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EarlsCopy

Usingthe
TInSpireCXCASHandheld
(www.mathguy.us)

Preparedby:EarlL.Whitney,FSA,MAAA

Version2.1

October2,2016

UsingtheTInSpireCXCASHandheld
TableofContents

Chapter Description Page


ExternalLinks 3
1 Introduction 4
2 Documents 6
3 CalculatorApplication 10
MenuItems 13
4 VariablesandFunctions 16
5 GraphsApplication 17
MenuItems 21
6 Calculus 24
7 NotesApplication 29
8 Lists&SpreadsheetApplication 31
9 Probability 36
10 Statistics 39
MenuItems 43
11 Connectivity 45
12 Programming 47

AppendixA KeyboardShortcuts 55
AppendixB SomeKeyboardCommands 56
AppendixC SpecialProjects 61
SolidsofRevolutionaboutthe axis 61
ConnectaGeometryItemtoaCurve 62
VolumebyCrossSection 63
AppendixD IndexofHyperlinkstoKeyItems 64

Tomovetoachapter,[ctrl]clickontheChapterDescriptionabove.Note:thisworksonlyinthe
MicrosoftWordversionofthisdocument.

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ExternalLinks

nSpireCXCASmanualisavailableat:
https://education.ti.com/en/us/guidebook/details/en/502A552F7D6E4756A75BD8482FEB0E26/gettings
tartedwiththetinspirecxhandheld.ThisdocumentisTIsguidetousingthenSpireCXCAS.

nSpireCXCASReferenceGuideisavailableat:
https://education.ti.com/en/us/guidebook/details/en/3F30BA6FDA6F49608C44BB4B5F3746FA
/tinspirecasreferenceguide2.Thisdocumentprovidesalistofkeyboardfunctionsavailablefor
usewiththenSpire.Itcanbeveryuseful.

TIComputerLinkSoftwareisavailableat:
https://education.ti.com/en/us/software/details/en/82035809F7E6474099944056CCB01C20/ti
nspire_computerlink.ThisfreesoftwarewillallowyoutoconnectyournSpirehandheldto
yourcomputer.ItallowsyoutoperformalimitednumberoftasksonthenSpirefromaPCor
Mac.ItisnotneededifyouhavetheTeacherorStudentSoftware.

TITeacherSoftwareandTIStudentSoftwareareavailableat:
https://education.ti.com/en/us/products/computer_software/tinspiresoftware/tinspireand
tinspirecasteachersoftware/tabs/overview.Thissoftwareisusefulforteachersandfor
makingpresentationsaboutthenSpireCXCAS.However,itisnotfreeandisnotnecessaryfor
students.Youmaywanttotrythe30daytrialtoseeifyoufinditusefulbeforepurchasingit.

TInSpiretutorialsareavailableat:
https://www.atomiclearning.com/ti_nspire
https://education.ti.com/en/timathnspired/us/resource/videotutorials

TInSpirelessons(.tnsfilesrequireTeacherorStudentsoftware)areavailableat:
http://www.ticalc.org/pub/nspire/basic/math/
https://sites.google.com/site/tinspiregroup/assignments
https://education.ti.com/en/timathnspired/us/home

[ctrl]clickonanyofthehyperlinksabovetogodirectlytotheassociatedwebsite.Note:this
worksonlyintheMicrosoftWordversionofthisdocument.

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Chapter1:Introduction

ContextMenus:

[ctrl][menu]opensacontextmenuthat
actslikearightclickonaPC.

Movingthroughdialogboxes:
[tab]movestothenextbox.

[shift][tab]moves(backward)tothe
previousbox.
Note:clickand
doubleclick
ShiftLock:[ctrl][shift].
withthiskey.

Youmustbeinadocumentinordertousecertain
nSpirecapabilities(e.g.,hidegraph,constructtangent
line).TosaveScratchpadworktoadocument:

[doc]File(1)Save(4)[enter].


DocumentSettings:[home]Settings(5).*

GraphSettings:Enterthegraphportionofthe

Scratchpad.Then,[menu]Settings(8).*

*ClickMakeDefaultafterchangingsettings.

Grabsomethingonthescreen(soyoucanmoveit):

[ctrl]clicktograb.[enter]whendonemovingtheitem.

Whenworkingonproblems,considerworkinginsideadocumentsothatvariousapplications
canbelinked,functionsdefined,etc.Workinadocumentcanalsobesavedforlater.

Specialkeys:

Spacebar:.Underscore:[ctrl].

Backslash(\):[shift].

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AdjustingScreenBrightness
Pressandholdthe[ctrl]key.
Pressthekeytoincreasebrightness,orthekeytodecreasebrightness.

ScreenIcons(topofscreen)
A
A. Pagescrollingarrows
B C DEFGHI
B. Problem.Pagetabs

C. Documentname

D. PresstoTestindicator(notshown)
seenotebelow.

E. Wirelessnetworkloginindicator
(notshown)

F. [shift],[ctrl],or[CAPS]status

G. RadiansorDegreesindicator

H. Batteryindicator

I. Closedocumentbutton

Note:PresstoTestmodedisablesaccesstopreexistingdocumentsandscratchpad
entries.Itcanbeused,forexample,instandardizedtestingtopreventstudentsfrom
loadingthenSpirewithinformationtouseonthetest.

TIdiscussestheuseofPresstoTestmodeonitswebsiteat:https://education.ti.com/en
GB/uk/products/tinspire/tinspirecxhandheld/examacceptance/presstotest.Pressto
Testmodeiseasytogetinto,butapaininthenecktogetoutof.

OnScreenHelp

Press[ctrl]togethelponscreen.Thisisoccasionally,butnotalways,useful.

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Chapter2:Documents

Createanewdocument

[home]NewDocument(1)

[ctrl]IInsertapagewithinaprobleminadocument.

Workwithexistingfilesandfolders

[home]MyDocuments(2)


File/foldermanipulation(insideMyDocuments:[home]2) Todeleteafileorfolder:

[menu]NewFolder(1)createanewfolder. [ctrl][menu] Delete(6)

[menu]Rename(2)renameafileorfolder.

[menu]SaveAs(3)saveafilewithadifferentname.

[menu]Open(4)openafile.Shortcut:[ctrl]O

[menu]Close(5)closeafile.Shortcut:[ctrl]W

[menu]Send(6)transferafileorfoldertoanothernSpireoraPC.

Finishedworkingwithexistingfilesandfolders
[home]

Documentsmenu:frominsideadocument:[doc]
File(1)New,Open,Close,Save,SaveAs,Send
Edit(2)Undo,Redo,Cut,Copy,Paste,Delete,Color
View(3)Moveforwardorbackwardapage,orenterthePageSorteroverview

Insert(4)Problem,Page(shortcut:[ctrl]I),Applications,ProgramEditor
PageLayout(5)SplitScreen
o CustomSplit(1)
o SelectLayout(2)selectoneofeightlayouts(seePageLayoutsbelow)
o SelectApp(3)selectanapptouseinanewpane;sameas[menu]
o SwapApplications(4)swapthepanesinwhichapplicationsreside
o DeleteApplication(5)deletesthepanecontainingtheselectedapplication
o DeletePage(6)
o Group(7)groupstogetherexistingpagesontoasinglepage
o Ungroup(8)splitsappsonasinglepagetoseparatepages

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KeyboardShortcutSummaryforDocuments

[ctrl]NNewdocument [ctrl]XCut

[ctrl]OOpendocument [ctrl]CCopy

[ctrl]WClosedocument [ctrl]VPaste

[ctrl]SSavedocument [ctrl]ZUndo

[ctrl]IInsertapage [ctrl][esc]Undo

[ctrl]YRedo

SavingaFile

[ctrl]S.Tochangelocation,[shift][tab]

[doc]File(1)Save(4)orSaveAs(5)

SevenCoreApps
Calculator(alsoonScratchpad)
Graph(alsoonScratchpad)
Geometrycoordinateandnoncoordinate
ListsandSpreadsheetlikeMicrosoftExcel;goodforstatisticalapplications
DataandStatistics
Notesusefulforaddingcommentstodocuments
VernierDataQuestusedwithprobes(e.g.,CBR2motiondetector)tocollectreal
worlddata.

InsideaDocument
Adocumentcanhaveupto30problems;aproblemcanhaveupto50pages.
Addaproblemtoanexistingdocument:

o [doc]Insert(4)Problem(1)
o Selectthetypeofpageyouwanttoinsertintothenewproblem

[ctrl]IInsertapagewithinaprobleminadocument.
Pagenumberinginsideadocument(seetabsatthetop)[a.b]:
o aistheproblemnumber.
o bisthepagenumberwithinthatproblem.
[ctrl]or[ctrl]Moveleftandright(orusemouse)frompagetopage.
[ctrl]givesoverviewofwholedocument(PageSorterView).
Variablesaredefinedattheproblemlevel,andexistthroughoutallpagesofaproblem.
DocumentsdonotinteractwiththeScratchpad.

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PageViews
FullPageView
o Showsasinglepage.
o Canhaveuptofourappsononepage.

o [ctrl][tab]movesclockwisefromapptoappona
page(orusemouse)

PageSorterView:[ctrl]
o Canseeallproblemsandpageswithinadocument.
o Togotoapage,highlightthepageandpress[enter].
o Tomoveapagefromonelocationtoanother.
Highlightthepageyouwanttomove.

[ctrl]clicktograbthepage.
Movetothelocationwhereyouwantthepage
tobeusingthearrowkeysonthetouchpad.
Press[enter]todropthepageinplace.

MyDocumentsViewgoestofiletree:[ctrl][ctrl]

WorkingwithProblemsandPagesinPageSorterView([ctrl])
Collapseorexpandallproblems(seeonlyproblemnumbersandnames):

o [menu]ExpandAll(1)orCollapseAll(2)
Collapseorexpandasingleproblem:

o [ctrl][menu]ExpandAll(1)orCollapseAll(2)
Nameorrenameaproblem.Problemsarenamedwith
numbersbydefault.Tonameitsomethingmeaningful,
selecttheproblem,thenpress:

o [menu]Rename(5)typename[enter]
PageSorterViewwithProblems
Addaproblemtoanexistingdocument:[menu]Insert 1and3named.Problem3is
Problem(6) selectedandexpanded.

Addapagetoanexistingproblem:[menu]InsertPage(7)
Moveaproblem:Selecttheproblem,thenpress:

o [ctrl][menu]Cut(2)orCopy(3)[Enter]

o Movetothenewlocation,thenpress:[ctrl][menu]Paste(4)
Deleteaproblem:Selecttheproblem,then:

o [ctrl][menu]Delete(5)
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PageLayoutOptions

[doc]PageLayout(5)SelectLayout(2)selectoneofthefollowing:





Layout1Layout2Layout3Layout4





Layout5Layout6 Layout7Layout8


[doc]PageLayout(5)Custom(1)tochangewherethepagesplitsoccur.

[ctrl][tab]tomovefrompanetopane(inaclockwisedirection)
[menu]toselecttheapplicationtoaddtoapane

Tocombineconsecutivepages:fromthefirstoftwopagestobecombined,[doc]

PageLayout(5)Group(7)

Tosplitanapplicationonapagetoaseparatepage:[doc]PageLayout(5)
Ungroup(8)

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Chapter3:CalculatorApplication


FractionTemplate:[ctrl]bringsupthetemplate.

Changenumberofdigitsshowingonthescreen:

FromHomeScreen,Settings(5)DocumentSettings(2).
Recommended:clickon[MakeDefault]afterchanges.
Note:valuesarenotroundedinmemory,justonthescreen.


LogarithmTemplate:[ctrl]bringsupthetemplate.

Clearscratchpadhistory

[ctrl][menu]ClearHistory(1).

[menu]Actions(1)ClearHistory(5).

Toundotheclearing(i.e.,bringitallback):[ctrl][esc].

Clearcurrentline

[ctrl]

Variableans
Thevariableanscontainsthelastanswerobtainedbypressing[enter].
Itcanbeusedinanyexpressionbytypingans.

Itcanalsobeaccessedwith[ctrl][ ].Noticeansonthekeypadabove .
Successivepressesof[enter]performthesameoperationoneachnewansvariable.

Copy,Paste,Edit
Highlightthedesireditem,then:

Copy:[ctrl]C

Paste:[ctrl]V
Tocopyonlyaportionofthehighlighteditem:
o Positionthecursoratoneendofwhatyouwanttocopy.
o Hold[shift]andusethearrowkeystomovetotheotherendofwhatyouwant
tocopy.

o [ctrl]Ctocopytheselection.
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Convertexactanswertodecimal

[ctrl][enter]insteadof[enter].

