symbols, 980, 981 insert technology, 494496
capabilities and limitations, 976 reversing flow, 492493
cost, 976 self-cleaning heat exchangers, 497500
description, 976 upstream filtration (debris filter), 492
ET, see Eddy current testing (ET) Online monitoring techniques, corrosion
inspection equipment, 980 corrosion coupons, 723
liquid PT, see Liquid PT electrochemical, 723724
LT, see Leak testing (LT) hydrogen diffusion, 723
methods, 976 weight change, 723
MT, see Magnetic particle inspection (MT) Open channel air preheater (OCAP), 380
personnel, 979980 OTL, see Outer tube limit (OTL)
QA, 956, 957, 961 Outer tube limit (OTL), 256, 257
RT, see Radiographic testing (RT) Owens turbulent buffeting frequency,
selection, applications, advantages and limitations, 518519
976979 Oxygen-free and tough-pitch coppers, 877
UT, see Ultrasonic testing (UT) Oxygen-free coppers, 865
VT, see Visual examination (VT)
weld quality, 968 P
written procedures, 980982
Noram RF radial flow gas heat exchanger, 326327 Panel coil heat exchanger
No tubes-in-window (NTIW), 248 advantages, 1314
NTIW, see No tubes-in-window (NTIW) construction details, 12
NTU, see Number of transfer units (NTU) description, 12
-NTU, see Effectiveness-number of transfer units dimpled surface, 13
(-NTU) jackets types, 14
Number of transfer units (NTU) single and double embossed surface, 12
-NTU method Parallel flow exchanger
definition, 4243 advantages, 18
expression, 42 arrangement, 1819
1204 Index

Particulate fouling, 474475 corrosion tests, 773


Pass arrangement dimensional tolerance tests, 773
channel covers, 260, 261 hydrostatic pressure testing, 772773
pass divider/ribs, 262 pneumatic test, 773
shellside passes, 262265 Pitting corrosion
tubeside passes, see Tubeside passes cooling water, 737738
Passivation, corrosion, 670671 environmental factors, 685
Passive techniques, heat transfer augmentation gauge resistance, 688689
additives growing pit, 684
gases, 453 growth and propagation, 686
liquids, 453 initiation and propagation, 686
displaced flow enhancement, see Displaced metallurgical and structural factors, 685
flow enhancement devices, heat transfer microorganisms, products and deposits, 686
augmentation morphology, 686, 687
enhancement mechanism, 444 nucleation and growth, 686
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extended surfaces, gases, 437438 polarization, passive alloys, 685686


insert devices, 444 potential determination, electrochemical method,
liquids, extended surface 686, 687
integral internal finned tubes, 438, 439 prevention, 687688
integral low-fin tubes, 440441 Plate bending machines
internal enhancement tubes, 438, 439 roll, 1051
microfin tube, 438, 440 vertical, 1051
rough surfaces, 442444 Platecoil prime surface plate heat exchangers,
surface tension devices, 453 428429
swirl flow devices, 450453 Plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHEs)
treated surfaces, 441 advantages, 159
PCHE, see Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) aluminum, 166
PECs, see Performance evaluation criterias (PECs) areas of application, 159160
Penetrant inspection (PT) liquid, see Liquid PT BAHXs, see Brazed aluminum heat exchangers
Perforated PHE, 25 (BAHXs)
Performance evaluation criterias (PECs) correlations for j and f factors, 199201
objectives, 455 corrugation selection, 166
Shahs recommendation, compact heat exchanger, counterflow arrangement, 157, 158
456457 crossflow arrangements, 157
Webbs PECs, 456 definition, 157
Periodic-flow heat exchanger, see Rotary regenerators economics, 160
PFHEs, see Plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHEs) essential features, 158
Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) extended surface exchangers, 15
A-scan displays, 1018 fin geometries, 160166
B-scan displays, 1018 flow arrangement, 160, 161
conventional ultrasonic transducers, 1015 fluid stream, 20
C-scan displays, 10181019 fouling service, 158
formats, 1018 hydrostatic and pneumatic tests, 1107
merits, 10161018 leak test, 1107
principle and technique, 1016, 1017 limitations, 159
transducer frequencies, 10151016 liquid/phase-change applications, 158
PHEs, see Plate heat exchangers (PHEs) manufacture, inspection and quality control, 166
Phosphorus-deoxidized copper, 865866 mechanical design, 166
Photon-induced positron annihilation (PIPA), 1185 narrow passages, 18
Pin fins, PFHE pressure test, 1107
description, 164165 size, 159
enhancement mechanism, 165 stainless steels and nickel alloys, 166
geometries and merits, 165 Plate heat exchangers (PHEs)
limitations, 165 advantages, 397399
PIPA, see Photon-induced positron annihilation (PIPA) Alfa Laval evaporator, 413
Pipes and tubes AlfaNova, 412
ASME code requirements, 771 AlfaRex, 412
ASTM specifications, ferrous alloys tubings, 773774 all-welded, 403
defect detection, 772 applications, 413
mill scale, 773 characteristics, 413
requirements, 771 classification, 10
selection, heat exchangers, 772 clip-on snap-on gaskets, 411412
specifications, 772 construction, see Construction, PHE
standard testing corrosion, 424
Index 1205

