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Tier III Two-Stroke

Technology
Contents

Introduction.................................................................................................. 5
Tier III Technologies................................................................................. 5
SCR Application for Tier III............................................................................. 6
Fuels for Tier III engines .......................................................................... 6
Selective catalytic reduction..................................................................... 6
SCR system for MAN B&W engines......................................................... 7
SCR control system............................................................................... 10
Results and discussion.......................................................................... 11
SCR and HFO operation.............................................................................. 15
SCR service experience.............................................................................. 15
Future development aspects.................................................................. 15
Conclusion.................................................................................................. 17
EGR Application for Tier III........................................................................... 18
EGR investigation on 4T50ME-X............................................................ 18
EGR Tier III confirmation test.................................................................. 19
EGR scrubber performance................................................................... 19
EGR service test.................................................................................... 21
Preparation of service test on newbuilding with 6S80ME-C9.2................ 23
Water treatment system (WTS)............................................................... 25
EGR high-speed blower......................................................................... 27
Conclusion.................................................................................................. 29
Tier III Two-Stroke Technology

Introduction timisation of part load operation of the January 2016 when operating inside an
This MAN Diesel & Turbo two-stroke engine outside the EGR areas. Opera- Emission Control Area (ECA). For an en-
Tier III paper outlines the status and fu- tion modes for both ECA and non-ECA gine designer, it consists of three main
ture development efforts in connection areas will be outlined. requirements:
with Tier III technologies, and covers An 80% NOx-cycle value reduction,
some of our efforts to develop measur- As both EGR and after-treatment compared to the Tier I level
ing and calculation tools, securing bet- scrubbers for SO2 removal require WTS A 150% mode cap on each load point
ter knowledge of engine processes like (Water Treatment Systems), we have, in in the cycle (the not to exceed limit)
combustion, emission formation and cooperation with external partners, en- Tier III applies when operating the en-
scavenging of the engine. sured that a significant development ef- gine in a NOx emission control area.
fort is in progress also in this area.
Furthermore, details on the SCR devel- Each of the three requirements is im-
opment, not only for the catalyst appli- Finally, our latest achievements within portant when developing the technol-
cation, but also on the requirements to advanced measuring and calculation ogy necessary for Tier III engines. The
the engine control system in connec- methods, for better understanding of 80% load cycle NOx reduction require-
tion with the SCR application are given. combustion, and emission formation ment means that internal engine optimi-
Also, the status on service tests on the and scavenging of two-stroke engines sation is not sufficient in other words:
worlds first Tier III two-stroke engine will be discussed in this paper. new technology is necessary.
will be outlined.
Tier III Technologies The mode cap on the individual mode
SCR application is challenging due to IMO Tier III is mandatory for engines points of the load cycle means that the
the requirement for installation on the installed on vessels constructed after 1 applied solutions have to suit a wide en-
high pressure side of the turbocharger,
and it is space requiring due to the size
of the SCR and urea mixing unit. It is
accordingly relevant to evaluate if SCR
applications can be further integrated in
the engine design for compacting and
securing easy application.

The EGR development project will also


be described in detail, not only test re-
sults from research engines will be cov-
ered, but service results from prototype
tests of the EGR system on the Alex-
ander Maersk will be outlined, together
with an update on the design for the lat-
est and fully integrated EGR design on
a 6S80ME-C9.2 engine, which will form
the basis for the complete Tier III engine
programme with EGR.

The Tier III EGR application will also


open for the possibility of utilising EGR
as Tier II reduction technology and op-

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 5


gine load range. As Tier III NOx limit only The main focus in the following will be sulphur limits by other means, thus ena-
applies in emission control areas, the on the SCR path for compliance with bling heavy fuel oil (HFO) operation.
engine must be able to switch between Tier III NOx regulation chosen by MAN
Tier II and Tier III NOx levels. Diesel & Turbo for low speed two-stroke Selective catalytic reduction
marine diesel engines. A way of meeting the IMO Tier III NOx
Within the last two years, technologies limits is to install a selective catalytic
to achieve Tier III NOx reduction have Fuels for Tier III engines reduction (SCR) reactor. In the reactor,
successfully been tested at MAN Diesel Cost aspects are critical for the suc- NOx is reduced catalytically by ammo-
& Turbo. Both EGR and SCR have been cess of a technology. This is the case nia (as urea) to nitrogen and water, see
successfully tested for Tier III compli- for both first cost and for operating Fig. 1.
ance as stand-alone NOx reduction costs. Many parameters affect the cost
technology. When the engine technol- evaluation, as ships operate with differ- SCR reactors have been used in power
ogy has demonstrated the required NOx ent ownership models, different trade plant applications since the late seven-
reduction potential, the next develop- patterns and different engine operation ties, and MAN Diesel & Turbo (MDT)
ment steps are initiated: gathering serv- profiles. Added to those differences are was involved in one of the first marine
ice hours, improving operational and uncertainties regarding prices and avail- applications in 1989 on large two-
safety aspects, optimisation of engine ability of fuel and other consumables stroke diesel engines. However, where-
control strategies, reducing first cost needed for the Tier III systems. Large as the technology is mature for robust
and operational costs. Finally, specifi- marine diesel engines operate on a wide power plant applications, the technol-
cations for an entire engine programme range of fuel qualities, ranging from low- ogy still needs to be matured for daily
have been formulated. viscosity ultra-low-sulphur distillates to marine operation. Therefore, MDT is in-
very high-viscosity residual fuels. volved in a targeted development of this
SCR Application for Tier III technology together with Hitachi Zosen
The main focus for emission compli- All MAN B&W Tier III engines will be Corporation. Hitachi Zosen builds MAN
ance development for large marine die- capable of running on low-sulphur fu- B&W engines and has, among others, a
sel engine developers these years are els and, at the same time, options will division that develops and delivers SCR
the requirements applicable in the In- be available for complying with the fuel catalysts.
ternational Maritime Organisation (IMO)
designated emission control areas 40% urea solution
CO (NH2)2 5(H2O) N
(ECA). The 2015 0.1% fuel sulphur con- Exhaust gas NO O
NO2
tent limitation and the 2016 80% NOx
reduction limits are the targets. NH3 N H
H
H