[menu]Number(2)ConverttoDecimal(1).
Command:approx(___).

Catalog(key)ontherightsideofthenSpire,underthe[del]key
Category1containstheentirecatalog.
Jumpingaroundinthelist:
o Pressalettertojumptocommandsstartingwiththatletter.

o [ctrl]1toobtainthelastiteminthecatalog(likeaPCsendkey).

o [ctrl]3topagedown.

o [ctrl]7toobtainthefirstiteminthecatalog(likeaPCshomekey).

o [ctrl]9topageup.
Syntaxofacommandisshownatthebottomofthescreen.

o Toexpandthesyntax,press[tab][enter].
Wizards
Awizardisauserinterface
o Press[tab]multipletimestohighlightWizards. withdialogboxesthathelp
o Press[enter]toturnthewizardon. youcompleteacomplex
o Press[tab]againtomoveon. taskmoreeasily.

ExpressionTemplate:
Containstemplatesforintegrals,derivatives,limits,matrices,roots,logarithms,etc.


SymbolPalette:[ctrl]
Containssymbolsthatcanbeused: , , , , , , , , , arrows,Greekletters,
statisticalsymbols,currencysigns,setnotation,mathematicalshorthand,etc.

andalotmoresymbols544intotal.


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Template(bottomleftofnSpire)

?!Template(bottomrightofnSpire)

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MenuItemsintheCalculator(andsubmenus)

Actions:[menu]1
Define(1)defineavariable(useequalsign=,not:=inthedefinition)
RecallDefinition(2)
DeleteVariable(3) Calculator[Menu]
Clearaz(4)
1Actions
ClearHistory(5)
2Number
InsertComment(6)
3Algebra
Library(7)
4Calculus
Lock(8)locksandunlocksvariables.
5Probability

Number:[menu]2 6Statistics
7Matrix&Vector
ConverttoDecimal(1) 8Finance
ApproximatetoFraction(2)
Factor(3)
LeastCommonMultiple(4)
GreatestCommonDivisor(5)
Remainder(6)
FractionTools(7)
NumberTools(8)
ComplexNumberTools(9)

Algebra:[menu]3
Solve(1)solve(equation,variable).
Factor(2)factor(expression).Alsoconvertstrigexpressions.
Expand(3)expand(expression).Providesthepartialfractionexpansionofarational
expression.
Zeros(4)zeros(expression,variable).
CompletetheSquare(5)
NumericalSolve(6)nSolve(equation,variable).
SolveSystemofEquations(7)
PolynomialTools(8)
FractionTools(9)
ConvertExpression(A)
Trigonometry(B)
Complex(C)
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Calculus:[menu]4
Derivative(1) Items1to6intheCalculus
DerivativeataPoint(2) menuprovidetemplatesto
Integral(3) fillintoobtainasolution.
Limit(4)
Sum(5)
Product(6) Withina
FunctionMinimum(7)fmin(expression,x[,lowBound,upBound]) function
FunctionMaximum(8)fmax(expression,x[,lowBound,upBound]) definition,
TangentLine(9)tangentLine(expression,x,value) itemsin
NormalLine(A)normalLine(expression,x,value) [brackets]
areoptional.
ArcLength(B)arcLen(expression,x,start,end)
Series(C)optionsare:TaylorPolynomial(1),GeneralizedSeries,(2),Dominant
Term(3)
DifferentialEquationSolver(D)deSolve(ODE,Var,depVar)1stor2ndorderonly.
o Example:deSolve( 2 , , )Note:accessviathekey.
ImplicitDifferentiation(E)impDif(expression,x,y)
NumericalCalculations(F)Numericalintegration,etc.


Probability:[menu]5
Factorial(1)canalsocalculatefactorialswith!inthesymbolpalette(4throw)
Permutations(2)
Combinations(3)
Random(4)everythingtodowithrandomnumbers
Distributions(5)Normal,Studentst, ,F,Binomial,Geometric,Poisson


Statistics:[menu]6
TiesintotheLists&Spreadsheetapp
StatCalculations(1)1variable,2variable,variousregressions
StatResults(2)
ListMath(3)mean,median,max,min,populationandsampleSDandVariance
ListOperations(4)sort,fill,sequence,conversionto/fromListorMatrix
Distributions(5)Normal,Studentst, ,F,Binomial,Geometric,Poisson
ConfidenceIntervals(6)
StatTests(7)Hypothesistesting,regression,ANOVA
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Matrix&Vector:[menu]7
Createvariablesizematrix(middleelementon2ndrow)

Create(1)Matrix,ZeroMatrix,Identity,Diagonal,RandomMatrix,Fill,Submatrix,
Augment,ColumnAugment,ConstructMatrix
Transpose(2)
Determinant(3)
RowEchelonForm(4)
ReducedRowEchelonForm(5)
Simultaneous(6)
Norms(7)
Dimensions(8)
RowOperations(9)
ElementOperations(A)
Advanced(B)Trace,decomposition,Eigenvalues,Eigenvectors,Characteristic
Polynomial.
Vector(C)Unitvector,dotproduct,crossproduct,converttoothercoordinate
systems.


Finance:[menu]8
FinanceSolver(1)n,i,PV,Pmt,FV,PpY
TVMFunctions(2)(timevalueofmoney)n,i,PV,Pmt,FV
Amortization(3)
CashFlows(4)
InterestConversion(5)
DaysbetweenDates(6)

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Chapter4:VariablesandFunctions

General
Variableandfunctionnamescanbe116 Note:theunderlinecharacteris:
characterslong(letters,digits,underlines).
[ctrl]
Variablescanbedefinedusingothervariables.
Functionscanbedefinedusingotherfunctionsandvariables.
StoredfunctionscanbegraphedintheGraphApp.Theindependentvariable,when
graphing,mustbe .
[var]bringsupthelistofexistingvariablesandfunctions.

Definingavariableorfunction

Method1:Typetheexpressiontobesaved.Then,[ctrl][store]name

o Example:1/x[ctrl][store]recip(x)[enter]createsafunctionrecip(x)
thatreturnsthevalue1/x.

Method2:name[: ]expression.Multiplevariables/functionscanbedefinedif
separatedbyacolon.
o Example:num1:=10:num2:=20(nospaces).
Method3:Especiallygoodfordefiningfunctions.

o [menu]Actions(1)Define(1)ortypedefine

o functionname(variablelist) expression[enter](nospaces)
o Example:definex_squared(x) x^2[enter]createsafunctionx_squared(x)
thatreturnsthevalue .

Deletingavariableorfunction
DelVarname1,name2,etc.or

[menu]Actions(1)DeleteVariable(3)name

Choosingfromalistofvariables/functions
[var]bringsupalistofexistingvariablesandfunctionstochoosefrom.Usefulinmany
circumstances,especiallyifyouhavelongvariable/functionnamesthatyoudonotwant
toretypeorifyouforgetwhatyounamedavariable/function.

Lockorunlockavariableorfunction
Locknamelocksthevariableorfunctionsothatitcannotbechanged.
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Chapter5:GraphsApplication


Addafunctiontoagraph(alsotogglestheequation Note:youcansaveyourscratchpad
entryline) workinadocumentasfollows:

[ctrl]G [doc]File(1)Save(4)[enter].

Alternativemethod(especiallyforConics,ParametricorPolar)

[menu]GraphEntry/Edit(3)
o Function(1)
o Relation(2)forequationsoftheform:
o EquationTemplates(3)forconics
o Parametric(4)forparametricequations
o Polar(5)forpolarequations
o DiffEq(8)forslopefieldsofdifferentialequations

Editthefunction
Mouseoverthecurveorthelabelshowingtheequation.Doubleclickonit.

Hideafunctiononthecurrentgraph(mustbeinadocument,notScratchpad).
Mouseoverthefunctionandpress[enter]toselectthefunction.

[ctrl][menu]Hide(4)

Showahiddenfunctiononthecurrentgraph(mustbeinadocument,notScratchpad).

[menu]Actions(1)Hide/Show(3).Then,mouseoverthecurveandclickonit.

Deleteafunctionandremoveitfromthecurrentgraph
Mouseoverthefunctionandpress[enter]keytoselectthefunction.

Pressthe[del]keyor[ctrl][menu]Delete(4or5)thenumbertousedepends
onwhetherornotyouareinadocument.

Deleteallfunctionsonagraph

[menu]Actions(1)Deleteall(5or6)thenumbertousedependsonwhetheror
notyouareinadocument.

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Linkingafunctionandagraphonseparatepageswithinaproblem
Thepagesmustbeinthesameproblemwithinadocument
OnaCalculatorPageorNotesPage,definethefunction.

[ctrl]IGraphs(2)toopenaGraphspage.

[ctrl]Gtoopentheequationentryline.
[var]toselectafunctiontograph.Enter astheindependentvariable.
[enter]tographthefunction.

Modifytheview

Zoom:Hoverthemouseoveroneoftheaxes.[ctrl]clicktograbtheaxis.Usethe
arrowkeysormovethecursortoexpandorcompresstheaxes.Then,press[enter].
RepositionGraph:Hoverthemouseoverablankportionofthegraph(i.e.,inthe

background).[ctrl]clicktograbthegraph.Usethearrowkeysormovethecursorto
repositionthegraph.Then,press[enter].

Resizepagesplitwhenshowingmultipledisplaysonapage:[doc]PageLayout(5)
Custom(1).Then,usethearrowkeystochangethepagesplit.Then,press[enter].

Createanduseaslider

[ctrl]G.Enteranequationcontainingparameters,thenpress[enter].Enterany
slidersettingsforvariablesthatyouwishtoallowtovaryinthegraph.Note:thismay
notworkinparametricequationmode;usethealternativebelow.

Adjustslidersettings:Clickonthesliderbox,then:[ctrl][menu]Settings(1).This
allowschangingallsettingsincludingMinimize.ClickonMinimize.
o Note:Minimizeisveryusefulbecauseitmakesforacleanerlookinggraph.
Alternative:

o OnablankGraphspage,[menu]Actions(1)InsertSlider(B)
o Enterthevariablename(i.e.,parametername),therange,stepsizeand
whetherthesliderishorizontalorvertical.ClickMinimizedtogetacleaner
slider.Then,clickOK.
o Repeatforanyotherparametersdesired.

o Defineafunctioncontainingtheparameters:[ctrl]G.
o Movetheslidertoseetheeffectofchangingthevalueofaparameter.

Toanimateaslider:Clickonthesliderbox,then:[ctrl][menu]Animate(4).

Tostoptheslideranimation,[ctrl][esc]or[ctrl][menu]StopAnimate(4)
(thisisatoggleforanimation).
Todeleteaslider:Clickontheslider,thenpress[del].
Note:whenusingaslider,anyparametersyoucreatebecomevariables;
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Grapha3DFunction(insideadocumentonly)

OnaGraphspage,[menu]View(2)3DGraphing(3).
Enteranequation
o 3Dequationintheform , :justtypetheequationusing and .

o 3DParametricFunction:[menu]3DGraphEntry/Edit(3)Parametric(2).
Rotatethe3Dgraph
o Manual:usethetouchpadkeys(,,,).

o Auto:mousenotonthegraph;thenaor[ctrl][menu]AutoRotation(4).
o Stopautomaticrotation:[esc]orr.
Changeview

o [menu]Range/Zoom(4).Changerange,aspectratio,zoom,orientation.
o (multiplication)tozoominfor3Dgraphsonly.
o (division)tozoomoutfor3Dgraphsonly.

Hide(orShow)3Dbox:[menu]View(2)Hide(orShow)Box(4).Thisisatoggle,
soyoucanhideorshowthehidden3Dboxwiththesamecommands.
Orientation
o , or toorientalongthecorrespondingaxis.
o toswitchtothedefaultorientation.

Addtheplane 0totheplot:[menu]Trace(5) zTrace(1).

Contextmenu:Mouseonsurfaceofplotuntilitgraysout,then:[ctrl][menu]
o Changeattributes:Attributes(3)
o Deletegraphoffunction:Delete(5)
o Edittheequation:EditRelation(6)
o Changecolor:Color(8)

Gobackto2Dgraphing:[menu]View(2)Graphing(1)

GraphaPiecewiseFunction
Allowsyoutodefineafunctionoveroneormoreintervals.Veryusefulifyouwantto
graphafunctionoveronlyoneinterval.

