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Published in IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation
Received on 9th February 2013
Revised on 14th August 2013
Accepted on 9th January 2014
doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2013.0085

ISSN 1751-8725

Design of a compact ultra-wide-band monopole

antenna with band rejection characteristics
R. Karimian, H. Oraizi, S. Fakhte
Antenna and Microwave Research Laboratory, EE Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
E-mail: rezakarimian@elec.iust.ac.ir

Abstract: This study presents a design of two compact monopole antennas with band-notched characteristics for ultra-wide-band
application. The compact antennas are etched on an FR4 substrate with the size of 14 16 1 mm3, consists of a tree-shaped
radiation patch with modied ground structure, providing a wide usable fractional bandwidth of more than 170% (2.819.2
GHz). To reject certain-frequency bands, two completely different approaches are proposed. First a shorted T-shaped quarter-
wavelength resonator is used to omit undesired frequency band of 5.15.9 GHz. In the second approach, two L-shaped slots
are inserted in the patch to act as a lter structure for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (3.43.6 GHz) and
wireless local area network (55.6 GHz) applications. The band-notched can be controlled by adjusting the length of the
rectangle slots. The effects of dimensional parameters on the antenna performance have been investigated through a
parametric study. Furthermore, current density distribution on the antenna is also computed to gain a better insight of its
behaviour. The antennas are investigated numerically and experimentally for their impedance matching properties, frequency
notched characteristics and radiation performances.

1 Introduction worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX)

and HIPERLAN/2 in Europe (5.155.35 GHz, 5.4705.725
With the development of wireless communications, GHz); therefore the UWB transmitters cannot cause any
ultra-wide-band (UWB) technology has been regarded as electromagnetic interference on other communication
one of the most promising technologies in the wireless systems nearby. Many designs are available in the literature
world because of their attractive features, including concerning the UWB antenna with band-notched
high-speed data rate, extremely low spectral power density, characteristics [820]. One popular method is to embed
high-precision ranging, low complexity and low cost, slots or slits on the patch or on the ground plane, that is,
robustness to multi-path fading and very low interference. arc-shaped slot [8], meandered-shaped slot [9] and
These applications make the Federal Communications L-shaped slot [10]. Another technique to achieve the
Commission to dedicate 7.5 GHz of the spectrum from 3.1 frequency band-notched function is to add parasitic
to 10.6 GHz for UWB radio applications from February elements. In [11], two U-shaped stubs beside the feeding
2002 [1]. line have been used to realise band-notched characteristic.
One of the key issues in the UWB communications is the An interdigital capacitance loading loop resonator type in
design of a compact antenna while providing wideband [12], a stepped impedance resonator type in [13] and
characteristics over the whole operating band. Owing to the capacitively loaded loop resonator type in [14] have been
rapid development of such an UWB system, a great deal of etched on the patch to obtain good performance. In [15,
attention is being given for the designing of the UWB 16], a couple of open end slits and slots have been etched
antennas. This is quite challenging in satisfying the on the patch and ground plane to reject a certain-frequency
requirement of the UWB, such as ultra-wide impedance band. A square loop and an end-coupled resonator were
bandwidth, omnidirectional radiation pattern, constant gain, used in [17, 18] to achieve the gain suppression in the
high radiation efciency, constant group delay, low prole band-notched. Band-notched characteristic can be achieved
and easy manufacturing [1]. Among the newly proposed by using meander lines as well [19].
antenna designs, the printed monopole antennas are the Another challenge for the dual or multi-band-notched
most promising candidate for more improvement in the antenna is mutual coupling among each slot [20] or
frequency bandwidth and radiation properties [27]. between two parasitic strips [21] because of the limited
Besides the consideration of the UWB performance, design space available within the antenna, especially when two
of such antennas for UWB communication also needs a band notched frequencies are located closely to each other. Such
rejection lter to avoid interference with existing wireless mutual coupling may lead to a more complicated design
networks with standards such as IEEE 802.11a in USA procedure and requiring tedious time for achieving antenna
(5.155.35 GHz, 5.7255.825 GHz), (3.43.6 GHz) for design goals. For UWB systems, it is necessary to