deep-set gasket grooves, 413 steel quality, 940


design, 414 types, 939940
Diabon F graphite, 411 welding-related failures, 942
double-wall, 411 Pressing, heads and closures
EKasic silicon carbide, 413 cold forming, 1110, 1111
electrode plate, 412 description, 1110
flow area, 417418 ellipsoidal, 1110, 1111
flow-flex tubular, 407 equipments, 1110
flow rings, 412 fabrication, flanging, 1110, 1111
fouling, 425 hot forming and spinning, 1110, 1111
free-flow, 407, 409 metals and loads, 1110
GEABloc welded, 407, 408 sequence, vessel manufacturing, 1110
heat transfer correlations, 419 Pressure boundary components
high and low-theta plates, 415416 baffles, 766
and LHE, 1415 shell, channel, covers and bonnets, 765
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limitations, 425 tubes, 765


panel coil heat exchanger, 1214 tubesheets, 765766
perforated PHE, 25 Pressure-drop analysis, heat exchanger
plate and frame/gasketed, 11 applications, 125
pressure drop, 420421 compact heat exchangers, 126
sanitary, 413 components, 125
semiwelded/twin-plate, 409, 410 core frictional pressure drop,
and SPHEs, 1112 126127
and STHE, 399 description, 125
Supermax and Maxchanger, 404406 flow turning, 127
thermal design methods, see Thermal design, PHE in nozzles, 128
thermal mixing, 416418 pressure losses, 126
wide-gap, 406407 shell and tube heat exchangers, 127
Plate steels Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE)
classifications. and designations, see Carbon and alloy compactness, 25
steels construction and performance features, 5
processing construction materials, 24
methods and cracking problems, 770771 description, 23
optimum forming orientation, 771 design, 2324
Plug-type dealloying, 693 solid-state joining process, 23
Pneumatic airunderwater test, 773 Procedure qualification record (PQR)
Polarization, corrosion, 669671 contents, 972
Porcelain-enameled flat-plate heat exchangers, 380 description, 972
Positive material identification (PMI), 965 quality system, 962
Postbraze cleaning third-party inspection, 967
braze stopoffs, 1125 welder requalification, 972
brazing fluxes, 1125 and WPS, 971
Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) Purchased end closures, 1114
austenitic SSs welding PWHT, see Postweld heat treatment (PWHT)
cracking, 833
heating and cooling rates, 832 Q
solution annealing, 833
dished ends QA, see Quality assurance (QA)
head, 1113 QAPs, see Quality assurance programs (QAPs)
materials, manufacture, 11121113 Quality assurance (QA)
problems, heat treatment, 1113 administration, 956
6% Mo superaustenitics, 849 description, 956
nickel and nickel-base alloys, 892 economics, 961
9% nickel steel, 925 in fabrication, 956957
shells, 1051 inspection and NDT, 956
steel pressure vessels and heat exchangers for pressure vessels/heat exchangers, 957
ASME code requirements, 940 programs, see Quality assurance
cycle, 940941 programs (QAPs)
defects, 942 Quality assurance programs (QAPs)
effectiveness, 942 elements, 956
features, welded structure, 939 main documents, 960
methods, 941 management, 955
NDT, 942 NDT, 976
quality control, 941 requirements, 956
1206 Index

Quality control (QC) reference documents, 999


consumer protection, 955 requirements, 999
definitions, 955956 safety, 999
management, 955 spot radiography, 10011002
and QA, see Quality assurance (QA) surface preparation, 9991000
system, see Quality system welding discontinuities, 1004, 1005
Quality manual weldments of pressure vessels, 10001001
constituents, 960 written procedure, 998
description, 957 x-ray fluoroscopy, 1006
responsibilities, 959960 x-rays and gamma rays, 997998
Quality system Raised face (RF) flanges, 631
ASME Code, 959 Rating problems
audits, 959 compact heat exchangers
authority and responsibility, 957 multipass crossflow exchangers, 209210
authorized inspector, 959 single-pass crossflow exchangers, 206209
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correction of nonconformities, 958 description, 120


design specifications, drawings and calculations, 958 inputs, 120
documentation, 959, 962963 shell and tube exchanger, 121
heat treatment, 959 solution, 122123
ISO 9000, 963 steps, analysis, 120121
main documents, 960961 Razelos method, asymmetric-unbalanced counterflow
maintenance and calibration, 959 regenerator, 370371
material procurement control, 958 RC, see Reheat cracking (RC)
nondestructive examination, 958 Rectangular tubesheet design, STHE, 610611
organization, 957958 Recuperators
process control, examination and inspection, 958 advantages, 339
quality manual, 957 defined, 339
retention, records, 959 radiation, 380
reviews, 962 and regenerators, 352
welding QA, 958 waste heat recovery heat exchangers, 339, 340
Quenched and tempered steels Reduced length-reduced period (-) method,
compositions and properties, 798799 regenerators
description, 797 determination, 369370
joint design, 799 energy balance, 367
postweld heat treatment, 799800 utilization factors, 367
preheat, 799 Reference crossflow velocity, 321322
stress-relief cracking, 800 Regenerative heat exchangers
weldability, 799 classification, 15, 16
welding process, 799 fixed and rotary regenerators, 1516
regeneration, 15
R rotary regenerators, 16
Rothemuhle regenerative air preheater, 16, 17
Radiographic testing (RT) Regenerators
acceptance criteria, 1004 air-conditioning and industrial process, 355
application, 997 air preheater leakage, 351
computed tomography (CT), 1005 ALSTOM Power trisector Ljungstrm air preheater,
density, 1002 351352
description, 996997 axial seals and sealing plates, 351
documentation, 1004 balanced temperature distribution, switching instants,
examination, 1004 340, 341
gamma radiography, 1007 ceramic heat exchangers, 355
gammascopy, 1006 ceramicmetallic hybrid recuperator, 355
general procedure, 999 circumferential seals and sealing ring, 351
identification marks, 999 corrosion resistance, 355
imaging plate, 1006 cryogenic applications, 355
IQI, 10021004 fixed-matrix/fixed-bed/storage-type, 341343
location markers, 999 gas turbine cycle, 337338
merits and limitations, 998 heat exchanger, see Heat exchangers
microfocus radiography, 10051006 heat recovery system, 352353
neutron radiography, 1006 industrial and heat recovery devices, see Industrial
principle, 997 regenerators and heat recovery devices
processing, 999 low gas permeability, 355
radiographic sensitivity, 1002 mechanical design, see Mechanical design,
radioscopy, 1006 regenerators
Index 1207