OnGraphspage (8thelementontoprow)[enter].
Example:piecewisefunctionforasingleinterval:
o Inthetemplate,indicatethatyouwantonly piece[enter].
o Onthefunctionentryline, ,
o Inthisexample, musthavebeenpreviouslydefined,e.g.,onanotherpage.
o Noticethereisnorightbrace,}.ThisishowthenSpireshowsthepiecewise
function.Ifyoutrytoenter},youget{},sodont.
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GraphaConic

OnaGraphspage,[menu]GraphEntry/Edit(3)EquationTemplates(3)select
theconicyouwanttograph.
o Parabola(2),Circle(3),Ellipse(4),Hyperbola(5)
o Conic(6)Generalconicequation 0
Entervaluesinthetemplate,carefultonotethesyntaxrequired.[enter]tograph.
o Note:dependingontheparametersoftheconic,youmayneedtoalterthe

windowsize:[menu]Window/Zoom(4)ZoomOut(4)
Movetheequationtoabetterlocation.
o Hoverthecursorovertheequation.

o [ctrl][click]tograbtheequation.
o Movetheequationwiththecursororwiththearrowkeys.
o [enter]toleaveitwhereyouhavetakenit.
Toanalyzetheconic

o [menu]AnalyzeGraph(6)AnalyzeConics(9)
o Selecttheitemyouwanttoshowonthegraph.
o Hoverthemouseover,andclickon,thegraphyouwanttoshowthisitemfor.
o Youmayneedtomoveanylabelsthatappear.Followthegrabandmove
instructionsabove(hoverover,[ctrl],click,movewitharrowsormouse).

Graphafunctionoftheform

[ctrl]G[del]Relation(6).Entertheequationandpress[enter].

Example:[ctrl]G[del]Relation(6) [enter]tographavertical
lineat ,where isdefinedelsewhereasaconstantorasavariable.

GraphInequalities

[ctrl]G[del].Selectthedesiredinequalitysignandpress[enter].
Repeattographmultipleinequalities.

GraphaParametricFunction

[menu]GraphEntry/Edit(3)Parametric(4)
Independentvariableis .

GraphaPolarEquation

[menu]GraphEntry/Edit(3)Polar(5)
Independentvariableis .
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MenuItemsonaGraphspage(andsubmenus)willdifferontheScratchpad

Actions:[menu]1
Pointer(1) Graphing[Menu]
Select(2)Region,Image,Grid.
1Actions
Hide/Show(3)
2View
Attributes(4)linethickness,style(dotted,dashed,solid),
3GraphEntry/Edit
labelstyle,continuousvs.discrete.
4Window/Zoom
SetConditions(5)
5Trace
DeleteAll(6)
6AnalyzeGraph
Text(7)toinsertatextboxonthegraph
7Table
CoordinatesandEquations(8) 8Settings
Calculate(9)
Redefine(A)
InsertSlider(B)

Tochangecolor,highlightacurveonthegraph,then[ctrl][menu]Color(B)


View:[menu]2
Graphing(1)
PlaneGeometry(2)
3DGraphing(3)
HideAnalyticWindow(4)
HideAxes(5)
Grid(6)Nogrid,DotGrid,LinedGrid.

ShowEntryLine(7)Also[ctrl]G.
HideAxesEndValues(8)
HideObjectSelectionGuides(9)

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GraphEntry/Edit:[menu]3
Function(1)
Relation(2)
EquationTemplates(3)Line,Parabola,Circle,Ellipse,Hyperbola,Conic(general
equation).
Parametric(4)define: , andarangefortheparameter .
Polar(5)define:
ScatterPlot(6)
Sequence(7)Sequence,Custom.
DiffEq(8)


Window/Zoom:[menu]4
WindowSettings(1)set and mins,maxes,andscale
ZoomBox(2)usethemousetodefinetheviewbox
ZoomIn(3)definethecenterofthegraphwiththemouseandzoomin
ZoomOut(4)definethecenterofthegraphwiththemouseandzoomout
ZoomStandard(5)defaultsetting
ZoomQuadrant1(6)settheaxestoemphasizeQ1
ZoomUser(7)savesthecurrentwindowsettings(allowsyoutogobacktothese
aftertryingotherzoomoptionsalternativeistoundotillyougetwhatyouwant)
ZoomTrig(8)automaticallysetsxMinandxMaxtomultiplesof.
ZoomData(9)setstheaxessoallofyourdatapointsarevisible
ZoomFit(A)setsthe axissothatallminimaandmaximaarevisiblewithinthe
currentrangeof values.MayneedtomodifyxMinandxMaxbeforeusingthis.
ZoomSquare(B)setstheaxessothattickmarksonthexandyaxesareequalsize
ZoomDecimal(C)setstheaxesscalesto0.1andassuresthatmaximaandminima
areshownwithinthecurrentrangeof values.


Trace:[menu]5
GraphTrace(1)willidentifymaxima,minimaandzerosasyoumovealongthecurve.
Enteranumbertomovethetracetothat value.
TraceAll(2)tracesmultiplefunctionssimultaneously.Enteranumbertomovethe
tracetothat value.
TraceStep(3)
GeometryTrace(4)
EraseGeometryTrace(5) TOC
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AnalyzeGraph:[menu]6
Zero(1)
Minimum(2)
Maximum(3)
Intersection(4)
Inflection(5)
dy/dx(6)
Integral(7)
BoundedArea(8)
AnalyzeConics(9)Center,Vertices,Foci,AxesofSymmetry,Directrix,Asymptotes,
Radius,Eccentricity,LatusRectum


Table:[menu]7

SplitscreenTable(1)Also[ctrl]T.Splitsthescreenandaddstableofvalues.

RemoveTable(2)Also[ctrl]T.


Geometry:[menu]8(availableonlyinadocument)
PointsandLines(1)Point,PointOn,IntersectingPoints,Line,Segment,Ray,Tangent,
Vector,CircleArc
Shapes(2)
Measurement(3)
Construction(4)
Transformation(5) Floatshows Fixshowsdigits
significantdigits afterthedecimal

Settings:[menu]8or9 AsettingfortheAP
DisplayDigitsAuto,Float(012),Fix(012). ExamwouldbeFix3

GraphingAngletypicallyradians
GeometryAngletypicallydegrees
Automaticallyhideplotlabels
Showaxesendvalues Note:Afterdefiningyour
Showtooltipsforfunctionmanipulation settingsforgraphs,itisagood
ideatoclickonMakeDefault,
Automaticallyfindpointsofinterest
sothatyoursettingsare
Forcegeometrictriangleanglestointegers appliedtoallofyourgraphs.
Automaticallylabelpoints
Restore,MakeDefault,Cancelatbottomofscreen.
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Chapter6:Calculus

Defineafunctionanditsderivative
Onacalculatorpage:f(x):=expression

g(x):=[shift]willbringupthederivativetemplate.
placesyouintheexponentofthederivative,allowingyoutoselectthe th
derivativeofafunction.
Alternatively,pressandhighlighttheappropriatederivativetemplate.
o Example:Type:f(x):=sin(x)[enter].

o Type:g(x):=[shift]2toindicateyouwantasecondderivative.

o Type after inthedenominator,andtypef(x)intheparenthesesafter .


o Press[enter].Thiswillmakeg(x)thesecondderivativeoff(x).
o Note:Ifyousubsequentlychangethedefinitionoff(x),theng(x)willchangeto
bethesecondderivativeofthenewf(x).

Graphaderivative
OnaGraphspage,graphafunction,e.g., ,whichisthewaytotype
thefunction 3 sin intothenSpire.

[ctrl]G.Highlightthederivativetemplate:.Fillinthetemplate.[Enter].
Enter inthedenominatorofthetemplateand totherightoftheequalsign.
o Note:ifyourfunctionisnotf1,enterwhateverthenameofyourfunctionis.
o Youcanalsobringupalistoffunctionswith[var].
Changetheattributesofthecurve,ifdesired.
o Hoverthemouseoverthecurvetobemodified.

o [ctrl][menu]Attributes(3).

Graphanantiderivative
OnaGraphspage,graphafunction,e.g.,f1 3 sin ,whichis 3 sin .

[ctrl]G.Highlightthedefiniteintegraltemplate:.
Fillinthetemplateasfollows:
o Makethelowerlimit .
o Maketheupperlimit .
o Maketheintegrand .
o Makethe _variable .
o Press[Enter].
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ConstructaTangentLineonaGraph(mustbeinadocument,notScratchpad)

OnaGraphspage,graphafunction.

[menu]Geometry(8)Points&Lines(1)Tangent(7)
Mouseoverthecurveatthelocationwhereyouwantthetangentline.Then,either
clicktwiceorpress[enter].YoucanmovethetangentlinelikeaTrace.
Theequationofthetangentlinewillbeshownonthegraph.
Youcangrabthearrowsofthetangentlinetoextendthem.

EquationofaTangentLine(onacalculatorpage)
tangentLine(expression,var=value)returnstheequationofthelinetangentto
expressionatvar value.

o tangentLine , ,

ConstructaNormalLineonaGraph(mustbeinadocument,notScratchpad)
OnaGraphspage,graphafunction.

[menu]Geometry(8)Points&Lines(1)Tangent(7)
Mouseoverthecurveatthelocationwhereyouwantthenormalline,andconstructa
tangentline.

[menu]Geometry(8)Construction(4)Perpendicular(1)
Mousetothepointoftangencyonthetangentline.Then,eitherclicktwiceorpress
[enter].YoucanmovethetangentlinelikeaTrace;asyoudo,thenormallinewillmove
aswell.

EquationofaNormalLine(onacalculatorpage)
normalLine(expression,var=value)returnstheequationofthelinenormalto
expressionatvar value.

o normalLine , ,

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Findallpointsofintersectionoftwocurves
GraphtwocurvesonaGraphspage.

[menu]Geometry(8)PointsandLines(1)IntersectionPoints(3)
Clickoneachofthetwocurves.Theintersectionpointswillthenbelabeledonthe
graph.

Findasinglepointofintersectionoftwocurves
GraphtwocurvesonaGraphspage.

[menu]AnalyzeGraph(6)Intersection(4)
Clickonthelowerbound.Moverightandclickontheupperbound.
Theintersectionpointwillthenbelabeledonthegraph.

Areabetweentwocurves(findpointsofintersectionfirst)

[menu]AnalyzeGraph(6)BoundedArea(8).
Movethemousetothedesiredintersectionpointsandclickoneachone.Thiswillfind
theareaboundedbythetwocurves.Repeatifdesired.
Theareawillbeprintedonthescreenintext.Findingthetextissometimesachallenge.

Note:Afteryoufindtheboundedarea,youcan[menu]AnalyzeGraph(6)
BoundedArea(8)again.Clickontheleftmostpointofyourboundedregion,then
movethemousetotheright.Onthescreenyouwillseetheaccumulatedareafromthe
leftmostpointofyourboundedregiontothelocationofthemouseasyoumovetothe
right.

SpecialProjectExamplesCalculus

SolidofRevolutionaboutthe axis(3D)AppendixC
ConnectaGeometryItemtoaCurveinaGraph(2D)AppendixC
VolumebyCrossSection(3D)AppendixC

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GraphaDifferentialEquation(i.e.,slopefield)

[menu]GraphEntry/Edit(3)DiffEq(8)
o Enteradifferentialequationintheform , .
o Notethatthefunctionisreallyofthetype: , , , ,
etc.Thatis,inthedefinitionofthedifferentialequation,youdonottype asa
variable;youmusttypethe variablename(e.g., or )usedontheleft
sideoftheequalsign.
o Examples: or
o Theprime signisinthesymbolpalate3 iteminthe2ndrow.
rd

Makesuretheboxnexttothe definitionischeckedinthefunctionentryline.Thisis
theboxthattellsthenSpirewhetherornottoshowthegraphyoudefine.

[tab][click]tothe[]boxtodefinethenatureoftheplot.
[tab]totheinitialconditionfieldenter value[tab] value,ifdesired.

[tab][click]totheadditionalconditionsboxtoenteranyadditionalconditions,
ifdesired.Then,[OK].
[enter]tographthedifferentialequation(i.e.,theslopefieldandparticularsolution
basedontheinitialconditions).
[esc]toremovetheentrylinefromthescreensoyoucanseetheslopefieldbetter.

Summation
AccesstheSummationTemplate:7thiteminthesecondrow.
Onthebottom,enterthesummationindexvariableandthestartingvalue.
Onthetop,enterthemaximumvalueoftheindexvariable.Notethatthismaybe.
Thesignisinthesymbolpalate5thiteminthetoprow.
Ontheright,entertheexpressiontobesummed(intermsoftheindexvariable).
[enter].
Example:
yields: . This is the value of .

SomeinfinitesummationsdonothavenicesolutionsandthenSpirewillnotprovidea
desirablesolution.Example:replace with intheaboveexampletogetavaluefor
,andnosolutionisprovided.Inthesecases,tryalargevalueastheupperlimitof
theindextogetanapproximatevalue.
Example:
yields: . . yields: . .