604 IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2014, Vol. 8, Iss. 8, pp. 604610
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014 doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2013.0085
investigate novel UWB antennas with dual or multiple curves, in Case III, we try to obtain a balance between the
band-notched characteristics which are small in size, planar vertical and horizontal surface currents on the patch.
and simple to design, and can achieve good performance in Therefore the more stable radiation patterns at the high
terms of gain, bandwidth, radiation patterns and frequencies can be achieved. Moreover, because of existence
independent tuning of each band-notched. of these sequential discontinuities on the patch, it is expected
In this paper, based on the background of the research that several resonances will be generated. In this case, the
above, a compact planar monopole antenna with two total bandwidth of the antenna can be improved [22, 23].
completely different lters is presented. Firstly, a brief Clearly from Fig. 2a, the lower-frequency enhancement is
discussion is done to elaborate the design procedure of about 0.4 GHz (3.12.7 GHz), when the sudden
proposed compact ultra-wide-band (UWB) antenna. The discontinuities (Case II) turn to smooth discontinuities (Case
antenna structure evolved from a tree-shaped patch antenna III). In this study, a modied ground plane structure is
and a modied ground plane. Secondly, two type resonators employed to achieve the desired ultra-wide bandwidth
are presented. By using a shorted T-shaped operation as well. Fig. 2b describes the procedure of ground
quarter-wavelength resonator, a band-notched characteristic plane design. The truncated ground plane comprises a
has been achieved at the rst approach. Dual band-notched trapezoid notch-centred under the feed-line in the vicinity of
characteristic for WiMAX and wireless local area network the patch, and its edge side is truncated as shown in Case V
(WLAN) applications is achieved by using a pair of acts as an impedance matching element, because the
L-shaped slots, embedded in the radiator (second approach). truncation creates a capacitive load that neutralises the
The high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) v13 is used inductive nature of the patch to produce nearly pure resistive
to predict the performance of the antennas. The antennas input impedance [22]. The antenna is located in the
have a compact size of 14 16 mm2 on 1 mm FR4 xy-plane and the normal direction is z-axis.
substrate. The presented design is validated by simulations Full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulations are performed
and measurement. using ANSYSHFSS, leading to the following optimal
dimensions for the proposed antenna: a = 14 mm, b = 16
mm, Wf = 1.9 mm, Lf = 5 mm, L1 = 5.5 mm, L2 = 7.5 mm, L3
2 Antenna geometry and design = 11.5 mm, L4 = 3 mm, L5 = 1.5 mm, W = 1.5 mm, h1 = 1.3
2.1 Antenna without any notch band mm, Lg = 13.5 mm, Wg = 3.6 mm and L6 = 5.1 mm.
To verify the proposed UWB antenna design, a prototype of
In this section, the basic antenna, without any band-notched, the antenna based on optimised dimensions has been
covering the full UWB band is rst described. The effects of fabricated. The impedance bandwidth is measured by using
geometric parameters of the radiating patch and the ground an Agilent E8361C vector network analyser. As observed in
plane are discussed. Fig. 1 shows geometry of the proposed Fig. 3, a good agreement between the simulated and
antenna. The radiating monopole and feeding mechanism are measured results is observed. The discrepancy between them
printed on the top side of substrate, whereas the ground may be mostly attributed to the tolerance in manufacturing.
plane is printed on the bottom side. This antenna is printed
on an FR4 substrate with size of 14 16 mm2, thickness of
2.2 Antenna with single band-notched
1 mm and dielectric constant of 4.4. The width of the
microstrip-feed-line is xed at 1.9 mm to achieve 50
characteristic impedance from 2.8 to 19.2 GHz. Fig. 2a In this section, the design of single band-notched UWB
shows the procedure design of top side patch. In a simple antenna design is detailed.
square patch, Case I, there is a sharp and sudden
discontinuity in the connection point between the
microstrip-feed-line and the patch, which may be a
signicant factor for lowering the bandwidth and degrading
the radiation performance at the higher frequencies. To
mitigate the problem, the square patch in Case I turn to step
structure in Case II as shown in Fig. 2a. By using some

Fig. 1 Geometry of proposed UWB antenna Fig. 2 Procedure design of UWB antenna
a Front view a Front patch
b Bottom view b Ground plane

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fr = 1/ 2p L1 (C0 + C1 ) and the notch width increase
with the increasing of C0.
Since the resonator is connected to ground through via, it
can be referred as a quarter-wavelength resonator. To estimate
the centre frequencies at which the rejected band is achieved,
one may use the following formulas
fr =   (1)
4 Lr1 + Lr2 + Wr + hb 1eff