principle, 337 pneumatic tube expansion drive and electrical


radial seals and sector plates, 350351 expansion system, 1064, 1066
and recuperators, 352 pneumatic tube-to-tubesheet rolling machines,
regenerative furnace, 337, 338 1064,1065
rotary, see Rotary regenerators tube expander, 1064, 1067
rotary heat exchangers, see Rotary heat exchangers, tube pullers, 1064, 1069
space heating tube rolling-in accessories, 1064, 1070
temperature range, heat exchanger materials, 354 Rolling-in adequacy
thermal design, see Thermal design theory, amount, tubes thinning, 1072
regenerators correct tube wall reduction, 10721073
thermodynamic system, 337 optimum tube rolls, 1066
waste heat recovery, see Waste heat recovery 3, 4, or 5 roll expander design determination,
Reheat cracking (RC) 1074
alloys, 787 wall reduction, 1068, 1070, 1072
avoidance, 787 Romies method, longitudinal heat conduction,
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definition, 786 372373


empirical check, 787 Rotary heat exchangers, space heating
UCC, 788 cleaning devices, 386
Remote field eddy current (RFEC) testing, 1030, 1032 construction, 385
Remote visual inspection (RVI), 984985 drive system and control unit, 386
Replication technique, 1185 rotor materials, 385386
Residual life assessment, NDT techniques working principle, 384
creep waves, 1184 Rotary regenerators
flash radiography, 1184 advantages, 347
in-service NDT, 1183 air preheaters, see Air preheaters
inspection methods, 1183 characteristics, matrix, 346
LFET, 1184 disk and drum type, 343, 344
PIPA and DSPA, 1185 features, 343
pulsed eddy currents, 1184 gas turbine applications, 345
ultrasonic method, 1184 hub shaft/peripheral ring gear drive, 345
Reversing flow/backflushing, 492493 hydraulic diameter, performance, 345
Reynolds process operating temperature and pressure, 345
merits, 1146 principle, 343
procedures, 1145 size, 346
sequence, ultrasonic soldering, 1145, 1146 surface geometries, 345, 346
RF flanges, see Raised face (RF) flanges total heat, 346347
Ring-type joint (RTJ) flanges, 631 types, 345
RODbaffle heat exchanger RT, see Radiographic testing (RT)
applications, 311 RTJ flanges, see Ring-type joint (RTJ) flanges
concepts, 310311
description, 310 S
design and rating program, 312
operational characteristics, 311 SBC, see Solder bloom corrosion (SBC)
shellside flow-induced vibration, 311 SCC, see Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
thermal performance, 311312 Scraped surface heat exchanger
Roll bending machine, 1051 applications, 2526
Roll cladding, 932933 principle of working, 26
Rolled joints Unicus, 2627
description, 1079 use of, 25
expanders condition, 1079 Selection, heat exchangers
feed and speed, 1079 construction materials, 30
friction and wall reduction, 10791080 costs, 3233
joint leak tightness, 10801081 description, 28
length, tube expansion, 1079 fabrication techniques, 33
optimum tube wall reduction, 1080 flow rate and arrangement, 31
roller expander, 1081 fouling tendencies, 32
step rolling, 1081 guidelines, 33
tube and tubesheet materials, 1079 operating conditions, 2930
Rolling equipment phases of fluids, 32
accessories, tube expansion, 1064, 10671068 pressure, 30
automatic grooving double-axis working center, pressure drop, 3132
1064, 1071 suitability, 32
expansion, heat exchanger tubes, 1064 temperature, 3031
inspection, rolled tube accessories, 1064, 1069 thermal effectiveness, 31
1208 Index

Self-cleaning heat exchangers Shellside liquids


liquid fluidized-bed technology, 498499 acoustic resonance, 554556
principle, 497, 498 calculation, tube mass, 549
tubeside application, 499, 500 cross flow velocity, 551
Service-oriented cracking, 790 damping parameter, 551, 554
Shahs method, longitudinal heat conduction, FEI, 553554
373374 natural frequency, 550551
Shell and tube heat exchangers (STHEs) turbulence-induced excitation, 552553
bolted flanged joint design, see Bolted flanged joint vortex shedding, 551552
design, STHE Shellside passes
codes, see Codes, STHE drains and vents, 263
comparison, heads, 619 expansion joint, 262263
components and heat exchanger, 8, 9 minimum nozzle size, 265
EMbaffle, 473 nozzles and impingement protection, 264265
end closures and formed heads Shipments, heat exchangers
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conical, 615 nitrogen filling, 1108