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Sequences
Seq(expression,var,low,high[,step])generatesasequencebasedonexpression.var
incrementsfromlowtohighinstepsof1unlessstepisprovided.
Examples:
o Seq( ,n,1,5,2)yields:{1,27,125}(whichis:1 , 3 , 5 )
o Seq( / ,n,1,5,2)yields:{1, , }(whichis: , , )

CombiningSummationsandSequences
Sum(Seq(expression,var,low,high[,step]))generatesthesumoftheitemsinthe
sequenceprovided.
Examples:
o Sum(Seq( ,n,1,5,2))yields:153(which 1 3 5 )
o Sum(Seq( / ,n,1,5,2))yields: (whichis: , , )

[ctrl][enter]togetthedecimalsolution:1.4504

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Chapter7:NotesApplication

OpenaNotesPageinaDocument Note:thespacekey,,islocated

[ctrl][doc]AddNotes(6),or atthebottomrightofthenSpire.

[ctrl]IAddNotes(6)
Theshiftkey,,islocatedabove
Then,typeyournotes the key.

SelectText(thathasalreadybeentyped)
Selection:(thismaytakesomepractice)
o Movethecursortothebeginningorendofaselection.
o Holddownthe[click]key,thenpressthe[shift]key.
o Withthe[shift]keystilldepressed,youcanreleasethe[click]key.Then,move
thecursororusethearrowkeystohighlighttheselection.
SingleWord:Placethecursoronasinglewordanddoubleclicktoselecttheword.
Sentence:Placethecursoranywherewithinasentenceandtripleclicktoselectthe
entiresentence.

ChangeTextAttributes(selecttext,then)
Font

o [menu]Format(4)FormatText(1)
o Selectthefont,fontsize,bold,italic,underline,etc.forthetext.
o Press[esc]toapplyyourselections.
ForegroundColor

o [menu]Format(4)Textcolor(4)
o Selectacolor,thenclickor[enter].
BackgroundColor

o [menu]Format(4)Fillcolor(3)
o Selectacolor,thenclickor[enter].


[ctrl][menu](RightClick)Menusforselectedtext
Samplepagewithtextmodified:

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UseShapesandSpecialCharacters
Toinputaspecialcharacter,accessthesymboltemplate:.Thisgivesaccessto:

andmanymoresymbols.


Toinsertashape,suchasanangle,triangleorcircle,[menu]Insert(3)Shape(3)

MathBoxes
AMathBoxinaNotesApplicationissimilartheCalculatorApp.Youcandefine
functions,performcalculations,etc.

[ctrl]Mor[menu]Insert(3)MathBox(1)toinsertaMathBox,or
pressamathematicalfunctionkey,e.g.,,toautomaticallyopenaMathBox.
AttributesoftheMathBoxcanbechanged:positionyourselfinsidethemathboxyou

wanttochangeandpress:[ctrl][menu]MathBoxAttributes(8).Anotespage,
withandwithouttheMathBoxattributesmenuopen,areshownbelow.

ItemsdefinedinaMathBoxareavailablethroughoutaprobleminadocument.For
example,ifafunction, ,isdefinedinaMathBoxonaNotespage,itcanbe
accessedas onCalculatorandGraphspagesinthesameproblem.

ChemBoxes
AChemBoxisusefulforformattingchemicalequations.

[ctrl]Eor[menu]Insert(3)ChemBox(2)toinsertaChemBox.

Typetheequation.Recallthatthe" "keyislocatedinthesymbolpalette:
.Subscriptswillautomaticallybeplacedintheproperposition.

Example.Type:2CO MoO2 2CO2 Mo[enter]
Outputonscreen:
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Chapter8:Lists&SpreadsheetApplication

OpenaLists&SpreadsheetPageinaDocument

[ctrl][doc]AddLists&Spreadsheet(4),or

[ctrl]IAddLists&Spreadsheet(4)

Sizeofpage:26columns;2,500rows

Movingaround
Usearrowkeystomovefromcelltocellwithinaspreadsheet.

Movetoaspecificcell:[ctrl]Gor[menu]Actions(1)GoTo(4),thentype
thecellreference(e.g.,B3)andpress[enter].
[enter]movesdownonerowinthecurrentcolumn.
[tab]movestothecolumntitleinthecurrentcolumn(orbackintothebodyofthe
spreadsheet).[tab]actsasatoggleinthisregard.

MovetoRow1inthecurrentcolumn:[ctrl]7.

Movetothelastfilledcellinthecurrentcolumn:[ctrl]1.

Pageupinthecurrentcolumn:[ctrl]9.

Pagedowninthecurrentcolumn:[ctrl]3.

Namingcolumns
Movetothetoprowinacolumnusingthearrowkeysor[tab].
Typethenameofthecolumn.Onlylowercaselettersareusedincolumnnames.

Cut,Copy,PasteHighlightedrowsandcolumnsmaybecut,copiedandpasted:

[ctrl]XCut

[ctrl]CCopy

[ctrl]VPaste

[ctrl]Zor[ctrl][esc]Undo(ifyoumakeamistake)

[ctrl]YRedo(ifyouwanttoundoanundo)

SelectanEntireRowWhilepositionedintherowyouwanttoselect,either:
Movetothefarleftoftherowandpress,or

[menu]Actions(1)Select(3)SelectRow(1).

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SelectanEntireColumnWhilepositionedinthecolumnyouwanttoselect,either:
Movetothefartopofthecolumnandpress,or

[menu]Actions(1)Select(3)SelectColumn(2)

SelectaBlockofCells
Movetoonecorneroftheblockyouwishtoselect.
Holddowntheshiftkeyandusethearrowkeystomove
totheothercorneroftheblock.

DeleteaRow,ColumnorBlockofCells
Selecttheentirerow,columnorblockofcellsyou
wanttodelete(seeabove).
Press[del].

InsertaCell,RoworColumnFromanylocationinthespreadsheet,theinsertedrowor
columnwillbeplacedwhereyoucurrentlyreside,likeinMicrosoftExcel.

[menu]Insert(2)InsertCell(1)toinsertasinglecell.Thismovesallothercells
inthecolumndownonespace.

[menu]Insert(2)InsertRow(2)toinsertarow

[menu]Insert(2)InsertColumn(3)toinsertacolumn

MoveaColumnMovetoacellinthecolumnyouwanttomove.Then:

[menu]Actions(1)MoveColumn(1)usethearrowkeystomovetowhereyou
wantthecolumntoappear.
Ifmovingthecolumntotheright,itwillbeplacedjusttotheleftoftheboldvertical
guideline.
Ifmovingthecolumntotheleft,itwillbeplacedjusttotherightoftheboldvertical
guideline.

ResizeaColumnMovetoacellinthecolumnyouwanttoresize.Then:

[menu]Actions(1)Resize(2)ResizeColumnWidth(1)thenusethearrow
keystochangethesizeofthecolumn.

[menu]Actions(1)Resize(2)MaximizeColumnWidth(2)createsacolumn
thattakesupmostofthescreenwidth.

[menu]Actions(1)Resize(2)MinimizeColumnWidth(3)changesthesizeof
thecolumntotheminimumthatfitsthedatainthecolumn.
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[ctrl][menu](RightClick)MenusinaSpreadsheet

Witha:CellSelected ColumnSelected RowSelected

UsingFormulasinaSpreadsheet
WorksverysimilartoMicrosoftExcel.
Movetothecellinwhichyouwouldliketoenteraformula.
Typethe" "sign,followedbywhateverformulayouwanttouse.Then,[enter].
o Usecellreferences,example:=a1^(a2 2)
KeyboardfunctionsthatcanbeusedintheCalculatorapplicationareavailableforusein
cellformulas.
Alineonthebottomofthescreenshowstheformulainthecurrentcell.
Ifadataiteminthespreadsheetchanges,alloftheothercellswillupdateautomatically.
Ifyoufaceasituationwhereyouneedtomanuallyrecalculateallcells,thiscanbedone

bypressing[ctrl]Ror[menu]Actions(1)Recalculate(5)

CopyFormulastoOtherCells
Movetothecellyouwouldliketocopy.Then,press

[ctrl]Clicktoselecttheformulainthatcell.
Moveup,down,leftorrightusingthearrowkeysto
indicatewhichcellsaretoreceivetheformula.The
cellsintowhichtheformulawillbecopiedare
identifiedbybolddashedlines(seethefigureatright).
Then,press[enter]tocopytheformulatothe
indicatedcells.

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AbsoluteandRelativeCellReferences
Thedefaultcellreferenceisrelative,meaningthatwhenacelliscopiedtoothercells,
eachinputmaintainstherelativepositionithadintheoriginalcell.
o Example:IfA4=A1+A2,notethatA1is3cellsaboveA4andA2istwocellsabove
A4.
o CopyingcellA4intocellC8willmakeC8=C5+C6.C5is3cellsaboveC8andC6is
twocellsaboveC8.
Whenenteringaformula,placinga$beforeeitherthecolumn(letter)orrow(number)
ofacellreferencewillmaintainthatcolumnorrowwhentheformulaiscopied.Thisis
calledanabsolutecellreference.
o Example:IfA4=$A1+A$2,then,whenA4iscopied,thecolumnforthefirstinput
remainsconstant,andtherowforthesecondinputremainsconstant.
o CopyingcellA4intocellC8willmakeC8=$A5+C$2.
o Thisisespeciallyusefulifasinglecellisusemultipletimes,forexampleasingle
interestratetobeusedformultiplecalculations.Theratecouldbeplacedincell
A1andreferredtoas$A$1inallformulas.
Summary:Columnreferences(letters)androwreferences(numbers)shouldbe
consideredseparatelywhencreatingformulas.
o Anyreference(columnorrow)witha$infrontofitisabsolute(i.e.,willnot
changewhencopied).
o Anyreference(columnorrow)withouta$infrontofitisrelative(i.e.,will
changewhencopied).

ReferenceaBlockofCells
Arectangularblockofcellscanbereferencedintheformtopleftcell:bottomright
cell.Forexample,youwouldreferencethecellsinrows4to7whichareincolumnsC
toE,i.e.,theblockofcellsfromC4toE7,asC4:E7.
Thecoloncharacter:canmosteasilybetypedviatheTemplate,locatednearthe
bottomrightofthenSpire.
Example:Ifyouweretotype=sum(C4:E7)intocellF7,thiswouldplacethesumof
the12cellsintheblockC4:E7intocellF7.
o sumisafunctionavailableinthenSpiresLibrary.nSpirefunctionsmaybe
typedintoaCalculatorpage,aMathBox,oracellinaSpreadsheet.

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InsertDatainMultipleRowsofaColumn
Toinsertdatainmultiplerowsusingaformulathatcontainsanumberoftrials:
EntertheformulaintheFormulaRow(therowbetweentheNameofthecolumnand
Row1):Example:=randint(3,6,15)insertsrandomnumbersfrom3to6inthefirst15
rowsofthecolumn.

Toinsertdatainmultiplerowsusingasequence:

MovetotheFormulaRowinthecolumnwhereyouwishtoenterdata:[menu]Data

(3)GenerateSequence(1)
Atablesimilartotheoneatrightwillappeartohelpyoutodefinethesequence.
o Formulau(n)=:entertheformulaforthedata
entries.Theformulacanbeasimpleasnifyou
wishtoshowtherownumberoritcanbe
morecomplex.TheelementinRow1willbe
u(n0)unlessinitialtermsarespecified.
o InitialTerms:enteranytermsyouwanttouse
tostartyoursequence.Youmayenter
multipleterms,separatedbycommasifyou
wish.TheFormulau(n)willbeusedinrowsbelowthelastenteredinitialterm.
o n0:thelabelonthisshouldben1,inmyopinion.Itisthefirstvalueofntobe
usedtodefineanelementinthecolumn(iftherearenoinitialtermsspecified).
Ifinitialtermsarespecified,theyoverridethevaluescalculatedusingthe
formula.
o nMax:themaximumvalueofnusedintheformula.Note:fewervaluesofn
couldbeusediftheCeilingValueisspecified.CeilingValueoverridesnMax.
o nStep:theincrementinnifoneisdesired.Theitemsenteredinthecolumnwill
be:u(n),u(n+nStep),u(n+2nStep),u(n+3nStep),
o CeilingValue:themaximumvaluetobeenteredinthecolumn.Thesequence
willendwiththelastvalueequaltoorbelowCeilingValue.
o ClickonOKwhenyouarefinisheddefiningyoursequence.Ifyoudonotlike
theresultingsequence,youcanredefineitusingthesamesteps.
Theformulamayberecursive,i.e.,itmayrefertootherelementsinthecolumn.
Example:u(n)=u(n1)+u(n2),withinitialtermsof1,1couldbeusedtogeneratethe
Fibonaccisequence.
Tomovequicklyamongrowsyoumayusethefollowingshortcuts:

o [ctrl]1tomovetothebottomelementintherow.

o [ctrl]7tomovetothetopelementintherow(i.e.,Row1).

o [ctrl]3tomovedownonescreen.
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Chapter9:Probability


[menu]Probability(5)toopentheProbabilityMenuandgeneraterandomnumbersor
probabilitiesbasedonaspecifieddistribution.