For MAN B&W two-stroke marine en- N N O

gines, compliance will be achievable


SCR H
N N
through tailored solutions. This goes Reactor H
H

for both the fuel sulphur regulation and


the NOx regulation. For ships built from N N N

2016, the operation of the main engine H


N O
will be divided into two modes: opera-
H
H O
N2 H N
tion inside and outside an ECA. This H2O N

requires NOx reduction technology that


4NO + 4NH3 + O2 = 4N2 + 6H20
can be switched on and off. 6NO2 + 8NH3 = 7N2 + 12H20

Fig. 1: Principles of the SCR system

6 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


The SCR collaboration was initiated in Temperature before and after the turbine (turb.), based on a 6S50ME-C
2008, and in the following period ex- Tamb=10C 25% load 50% load 75% load 100% load
tensive development and tests have T in turb. [C] 299 308 337 395
been conducted on a 1S40MC and a Tout turb. [C] 245 217 207 221
6S46MC-C engine fitted with SCR sys- Tgain [C] 54 92 130 174
tems.
Table 1

MDTs focus has been on the develop-


ment of a dedicated SCR engine that after the turbine. Compare Table 1 and the turbocharger (T/C) and the SCR is
ensures reliable SCR operation when Fig. 2. sealed by two valves.
HFO is employed. Hitachi Zosens focus
has been centered on the development This means that the SCR system works Table 1 reveals that even though the
of SCR systems for large two-stroke according to the following: When NOx reactor is placed before the turbine,
diesel engines. reduction is needed, the exhaust gas is the exhaust gas temperature is still too
guided to the SCR according to the flow low at loads below approximately 50%.
SCR system for MAN B&W engines direction illustrated in Fig. 2. When no Therefore, it has been necessary to de-
Preconditions for SCR operation SCR operation is needed, the exhaust velop a low load method, which can
Due to the high-energy efficiency of gas is passed directly to the turbine in be used to increase the exhaust gas
two-stroke diesel engines, the exhaust
gas temperature after the turbocharger
is low: typically in the range from 230- Vaporiser and mixer unit
260C after the turbocharger depend-
ent on load and ambient conditions.
These low temperatures are problemat-
ic for the SCR when HFO is employed. SCR reactor
Thus, in order to achieve the highest
possible fuel flexibility, it has been a pri-
ority to ensure that the engine produces
an exhaust gas with the right tempera-
ture for the SCR system.

The SCR inlet gas temperature should


ideally be around 330-350C when the
engine is operated on HFO.

System configuration
At present, the too low exhaust gas
temperature after the turbine has called
for a solution where the SCR is placed
on the high pressure side of the turbine.
Depending on the engine load, this
makes it possible to obtain exhaust gas
temperatures that are between approxi-
mately 50C and 175C higher than
Fig. 2: Arrangement of a high-pressure SCR solution on a 6S46MC-C engine

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 7


Exhaust gas reciever

SCR
reactor

Cylinder &
SCR bypass (CBV)

Scaveange air reciever

Fig. 3: Low-load method to increase exhaust gas temperatures

temperatures. This is the cylinder & constitutes a challenge, because the This is needed, because the SCR has
SCR bypass shown in Fig. 3. mass of cooling air through the cylin- a significant heat capacity. Due to the
ders is decreased. This is an effect that fact that the SCR is fitted before the
The cylinder bypass valve (CBV) in- needs to be investigated during test turbocharger, this constitutes a chal-
creases the exhaust gas temperature bed operation. lenge for the energy balance between
by reducing the mass of air through the engine and the turbocharger. Thus,
the cylinders at a fixed amount of fuel Engine control system it is necessary to bypass some of the
combustion. This means that higher In addition to the development of the exhaust gas directly to the turbocharger
exhaust gas temperatures for the SCR low-load method, a new engine con- during engine start-up and acceleration
are obtained. Calculations have shown trol system (ECS) has been developed. in order to ensure sufficient energy input
that this method is suitable, because
Items to be controlled by the ECS
the mass flow through the T/C remains
almost unchanged. This means that the Item Function
scavenge air pressure is maintained, V1 Maintains acceptable turbocharger performance
and thus that the combustion is nearly V2 Limits effects on engine performance
unaffected. V3 Seals reactor together with V2
CBV Increases low-load exhaust gas temperature
From a combustion chamber tempera- A/B Stabilises T/C
ture point of view, the low-load method
Table 2

8 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


T1
Exhaust gas reciever

Reactor
sealing (V3)
Controllable
valve (V1)
SCR
reactor

T4
Controllable
T2 valve (V2)
Cylinder &
SCR bypass (CBV)

Scaveange air reciever

Fig. 4: Overview of bypass valves


Fig. 4 shows three bypass valves which exhaust gas. These are also found in
to the turbine. For the same reason, it control the distribution between the ex- Fig. 4: T1, T2 and T4. T1 is the exhaust
may be necessary to bypass the turbine haust gas that goes to the SCR system gas temperature in the exhaust gas re-
during de-acceleration of the engine, as and the exhaust gas that goes directly ceiver, T2 is the exhaust gas tempera-
the energy level of the exhaust gas from to the turbine. These are called: V1, V2 ture at the inlet to the turbine, and T4
the SCR is too high. Lastly, the low-load and V3. Furthermore, the CBV are dis- is the exhaust gas temperature at the
method needs to be controlled to en- played on the figure. The ECS also con- outlet of the SCR reactor.
sure the right temperature at the SCR trols the auxiliary blowers (A/B), which
inlet. As a result, a dedicated ECS has have been fitted with larger electrical The difference between T1 and T2,
been developed for the SCR engine. motors to assist during heating of the denoted dT, is an expression for how
The outline of the ECS is illustrated in SCR and engine accelerations. The A/ much the energy balance between the
Fig. 4. Bs are able to operate in the entire load engine and T/C is influenced because
range of the engine. The functions of energy is either lost or gained by heat-
The success criteria for the ECS are: the individual valves are summarised in ing/cooling of the SCR system. In the
To ensure acceptable engine per- Table 2. present system, a dT of 50C has been
formance found to ensure acceptable engine per-
To ensure quick heating of the SCR The four valves and the A/Bs are an in- formance.
system tegrated part of the ECS, and they are
To ensure a minimum exhaust gas controlled on the basis of three continu- V1 and V2 open and close according to
temperature Tmin. ous temperature measurements of the the limit given by dT, i.e. 50C. V3 is an
on/off valve. Urea is injected when V1

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 9


is fully closed, and the T1 is above the
critical temperature for urea injection.