Fig. 3 Comparison between simulated and measured VSWR of the where

proposed UWB antenna and photograph of the fabricated prototype

 1r + 1
1eff = 1.64 (2)
The mushroom-type electromagnetic band gap (EBG) 2
structure formed by a via-loaded metal patch can be
characterised by hb is the height of substrate (1 mm) and the other parameters
  an LC resonator with resonant frequency are shown in Fig. 4.
fr = (1/2p LC) [24]. It has been shown in [25], a
mushroom-type EBG, placed near the feed-line of an UWB The simulated voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) curves
antenna can be used to achieve the desire ltering with different values of the lter structures parameters, Lr1
behaviour. However, the main problem for this type of and Lr2 are plotted in Figs. 5b and c, respectively. As
resonator is its size. Also it is shown in [26], by changing shown in Fig. 5b, when total values of Lr1 increase, the
the position of the metallic via of the mushroom from its rejection-band region moves towards lower frequency. This
centre to its edge, the resonant frequency moves towards phenomenon can be seen in Fig. 5c when Lr2 changes.
lower frequencies. Based on above research [25, 26], we Obviously different values of Wr in a certain limit can
proposed new type resonator which can reject the change the centre frequency of maximum VSWR as well.
interference frequency of WLAN. Fig. 4 represents the From these results, we can conclude that the notch
geometry of proposed band-notched UWB antenna and frequency is controllable by changing the dimensions of the
Fig. 5a shows the centre frequency of the resonator has
been moved towards lower frequency (almost 20%
reduction), when the conventional mushroom-type EBG
changes to our proposed resonator. As shown in Fig. 4, the
resonator patch is coplanar with the microstrip line with the
gap = 0.35 mm. It has a T-shaped structure and ended to
ground plane through via loaded.
The equivalent-circuit model of the structure is derived as
shown in Fig. 4 as well. The capacitance C0 denotes the
coupling between the resonator and microstrip-feed-line.
The capacitance C1 is because of the voltage gradients
between the patch and ground plane, whereas the
inductance L1 is generated by the current owing through
the shorting pin. Therefore the resonant frequency is

Fig. 5 Effect of quarter-wavelength resonator parameters on

rejection band
a Simulated VSWR for three type resonator; conventional EBG (centre via),
edge via and proposed resonator
Fig. 4 Conguration schematic view of the proposed single b Simulated VSWR with different values of Lr1
band-notched UWB antenna and equivalent-circuit model c Simulated VSWR with different values of Lr2

606 IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2014, Vol. 8, Iss. 8, pp. 604610
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014 doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2013.0085

Fig. 6 Surface current distribution at the frequency of

a 5.5 GHz
b 7 GHz

proposed quarter-wavelength resonator. For best 2.3 Antenna with dual band-notched characteristic
performance, the resonator dimensions are selected as
follows: Lr1 = 1.4 mm, Lr2 = 2.6 mm, Wr = 3.8 mm and the Although a single-band rejection has studied in Section 2.2,
radius of via is 0.2 mm. It is worthwhile to mention that but for many applications it is essential to design a UWB
these parameters are calculated through full-wave HFSS antennas without any interference with the WiMAX band
simulator for the best band-notched characteristic in 56 (3.43.6 GHz) as well. Moreover, on one hand we need to
GHz. This design leads to a maximum VSWR at 5.3 GHz, design a dual band-notched to full WiMAX and WLAN
whereas by using (1), the resonant frequency will be 5.195 bands requirement simultaneously, but on the other hand,
GHz. The difference between full-wave analyser and design a lter at lower frequency (3.5 GHz in this case),
formula (1) is because of the capacitance between the UWB with previous method is sever. Therefore we have focused
patch and half-wavelength resonator (C0). our attention on lters achieved by etching a suitable
The surface current distributions on the antenna at two pattern on the antenna stub.
different frequencies are shown in Figs. 6a and b. It is Fig. 8 shows the nal design of the dual band-notched
observed that, at 7 GHz, outside the band-notched, the antenna, along with a photograph of the fabricated
distribution of the surface current is uniform and primarily prototype. The nal design is optimised taking several
concentrated near the periphery of the curve-shaped aspects into consideration such as bandwidth of the
radiator. Although at 5.5 GHz, the energy is strongly antenna, bandwidth of the notched bands, level of band
coupled to short-ended resonator, causing the notched bands. rejection and mutual coupling between two slots.
The results of simulated and measured VSWR are shown in Two horizontal L-shaped slot has been cut from patch to
Fig. 7. Both results conrm that the proposed antenna achieve dual-band rejection at the frequency of WiMAX
achieves the desired bandwidth from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz for (3.5 GHz) and WLAN (5.5 GHz). The upper slot is for
VSWR 2, in which a frequency bands in 4.96.1 GHz lower frequency and the lower slot is for WLAN. Each slot
and for VSWR 2.5 is notched successfully. The rejected acts as a quarter-wave resonator at the notch frequency.
bands cover the desired WLAN frequency bands in Therefore the notch frequency at which maximum VSWR
5.155.35 GHz and 5.7255.825 GHz.