MenuItemsProbability Probability[Menu]
Factorial:1insertsthefactorialsign(!)aftertheitem. 1Factorial(!)
Permutations:2insertsthefunctionnPr().Theusermustinsert 2Permutations
n,rintheparentheses.Returnsthenumberofpermutationsofn 3Combinations
itemstakenratatime.Forpermutations,selectionordermatters. 4Random
5Distributions
Combinations:3insertsthefunctionnCr().Theusermustinsert
n,rintheparentheses.Returnsthenumberofcombinationsofnitemstakenratatime.For
combinations,selectionorderdoesnotmatter.
Random:4generatesrandomnumbersasfollows:
Number(1)insertsthefunctionrand(num),whichgeneratesnumrandomreal
numbersbetween0and1.
Integer(2)insertsthefunctionrandInt(lowbound,upbound[,num]),whichgenerates
arandomintegerbetweenlowboundandupbound.num,whenspecified,returnsnum
randomintegersinthedesiredrange.
Binomial(3)insertsthefunctionrandBin(n,p[,num]),whichgeneratesarandom
(integer)numberofsuccessesinntrialswithprobabilitypofsuccess.num,when
specified,returnstheresultsofnumtrials.
Normal(4)insertsthefunctionrandNorm( , ,[,num]),whichgeneratesarandom
realnumberfromaNormalDistributionwithmean andstandarddeviation .num,
whenspecified,returnstheresultsofnumtrials.
Sample(5)insertsthefunctionrandSamp(List_name,nun[,noRepl]),which
generatesnumrandomvaluesfromthepredefinedlistList_name.noRepl,when
specified,returnsresultswithoutreplacement.
Seed(6)insertsthefunctionrandSeedn_Seed.n_Seedbecomestheseedvaluefor
furtherrandomnumbergeneration.Usethiscommandtosetarandomseedwhenyou
wouldliketobeabletoreplicateyourrandomnumbers.

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Distributions:5providesprobabilitydensityfunction(PDF)valuesorcumulativeareasunder
thePDFforvariousdistributions:
NormalPdf(1)insertsthefunctionnormPdf(x, , ),whichprovidesthe value
associatedwiththegiven valueforaNormalPDFwithmean andstandarddeviation
.
NormalCdf(2)insertsthefunctionnormCdf(low,high, , ),whichprovidesthearea
underthecurvebetween and foraNormalPDFwithmean and
standarddeviation .
InverseNormal(3)insertsthefunctioninvNorm(area, , ),whichprovidesthe
valueassociatedwiththegivenareaunderthecurvefrom to foraNormalCDF
withmean andstandarddeviation .

tPdf(4)insertsthefunctiontPdf(t, ),whichprovidesthe valueassociatedwith


thegiven valueforaStudentstPDFwith degreesoffreedom.
tCdf(5)insertsthefunctiontCdf(low,high, ),whichprovidestheareaunderthe
curvebetween and foraStudentstPDFwith degreesoffreedom.

Notethatyoumustcalculatetherequired valuesusingaformulasuchas to
/
usetPdf(t, )ortCdf(low,high, )properly.
Inverset(6)insertsthefunctioninvT(area, ),whichprovidesthe valueassociated
withthegivenareaunderthecurvefrom to foraStudentstPDFwith degrees
offreedom.

Pdf(7)insertsthefunction Pdf(x, ),whichprovidesthe valueassociated


withthegiven valuefora PDFwith degreesoffreedom.
Cdf(8)insertsthefunction Cdf(low,high, ),whichprovidestheareaunderthe
curvebetween and fora PDFwith degreesoffreedom.
Inverse (9)insertsthefunctioninv (area, ),whichprovidesthe value
associatedwiththegivenareaunderthecurvefrom0to fora CDFwith degrees
offreedom.

FPdf(A)insertsthefunctionFPdf(x, , ),whichprovidesthe value


associatedwiththegiven valueforanFPDFwith degreesoffreedominthe
numeratorand degreesoffreedominthedenominator.
Note:TheFdistributionisusedpredominantlyinAnalysisofVariance(ANOVA)totest
whethertwoindependentsampleshavebeendrawnfrompopulationswiththesame
variance.

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FCdf(B)insertsthefunctionFCdf(low,high, , ),whichprovidesthearea
underthecurvebetween and foranFPDFwith degreesof
freedominthenumeratorand degreesoffreedominthedenominator.
InverseF(C)insertsthefunctioninvF(area, , ),whichprovidesthe
valueassociatedwiththegivenareaunderthecurvefrom0to foranFCDFwith
degreesoffreedominthenumeratorand degreesoffreedominthe
denominator.

BinomialPdf(D)insertsthefunctionbinomPdf(n,p,x),whichprovidesthe
probabilityof successesinntrialswithprobabilitypofsuccess.
BinomialCdf(E)insertsthefunctionbinomCdf(n,p,x1,x2),whichprovidesthe
probabilityof to successesinntrialswithprobabilitypofsuccess.

GeometricPdf(F)insertsthefunctiongeomPdf(p,x),whichprovidestheprobability
ofthefirstsuccessoccurringonthe thtrial,withprobabilitypofsuccess.
GeometricCdf(G)insertsthefunctiongeomCdf(p,x1,x2),whichprovidesthe
probabilityofthefirstsuccessoccurringonthe thto thtrials,withprobabilitypof
success.

PoissonPdf(H)insertsthefunctionpoissPdf( ,x),whichprovidestheprobabilityof
ofsuccessesiftheaveragenumberofsuccessesinthegiventimeperiodis .
Note:InaPoissondistribution, and .Theprobabilityof successesisgiven

by: , .
!
PoissonCdf(I)insertsthefunctionpoissCdf( ,x1,x2),whichprovidestheprobability
of to successesiftheaveragenumberofsuccessesinthegiventimeperiodis .

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Chapter10:Statistics


[menu]Statistics(6)toopentheStatisticsMenu.

Toworkwithdata,inputthedatainaLists&Spreadsheetapplicationfirst.
Nameeachcolumnthatyouwishtousebytypingitsnameinthetoprowofthe
column.Thesenameswillbeusedtoreferencethedatainthecolumnsforstatistical
applications.
EnterdatabeginninginRow1.Note:Somedatacan
beenteredinmultiplerowsbyenteringformulasin
theFormulaRow(therowbetweentheNameofthe
columnandRow1).
o Example:=randint(3,6,15)insertsrandom
numbersfrom3to6inthefirst15rowsofthe
column.Note:ifyouuserandomvalues,you

canrecalculateanewsetwith[ctrl]R.

o Example:[menu]Data(3)GenerateSequence(1)toinserttheelements
ofasequenceinthecellsinacolumn(e.g.,1,2,3,or3,5,7,).Seepage35.

QuickGraph
Afterdatainoneormorecolumnshavebeennamedandentered:
Selectacolumnbyclickingontheletter(notthename)atthetopofthecolumnorby
pressingtheuparrowfromtherowcontainingthecolumnname.
Selectasecondcolumnifworkingwithtwovariabledata:
o Theindependentvariableshouldbeintheleftmostofthetwocolumnstobe
selected,andthedependentvariableshouldbetoitsimmediateright.Withthe
columncontainingtheindependentvariableselected,holddowntheshiftkey
andpresstherightarrowoncetoincludethesecondcolumnintheselection.

[menu]Data(3)QuickGraph(9)toshowadotplotofthedata.

GraphonaSeparatePage

[ctrl]IAddData&Statistics(5)tobeginagraphofthedata.Thedatashownwill
bethesetincolumnAoftheList&Spreadsheetapplication.
Clickonthe axislabelandselecttheindependentvariablefromthelistprovidedfor
thegraph.Ifthisistheonlyvariableentered,youwillseeadotplotof values.
Toaddadependentvariabletothegraph,clickonthe axislabelofthegraph(orpress
[tab]),andselectthedependentvariablefromthelistprovided.
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WorkingwiththeGraph
OntheData&Statisticspage,youcanchangetheplottype,plotproperties,removea
variable(orbothvariables),addaslider,addtext,plotaregressionequationofany
availabletype,ormodifythegraphwindow.
Youcanalsoadddatatoexistinglists.JusteditanyformulasintheFormulaRow,copy
formulastonewcells,orenterdatadirectly.Onecaution:ifdatainacolumnis
determinedbasedonaformulaintheFormulaRow,directdataentrymaycancelthe
formula.

OneVariableData
Withasinglevariabledefinedintheplot:

Quantitativedata:[menu]PlotType(1)allowsyoutoselectaDotPlot(1),BoxPlot
(2),Histogram(3)orNormalProbabilityPlot(4).

Categoricaldata:[menu]PlotType(1)allowsyoutoselectaDotChart(7),BarChart
(8)orPieChart(9).
Tochangevariables,clickonthe axislabelandselectthevariablefromthelist
provided.
Youcanforcequantitativedatatobedisplayedascategoricaldatabypressing:[menu]

PlotProperties(2)ForceCategoricalX(B).Note:inthismode,dataare
consideredalphabetically,so,forexample,10willresidebetween1and2.Movea

categoryby[ctrl]Clickingitanddraggingthelabelwhereyouwouldlikeittobe.
Youcanforcecategoricaldatawhicharebasedonquantitativevaluestobedisplayedas

quantitativedatabypressing:[menu]PlotProperties(2)ForceNumericalX(B).

TwoVariableDataandRegression
Withboth and variablesdefinedintheplot:

[menu]PlotType(1)allowsyoutoselecteitheraScatterPlot(5)oranXYLinePlot
(6).TheseareidenticalexcepttheXYLinePlotconnectsthedotswithlines.

Toaddaregressionline,[menu]Analyze(4)
Regression(6)andselectthetypeofregression
desired.Boththeregressioncurveanditsequation
willbeshownonthegraph.
Toshowtheplotofresidualsbelowtheregression

plot,[menu]Analyze(4)Residuals(7)Show
ResidualPlot(2)


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Noteaboutselectingaregressionmethod:Becarefultoconsiderthenatureofthedata
youareplottingwhenselectingaregressionmethod.Morepowerfulmethods,e.g.,
cubicratherthanlinear,willtypicallybebetterfits,butnotnecessarilybecausethe
modelisbetter.Randomnessinthedatacanbedisguisedbyusingtoopowerfula
method.Ingeneral,itisbesttousethesimplestmodelthatgeneratesrandom
residualsthatdonotfanoutsignificantlyateitherendofthegraph.
Toplotaverticallineforaparticular value,e.g.,themeanormedianofthe values,

[menu]Analyze(4)PlotValue(8)andenterthevalueoranexpressionforthe
valuetobeplotted,e.g.,mean(input_list).Thelinewillbeplottedonlyontheoriginal
dataplot,nottheresidualplot.

Toseetheimpactofasinglepoint(e.g.,aninfluentialpointoranoutlier),[ctrl]click
onthepointandmoveitwiththecursororarrowkeys.Thepointbecomeshollowand
highlighted.Theregressioncurveandresiduals,ifshown,willmovewithit.
o Toleavethepointinitsnewlocation,press[enter].

o Toputthepointbackwhereitwas,[ctrl][esc]or[ctrl]Z.
o Tochangethepointsformbacktowhatitwasbeforeyoumovedit,clickonit.

AfterpreformingaRegression:

[menu]Statistics(6)StatResults(2)provideskeyitemsfromthe
analysis.Forindividualitems,includingitemsnotlistedintheseresults,
seethenextbulletpoint.
stat.(makesureyoutypethedot)willprovideanopportunitytoview
and/orusetheresultsoftheanalysis.Forexample,afteraLinear
Regression,stat.bringsupthemenuatright,fromwhichtheusermay
selectanyoftheitemsshown.Ofparticularinterest:
o residprovidesalistoftheresidualsoftheregression.
Examples:

StatResultsforaLinearRegression. stat. selectionofindividual

itemsfromthemenu.