ellipsoidal, 614 painting, 1108
flat covers, 614 precautions, 1108
hemispherical, 614 Silicon bronzes, 867, 878
torispherical, 615, 616 Silver-based filler metals, 1117
external pressure/internal vacuum, 613 Singh and Soler model, expansion joints
FIV, see Flow-induced vibration (FIV) analysis, axial load and internal pressure, 646, 647
glass coil, 10 elements, FSE, 646
graphite, 27 force, internal shellside pressure, 646647
Helixchanger, 473474 Single-phase heat transfer augmentation devices
intended applications, 33 convection coefficient, 434
leak detection, 1171 fluid and finned surface, 434
mechanical design laminar flow, 435
defined, 574 principles, 434
loadings, 577 turbulent flow, 434435
procedures, 577 Sizing problems
sequence, decisions, 574575 compact heat exchangers
software program structure and output, core mass velocity equation, 210211
575576 PFHE, 211
stress, see Stress, STHE procedure for sizing, 211, 212
minimum thickness heads and closures heat exchanger
conical heads and sections, 618 compact heat exchanger, 122
ellipsoidal, 617 description, 121
flat cover, 617 heat exchanger optimization, 122
hemispherical, 617 inputs, 121
torispherical, 617 parameters, 121
nozzles, 654655 sensitivity analysis, 122
openings shell and tube heat exchanger, 122
air-soap solution testing and reinforcement pad, solution, 123
653654 Slipcevic method, 323
reinforcement pad, 653 SOHIC, see Stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking
and PHE, 399 (SOHIC)
pressure and temperature, 31 Solder bloom corrosion (SBC)
quality auditing, 1171 copper/brass radiators, 1149
stacked units, 655 defined, 1149
standards, see Standards, STHE field repair methods, 1149
support design, see Support design, STHE Soldered joints
symbols, cylindrical shell and end closures, 612 automobile coolant systems, 1149
thin thick cylindrical shells, 612614 SBC, see Solder bloom corrosion (SBC)
tube bundle removal and handling, 11721181 Soldering, heat exchangers
tubesheet design, see Tubesheet design, STHE cleaning and descaling, 1141
Twisted Tube, 473 defined, 1139
workhorses, industrial process, 8 fluxes, 1141
Shellside clearances flux residue removal, 1142
bypass lanes, 282 joint design, 1140
description, 279 nondestructive testing, 11461147
shell-to-baffle, 279 processes, 11411142
shell-to-bundle, 279 quality control, inspection and testing, 1146
tube-to-baffle-hole, 279 solders, 11401141
Index 1209

tube joints, 1140 removal, tubes, 538539


tube-to-header solder joints, 1140 surface modification, 539
ultrasonic, aluminum, see Aluminum Steam surface condenser
heat exchangers air-removing section, 329330
Solidification cracking description, 329
elements, 784785 mechanical description, 330
welding procedure-related factors, 785 parts, 330
Solidification/freezing fouling, 477 support systems, 332
Soot blowing, 488 tube material, 331
SPHEs, see Spiral plate heat exchangers (SPHEs) Steels
Spiral plate heat exchangers (SPHEs) carbon steel, see Carbon steels
advantages, 428 fabrication, 794795
applications, 11 HSLA, 791
channel spacing, 11 low-alloy steels, 791
construction and performance features, 1, 5 process improvements, 792
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construction material, 426 product forms, 792


disadvantages, 428 types, 792
flow arrangements and applications, STHE design
426, 427 baffle leakage effects, 298299
intended applications, 33 baffles, see Baffles
liquid-to-liquid duties, 427428 bundle-to-shell bypass area parameters, 296
mechanical design, 427 classification, 266
operating pressures, 30 components, 237238
structure, 11, 12 correction factors, pressure-drop,
thermal design, 426427 297298
unit and design, 425, 426 cross flow area, 294
Spiral wound gasket (SPWG), 631 cross flow velocity, 297
Spirelf system, 494496 design considerations, 287288
SPWG, see Spiral wound gasket (SPWG) differential thermal expansion, 272
SSs, see Stainless steels (SSs) evaluation and comparison, 307308
Stage-wise inspection plan, heat exchanger fabrication, fluid properties and allocation, 266
11511161 front and rear head designs, 278279
Stainless steels (SSs) heat transfer
ASTM specification, 806 coefficient, 286, 301302
austenitic, see Austenitic stainless steel correction factors, 297
brazing pressure drop, 286, 302303
aircraft and nuclear energy industries, 1136 segmental baffle
brazeability, 11361137 geometry, 293
fabricating structures, 1136 window area, 295296
classification and designation, 806 shellside design, 286287
corrosion resistance mechanism, see Corrosion sizing, 285
resistance mechanism, SSs spacing, baffle, 300
description, 805 TEMA
duplex, see Duplex stainless steels specification sheet, 279281
ferritic, see Ferritic stainless steels standard, 237
martensitic, 806 system, see TEMA system
selection, 806 thermal design
Standards, STHE procedure, see Thermal design, STHE
company, 563 program structure, 308309
defined, 563 tube layout parameters, 294295
HEI standards, see Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) tubes, see Tubes
Standards tubeside
national, 564 heat transfer coefficient, 304305
TEMA, see Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers pressure drop, 305306
Association (TEMA) STHEs, see Shell and tube heat
trade/manufacturers association, 564 exchangers (STHEs)
Standing wave vibration, FIV Strength-welded joints
antivibration baffles, 535537 description, 1093
changes, mass flow rate, 539 joint efficiencies, 1093
detuning, 538 tube-to-tubesheet joint-tubes, 1093
fin barriers, 537538 tube-to-tubesheet strength welded join,
helical spacers, 538 1093, 1094
Helmholtz cavity resonator, 537 weld geometries, ASME Code Section VIII,
irregular spacing, tubes, 539 1093, 1094
1210 Index