Based on these three temperature


measurements, the ECS is able to en-
sure that the engine performance is
maintained during deceleration/accel-
eration and heating/cooling of the SCR
system. Furthermore, the ECS ensures
that the exhaust gas temperature is
kept above a certain Tmin by adjusting
the position of the CBV.

The four bypass valves are all of the


same butterfly type and are designed
by MDT, see Fig. 5. V1, V2 and V3 are Fig. 5: Butterfly valves installed on the SCR engine

gas tight and are sealed by scavenge


air. This is to avoid any condensation of
exhaust gas in the SCR elements during
non-SCR operation.

During engine tests in January and


February 2011, the ECS was commis-
sioned, and a print of the main operat-
ing panel (MOP) is shown in Fig. 6. The
ECS is able to handle all aspects related
to the handling of the engine: heating
of SCR, deceleration and acceleration.

SCR control system


The SCR unit, including the urea dos-
ing system, also needs to be control-
led in order to ensure the right amount
of urea injection at different loads and
NOx emission levels. Furthermore, the
urea injection system needs a flushing Fig. 6: Main operating panel for control of the SCR system

sequence during SCR close-down, and


soot blowing of the catalyst elements.
Hitachi Zosen has developed and deliv-
ered this control system.

The dosing of urea is based on online


NOx measurements before and after the
SCR reactor with a ZrO2 based sensor.
The measured value is compared with

10 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


1 SCR reactor

2 Vaporiser & mixer unit

3 Control panel for reduc-


tant injection and soot
blow

4 Air compressor & air


tanks

5 Urea solution tanks

6 Urea supply unit

Fig. 7: 6S46MC-C fitted with SCR

Engine and SCR used for full scale SCR tests


an estimated NOx value based on test
bed measurement (NOx map as a func- Cylinders 6
tion of engine load). This is to ensure Bore 460 mm
that no under/over dosing of urea takes Stroke 1,932 mm
place in case of a sensor error. Output 6,780 kW @ 111 rpm
MEP 19 bar
Results and discussion Location of SCR system Before turbine
A full scale SCR system has been in- Fuel Heavy Fuel Oil
stalled on a 6S46MC-C engine at Hi- Reducing agent Urea solution (32.5 wt%)
tachi Zosens workshop in the Ariake Total mass of SCR line 15,000 kg
Prefecture of Japan, see Fig. 7. Details Mass of SCR catalyst 1,900 kg
of the engine and SCR system are shown Type of catalyst Corrugated honeycomb (TiO2/V)
Table 3. Manufacturer of catalyst Hitachi Zosen Corporation
Manufacturer of SCR equipment Hitachi Zosen Corporation
Table 3

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 11


A huge number of tests with various
goals were conducted on this system in 90 6
the period from January to April 2011. 80
The objectives were the following:
T(X/V spindle)
+24C 5
To investigate low-load method 70
To commission ECS
Temperature increase X/V spindle dg. C

60 4
To verify Tier III compliance

SCOC penalty in g/kWh


To gain experience on SCR operation 50
in combination with HFO. 3
40
Low-load method at 25% engine load
30 2
The low-load method has been tested
20 SFOC
at engine loads ranging from approxi-
+2.4 g/kWh 1
mately 10% to 50%. Three issues were
10
the main objectives:
Possible temperature increase of ex- 0 0
haust gas entering the SCR 0 50 100 150 200
Penalty on combustion chamber
Temperature increase SCR inlet dg. C
components temperatures
Penalty on SFOC. Plot 1: Influence of increased T1 on X/V spindle (full line) and SFOC (dashed line). T1 is increased by
opening CBV

In the following, the results obtained


at the lowest IMO load point (25% en- SCR/cylinder bypass in action
gine load) is discussed this is where
120 CBV Feedback
the lowest T1 temperature is obtained.
The amount of scavenge air through the
V2 Feedback
bypass was adjusted and the SFOC 100 V1 Feedback
and combustion chamber temperature
Temperature in dg. C

(CCT) was measured, among other 80


things. The CCT measurements showed
that the average temperature of the ex-
60
haust gas spindle (X/V spindle) was the
most influenced component, for which
40
reason the other combustion chamber
components (cylinder liner and piston)
are omitted in the discussion. 20

During the reference test, the exhaust 0


gas temperature, T1, was measured to
0 200 400 Time
600 800 1000 1200
258C. This means that T1 should be
Time in sec.
increased by at least 72C to obtain
a temperature above the mentioned Plot 2: Loading from 20% to 100% of the engine to maintain SCR operation

330C minimum SCR inlet temperature.

12 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


With fully open CBV, T1 can be in-
SCR/cylinder bypass in action
creased by 165C. This means that the
500
desired temperature increase of 72C is T1 (SCR in)
obtainable. From Plot 1, it is revealed
that this temperature increase causes T2 (T/C in)
450
an increased heat load of approx. 25C SCR

Temperature in dg. C
on exhaust valve and an SFOC penalty Requirement
of approx. 2-3 g/kWh. 400

Based on the investigations of the low- 350


load method, it has been concluded that for
the present system, the CBV will be em-
ployed. However, in future applications, 300

increased scavenge air temperature in 250


combination with CBV may be needed 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
to ensure SCR operation at even lower
Time in sec.
engine loads.
Plot 3: Loading of the engine to maintain SCR operation (valve position: 0 = closed, 90 = open)
Engine control strategy
The ECS was also tested on the
6S46MC-C engine on the test bed. A
typical heating of the SCR system dur-
ing engine loading from 20% to 100% is
shown in Plots 2 and 3. At time equals
to 0, the engine is operated at 20%
engine load and the SCR system is in
steady condition. This is followed by ac-
celeration to 100% engine load. Plot 2
shows the development of T1 and T4,
and Plot 3 shows the valve positions
during the same period.

It can be seen that CBV is able to main-


tain T1 at the desired Tmin of 310C by
slowly closing as the engine load in-
creases.