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ConfidenceIntervals

[menu]Statistics(6)ConfidenceIntervals(6)andselectthetypeofconfidence
intervalyouwouldliketocreate.Press[enter].
IntheDataInputMethodmenuthatpopsup:
o SelectDataifyouwanttobaseyourintervalonasetofdatainaList.Youwill
thenbeaskedfortheitems(e.g.,Listname,thefrequencylistandthe
confidencelevel)thatwillbeusedtocreatetheConfidenceInterval.SelectOK.
o SelectStatsifyouwouldliketobaseyourintervalonasetofstatistics.Youwill
thenbeaskedforthevaluesofthestatistics(e.g.,mean,standarddeviation, ,
confidencelevel)thatwillbeusedtocreatetheConfidenceInterval.SelectOK.

HypothesisTests

[menu]Statistics(6)StatTests(7)andselectthetypeoftestyouwouldliketo
perform.Press[enter].
IntheDataInputMethodmenuthatpopsup:
o SelectDataifyouwanttobaseyourtestonasetofdatainaList.Youwillthen
beaskedfortheitems(e.g.,testvalue,Listname,thefrequencylistandthetype
ofalternativehypothesis)youwishtousetoperformthetest.SelectOK.
o SelectStatsifyouwouldliketobaseyourtestonasetofstatistics.Youwillthen
beaskedforthevaluesofthestatistics(e.g.,testvalue,mean,standard
deviation, ,andthetypeofalternativehypothesisyouwishtouse)thatwillbe
usedtoperformthetest.SelectOK.

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MenuItemsStatistics Statistics[Menu]
StatCalculations:1usetoperformastatisticalanalysison1 1StatCalculations
variabledataor2variabledata,includingregressionanalysis. 2StatResults
OneVariableStatistics(1)providesasetofstatisticsfor 3ListMath
thelistidentified. 4ListOperations
TwoVariableStatistics(2)providesasetofstatisticsfor 5Distributions
eachoftwolistsidentified,typically and . 6ConfidenceIntervals
LinearRegression (3)providestheresultsofa 7StatTests
linearregressionintheform .
LinearRegression (4)providestheresultsofalinearregressionintheform
.
MedianMedianLine(5)providesaregressionlinebasedonthemediansofthethree
thirdsofdata,whendataarealignedaccordingtovaluesoftheindependentvariable.
QuadraticRegression(6)Regressionusinga2nddegreepolynomial.
CubicRegression(7)Regressionusinga3rddegreepolynomial.
Quarticregression(8)Regressionusinga4thdegreepolynomial.
PowerRegression(9)Regressionusingapowerfunction.
ExponentialRegression(A)Regressionusingaexponentialfunction.
LogarithmicRegression(B)Regressionusingalogarithmicfunction.
SinusoidalRegression(C)Regressionusingasinefunction.
LogisticRegression (D)Regressionusingalogisticfunction.
LogisticRegression (E)Regressionusingalogisticfunction.
MultipleLinearRegression(F)Regressiononmultiplevariablesusinglinear
functions.
CorrelationMatrix(G)providesamatrixofthecorrelationsofthevariablesina
MultipleLinearRegression.

StatResults:2providestheresultsofanystatisticalanalysisperformed.

ListMath:3providesthefollowingelementsrelatedtoasetofonevariabledata(anylist):

Minimum(1) SampleVariance(8)using
Maximum(2) 1 inthedenominator
Mean(3) PopulationStandardDeviation(9)
Median(4) using inthedenominator
SumofElements(5) PopulationVariance(A)using
ProductofElements(6) inthedenominator
SampleStandardDeviation(7) TOC
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UsingtheTInSpireCXCASHandheld October2,2016
ListOperations:4performoperationsonalistofdata:
SortAscending(1) Augment(7)
SortDescending(2) ConvertListtoMatrix(8)
CumulativeSumList(3) ConvertMatrixtoList(9)
Fill(4) Left(A)
Sequence(5) Mid(B)
DifferenceList(6) Right(C)

Distributions:5SeeProbability(p.37)fordescriptions.
NormalPdf(1) Pdf(7) BinomialPdf(D)
NormalCdf(2) Cdf(8) BinomialCdf(E)
InverseNormal(3) Inverse (9) GeometricPdf(F)
tPdf(4) FPdf(A) GeometricCdf(G)
tCdf(5) FCdf(B) PoissonPdf(H)
Inverset(6) InverseF(C) PoissonCdf(I)

Intervals:6
zInterval(1) 1PropzInterval(5)
tinterval(2) 2PropzInterval(6)
2SamplezInterval(3) LinearRegtIntervals(7)
2Sampletinterval(4) MultipleRegIntervals(8)

StatTests:7
zTest(1) 2wayTest(8)
tTest(2) 2SampleFTest(9)
2SamplezTest(3) LinearRegtTest(A)
2SampletTest(4) MultipleRegTests(B)
1PropzTest(5) ANOVA(C)
2PropzTest(6) ANOVA2Way(D)
GOFTest(7)

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Chapter11:Connectivity

ConnectingTwonSpires
ThecableusedtoconnecttwonSpireshasaminiUSBconnectionon
eachend.
YoucanconnecttwonSpiresaslongastheyhavethesamekeypad.
InsertoneendoftheminiUSBcableintoeachnSpire.
TheUSBconnectionforannSpireCXCASis
locatedonthetopofthehandheldseethe
illustrationatright.

CopyingFilesorFoldersbetweennSpires
ConnectthetwonSpires.
OnthenSpirethatcontainsthefileorfoldertobe

Transferred,press:[home]MyDocuments(2)toopenthedocumentfilebrowser.
Usethearrowkeystohighlightthefileorfolderyouwanttocopy.

[doc]File(1)Send(6)tosendthefiletotheothernSpire.
Aprogressbarwillbedisplayedduringthetransferandanotificationwillbedisplayed
whenthetransferiscomplete.

ConnectingannSpiretoaPC(note:thiswillalsochargethenSpirebattery)
ThecableusedtoconnectannSpiretoaPChasaminiUSB
connectionononeendandastandardUSBconnectiononthe
otherend.
InserttheminiUSBcableintothenSpireandthestandardUSB
cableintoyourPC.
YoumaycopyfilestoorfromthePCusingTIsoftware.
IfyouhavenotpurchasedeithertheTeacherorStudentsoftware,youmayusethefree
TInSpirecomputerlinksoftwareforthispurpose.Itisavailableat:
https://education.ti.com/en/us/software/details/en/82035809F7E6474099944056CCB0
1C20/tinspire_computerlink.

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ChargingthenSpirebattery
ThecableusedtochargeannSpireisthesameoneusedto
connectittoaPC.
InserttheminiUSBcableintothenSpire.
InsertthestandardUSBcableintoeitheraPCorawallcharger.If
youuseawallcharger,youmustplugthewallchargerintoa
standardACoutlet(sorryhadtosaythat).

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Chapter12:Programming

ProgrammingLanguages
TIBasicisthesimplerofthetwo
programminglanguagesyoucanuseon
theTInSpire.MoreaboutTIBasicis
presentedbelow.
o TheBasicprogramminglanguageis
easytolearn,asitsnameimplies.
BooksonBasicprogrammingcan
befoundatmostbooksellers.
o AsampleprograminTIBasic,forrolling dice,isshownabove.
o TIBasicissimilarto,butnotexactlythesameas,theBasicprogramming
language.AgoodonlineprimeronTIBasicisavailableat:
Error!Hyperlinkreferencenotvalid..AnyonewantingtoprogramtheTInSpire
shouldbeginhere.
o AguidetoprogramminginTIBasiccanbefoundonpages315342oftheTI
nSpireSoftwareManual(pages327354ofthePDFfile),whichisavailableat:
http://www.manualslib.com/download/325947/TiTiNspire.html.

Luaisamorecomplexlanguage,andincludessubstantialgraphical
capabilities.Luaprogrammingisnotcoveredinthisdocument.
o InformationonLuaprogrammingcanbeobtainedat:
https://www.lua.org/.
o SomeexamplesofLuaprogrammingcanbefoundonJohnHannasnSpirepage
at:http://www.johnhanna.us/TInspire.htm.ThescreensfortwoofJohns
latestprogramsareshownbelow.

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Functionsvs.Programs
Userdefinedfunctionsandprogramsaretogetherreferredtoasscripts.Theydifferin
complexity,functionalityanddesign.
Functionsareusuallyshortandreturnasingleresulttotheuser.Infact,afunctions
purposeistoreturnavalue.
Functionsmaybeusedwithinmathematicalexpressions;programscannot.
Functionscanbegraphed;programscannot
Programsaretypicallylongerthanfunctionsandinvolvemorelogicaldecisionmaking.
Programsarerunoutsideofmathematicalexpressions,andmayproducenumerous
resultsfortheuser.
Someprocessescanbedevelopedthrougheitheraprogramorafunction.Which
approachyouchoosetousewillultimatelydependonthecomplexityoftheprocessyou
aremodelingandhowyouwishtousetheresult(s).
AlthoughwedonotcoverTIBasicprogrammingindetailinthisdocument,itmaybehelpfulto
takealookatasamplefunctionandasampleprogram.Wedothisbelow.Butfirst,

WritingaScriptinTIBasic
Towriteascript(i.e.,afunctionorprogram),youmustbeonaCalculatorpageinProblem1in
adocument.YoucanbeonanypageinProblem1.YoucannotwriteascriptintheScratchpad.
Itisagoodideatocreateadocumenttocontainfunctionsandprogramsonly.Ifyouwritealot
ofscripts,youmaywanttocreateseveralsuchdocumentsinordertoorganizethem.

Tobeginwritingascript,onacalculatorpage,press:[menu]Functions&Programs

(9)ProgramEditor(1)New(1).
Assignanametothescript.Note:youdonotneedtotellthenSpirethearguments
(i.e.,thevariablesintheparenthesesofthescriptdefinition)thatyouwishtousewith
thescriptuntilafteryouenterthescriptingpanelonthepage.
Identifythescriptasafunctionorprogram(seeaboveforthedifference).
Identifythetypeoflibraryaccessyoudesire.Noneleavesthescriptinthelibraryfor
thecurrentproblemonly.LibPrivplacesitinaprivatelibrary.LibPubwillmakeit
possibleforyoutoplaceyourscriptthenSpireCatalog,soyouwillbeabletoaccessitin
otherdocumentsortheScratchpad.
ClickonOKorpress[enter]whenyouaredone.
Thepagewillsplittoshowapanelcontainingthescript,withsomelinespreset.

[ctrl][tab]willmoveyoubackandforthbetweenthepanelsonthe TOC
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WritingaFunctioninTIBasic
FollowtheinstructionsunderWritingaScriptabove,identifyingthescriptasafunction.If
youwishthefunctiontobeavailableinthenSpireCatalog,besuretoselectLibPubasthetype
oflibraryaccessyoudesire.
Letslookatasamplefunction.TheoneshownbelowishandyinProbabilityTheorythe
randIntNoRepfunction,whichreturnsasetof nonrepeatingintegersoveraspecificrange
(lowBoundtoupBound).ThefunctionexistsintheTI84Catalog,butforsomereasonisnot
includedinthedefaultnSpireCatalog.Thesolution:writeafunctionsoyoucanuseitonthe
nSpire.Bywritingthisfunction,wereducetherequiredcalculatorentryfrom:
randSamp(seq(x,x,lowBound,upBound,1),n,1)torandIntNoRep(n,lowBound,upBound),
whichissimplerandmucheasiertoremember.Further,randIntNoRepcanbeplacedinthe
nSpireCatalogsoitcanbeusedinanydocumentoronthescratchpadofyournSpire.
LetstakealookatthefunctionrandIntNoReplinebyline:
Line1:DefineLibPubrandintnorep(numint,lowbound,upbound)=Thislineis
generatedbytheprogrameditor.Itcontainsthenameoftheprogram,thelibrary
accessforthefunctionandparentheses.
Everyfunctionhasanamefollowedby
parentheses;ifyouwishtopass
argumentstothefunction,youmusttype
themintheparenthesesinthetopline.I
typedthearguments ,lowBound
andupBoundinsidetheparenthesesto
letthefunctionknowthatIwantitto
return integersbetween
lowBoundandlowBound,inclusive.
Line2:FuncThislineisplacedintheprogrambytheprogrameditor.Itidentifiesthis
scriptasafunction(i.e.,notaprogram).
Line3:LocalxThislineprovidesthenamesofanyvariablesthatIwanttodefineinside
thescriptonlythatis,Idonotwantthesevariablestoexistintheproblemafterthe
scriptruns.Everyvariableusedinafunctionshouldbeeitheranargumentpassedto
thefunctionbytheuser(e.g.,numint)orlistedinaLocalstatement.Otherwise,you
mayinadvertantlycreatevariablesinyourdocument.