Stress analysis, STHE, 577 characteristics, 835


Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) corrosion resistance
avoidance, 704705 intergranular, 839
classes, 700 molybdenum additions, 838
copper alloys, 872873 description, 835
defined, 701 fabricability, 839
detection, 704 physical properties
environmental effects, material properties, 701 ductile-brittle transition, 838
environments, 814 strength, 837
factors, 701 toughness and embrittling phenomena, 838
growth and propagation, 704 welding
heat exchanger components, 702703 ferritic SSs, 839
metals and alloys, 738 filler metals, 840
susceptible alloys and environment, 703 low heat input, 839
tensile stress, 703 practices, 840
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welded joints, 703704 PWHT, 840


Stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC) surface preparation and joint design, 840
defined, 740 Supermax and Maxchanger plate heat exchangers
resistance, 741 advantages, 404
Stress-relief cracking, see Reheat cracking (RC) and shell, 405
Stress, STHE tranter plate, 405, 406
allowable, 581 welded plate, 405, 406
analysis, 577 Support design, STHE
ASME Code Section VIII design criteria, 581 ASME Code, 659
categorization, 578 horizontal vessels
classification, see Classification, stress leg, 657
combined-thickness approach, clad plates, 581582 ring, 656
design pressure, 583584 saddle, 656, 657
design temperature, 584 lifting devices and attachments, 659
fatigue analysis, 580 loads, 655
joint categories, 582583 TEMA rules, 658
MAWP, see Maximum allowable working pressure vertical vessels
(MAWP) lug, 657658
membrane, 578 ring, 658
operating/working pressure, 584 skirt, 657, 658
operating/working temperature, 584 Surface geometrical relations, compact
primary, 578 heat exchangers
restrictions, weld joint, 582 compact plate-fin exchangers
types, weld joint, 583, 584 components of pressure loss, 186
welded joint efficiencies, 582 heat transfer area, 184186
Strouhal number, FIV, 513514 parameters
Subzero temperature alloys hydraulic diameter, 175
austenitic stainless steels, cryogenic application surface area density, 177
Charpy V-notch impact, 925 tubular heat exchangers
problems, welding, 926 tube inside, 177178
crystal structure, low-temperature behavior, tube outside, 178184
917918 Surface tension devices, heat transfer
DBTT, 917 augmentation, 453
low-temperature and cryogenic applications, see Swirl flow devices, heat transfer augmentation
Low-temperature and cryogenic applications, corrugated surfaces, 450452
subzero temperature alloys doubly enhanced surfaces, 452453
9% nickel steel, 923925 turbulators, 453
notch toughness, 918 twisted tape insert, 450, 451
requirements, low-temperature applications, 918
safety, cryogenics T
selection, low-temperature applications, 918
Superaustenitic stainless steels, with Mo + N Tantalum
copper, 845 corrosion resistance
corrosion resistance, 849 chemicals, 909
4.5% Mo, 846 hydrogen embrittlement, 909
6% Mo, see 6% Mo superaustenitic stainless steel description, 907908
Superferritic stainless steel heat transfer, 909910
alloy composition, 835837 performance vs. other materials, 909
applications, 837 pharmaceutical heat exchanger, 908
Index 1211

product forms and cost, 909 Temperature resistance, construction materials


welding, 910 classification, 755756
Taper-Lok nickel-base heat-resistant material, 757
closure, 320 steels, 756757
heat exchanger closure superalloys, 756
construction, 638, 639 TFM, see Tube fouling monitor (TFM)
thermal cycles, 637638 Thermal design
Teflon heat exchanger
chemical processing industry, 914 computer-aided design methods,
design considerations, 914 123125
fabrication, 914915 cooperative research programs, 132
fluoropolymer resin development, 915 corrosion allowance, 132
as heat exchanger material, 913914 fluid properties correction, 128130
size/construction, 914 fouling, 131
TEMA, see Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers maldistribution, 131
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Association (TEMA) Standards methodology, 117119


TEMA shells, thermal relations performance, 130
description, 72 pressure-drop analysis, 125128
E shell, see E shell, TEMA shells problems, 120123
F shell, 79 step-by-step design procedure, 120
G shell/split-flow exchanger uncertainties, see Uncertainties, heat exchanger
flow arrangements, 79 design
G1-1, thermal effectiveness chart, 81, 83 PHE
G1-2, thermal effectiveness chart, 81, 83 characteristics, 421422
thermal effectiveness formula, 81, 82 design pressure, 423424
H shell LMTD, 422
flow arrangements, 81 -NTU method, 422423
H1-1, thermal effectiveness chart, 81, 86 plate hanger, 424
H1-2, thermal effectiveness chart, 81, 86 specification sheet, 423, 424
thermal effectiveness formula, STHE
81, 8485 Bells method, 288
J shell/divided-flow shell fouling resistance, 290
flow arrangements, 8182 heat load, 289
J1-1, thermal effectiveness chart, 88 heat transfer coefficient, 290
J1-2, thermal effectiveness chart, 88, 89 log mean temperature difference, 289
J1-4, thermal effectiveness chart, 88, 89 Thermal design theory, regenerators
thermal effectiveness relations, 8788 Coppage and London model, see Coppage and London
tube passes, 82, 88 model, rotary regenerators
X shell, 90 idealized triangular geometry, glass ceramic heat
TEMA system exchanger, 357, 358
classification, 272 -NTU method, 358
divided flow exchanger, 276 one-to-one correspondence, 360
double split flow exchanger, 275276 open and closed methods, 359
E shell, 274 surface geometrical properties,
fixed tubesheet exchangers, 269270 356357
floating head exchangers, 271272 Thermal effectiveness
F shell, 274275 charts
G and H shell, 275 chart, 51, 52
heat exchanger types, 267268 dimensionless variables, 50
kettle type reboiler, 276277 flow arrangements, 5051
nomenclature, 266267 F-P-R-chart, 51, 52
shell comparison, 278 F-P-R-NTU chart, 51, 52
split flow exchanger, 275 sizing and rating, 50
u-tube exchangers, 270271 functional relationship, 4850
X shell, 277278 LMTD method, 4547
Temperature-dependent fluid properties -NTU method, 4243
gases P-NTUt method, 4345
laminar flow, 129 -P method, 4849
Stanton number, 128129 Thermal mixing, PHE, 416417
turbulent flow, 129 Thermohydraulic design
liquids basic methods, 119
correction, 129130 surface characteristics, 119
laminar flow, 130 surface geometrical properties, 119
turbulent flow, 130 thermophysical properties, 119
1212 Index