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 13


After a certain period, the CBV is closed
(Plot 3) and T1 increases with the en-
gine load. It is also important to observe
that this loading ensures that V1 re-
mains closed and thus ensures full NOx
reduction at all times. In cases where
V1 is opened due to too high dT, the
urea injection is set at a very low flow to
avoid NH3-slip.

Another cause of heating of the SCR


system has been posted in Plot 4. In this
case, the engine is operated at 100%
engine load, thus T1 is well above Tmin
of 330C.

The SCR system, which is at ambient


Time
temperature, is engaged at time equals
0: V3 opens, V2 opens according to a Plot 4: Heating of the SCR system at 100% engine load

dT of 50C followed by closure of V1


also according to dT equals 50C. V2 is
NOx emissions at the four IMO
opened during the first two thirds of the IMO Tier III operation
engine load points
time before urea injection starts, and V1 It was also verified that the engine and
is closed during the next period. Sub- SCR system was able to meet the IMO 25 % 50 % 75 % 100 % Cycle
sequently, the SCR system is ready for Tier III NOx limits, and the results are Tier III
urea injection. displayed in Table 4. The results were g/kWh 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.5 2.8
witnessed by ClassNK (Nippon Kaiji Table 4

The plots illustrate that the ECS is able Kyokai) in April 2011. The table reveals
to handle the operation of the SCR that the SCR system ensures a NOx
system. It is also concluded that with cycle value of 2.8 g/kWh, which is well
normal loading and unloading speeds below the IMO Tier III limit of 3.4 g/kWh.
of the engine, it is possible to keep the
SCR system engaged at all times. In Based on these measurements, it was
addition, the tests show that the SCR concluded that the worlds first Tier III
system needs a certain time for heating compliant two-stroke engine has been
before it is ready for NOx reduction. demonstrated. The next important step
is the further testing of the system,
which is presently installed on a general
cargo carrier. The ship was built at the
Nakai shipyard and entered active serv-
ice in late 2011. The owner of the vessel
is the Japanese BOT Lease Co. Ltd.,
and the vessel is operated by Nissho
Shipping Co. Ltd.

14 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


SCR and HFO operation Information on Santa Vista
droplets impinging on walls may de-
Name of the ship- Naikai Zosen
It is well known that the combination posit and form solid structures, which
yard
of sulphur containing fuels and SCR may eventually clog the system. While
Vessel type 38,000 dwt general
is challenging. This is because of the cargo carrier this has to be avoided, the SCR unit
transformation of SO2 to SO3 inside IMO number 9527946 needs a spatially uniform distribution of
the SCR. This allows formation of ABS Hull number 744 ammonia, at low costs in terms of unit
and white plumes. In addition, it is also Vessel Owner BOT Lease Co., Ltd. pressure loss. This makes common in-
known that the inherent content of va- Operator Nissho Shipping dustrial mixing units prohibitively expen-
nadium in HFO makes the SO2 oxida- Co., Ltd. sive.
tion more pronounced over time. It Table 5
is necessary to demonstrate that the Previous designs of the urea mixer (ref.
present SCR system has been de- Fig. 7) have been added onto the engine
signed in a way that suppresses these downstream of the exhaust receiver as
undesired side reactions. This is a part confirmed. The Licence Days 2012 pa- an independent unit, piped together
of the service test which was initiated in per No. 9 from Hitachi covers installa- with a standard exhaust receiver and
the last part of 2011. tion aspects and the service experience a separate SCR unit. As there is large
gained up to now. mixing capacity available in the exhaust
SCR service experience receiver, due to the unsteady nature
Having concluded that it is possible to Future development aspects and large gradients in velocity, a design
meet the IMO Tier III limit with the sys- Obtaining a uniform ammonia concen- which benefits from this is proposed.
tem presented in Table 4 and Fig. 7, this tration in an exhaust gas poses a mul-
system was moved from the test bed tifaceted problem. Common practice is As such, the design is expected to have
to the general cargo carrier Santa Vista, to inject urea as a liquid into the exhaust significantly lower pressure losses at
see Fig. 8. Details of the ship are found stream via a spray nozzle. The urea the same level of mixing as traditional
in Table 5. evaporates and undergoes a chemical designs. Even more, the design has the
decomposition to form ammonia. This potential to have lower pressure losses
The system was commissioned in Oc- is troublesome as the process is fairly than standard exhaust receivers. The
tober 2011 and Tier III operation was slow compared to flow time scales, as proposed design can be seen in Fig. 9
for a four-cylinder engine.

The four pipes feeding the unit can be


seen at the top. In the centre of the unit,
a straight open-ended pipe is located.
At the right end of the central pipe, an
anti swirler is fitted. The gas leaves
the unit to the right. As the exhaust gas
is injected tangentially into the unit, a
strong swirling flow forms inside. Ow-
ing to this, a low pressure is obtained
centrally in the left region of the unit. As
the flow passes through the anti swirler,
the tangential momentum of the gas is
recovered as static pressure. This sets
up a pressure gradient across the cen-
Fig. 8: The worlds first Tier III compliant ship the Santa Vista

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 15


tral pipe, which causes the flow here to
a a a a
be reversed, i.e. directed downwards
b in the figure. This is in principle similar
to the vortex breakdown phenomenon
which occurs spontaneously in swirl-
e
d c ing flows. Here, it is tightly controlled
by the geometry. It is proposed to inject
the urea in the upper part of the central
pipe. As the flow in this region is non-
swirling, the urea is injected in a similar
environment as previous, proven, de-
signs.

To verify the concept and investigate


the extent of mixing, a large eddy CFD
simulation was performed. The four in-
lets were fed with unsteady mass flows
representative of an S50ME engine at
full load. A snapshot from the simula-
Fig. 9: Proposed design of a urea mixer. Flow enters tangentially into the mixing chamber from the cyl- tion can be seen in Fig. 10. A pressure
inders via separate runners (a). While swirling, the flow moves upwards, but loses its swirl as it passes
drop from this design is expected to be
through the vanes at (b). Due to the loss of swirl, static pressure is recovered leading to higher pressure
at (c) than in the centre of the bottom of the mixing chamber. This causes reversed flow in the centrally low, as flow pathways are kept large,
mounted pipe. Urea is injected at (d) and evaporates in the non-swirling flow in the central pipe. The urea and momentum from the individual
seeded flow leaves the pipe in the bottom of the chamber and mixes with the newly injected exhaust gas ,
cylinder s high speed jets are converted
into static pressure, in a manner which
is not present in standard exhaust re-
ceivers.