Line4:min(numint,upboundlowbound+1)numintJusttoeliminateerrors,Iwanted
tomakesureitwasnotpossibletoaskformoreintegersthanexistinthespecified
range.So,Ilimitnuminttothenumberofintegersintherangebetween
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Line5:ReturnrandSamp(seq(x,x,lowbound,upbound,1),numint,1)Thisisthegutsof
thefunction.IusethemorecomplicatednSPirefunctionstogeneratethelistof
randomintegersIwant.ThekeywordReturntellsthefunctionthattheresultofthis
statementiswhatshouldbereturnedtotheuser.Allfunctionshaveoneormore
Returnstatements;withoutthem,nothingisreturnedtotheuserandthefunctionis
useless.
Line6:EndFuncThislineisplacedinthefunctionbytheprogrameditor.Itsignifies
theendofthefunction.

SeeAfterWritingYourScriptbelowfortheprocessesthatmustoccurafteryouwriteyour
functiontomakesureitworksproperlyandbecomesavailableviathenSpireCatalog.

WritingaPrograminTIBasic
FollowtheinstructionsunderWritingaScriptabove,identifyingthescriptasaprogram.If
youwishtheprogramtobeavailableinthenSpireCatalog,besuretoselectLibPubasthetype
oflibraryaccessyoudesire.
Letslookatasampleprogram.Theoneshown
here,Dice,simulatestherollingof diceand
returnsthemessageYourolledfollowedby
thetotalnumberrolled.
Line1:DefineLibPubdice(n)=Thisline
isgeneratedbytheprogrameditor.It
containsthenameoftheprogram,the
libraryaccessfortheprogramand
parentheses.Iplacedtheargument
insidetheparenthesestolettheprogram
knowhowmanydicewillberolled.
Line2:PrgmThislineisplacedintheprogrambytheprogrameditor.Itidentifiesthis
scriptasaprogram(i.e.,notafunction).
Line3:Locala,b,iThislineprovidesthenamesofanyvariablesthatIwanttodefine
insidetheprogramonlythatis,Idonotwantthesevariablestoexistintheproblem
afterthescriptruns.Everyvariableusedinaprogramshouldbeeitheranargument
passedtothefunctionbytheuser(e.g.,n)orlistedinaLocalstatement.Otherwise,
youmayinadvertantlycreatevariablesinyourdocument.
Line4:b:=0Thevariable iswhatIwillusetoaccumulatethetotalofthe
dicethrown.So,Ineedtoinitializeitatavalueof0. TOC
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Line5:Fori,1,ntoline8:EndForThisfourlineblockofcodeisastandardForLoopin
theBasicprogramminglanguage.Itoldtheprogramtoexecutelines6and7multiple
times,asthevariableiisiteratedfrom1ton.Eachiterationassignsarandomnumber
from1to6tothevariable ,thenadds totheaccumulatedtotalin .
Line9:DispYourolled,bIwanttheusertounderstandtheoutputoftheprogram,
soIcreatedamessagetobeprintedonthescreenalongwiththeresult.
Line10:EndPrgmThislineisplacedintheprogrambytheprogrameditor.Itsignifies
theendoftheprogram.

AfterWritingYourScript

Afteryouhavewrittenyourscript(eitherafunctionoraprogram),youshouldchecktoseeif
thenSpirecanunderstandwhatyouwroteandsaveyourscript.

Ifyouarenotalreadyinthepanelcontainingthescript,[ctrl][tab]toit.
Tocheckyoursyntax(i.e.,whetheryouwrotethescriptsothenSpirecanunderstand
it),andsavethescripttothenSpiresmemory,

o Press:[menu]CheckSyntax&Store(2)CheckSyntax&Store(1)or,use

theshortcut[ctrl]B.Ifyoursyntaxisincorrect,youwillreceiveanerror
messagedescribingtheerror.Note:ifyoursyntaxiscorrect,yourscriptmaystill
containlogicalerrorsthenSpireonlydoeswhatyoutellitto,sobeprecisein
yourscriptingefforts.

o Ifyouwanttocheckyoursyntaxbeforesavingyourwork,press:[menu]

CheckSyntax&Store(2)CheckSyntax(2)
Finally,movebacktotheCalculatorpanelandtestyourscript.Forexample,Inthecase
ofthesampleprogramdice(n),theusermusttypedice(3)toroll3dice,dice(5)toroll
5dice,etc.Checktoseeiftheresultsmakesense.
Ifthescriptdoesnotbehavethewayyouwanteditto,youwillneedtomovebackto
thescriptingpanelandcorrectyourscript.

SavingYourScripttotheCatalog

ThefollowingstepsmustbetakentosaveyourscriptsothatitisavailablefromthenSpire
catalogforuseinotherdocumentsandtheScratchpad.

First,makesureeachscriptthatyouwanttoaccessviathecataloghasthe
keywordLibPubinthedefinitionline. TOC
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Savethefilecontainingthescriptsinthe
MyLibdirectorywithanameyoucan
easilyremember.
RefreshthePublicLibrary,andthereforethe

Catalog,bypressing:[home]My

Documents(2)[menu]Refresh
Libraries(B)
Atthispointyouwillbeabletoaccessyour
functionsandprogramsinanysituationwhere
youneedthem.

AccessingUserDefinedScriptsfromtheCatalog

ToaccessanyyourscriptsfromtheCatalog,youmustrememberthenameofthefileinwhich
yousavedthemintheMyLibdirectory.Thestepstoaccessyourscriptsare:
FromaCalculatorpage,pressthecatalogkey:

Press:6tobringupthesetofuserdefined
scripts.Youwillseesomethinglikethe
displayinthefigureatleft.




Clickonthenameofthefilethatincludes
yourscripts.Youwillseesomethinglikethe
displayinthefigureatleft.

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Clickonthenameofthescriptyouwish
touse.Onthescreen,youwillseethe
nameofthefilecontainingyourscript,a
backslash(\)andthenameofthescript.
Enteranyargumentsrequiredinsidethe
scriptsparenthesesandpress[enter]to
seetheresults.Seethefigureatright,
whichcontainsseveralexecutionsofthe
functionrandintnoreptogeneratethree
nonrepeatingrandomintegersbetween
7and15,inclusive.

Notethatfunctionsmaybeusedinsideprogramsandotherfunctions,soyoucancreatesome
ratherintriguingcascadesoffunctions.Justbesureyoudonotoutsmartyourself.Automated
processesarebestdevelopedinsmallsteps,wheretheresultsofeachstepcanbeevaluated
forreasonableness.

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SomeKeywordsandStructurestoKnowWhenProgrammingScripts
Youwillneedtostudyhowtoprogramifyouwanttowriteanythingbeyondthesimple
typesofscriptsshowninthischapter.Belowisalistofsomeofthekeywordsyoushouldbe
awareofifyouchoosetowritescripts:
Dispexpressionorstring[,expressionorstring]printsthemessageorvariable
valueinexpressionorstringonthescreen.Anexpressionmaycontainoneormore
variables,operations,functions,etc.
Requestpromptstring,variablerequestsinputfromtheuser.Thepromptstring
mustbeinquotes();itisdisplayedonthescreeninadialogbox.Whentheuser
entersthevalueofvariableintheboxandpresses[enter],theprogramcontinues.
Returnexpressionusedinafunctiontoreturnexpressionastheresultofthe
function.Inasubroutine,Return(withnoargument)isusedtoexitthesubroutine.
Lbllabelnameidentifiesalocationwithintheprogramwiththelabelprovided.
Gotolabelnamecausestheprogramtobranchtothelocationlabelname.
Stopstopsthecurrentprocess.

Forvariable,startvalue, Executesablockofcode startingwiththevariable equal


endvalue[,step] tostartvalue,thenincrementingvariablerepeatedlyby
Blockofcode step,stoppingwhentheincrementedvalueexceedsend
value.Ifstepisnotpresent,theincrementis1.
EndFor

Whileexpression
Blockofcode Executesablockofcode aslongasexpressionistrue.
EndWhile

Loop Executesablockofcode repeatedlyuntilyouactivelyexit the


Blockofcode loop.Theremustbeaconditionintheblockofcodethat
EndLoop executesanExitcommandortheloopwillbeinfinite.

IfexpressionThen
Blockofcode
Else Executesthefirstblockofcodeifexpressionistrueand

Blockofcode thesecondblockofcodeifexpressionisnottrue.
EndIf

Manyfunctionsandprogramscanbewrittenwithjustthesekeywords(and,ofcourse,
variablemanipulation).Learnmoreat: TOC
https://education.ti.com/en/us/solutions/ticodes. Hyper

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AppendixA
KeyboardShortcutsfortheTInSpireCXCAS

Document Keyboard

[ctrl]NNewdocument. Alternatives

[ctrl]OOpendocument.
pi
[ctrl]WClosedocument. theta

[ctrl]SSavedocument. infinity

[ctrl]IInsertapagewithinaprobleminadocument.
sqrt()
abs() | |
Copy,Paste,etc. @d degrees

[ctrl]ZUndo.Also[ctrl][esc] @r radians

[ctrl]YRedo. <=

[ctrl]XCut. >=

[ctrl]CCopy. @i

[ctrl]VPaste. @e

Note:the@signisin
GraphApplication the4thlineofthe

[ctrl]Gaddafunctiontoagraph. symbolpalette .

[ctrl]Ttogglebetweenfullscreenandasplitscreen
showingatableofvalues.

NotesApplication Calculus

[ctrl]MinsertaMathBox. [shift] toopentheintegral

[ctrl]EinsertaChemBox. template.

[shift] toopenthederivative
template.
ListsandSpreadsheetApplication

[ctrl]Gmovetoaspecificcell.
LineEditing
[ctrl]Rrecalculateallformulas.
[ctrl] movetobeginningofline.

[ctrl] movetoendofline.

ProgramEditor [ctrl] moveuponepage.

[ctrl]Bchecksyntaxandstore [ctrl] movedownonepage.
program.

[ctrl]Ffindastringinaprogram. TOC

[ctrl]Hfindandreplaceastringinaprogram.
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AppendixB
SomeKeyboardCommandsfortheTInSpireCXCAS

Manycommandscanbeinputfromthekeyboard.Herearesomeofthemoreinterestingones.

Note:the@keyisinthe4thlineofthesymbolpalette.The>keyisthefirstsymbol
intheinequalitypalette.Thekeyisinthe2ndlineofthesymbolpalette.

General
lockvar1[,var2,]locksthespecifiedvariable(s)soitcannotbechanged.
unlockvar1[,var2,]unlocksthespecifiedvariable(s)soitcanbechanged.

Algebra
abs(expression)returnstheabsolutevalueofexpressionorlist,orthemagnitudeofa
complexexpression.

o abs , , , ,
domain(expression,var)returnsthedomainofexpressionoverthevariable.

o domain ,

factor(expression)factorsexpression.Ifexpressionisanumber,returnstheprime
factorizationofthenumber.

o factor( )

o factor(230052)
cfactor(expression)factorsexpressionintocomplexfactorsifnecessary.Ifthe
expressionisanumber,returnstheprimefactorizationofthenumber.

o cfactor( )

o cfactor(230052)
completesquare(expression,var)completesthesquareofexpressioninthegiven
variable.

o completesquare( )
mod(expression,number)returnsexpressionmodulonumber

o mod(13,3)1(because13 mod 3 1
polyroots(polynomial,var)returnstherealrootsofpolynomialinthevariablegiven.

o polyroots , {5,2}
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polyroots({listofcoefficients})returnstherealrootsofpolynomialwithcoefficients
definedbythelist.

o polyroots , , {5,2}
cpolyroots(polynomial,var)returnsthecomplexrootsofpolynomialinthevariable
given.

o polyroots , ,
cpolyroots({listofcoefficients})returnstherealrootsofpolynomialwithcoefficients
definedbythelist.

o polyroots , , ,
zeros(expression,var)returnstherealzerosofexpressioninthevariablegiven.Same
aspolyrootsforapolynomial,butcanhandleotherfunctions.

o zeros , (where,n1isanyinteger)
czeros(expression,var)returnsthecomplexzerosofexpressioninthevariablegiven.
Sameascpolyrootsforapolynomial,butcanhandleotherfunctions.