Thermohydraulic fundamentals shell and tube heat exchanger, 256257


finned tube heat exchangers spacers, tie-rods and sealing devices, 256257
heat transfer and friction factor correlations, Tube bundle construction, ACHEs
191192 components, 216
j and f factors, see j and f factors, finned tube heat description, 216
exchangers fin materials, 218
flow and pass arrangements, see Flow and pass header
arrangements, thermal relations cover plate header, 218
flow reversibility, 5253 high-pressure header, 220221
heat transfer analysis methods, 4150 pipe manifold/billet header, 220
PHEs plug header, 219220
flow area, 417418 with stud bolts, cover plate header, 218219
heat transfer and pressure-drop correlations, with through-bolts, cover plate header, 219
419421 welded header, 219
high-and low-theta plates, 415416 orientation
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plate patterns, 414 A-type orientation, 221, 222


pressure drop, 421 designs, 221, 222
thermal mixing, 416417 fan ring design, 221, 224
symmetry property, 52 specification sheet, ACHE, 221, 223224
temperature approach and temperature meet, 5455 tube-fin geometries, 216218
temperature cross, 5456 Tube bundle removal and handling
thermal circuit cleaning
energy conservation equation, 39 automatic high-pressure external cleaning robot,
heat transfer coefficient, 40 1172, 1176
overall thermal resistance, 39, 40 locating leaks, 1172
surface effectiveness, 4041 pneumatic shafting tube cleaners, 1172, 1177
wall temperature, 41 gasket replacement, 1172
thermal effectiveness charts, 5052 tube failures, 1172
Thick-walled expansion joints, see Formed head expansion tube plugging, see Tube plugging
joints, STHE Tube expansions
Tin brasses, 866 common causes, tube joint failure, 1074
Titanium description, 1074
alloy specification, 893, 894 sealing full length, tubesheet, 1074
corrosion resistance Tube-fin heat exchangers
anodizing and thermal oxidation, 895896 aluminum L foot tube and welded longitudinal fin,
applications, 898899 146, 147
forms, 896897 applications, 146, 148
fouling, 898 continuous fins, see Continuous finned tube heat
resistance, chemicals and solutions, 896 exchangers
resistance, waters, 896 extended surface exchangers, 15
surface oxide film, 895 fluid stream, 20
thermal performance, 897898 gasliquid, 21
description, 892 heat transfer performance
fabrication addition, tube rows, 187, 188
heat treatment, 904 boundary-layer and flow length, 189190
in-process quality control and weld tests, contact resistance, 190
903904 equilateral vs. equivelocity layout, 187
titanium-clad steel plate formation, 904 induced vs. forced draft, 191
welding, 899903 side leakage, 189
grades and alloys surface modification, 188
alloy grades, 894 tube-fin variables, 188
ASTM and ASME specifications, 894895 tube layout, 187
unalloyed, 893 tube pitch, 188
heat exchanger applications, 892893 individually finned tubes
Titanium tubes welding, 1096, 1097 classification, 148, 150
Torch brazing, 1120 construction materials, 150151
Total Quality Management (TQM), 963 enhanced fin geometries, 150
Toughness, material forms, 148
description, 754 height and classification, 148, 150
tests, 754 helical spiral wound crimped and annular/stamped
Tube bundle fin tube, 148, 149
bundle weight, 256 parameters, 148, 149
OTL, 256, 257 plain circular fins, 148
pulling devices, 11721174 tube layout, 151
Index 1213

specific qualitative considerations, 147 ligament efficiency, thickness and tube-to-tubesheet


surface selection joint strength, 604605
qualitative considerations, 156157 parameter Z, 594595
quantitative considerations, 157 plate, uniform net effective pressure, 591592
thermohydraulic fundamentals, 191 rectangular, see Rectangular tubesheet design, STHE
Tube fouling monitor (TFM), 481 supported and unsupported, 585
Tube holes TEMA, see Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers
finish Association (TEMA) Standards
drilled tubesheet, 1055 thickness, 585586
surface imperfections, machined tubesheet, 1055 tube-to-tubesheet joint loads, 608
TEMA Standard and manufacturers, 1054 U-tube heat exchanger
size ASME, CODAP and UPV rules, 606
description, 1076 ASME Code, 605606
hydraulic expansion, 10761078 fixed tubesheet, 606607
Tube inlet erosion-corrosion, 738 vs. TEMA rules, 607
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Tube plugging UPV and ASME Code rules, 606