Fig. 10: A snapshot from a large eddy CFD simulation of the mixing of a scalar, representing urea. The
scalar is injected in the central pipe and mixes with exhaust gas during its way to the outlet

16 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


Conclusion ever, the service installation has also
The application of selective catalytic shown that attention needs to be paid
reduction on an MAN B&W two-stroke to issues related to HFO operation. Until
diesel engine has been demonstrated by now corrosion of the SCR system and
MAN Diesel & Turbo and Hitachi Zosen accumulation of ABS in the exhaust gas
Corporation. It has been concluded that boiler have appeared.
the SCR offers a degree of NOx reduc-
tion that ensures IMO Tier III operation. From the experience obtained in con-
A low-load method provides the desired nection with the test bed and the serv-
minimum operation temperature which ice installation, the following critical
suppresses undesired precipitation of parameters for a successful technical
ammonium bisulphate in the catalyst el- solution have been identified.
ements. Additionally, it has been found
that the newly developed engine con- From the engine side:
trol system is able to handle all aspects Pre-turbine SCR for the highest pos-
of IMO Tier III operation: heating of the sible temperature
system, deceleration/acceleration and Low-load method to ensure correct
start/stop of the SCR system. temperature
Engine control system.
The service installation has revealed From the SCR system side:
that the data obtained on the test bed Urea injection and mixing
can be reproduced in service. Tier III SCR elements to ensure HFO opera-
compliance has been demonstrated, tion
and it has also been shown that the SCR control system
low-load method is applicable. How- Proper installation.

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 17


EGR Application for Tier III The following describes the investi- Effects on CO:
Since the ratification of the IMO Tier III gation and testing that MAN Diesel & Increased Phyd has a significantly
criteria for NOx emissions from large ma- Turbo has completed with EGR on large positive effect on CO
rine diesel engines in emission control two-stroke diesel engines. Increased Pscav has a moderately pos-
areas (ECAs), marine engine manufac- itive effect on CO
turers worlwide have been challenged EGR investigation on 4T50ME-X Increased Pcomp/Pscav has a moderately
to develop new measures to reduce Engine parameter study positive effect on CO
NOx. The extent of the necessary meas- Several comprehensive EGR test pro- Increased Tscav has a moderately neg-
ures to reduce NOx by up to 80%, in grams have been carried out on the ative effect on CO.
order to meet the IMO NOx criteria from 4T50ME-X test engine to investigate
1 January 2016, is beyond well-known the mechanism of different variations of The reduced energy to the turbine side
adjustments of the combustion proc- engine parameters when running with of the turbocharger, up to around 40%,
ess in two-stroke diesel engines. NOx EGR. when operating the EGR system, results
reductions of this magnitude on two- in reduced scavenge air pressure and
stroke diesel engines require add-on The study of engine parameter varia- hereby negative effects on the SFOC.
technologies such as exhaust gas re- tions during EGR operation revealed the This highlights the need for compen-
circulation (EGR) or selective catalytic following effects on SFOC and emis- sating means as utilisation of cylinder
reduction (SCR) as described above. sions, as also shown in Table 6: bypass to compensate the decrease
in the scavenge air pressure. Fig. 11
In 2004, MAN Diesel & Turbo (MDT) Effects on SFOC shows the two very different operating
started the first test program with EGR Increased Pcomp /P
scav ratio has a posi- areas for the compressor running with
on the large 4T50ME-X two-stroke die- tive impact on the SFOC penalty and without EGR, corresponding to utili-
sel test engine in Copenhagen, in order Increased Phyd has a positive impact sation of a turbocharger cut-out solution.
to verify the effect of EGR. Since the on the SFOC penalty
1970s, the effect of EGR on smaller Increased Pscav has a positive impact As can be seen from Fig. 12, the heat
four-stroke diesel engines used in the on the SFOC penalty release is only slightly affected by EGR.
automotive sector has been known as Increased Tscav has a negative impact Increased hydraulic injection pressure
a very efficient means to reduce NOx in on the SFOC penalty. can compensate for reduced heat re-
combustion engines. The HFO burned lease in the early part of the combus-
in large marine engines is a challenge Effects on NOX tion.
when using EGR, due to the presence Increased Pscav has a slightly positive
of a high sulphur content and a high effect on NOX
content of solids. Thus, a wet scrubber Increased Phyd has a moderately neg-
was introduced in the EGR system. ative effect on NOX
Increased Pcomp/Pscav has a slightly
In parallel with the EGR investigation on negative effect on NOX
the 4T50ME-X test engine, MAN Die- Increased Tscav has a slightly negative
sel & Turbo planned to make a service effect on NOX.
test on a ship in order to investigate
the long-term effects on the engine
components. In March 2010, a retrofit
EGR system was installed on a 10MW
7S50MC Mk 6 engine on board the
A. P. Moeller Maersk 1,100 teu contain-
er vessel Alexander Maersk.

18 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


Test results from engine parameter variations at 75% engine load (auxiliary power EGR scrubber performance
for EGR lower, separator and pumps are not included in dSFOC) Recently, an EGR scrubber test pro-
NOx dSFOC CO Pmax EGR O2 gram was carried out on the 4T50ME-X
(g/kWh) (g/kWh) (g/kWh) (bara) rate(%) (vol. %)
test engine in order to investigate the
No EGR 17.8 0 0.65 152 0 -
influence on wet scrubbing efficiency by
Max. EGR 2.3 +4.9 4.17 151 39 16.0
variation of different parameters in the
EGR ref. 3.7 +3.0 2.57 151 36 16.8
scrubbing process.
Incr. Pcomp/Pscav 4.0 +2.5 2.18 156 36 16.8
Incr. Phyd 4.2 +2.8 1.83 151 37 16.6
The purpose of the EGR scrubber is to
Incr. Pscav 3.6 +1.9 2.12 156 37 16.6
protect the combustion chamber parts
Incr. Tscav 3.9 +3.6 2.82 156 34 16.8
as well as other exposed engine com-
Tier III setup 3.4 +0.6 1.34 157 41 16.2
ponents from sulphuric acid and parti-
Table 6