Fig. 8 Geometry of proposed dual band-notched antenna with

Fig. 7 Comparison between simulated and measured VSWR of the photograph of fabricated antenna
proposed single band-notched UWB antenna and photograph of the Antenna parameters: S1 = 4.1 mm, S2 = 5.1 mm, Ls1 = 11.2 mm, Ls2 = 7.1
fabricated prototype mm, Ws1 = Ws2 = 0.4 mm

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band-notched characteristics. As descriptions aforementioned,
the band-notched at 3.5 GHz is determined by the upper
L-shaped slot, so different lengths of the upper slot are
investigated rst. Fig. 9a shows that the centre frequency of
the notched band at 3.5 GHz is decreasing as Ls1 increases,
because (Ls1 + Ws1) is approximately quarter wavelength of
3.5 GHz. Furthermore, since, (Ls1 + Ws1) is quarter
wavelength, the length of Ws1 obviously affects the
impedance matching, but it is not shown in the manuscript.
The optimum result can be obtained when Ls1 = 11.2 mm,
the centre frequency of the lower band-notched is 3.5 GHz
with a good impedance matching. From Fig. 9b, it can be
seen that when Ls2 increases, the centre frequency of the
higher notched frequency is decreasing, whereas the other
notched frequency is almost constant. To obtain an enough
bandwidth for 5.2/5.5 GHz, Ls2 = 7.5 mm is chosen.
To better understand the mechanism of the band-notched
characteristics, the simulated current distributions at 3.5 and
5.5 GHz for the proposed antenna are investigated and
shown in Fig. 10. It can be seen that the surface currents at
3.5 GHz mainly concentrated along the upper horizontal
Fig. 9 Simulated VSWR with different values of L-shaped slot, whereas the resonant surface current at 5.5
a Ls1 GHz mainly distributed along the lower horizontal
b Ls2 L-shaped slot.
The proposed dual band-notched UWB antenna is
measured by an Agilent E8361C vector network analyser.
is obtained can be calculated as The measured and simulated VSWR are shown in Fig. 11.
The measured data reasonably agree with the simulated
c c result with an acceptable frequency discrepancy.
fr1  , fr2  (3)
4Ln1 1eff 4Ln2 1eff

3 Fairfield result of proposed antennas

lg lg
Ln1 = Ls1 + Ws1 , Ln2 = Ls2 + Ws2 (4)
4 4 The radiation patterns of the base UWB, single- and
dual-band antennas are investigated. The measured far-eld
where fr1 and fr1 are the resonant frequencies at 3.5 and 5.5 radiation patterns of the proposed antennas at sampling
GHz, respectively, c is the speed of light in free space, eff frequencies of 4, 7 and 10 GHz and for three principle
can be calculated through (2) and the other parameters are planes are depicted in Fig. 12. It can be seen that at the
claried in Fig. 8. frequency of 10 GHz, all three antennas have nearly
Figs. 9a and b show the simulated VSWR curves of the monopole-like patterns in the YZ-plane and omnidirectional
proposed antenna with different parameters affecting the radiation patterns in the XZ-plane. Also the proposed

Fig. 10 Surface current distribution at the frequency of

a 3.5 GHz
b 5.5 GHz

608 IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2014, Vol. 8, Iss. 8, pp. 604610
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014 doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2013.0085

Fig. 11 Comparison between simulated and measured VSWR of Fig. 13 Simulated gain against frequency for the three antenna
the proposed dual band-notched antenna structures ( = 0)

Fig. 12 Measured radiation patterns for proposed antennas for three principle planes (XZ, YZ and XY), at the frequencies of
a 4 GHz
b 7 GHz
c 10 GHz

IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2014, Vol. 8, Iss. 8, pp. 604610 609
doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2013.0085 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014
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610 IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2014, Vol. 8, Iss. 8, pp. 604610
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014 doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2013.0085