control sleeving system, 1175, 1181 Tubesheet to shell welding
count, 1172 configurations, 1060
holes, 1175, 1178 distortion control, 10601061
hydrostatic testing equipment, 1181 end ring method, 1061
mechanical seal plug, 1175, 1177 pass partition plate, 1060
ring and tapered pin, 1175, 1179 Tubeside passes
unexpanded tube plugs, 1175, 1179 guidelines, 258259
Tubes number, 258
count, 241 Tube-to-tubesheet expansion methods
diameter, 239 explosive joining, 1063
duplex/bimetallic, 240 hydraulic expansion, 1063
fabrication, 240 rolling-in process, 10631064
layout arrangements, 242 Tube-to-tubesheet joint fabrication
layout patterns, 238239 basic rolling process, 10641065, 1071
length, 240 description, 1061
low-finned tubes, 240 expansion, double tubesheets, 1081, 1082
number, 241 expansion methods, see Tube-to-tubesheet expansion
pitch, 242 methods
rotated square arrangements, 243 factors, rolling process, 1079
straight and U-tubes, 238 full-depth rolling, 10751076
triangular and rotated triangular layouts, 242 leak testing, 1081
U-tube, 241 length, tube expansion, see Tube expansions
wall thickness, 239240 methods, degree of expansion, 1066
Tubesheet mock-up test, 10621063
clad and faced, 253 optimum degree of expansion, 10651066, 1072
conventional double tubesheet design, 253255 quality assurance program, 1062
demerits, double, 256 residual stresses, 10811082
double, 253 rolling equipment, see Rolling equipment
drilling, 1054 rolling-in adequacy, see Rolling-in adequacy
drilled titanium, 252253 size, tube holes, see Tube holes
tube-to-tubesheet attachment, 253 strength and leak tightness, rolled joints, see Rolled
Tubesheet design, STHE joints
analytical treatment, 590591 tube expansion and requirements, 1063
ASME and TEMA loading cases, 604 Tube-to-tubesheet joint welding
ASME rules, 608609 arc voltage control options, 1089
assumptions, analysis, 587590 argon shielding gas, 10861087
axial rigidity, shell, 592 brazing method, 1102
configurations, 586, 604 clad tubesheet configuration, 1085
connection, shell and channel, 585, 586 cleaning, 10851086
curved, see Curved tubesheet model, STHE cold wire method, 1086
defined, 585 configuration, flush tube, 1084
deflection, slope and bending moment, 593594 configurations, 10821083
design procedure, 586587 ductility, feedwater heaters, 10991100
double tubesheet, 611 enclosed orbital, without filler wire, 1089
flanged, see Flanged tubesheets, TEMA design factors, 10941096
procedure flush tubes with filler wire addition, 10901091
floating head heat exchanger, 607608 full-depth, full-strength expanding, 1099
half exchanger, 592 good-quality and cleanliness, 1088
1214 Index

GTAW, 1086 Owens buffeting frequency, 518519


heads with/without filler wire, 1089, 1090 steady-state random process, 519
heat exchangers, 1082 Turbulent buffeting
inspections, 11001101 acoustic resonance, 528, 530
internal bore configuration, 1085 defined, 518
internal bore welding, 10911092 Owens expression, frequency, 518519
joint strengths, 1093 steady-state random process, 519
leak testing, 1102 Twisted Tube heat exchanger, 473
manual TIG, 1086 advantages, 318
merits and demerits, 10961099 applications, 315
orbital/automatic TIG, 10861088 merits, 319
orbital welding, 10881089 sedimentary-type fouling, 473
procedures, 10821083
protruding and recessed tubes, 1091 U
protruding tube configuration, 1084
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recessed tube cladding fusion, 1085, 1086 UCC, see Underclad cracking (UCC)
recessed tubesheet configuration, 1084 Ultrasonic testing (UT)
seal-welds, 1093 acceptance criteria, 1014
strength-welded joints, see Strength-welded joints advantages, 10091010
tapered pin method, 10871088 angle beam technique, 1011, 1012
titanium tubes, 1096, 1097 calculators, 1014
tubes and weld preparations, 1090 calibration, 1015
unequal thickness, 1092 code coverage, 1009
welded mock-ups, 1100 conventional UT method, 1007
welding equipments, 10891090 couplant, 1012
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) description, 1007
Standards developments, 1020
ASME Code, 565566 examination coverage, 1014
categorization, stress, 598 fracture mechanics, 10191020
classes R, C, and B, 565 limitations, 1010
compressive stress, 602 PAUT, 10151019
construction code, 565 presentation, 1011
contents, 564 in pressure vessel industry, 10081009
design loading cases, 595 probes, 1012
determination, effective design pressure, 598 pulse-echo technique, 10101011
differential pressure design, 600601 reference blocks, 10141015
engineering software, 565 surface preparation, 1012
equivalent differential expansion pressure, 598600 surface wave technique, 1011
fixed tubesheets design, thickness, 603 test method, 1008
fouling resistance values, liquid streams, 478480 welds, 10121014
HEI, see Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) written procedure, 1009
longitudinal stresses, 601602 Uncertainties, heat exchanger design
maximum allowable joint loads, 602603 in basic design correlations, 135
parameter F, 596597 bypass path, 137
shear formula, 597 computational procedures, 137138
shell longitudinal stress, 601 description, 133
tubesheet formula, bending, 595596 flow nonuniformity, 134135
tube-to-tubesheet joint loads, 602 in fouling, 137
Tubular heat exchangers miscellaneous effects, 137
CTHEs, 23 mixed/unmixed flows, 136
double-pipe exchangers, 2, 8 nonuniform flow passages, 135
Linde coil-wound heat exchangers, 910 nonuniform heat transfer coefficient, 136137
STHEs, see Shell and tube heat exchangers (STHEs) parameters, 133
tube inside in physical properties, 134
geometrical properties, 178 pressure drop, 139
total number of tubes, 177 in process conditions, 134
tube outside surface area, 139
bare tube bank, 178180 Underbead cracking, 780
circular fins, 180182 Underclad cracking (UCC), 788
continuous plain fins, 182184 Unicus scraped surface heat exchanger, 2627
Turbotal system, 495, 497 Unified Pressure Vessel (UPV) code, 573
Turbulence-induced excitation mechanism Uniform/general corrosion
buffeting, 518 atmospheres, 676, 679, 680
flow rates, 518 cooling water, 737
Index 1215