Trigonometry
expression@>sinconvertsexpressiontoonebasedonlyonthesinefunction.

o 1cos(x)2@>sinsin(x)2
expression@>cosconvertsexpressiontoonebasedonlyonthecosinefunction.

o 1sin(x)2@>coscos(x)2
tCollect(expression)convertsproductsandintegerpowersofsinesandcosinesin
expressiontoalinearcombinationofsinesandcosinesofmultipleangles,anglesums
andangledifferences.ItistheinverseoftExpand.

o tCollect(sin(x) cos(y))

tExpand(expression)expandsexpressionusingthesineandcosinefunctions.

o tExpand(sin(x+y))cos(x)sin(y)+sin(x) cos(y)
expression@>polarconvertsRectangularcoordinatestoPolarcoordinates.

o [1,3.]@>polar[3.162281.24905](angleresultisinradians)
o SeebelowforconversionofPolarcoordinatestoRectangularcoordinates.
expression@>cylindconverts3DRectangularcoordinatestoCylindrical.

o [1,2.,3]@>cylind[2.236071.107153](angleresultisinradians)

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expression@>sphereconverts3DRectangularorCylindricalcoordinatestoPolar.

o [1,2.,3.]@>sphere[3.741661.107150.64052](angleresultsare
inradians)

o [1, ,3.]@>sphere[3.16228 0.32175](angleresultsarein
radians)
Vectorinpolarform[enter]convertsPolarcoordinatestoRectangular.

o [menu]Matrix&Vector(7)Create(1)Matrix(1)tocreatea1x2
matrix(avector).Thefirstelementisthemagnitude,thesecondelementisthe
angle(usethekeyandentertheangleinradians).

o [enter] , (exactanswer)

o [ctrl][enter][2.12132,2.12132](approximateanswer)

Matrices
augment(matrix1,matrix2)returnsanewmatrixwithmatrix2appendedtomatrix1
asnewcolumns.
charpoly(squarematrix,var)returnsthecharacteristicpolynomialofsquarematrixin
thevariablespecified.
det(squarematrix)returnsthedeterminantofsquarematrix.
diag(list)returnsadiagonalmatrixwiththeelementsoflistalongthediagonal.
eigVc(squarematrix)returnstheeigenvectorsofsquarematrix.
eigVl(squarematrix)returnstheeigenvaluesofsquarematrix.
ref(matrix)returnstherowechelonformofmatrix.


o


rref(matrix)returnsthereducedrowechelonformofmatrix.


o


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Calculus
fmax(expression,var[,lowbound[,upbound]])returnsthefunctionmaximumofthe
expression.Iflowboundand/orupboundareincluded,theyrestrictthedomainover
whichthemaximumisdetermined.

o fmax , or (whicharetheasymptotes)

o fmax , , . , . (whichistherelative
maximumofthefunctionontheinterval[4.99,1.01])
fmin(expression,var[,lowbound[,upbound]])returnsthefunctionminimumofthe
expression.Iflowboundand/orupboundareincluded,theyrestrictthedomainover
whichthemaximumisdetermined.Worksthesamewayasfmax.
normalLine(expression,var=value)returnstheequationofthelinenormalto
expressionatvar value.

o nomalLine , ,

tangentLine(expression,var=value)returnstheequationofthelinetangentto
expressionatvar value.

o tangentLine , ,

ProbabilityandStatistics
!
nCr(n,r)returns Note:The|keyisthelast
! !
symbolinsecondrowofthe
o nCr ,
inequalitypalette .
o ans| 10
!
nPr(n,r)returns
!

o nPr ,

o ans| 60
randSeednumbersetstherandomseedvalueforgeneratingrandomnumbers.If
0,theseedsetstothefactoryresult.Onewaytogetadecentrandomseed
istoenterthetimeinminutesandseconds.Succeedingrandomnumbers,thenare
morelikelytobetrulyrandom.
o randseed1542(for15minutesand42secondspastthehour)
rand()returnsarandomdecimalbetween0and1.
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rand(n)returnsnrandomdecimalsbetween0and1.
randInt(lowBound,upBound[,n])returnsarandomintegerbetweenlowBoundand
upBound,inclusive.
randInt(lowBound,upBound[,n])returnsnrandomintegersbetweenlowBoundand
upBound,inclusive.
randSamp(seq(x,x,lowBound,upBound,1),n,1)returnsnnonrepeatingrandom
integersbetweenlowBoundandupBound,inclusive.

o randSamp(seq(x,x,3,8,1),6,1){3,6,8,4,7,5}
o note:thisiscomplicatedtoremember,soyoumaywanttowriteafunction
randIntNoRep(n,lowBound,upBound)likeexistsontheTI84andstoreitin
thepubliclibrary.ThecodeforthisisprovidedinChapter10.
mean(list[,freqList])returnsthemeanoftheitemsinlistwithfrequenciesinfreqList.
median(list[,freqList])returnsthemedianoftheitemsinlistwithfrequenciesin
freqList.
stDevPop(list[,freqList])returnsthestandarddeviationofthepopulationinlistwith
frequenciesinfreqList.Itusesninthedenominatorofthecalculation.
stDevSamp(list[,freqList])returnsthestandarddeviationofthesampleinlistwith
frequenciesinfreqList.Itusesn1inthedenominatorofthecalculation.
TherearenoLibraryfunctionsfortheskewnessorkurtosisstatisticsofapopulationor
sample.
sum(list[,Start[,End]])returnsthesumoftheitemsinlist.

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AppendixC:SpecialProjects
SolidofRevolutionaboutthe axis

AddaGraphspage.[ctrl]IAddGraphs(2).

Breakthedisplayintotwopanels.[doc]Page

Layout(5)Layout2(2).
Adjustthepanelsizes.

o [doc]PageLayout(5)Custom(1).
o Usethearrowkeystochangethepagesplit
sothatroughly1/3isontheleft.
Intheleftpanel,plotthefunctiontoberevolved:

[ctrl]Genterfunctiondefinition.
Createaverticalsegmentunderthecurvethatcanbemovedleftandright.

o Graphverticalline:[menu]GraphEntry/Edit(3)Relation(2)

o Addasliderfortheconstantc:[menu]Actions(1)InsertSlider(B).Setan
initialvalueof sothatyoucanseeitwellonthegraph.
o Markthepointsofintersectionoftheline withyourcurveandthe axis:

[menu]Geometry(8)Points&Lines(1)IntersectionPoints(3).

o Drawasegmentbetweenthetwopointsofintersection:[menu]Geometry(8)

Points&Lines(1)Segment(5).Clickonthepointsofintersection.
o Hidethepointsofintersectionandtheverticalline .Hoverthemouseover

each,then[ctrl][menu]Hide(4).Also,dothistolabelsifyoulike.
o Changeattributesofthecurveorsegment.Hoverovertheobject,then

[ctrl][menu]Attributes(3)tochangethicknessormakedotted.

[ctrl][menu]Color(8)tochangecolor.

o Zoomasdesired:[menu]Window/Zoom(4).
Graphthediskandthesolidofrevolutionintherightpanel.Beginbyclickingintheright

panel(or[ctrl][tab]).Thefunctionswillbedefinedparametrically.

o [menu]View(2)3DGraphing(3).

o [menu]3DGraphEntry/Edit(3)Parametric(2).
o Graphthediskin3D: , ; , ;
,
o Graphthesolidin3D: , ; , ;
,
o Changeattributes,hidethe3Dbox,etc.foraprettierdisplay.
o Zoomasdesired. TOC
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ConnectaGeometryItemtoaCurveinaGraph

Example:EquilateralTriangle

AddaGraphspageandplotafunction:[ctrl]G
Createaverticalsegmentunderthecurvethatcan
bemovedleftandright.

o Graphverticalline:[menu]Graph

Entry/Edit(3)Relation(2)

o Addasliderfortheconstantc:[menu]

Actions(1)InsertSlider(B).Setavalue
of thatyoucanseewellonthegraph.
o Markthepointsofintersectionoftheline

withyourcurveandthe axis:[menu]Geometry(8)Points&Lines(1)

IntersectionPoints(3).

o Drawasegmentbetweenthetwopointsofintersection:[menu]Geometry(8)

Points&Lines(1)Segment(5).Clickonthepointsofintersection.
o Hidethepointsofintersectionandtheverticalline .Hoverthemouseover

each,then[ctrl][menu]Hide(3or4).Also,dothistolabelsifyoulike.
o Changeattributesofthecurveorsegment.Hoverovertheobject,then

[ctrl][menu]Attributes(3)tochangethicknessormakedotted.

[ctrl][menu]Color(8)tochangecolor.

o Zoomasdesired:[menu]Window/Zoom(4).
Createanequilateraltrianglewithonesidebeingtheverticalsegment.
o Drawapairofrotatedsegments:

[menu]Geometry(8)Transformation(5)Rotation(4).
Clickonthesegment.
Clickonthebottompointofthesegment.
Type [enter].Rotationiscounterclockwise.
Clickonthesegment.
Clickonthetoppointofthesegment.
Type [enter].Rotationiscounterclockwise.
Thiswillcompletethetriangle.
o Changeattributesandcolorsofthecurve,segmentandtriangle.
o Hideanythingyoudonotwanttoshow.

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VolumebyCrossSection
Using3DParametricEquations
Example:SquareCrossSections

AddaGraphspageandplotfunctions:

[ctrl]IGraphs(2)toaddaGraphspage.

[menu]View(2)3DGraphing(3)[esc]
tocreatea3Dgraph.

[menu]View(2)HideBox(4)tohidethe
3Dbox.
Addasliderfortheconstantc, whichwillvarywith

thevariable :[menu]Actions(1)Insert
Slider(B).Enterminimumandmaximumvaluesof ,setavalueof betweenthe
minimumandmaximumvaluesof ,andclickonMinimize.Thenclick[enter].

[menu]3DGraphEntry/Edit(3)Parametric(2)tomakethegraphparametric.

Settherangesofthe , and variablesthatwillbeshownonthegraph:[menu]

Range/Zoom(4)RangeSettings(1).Notethattherangesforsomevariablesmayneed
tobeexpandedinordertoshowtheboundarylinesforthosevariablesonthegraph.
Ploteachofthefunctionsinthetablebelow.Notethatthefunctionswillvaryforcross
sectionsotherthanasquare.Somemathisrequiredtogeneratethecorrectfunctions.

o [ctrl]G(ifneeded,toopentheentryline;itmayalreadybeopen).
o Enterthevaluesofthe , and equationsofthecurve.Makesureyou[tab]to
theellipsisbuttontoentertheproperrangesoftheparameterstandu.
o Adjusttheattributesandcolorofthecurve,hidelabels,etc.
Rotatethegraph(w/arrowkeysor key)andmovetheslidertocheckoutyourcreation.

Graphsettingsrange: range: 0, range: 0, 1.1 range: 0, 1

Curve 1 2 3 4 5
topcurve base front back vertical
Description (height) curve boundary boundary slice

range 0, 2 0, 2 0, 0, 0, 1
range 0, 0, 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1
__(t,u)
1 1 0
__(t,u)
3 3
__(t,u) 0 TOC
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AppendixD
IndexofHyperlinkstoKeyItems

1VariableData Grabandmoveanobject Programsample


2VariableData Graphaverticalline Programming
3DGraph Graphorientation Programmingkeywords
3DGraphboxhideorshow Graphsettings QuickGraph(Statistics)
Absolutecellreference Graphview(modification) Randomnumbers
Areabetweencurves Graphzoomoptions Regression
Attributes GraphsApplication Relativecellreference
Brightnessadjustment Graphspagemenuitems Resizepagesplit
Calculusgraphs Grouppagesonsinglepage Screenicons
CalculatorApplication HypothesisTesting Sequences
Calculatorpagemenuitems Inequalities Slider
Catalog Insertpageindocument Slopefields
Chargingthebattery Insertproblemindocument SolidofRevolution
ChemBox Intersectionpoints Spacekey
ConfidenceIntervals Keyboardcommands Splitscreen
Conics Keyboardshortcuts SpreadsheetApplication
Connectivity ListsApplication Statistics
Copyingfilesandfolders MathBox Summation
Differentialequationgraphs Modulooperator Symbolpalette
Displaychangepanelwidth Normallineequation TableofContents
Documentsettings Normallineonagraph Tangentlineequation
Domain NotesApplication Tangentlineonagraph
Expandsyntaxofacommand Pagelayoutoptions TrigCollectcommand
Expressiontemplate Pageviews TrigExpandcommand
ExternalLinks Parametricgraph Underscorekey
FormulasinSpreadsheets Piecewisefunction Ungroup(split)pages
Functionsample Polynomialroots Variables
Functionsalgebraic Probability VolumebyCrossSection
FunctionsandPrograms Problems WizardsinCatalog

IntheMicrosoftWordversionofthisdocument,youcangotoatopicbypressing[ctrl]clickon
itsdescriptionabove.BothMicrosoftWordandAdobePDF(goodforphones)versionsofthis
documentareavailableonlineat:http://www.mathguy.us/BySubject/nSpire.php.

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