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THE BASIC

PRINCIPLES OF
VACCINOLOGY
Meta Melvina
Outline

1. How Does A Vaccine Work?


2. Types of Vaccines
3. Manufacturing Process
4. How Does A Vaccine Protect People?
5. Schedules/Recommendations
How
Does A
Vaccine
Work?
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What is Vaccine?
Any preparation intended
to produce immunity to a
disease
by stimulating the production of
antibodies.
How Does A Vaccine Work?

Vaccine Protects People


Types of
Vaccines
JENIS VAKSIN
Types of Vaccines
Vaccine
Manufacturing
Process
TAHAPAN PENGEMBANGAN
VAKSIN

1. Ujicoba di laboratorium dengan menggunakan hewan


2. Uji klinis fase 1 (manusia): puluhan orang
3. Uji Klinis fase 2 (manusia): ratusan orang
4. Uji klinis fase 3 (manusia): ribuan orang
5. Izin edar/ lisensi
6. Monitoring pascalisensi

DIBUTUHKAN WAKTU 8-15 TAHUN


UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN 1 (SATU) VAKSIN BARU
Pathogen(Seed or Clinical isolate)

Inactivation Culture Attenuation Cloning,GMO

Ag Seed (Live
Seed
Purification attenuated)
VACCINE
Purification

wP, Inactivation Culture Culture


HAV
VACCINE

VACCINE VACCINE VACCINE


Rab, Flu

aP MMR,OPV HBV,HPV
| 13 KANDUNGAN VAKSIN
TAHAP I:
MEMBIAKKAN BAKTERI/ VIRUS

VIRUS BAKTERI
TAHAP II:
MENYIAPKAN ANTIGEN

Tripsin
TAHAP III:
PEMURNIAN/ PENCUCIAN

Pencucian
hingga ratusan
ribu kali
TAHAP IV:
PENAMBAHAN ZAT-ZAT
YANG DIPERLUKAN

Ajuvan
Preservatif

Air steril, garam NaCl, Stabilizer


buffer, dll
TAHAP V:
PRODUKSI MASSAL & DISTRIBUSI
CONTOH: VAKSIN INFLUENZA/FLU
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4. How Does A Vaccine
Protect People?
Smallpox Eradication (1979)
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Vaccine Efficacy

Measuring Efficacy Efficacies


Diphtheria : 87%-96%
(Incidence among those) Tetanus : >90%
vaccinated Oral polio : 90%-100%
MMR :90%-95%
(Incidence among those not
vaccinated) HIV vaccine trials
2009: 1st with efficacy (31%)
- e.g., 60% efficacy Malaria vaccine trial
- depends upon population, age, etc 2011: 45 56%
Is 100% Efficacy Necessary?

HERD IMMUNITY
Herd Immunity (1)
Herd Immunity (2)
Herd Immunity (3)
Menimbang Manfaat dan Risiko Imunisasi

risiko
manfaat
Recommendations
Vs
Reality
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Demonstrasi
Pelibatan Anak, Bahasa Kotor
Seminar di Berbagai Kota
Berbagai Slogan
Hasilnya ?

Cakupan imunisasi di
Sumatera Barat

93 % 35 %
Cakupan imunisasi di
Lhokseumawe

85 % 25 %