determination, 680 W
material selection, 680
rating, metals, 680 Waste heat recovery
types, 676 direct benefits, 338
Uniform vs. localized corrosion, 673674 fuel efficiency, flue gas, 338
Upstream filtration (debris filter), 492 fuel savings, 339
UPV code, see Unified Pressure Vessel (UPV) code indirect benefits, 339
UT, see Ultrasonic testing (UT) Water resistance, aluminum alloys
natural waters, 854
seawater, 855
V Weldability
Vacuum brazing problems
aluminum cold cracking, see Cold cracking
chloride-type and fluoride-type flux definition, 774
cleaning, 1134 tests
description, 788
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difference with furnace, 1132


filler metals, 1134 HAZ liquation cracking, 789
furnaces, 1134 weld cracking, 789
manufacturing procedure, flux-free brazing, Weld defects and inspection
1132, 1133 acceptance levels, 975
nonuniform mass and temperature uniformity, classification, 973
1134 discontinuities, 973
oxide dispersion and wetting, 1134 faults, fusion welds, 975
parameters and environment, 1132 notches, 973
postbraze cleaning and finishing, 1134 planar defects, 973
promoter, magnesium, 1134 radiographic interpretation, 973, 974
temperature control, 1132, 1134 Welding; see also Austenitic stainless steel; 6% Mo
commercial, 11241125 superaustenitic stainless steel
description, 1124 austenitic stainless steel
merits, 1125 corrosion resistance, 834
parent metals, 1125 defects, 832
Varestraint test, 789 dissimilar metals, 833
VFHE, see Vortex-flow direct-contact heat exchanger filler metal selection, 821
(VFHE) gas coverage, 830831
Vibration evaluation procedure, FIV joint design, 822
experimentally derived values, 531 material considerations, 823830
liquid and gas flow, 531, 532 methods, 820821
Visual examination (VT) performance, 831
borescopes, 985 postweld cleaning, 833834
combining visual inspection, 985 postweld heat treatment, 832833
description, 982 preparation weld, 822
direct VT, 982 preweld cleaning, 822823
equipment, 983 process, 820
high-speed video, 986 protection, oxidation, 831832
merits, 983 shielding gases, 822
NDT, raw materials, 983984 TIG techniques, 830
prerequisites, 983 weld metal protection, 831
reference document, 983 copper
remote VT, 985, 986 alloy classification, 877879
RVI, 984985 dissimilar metal welding
stages of fabrication, 984 GMAW and GTAW, 875
video image scopes, 985 PWHT
video microscopes, 985 weldability, 875877
written procedure, 983 dissimilar, see Dissimilar metal welding
Vortex-flow direct-contact heat exchanger (VFHE), 379 nickel and nickel-base alloys
Vortex shedding, FIV carbide precipitation, 890
acoustic resonance, 528530 embrittlement, 890
avoidance, resonance, 515517 fixtures, 890
calculation, Strouhal number, 515 good bead shape, 890
single cylinder, 513 heat input, 889
Strouhal number, 513514 hot cracking, 889890
tube bundles, 514515 joint designs, 889
tube response, 517518 metal porosity, 889
VT, see Visual examination (VT) methods, 891892
1216 Index

minor elements, 888 Welding procedure qualification


penetration design, 890 performance qualification, 972
PH alloys, 888 positions and qualifications, 972
pitting corrosion, 891 requalification, 972
postweld heat treatment, 892 WPS and PQR, 971972
precleaning and surface preparation, 888 Welding procedure specification (WPS)
preheat and interpass temperatures, 889 contents, 971
strain age cracking, 891 essential and nonessential variables, 971
surface oxide removal, 888889 and PQR, 971
related failures, 790791 qualification, 971672
titanium welder requalification, 972
cleaned components handling, 901 Weld overlaying/surfacing
cleaning and degreasing, 900 heat-treatment, 931
descaling/oxide removal, 900 inspection, 932
dissimilar metals, 899 nickel alloy cladding, 932
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edge preparation and joint designs, 900 overlay cladding methods, 929931
filler metal, 901 procedure and welder qualification, 931
fitup and preheating, 901 stainless steel strip, 931
gas tungsten arc, 902 weld dilution, 928929
hot wire gas tungsten arc, 902 WPS, see Welding procedure
methods and embrittlement, 899 specification (WPS)
MIG, 903 Written procedures, NDT
open-air environment, shielding gases, content, 981
902, 903 deficiencies, 982
precleaning and surface preparation, 900 description, 980981
shielding, 902 requirements, 981982
shielding gases and manufacturing facilities, Wrought copper alloys, 865869
899
water rinsing, 900 Z
Welding design
ASME Code Section IX, 970 Zinc-based solders, 1141
consumables selection, 970 Zirconium
defects and inspection, 973975 alloy classification, 904905
filler metals, F and N numbers, 970971 corrosion resistance
parameters, 968, 969 chemicals, 906
P number, 970 forms, 906
procedure qualification, 971972 surface film, 905
symbols, 970 description, 904
variables affecting quality, 969 fabrication, 906907
weld quality, 968, 969 limitations, 905