CV08CT70CA60 CV06CT40CA40
5.5
0.07 Phyd = 200 bar, EGR = 0%
5.0
Phyd = 200 bar, EGR = 29%
4.5 0.06
Phyd = 200 bar, EGR = 40%
HHR (1/deg)

4.0
0.05
Pressure Ratio

3.5
0.04
3.0

2.5 0.03

2.0 0.02

1.5
0.00
1.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Crank angle
Mass flow [kg/s]

Fig. 11: Turbocharger compressor maps running the engine with and without Fig. 12: Heat release running with and without EGR
EGR

24.0 100% load


EGR Tier III confirmation test
22.0
75% load
The investigation on the 4T50ME-X test 20.0
50% load
engine has shown that IMO Tier III NOx 18.0
Specific NOx (g/kWh)

compliance is achievable by the use of 16.0 25% load

high pressure EGR solely. A cycle value 14.0

below 3.4 g/kWh of NOx was obtained, 12.0

and also the not-to-exceed (NTE) level 10.0

of 5.1 g/kWh of NOx at each engine 8.0


6.0
load point 25, 50, 75 and 100% was
4.0
proven during the test, see Fig. 13.
2.0 IMO Tier III cycle valve

0.0
15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0
Oxygen conc. in scav. rec (wet, vol %)

Fig. 13: NOx emission at different engine loads as a function of oxygen content in the scavenge air

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 19


cles from the exhaust gas when burning
HFO with a high sulphur content. PM reduction at 75% load
0%
The parameters varied and were as fol- -10%
lows: -20%
Water flow in the scrubber -30%
Pre-scrubber flow variations
-40%
pH variations
-50%
Variations of internal hardware parts
-60%
in the scrubber.
-70%
-80%
The investigation showed that the wet
scrubbing process chosen is a robust -90%
and efficient way to clean the exhaust -100%
gas. Results from the test showed the
following overall numbers: Fig. 14: PM reduction over scrubber

Up to 98% SO2 removal typical


value: 90%
Up to 92% PM removal (ISO8178) As shown in Fig. 15, analyses of the gas. The presence of sulphur after the
typical value: 70-80%. chemical composition of the particles scrubber origins from small droplets of
before the scrubber, after the scrub- dissolved Na2SO4 carried over from the
The SO2 removal in the scrubber proc- ber and after the turbine show that scrubber water and H2SO3 and H2SO4
ess showed a clear correlation with the the scrubber removes all ashes and droplets created from the remaining
amount of dosed NaOH in the scrubber elemental carbon from the exhaust part of SO2 and the SO3.
water, and hereby the pH value entering
the scrubber.

Fig. 14 shows the PM removal in the Chemical composition of PM (75% load, 0.75% S HFO)
scrubber during a test program com- 120.00
pleted in August 2011. As can be
seen from the figure, the PM removal 100.00
is between 60 and 95% which is bet-
80.00
PM mg/Nm3

ter than what is normally seen in after- ash calc


treatment scrubbers. It is expected that remaining
60.00 SO4+Water
the improved scrubber performance
EC
(compared to normal after-treatment 40.00 OM
scrubbers) is caused by the fact that
the properties of the particulate matter 20.00
upstream the turbine is different from
the properties of particulate at ambient 0.00
Before scrubber After scrubber After T/C
conditions.

Fig. 15: Chemical composition before scrubber, after scrubber and after turbine

20 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


The conclusion from the wet scrubber The EGR service test objectives are to: system is a push button system con-
test is as follows: Investigate the impact of EGR opera- trolled from the engine control room,
The SO2 removal is good and signifi- tion on engine components: cylinder except for the separator in the Water
cantly influenced by the added NaOH liner, piston, piston rings, piston rod, Treatment System (WTS), which has to
amount cylinder cover, exhaust valve, etc. be started on-site by the crew.
PM removal is good and only slightly when burning HFO with a high con-
influenced by variations in the hard- tent of sulphur The thermodynamic performance of
ware internals Investigate impact on the EGR com- the EGR components was success-
Ash and elemental carbon are almost ponents fully tested, and the EGR components
totally removed in the scrubber Hand over operation of the EGR sys- fulfilled the expected performance.
Water carry-over from the EGR tem to the ship crew in order to get Commissioning of the EGR system in
scrubber should be avoided due to feedback on operation of the system, automatic mode was also successfully
the risk of contamination by Na2SO4 in order to adjust the system for easy, completed
from the scrubber water. reliable and safe operation.
Until now, the combustion chamber
EGR service test Currently, the EGR system on board Al- components and the exhaust gas path
A service test of the EGR process and exander Maersk has been in operation are not negatively affected by EGR op-
components is an important task in the close to 1,200 hours with the engine eration. Fig. 17 shows the piston rings
development of the future EGR engines. running on HFO with 3% sulphur. NOx is before and after approx. 900 running
Engine condition as well as conditions reduced by more than 50%, as shown hours in EGR operation
of the EGR components is necessary to in Fig. 16. The EGR system is currently
follow and develop through thousands operated by the ship crew. The EGR
of running hours. Currently, one EGR
service test is ongoing and another
service test is under preparation. NOx (ppm)
1000
NO-EGR
Service test on Alexander Maersk 900
The main objective of the service test, 800
which is still ongoing, is mainly to in-
700
vestigate the long-term impact on the 60 % NOx reduction
600
engine during EGR operation.
500
EGR
400

300

200

100

0
0 200 400 600 800
Seconds run time
Fig. 16: Measurements of NOx reduction on board Alexander Maersk during a performance test

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 21


The service test, which is still ongoing,
has been quite challenging due to the
HFO operation with a high sulphur con-
tent. The challenges have mainly been
related to the following issues:

Corrosion of non-stainless compo-


nents. Heavy corrosion has been
experienced on the EGR cooler
housing, EGR cooler element, EGR
blower wheel, drainers, EGR pipe
and separator in the WTS system
Difficulties with controlling the dosing
of the correct amount of NaOH
Water carry-over from the scrubber
system, resulting in heavy deposits in Fig. 17: Piston rings before and after approx. 900 running hours in EGR operation on HFO

the EGR system.

