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Lawrence Anzel Sto.



Construction Materials
Types of cement

1. Rapid Hardening Cement

The main advantage of using rapid hardening cement is that the formwork can be removed earlier
and reused in other areas which save the cost of formwork. This cement can be used in
prefabricated concrete construction, road works, etc.


Low heat cement is manufactured by increasing the proportion of C2S and by decreasing the C3S and
C3A content. This cement is less reactive and its initial setting time is greater than OPC. This cement is
mostly used in mass concrete construction.


Sulfate resisting cement is made by reducing C3A and C4AF content. Cement with such composition has
excellent resistance to sulfate attack. This type of cement is used in the construction of foundation in
soil where subsoil contains very high proportions of sulfate .


White cement is a type of ordinary Portland Cement which is pure white in color and has practically the
same composition and same strength as OPC. To obtain the white color the iron oxide content is
considerably reduced. The raw materials used in this cement are limestone and china clay.


Waterproof cement is prepared by mixing with ordinary or rapid hardening cement, a small percentage
of some metal stearates (Ca, Al, etc) at the time of grinding. This cement is used for the construction of
water-retaining structure like tanks, reservoirs, retaining walls, swimming pools, dams, bridges, piers


In this case, the normal cement clinkers are mixed with up to 65% of the blast furnace slag for the final
grinding. This type of cement can be used with advantage in mass concrete work such as dams,
foundations, and abutments of bridges, retaining walls, construction in sea water.


It is produced by air entraining agents such as resins, glues, sodium salts of sulfate with ordinary
portland cement.


High alumina cement (HAC) is a special cement, manufactured by mixing of bauxite (aluminum ore) and
lime at a certain temperature. This cement is also known as calcium aluminum cement (CAC). The
compressive strength of this cement is very high and more workable than ordinary portland cement.


The cement which does not shrink during and after the time of hardening but expands slightly with time
is called expansive cement. This type of cement is mainly used for grouting anchor bolts and pre-
stressed concrete ducts.
Properties of Cement:

It possesses a high compressive strength.

It is a corrosion resistance material and atmospheric agent has no appreciable effect on it.
It hardens with age the process of hardening continues for a long time after the concrete has
attained sufficient strength. It is this property of cement concrete which gives it a distinct place
among building materials.
It is more economical than steel.
It binds rapidly with steel and as it is weak in tension, the steel reinforcement is placed in
cement concrete at suitable places to take up the tensile stresses. This is termed as the
reinforced cement concrete or simply as R.C.C.
Under the following two conditions, it has a tendency to shrink:
There is initial shrinkage of cement concrete which is mainly due to the loss of water through
forms, absorption by surfaces of forms etc.
The shrinkage of cement concrete occurs as it hardens. This tendency of cement concrete can
be minimized by proper curing of concrete.
It has a tendency to be porous. This is due to the presence of voids which are formed during and
after its placing. The two precautions necessary to avoid this tendency are as follows:
There should be proper grading and consolidating of the aggregates.
The minimum water-cement ratio should be adopted.
It forms a hard surface, capable of resisting abrasion.
It should be remembered that apart from other materials, the concrete comes to the site in the
form of raw materials only. Its final strength and quality depend entirely on local conditions and
persons handling it. However the materials which concrete is composed may be subjected to
rigid specifications.

Uses of Cement:

It is used in mortar for plastering, masonry work, pointing, etc.

It is used for making joints for drains and pipes.
It is used for water tightness of structure.
It is used in concrete for laying floors, roofs and constructing lintels, beams, stairs, pillars etc.
It is used where a hard surface is required for the protection of exposed surfaces of structures
against the destructive agents of the weather and certain organic or inorganic chemicals.
It is used for precast pipes manufacturing, piles, fencing posts etc.
It is used in the construction of important engineering structures such as bridges, culverts,
dams, tunnels, light houses etc.
It is used in the preparation of foundations, water tight floors, footpaths etc.
It is employed for the construction of wells, water tanks, tennis courts, lamp posts, telephone
cabins, roads etc.