In order to deal with corrosion chal-


lenges, the following components have
been exchanged with stainless steel:
the EGR blower wheel, drainers and
some valves in the WTS system. The
EGR cooler element will be exchanged
with a stainless steel element. In ad-
dition, a comprehensive repair of the
EGR cooler housing and the EGR pipe
from the blower to the connection on
the charge air pipe has been completed
due to insufficient coatings.

The service test has gained a lot of


important learning and information on
what the challenges are when running
EGR on an HFO burning two-stroke Fig. 18: Left deposits of sodium sulphate, iron sulphate and soot on main engine cooler top, caused by
water carry-over from the scrubber system. Right almost no deposits when water carry-over from EGR
marine diesel engine, as can be seen in
scrubber system is avoided
Fig. 18. Corrosion of EGR components
and deposits in the EGR system are im-
portant to target. Until this state of the
service test, the engine components
are not affected by high pressure EGR
operation.

22 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


Exhaust receiver

T/C Shut-down
cut out valve

Small T/C Large T/C

T/C
cut out

Mix Cooler Cooler

Scrubber

WMC EGR blower WMC

Scavenge air receiver

Fig. 19: EGR system diagram for a 6S80ME-C9 with two turbochargers

Preparation of service test on new- The objectives of the service test are: The design experience from the project
building with 6S80ME-C9.2 Maturing of the EGR engine concept is to extend the EGR-2 principle through-
The newest target in the development for IMO Tier III compliance out the MAN Diesel & Turbo engine pro-
of MAN Diesel & Turbos two-stroke Monitoring combustion chamber gramme.
EGR engines is a full Tier III compliant parts and other exposed engine
prototype with the EGR components parts under realistic conditions As can be seen from Fig. 19, the
integrated into the engine structure. Monitoring of the EGR components' 6S80ME-C9 EGR engine has one small
With this project, MAN Diesel & Turbo operational conditions under realistic turbocharger and one large turbocharg-
targets larger two-stroke EGR engines operating conditions, i.e. during burn- er and cut-out facilities for the small tur-
with more than one turbocharger utilis- ing of HFO bocharger. The engine will run in the fol-
ing TC cut-out for high engine efficiency Education of crew to make reliable lowing modes:
in future ECA areas. operation of the EGR system and Non-ECA operation (blue and purple
gain experience for future instruction lines): both turbochargers are work-
books, education and support ing in parallel under normal conditions
Identifying simplification and cost supplying the engine with the neces-
down potentials. sary scavenge air. At low-load TC cut-
out, it can be utilised to save fuel

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 23


ECA operation Tier III (blue and
green lines): the small turbocharger is
cut out to compensate the reduced
exhaust gas amount, and the EGR
blower is running to supply exhaust
gas into the scavenge air receiver.
The pre-scrubber and scrubber
clean the EGR before the exhaust
gas enters the scavenge air receiver.
The EGR cooler has a double func-
tion and acts as an EGR cooler in
this mode and as a normal charge air
cooler in non-ECA mode.

The vessel newbuilding No. 2358 is


the last delivery of the APMM C-class Fig. 20: Maersk C-class container vessel

series, see Fig. 20, from Hyundai Mipo


Shipyard in Ulsan Korea. The ship is operate the engine with low EGR rates Besides integrated EGR components
equipped with MAN B&W 6S80ME-C9 to allow service time on the EGR com- on the engine, as can be seen in Fig.
engines and an MHI waste heat recov- ponents and to fuel optimise the op- 21, and related engine modifications,
ery system de-rated from 27 MW to 23 eration. The EGR service test period is the following installation work will be
MW. planned to be for three years until early carried out by HHI Shipbuilding Division:
2016, when the NOx Tier III limits enter Installation of NaOH and EGR sludge
The engine is planned for shop trial in into force. tanks
August/September 2012, including full Installation of water treatment system
commissioning of the EGR system, in- HHI-EMD will produce the 6S80ME- Installation of frequency converters
cluding an Alfa Laval water treatment C9.2 EGR engine, and the following en- for EGR blowers
system. The engine will be certified by gine modifications will be made: Installation of stainless piping for
class ABS. The technical file will be ac- Sequential turbocharging scrubber water handling
cording to the normal Tier II certificate. EGR cooler and scrubber module in Extended central cooling water ca-
However, knowledge is gathered to duplex material from a local producer pacity
make a proposal for a Tier III certifica- based on MAN Diesel & Turbo design Electrical installation
tion procedure. High-efficient EGR blowers Software update of control alarm and
Stainless steel coolers with dual monitoring system for tank monitor-
The sea trial will take place in January functionality ing
2013, and subsequently EGR commis- Gas control valves Software update of power monitoring
sioning will be carried out when the ves- Changed components such as ex- system for waste heat recovery and
sel is in service operation. haust receiver, scavenge air receiver ME heat capacities.
and galleries
After delivery in early 2013, the vessel The main engine outline is only modi- MAN Diesel & Turbo highly appreciates
will go into service on the West Africa - fied slightly at the EGR-2 module the close corporation with leading en-
Far East route. Even though the vessel keeping the engine foot print un- gine builders, shipyards and shipown-
would not sail in ECAs, it will be oper- changed ers for this strategic important proto-
ated in ECA mode for 20% of the time. Control system modifications. type project.
For the remaining time, it is agreed to

24 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


Water treatment system (WTS) WTS system layout and functionality During the development of the WTS, it
MAN Diesel & Turbo is heavily involved The EGR WTS system is an important became clear that the aim should go for
in the development of water treatment part of operating the EGR system be- a unit solution that is simple to install
systems (WTS) for both EGR and SOX cause the contaminated scrubber water for the shipyards, like a plug and play
scrubbing systems. The WTS is essen- needs to be cleaned for soot particles solution. Much functionality is hereby
tial for running the EGR system, and to avoid clogging up the system. More- included in the WTS system, i.e. the
compliance with IMO criteria for wash over, the water generated during com- NaOH dosing, water flow control and
water discharge is highly prioritised. bustion which is condensed in the EGR discharge control.
Over the last couple of years, Alfa Laval cooler, needs to be discharged to the
has, in cooperation with MAN Diesel sea, in a clean condition, to avoid large
& Turbo, developed a complete water storage tanks on board.
treatment system for the EGR engine.
Extensive testing and investigation on
how to clean scrubber water in an effi-
cient and reliable way have been carried
out successfully.

Fig. 21: integrated design of EGR unit (orange) on a 6S80ME-C9 engine

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 25


In order to make installation highly flex-
ible, the WTS module is divided into two
units:
WTS1 module, see Fig. 22, compris-
es the separators, scrubber pumps,
NaOH dosing, etc., to be placed wher-
ever there is space in the ship
WTS2 module (collecting tank mod-
ule) for transportation of the scrubber
water from engine site to the WTS1
module to be placed close to the en-
gine below the EGR unit on the en-
gine.

The WTS system is a necessary EGR


auxiliary system for EGR operation be-
cause of the following functionalities:
Controlling of the correct water sup-
ply to the EGR scrubber
Reliable and clean conditions in the
scrubber system Fig. 22: Alfa Laval WTS module 1 for 23 MW engine (footprint 4 x 5 m)

Correct dosing of NaOH


Controlling of the salt concentration
in the scrubber water
Compliance with IMO regulation for
wash water discharge
Minimal pumpable sludge produc-
tion.

As shown in Fig. 23, the WTS system


is divided into modules. Module 1 com-
prises separators for both cleaning of
the scrubber water supplied to the EGR
unit and for cleaning of the discharge
water. All water supplied to the EGR
scrubber is cleaned in order to ensure
reliable operation without any clogging
up of deposits scaling up in the scrub-
ber system. Cleaning of the discharge
water is carried out on the cleaned
scrubber from the scrubber water
cleaning separators. The WTS1 mod-
ule controls the amount of scrubber Fig. 23: WTS process diagram

water in the system by either discharge


of water or addition of fresh water. The

26 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


WTS system ensures compliance with
IMO wash water criteria in all operation 1,30
cases. 9000
=80
1,25 =78
The following parameters will define the 8000
engine requirements to the WTS sys- Pressure Ration (T-T) 1,20
tem: 7000
1,15
6000
Inlet scrubber water flow
Inlet scrubber water pressure 1,10 5000
Inlet scrubber water temperature 4000
Quality of inlet scrubber water
1,05 3000
- pH value 2000 87
1,00
- salt concentration 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0
- solids fraction
Draining capacity.
Fig. 24: Requirement for EGR high-speed blower.
The current development is aiming at
defining all necessary specific values for
the above-mentioned parameters.
The requirements for a high-speed EGR
EGR high-speed blower blower are:
In order to improve the EGR process, High efficiency over wide flow range
in particular reduction of the additionally Fast dynamic flow response
needed auxiliary power, MAN Diesel & Corrosion resistant materials
Turbo has been involved in the develop- Reliable, well-known technologies
ment of a new high-speed EGR blower Lube oil journal and thrust bearing
with a significantly higher thermody- Compact design
namical efficiency than former designs. Flange mounting
The high-speed EGR blower is based Leakage proof by use of sealing air
on a radial turbo compressor wheel run- Simple control interface
ning at 2-3 times higher speeds than a Integrated monitoring of operation
conventional radial b-wheel. condition.

MAN Diesel & Turbo is currently col- Fig. 24 shows the required compressor
laborating with Siemens Turbo Systems map for an EGR blower from Siemens,
on developing EGR blowers for the two including operational points for different
6S80ME EGR prototype service test. engine loads. Tests have shown that re-
Besides, MAN Diesel & Turbo is also quirements were met satisfactorily.
developing an in-house solution in or-
der to ensure more than one supplier of
EGR blowers.

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 27


Fig. 25 shows the EGR blower pro-
duced for testing on the 4T50ME-X
test engine. Specifications of the EGR
blower are as follows:

Power: 200 kW

Thermodynamic efficiency: 0%

Pressure lift: 600 mbar

Mass flow: 4 kg/s (at 31C inlet tem-


perature)

Weight: 600 kg

Lube oil flow: 60 l/min

Cooling water flow: approx. 2 m3/h.


Fig. 25: New-developed and FAT-tested EGR blower (200 kW)
The EGR blower has been tested on
the test bed at ambient conditions with
satisfying performance figures, and is-
sues with surging at a high pressure ra-
tio against a closed valve at the blower
outlet was tested not critical. The next
step of testing will be a blower perform-
ance and controlling test on the MDT
4T50ME-X test engine planned for April
2012. Subsequently, a test on Alexander
Maersk will be conducted. Currently,
two sizes of the Siemens high-speed
EGR blowers are available, covering en-
gines from approx. 5-23 MW.

28 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology


Conclusion
As can be seen from the above, the
EGR application on two-stroke MAN
B&W engines has, over the last decade,
developed from a basic idea on how to
reduce NOx emissions to a dedicated
design, suitable for application on the
engine in standard configuration.

The development process has ensured


dedicated development of:
Water spraying systems for pre-cool-
ing of exhaust gas
Wet coolers capable of withstanding
SO2, SO3 and H2SO4 condensation
Scrubbers with very high SO2 and
particulate emission removal capacity
Compact high-speed and high-effi-
ciency EGR blowers
Water treatment systems capable
of removing particulate matter ef-
ficiently, and clean water to suitable
discharge level
Control systems capable of securing
simple push-button operation of the
EGR system
Control strategies securing optimal
engine performance in both Tier II ar-
eas and in Tier III ECA areas.

This makes MAN Diesel & Turbo con-


fident that the EGR system application
will be available in due time before 2016
for the complete engine range.

Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 29


30 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology
Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 31
32 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology
Tier III Two-Stroke Technology 33
34 Tier III Two-Stroke Technology
All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. CopyrightMAN Diesel & Turbo.
5510-0125-00ppr Aug 2012 Printed in Denmark

MAN Diesel & Turbo


Teglholmsgade 41
2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark
Phone +45 33 85 11 00
Fax +45 33 85 10 30
info-cph@mandieselturbo.com
www.mandieselturbo.com

MAN Diesel & Turbo a member of the MAN Group